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Sample records for northeastern brazil salvador-scaala

  1. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study

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    Genser Bernd

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. Methods/Design The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4–11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin, skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers, formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0–3 years old are available from a different project. Discussion It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding – or minimising – increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies.

  2. Risk factors and immunological pathways for asthma and other allergic diseases in children: background and methodology of a longitudinal study in a large urban center in Northeastern Brazil (Salvador-SCAALA study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Cunha, Sergio S; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza; Carvalho, Lain P; Cruz, Alvaro A; Stein, Renato T; Genser, Bernd; Cooper, Philip J; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2006-06-23

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased in industrialised countries, and it is known that rates vary according whether the area is urban or rural and to socio-economic status. Surveys conducted in some urban settings in Latin America found high prevalence rates, only exceeded by the rates observed in industrialised English-speaking countries. It is likely that the marked changes in the environment, life style and living conditions in Latin America are responsible for these observations. The understanding of the epidemiological and immunological changes that underlie the increase in asthma and allergic diseases in Latin America aimed by SCAALA studies in Brazil and Ecuador will be crucial for the identification of novel preventive interventions. The Salvador-SCAALA project described here is a longitudinal study involving children aged 4-11 years living in the city of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Data on asthma and allergic diseases (rhinitis and eczema) and potential risk factors will be collected in successive surveys using standardised questionnaire. This will be completed with data on dust collection (to dust mite and endotoxin), skin test to most common allergens, stool examinations to helminth and parasites, blood samples (to infection, total and specific IgE, and immunological makers), formaldehyde, physical inspection to diagnoses of eczema, and anthropometric measures. Data on earlier exposures when these children were 0-3 years old are available from a different project. It is expected that knowledge generated may help identify public health interventions that may enable countries in LA to enjoy the benefits of a "modern" lifestyle while avoiding--or minimising--increases in morbidity caused by asthma and allergies.

  3. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  4. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

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    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  5. Hyperiid amphipods around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil

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    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Data collected on large-scale surveys around the seamounts and islands off northeastern Brazil provide information on the hyperiid amphipod populations. Thirty-six species were identified. Most of the species belong to the Infraorder Physocephalata, representing 21 genera and 13 families. Thirteen species (Vibilia australis, L. latissimus, L. macrophthalmus, L. schizogeneios, Phronima atlantica, Phrosina semilunata, Primno brevidens, Eupronoe minuta, Oxycephalus clause, Rhabdosoma whitei, Amphithyrus bispinosus, Leptocotis tenuirostris and Tetrathyrus forcipatus have not previously been recorded in this region. The spatial distribution of the hyperiid amphipods was very patchy. Each area of these amounts and islands off northeastern Brazil has different oceanographic features and can be characterised by a clearly defined group of most abundant species.

  6. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodal,M. J. N.; Nascimento,L. M.

    2006-01-01

    The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto) and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto) of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid ...

  7. Seismic activity in northeastern Brazill-new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J. M.; Do Nascimento, A. F.; Vilar, C. S.; Bezerra, F. H.; Assumpcao, M.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    Northeastern Brazil is the most seismic active region in the country. Some earthquakes with magnitude above 5.0 and intensity VII MM associated with swam-like seismic activity lasting for many years are a serious social concern. Since the 1980's macroseismic and instrumental surveys have been carried out in this region and they are an important data archive which allows the composition of a reliable catalogue of seismic activity for this region. Among the many scientific results it was possible to identify the main seismogenic areas, obtain reliable hypocentres and focal mechanisms. As a consequence, it was possible also to analyse the relationship between seismicity and geological features. It was also possible to determined maximum horizontal stress direction for the region. An important induced seismic activity case has also been reported in the area as being a classical example of pore pressure diffusion triggering mechanism. The majority of the results were obtained using analogic data. Recently, a new research project is being conducted and will allow us to provide a regional scale monitoring with 6 broad-band stations and a new portable six station digital seismic network equipped with short- period sensors. Thus, with the continuous seismic activity in the area we trust that the results of this project will increase the present knowledge of seismic activity in northeastern Brazil.

  8. Prevalence of Chagas' Disease in Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

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    Roque Aras

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of T. Cruzi infection in patients of from Mulungu do Morro, a rural tropical region of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS - A cross-sectional study was performed. After randomly selecting samples of the population, and obtaining their consents , patients completed pretested epidemiological and clinical questionnaires. Serum samples from all patients were collected and screened for the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. RESULTS - Of 694 patients examined, 174 patients (25.1% tested had a positive serology for Chagas' disease. Of the study population, 341 patients were male with 27% Chagas' disease prevalence, without a statistical difference. Illiteracy was the only variable related to T. cruzi infection in our population. CONCLUSION - In conclusion, our study points to the high prevalence of Chagas' disease among patients in Mulungu do Morro, suggesting that this region has a high frequency of infection and probably active vectorial transmission.

  9. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

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    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  10. Zooplankton community of Parnaíba River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Ludmilla Cavalcanti Antunes Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The objective of the present work is to present a list of species of zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda from the Parnaíba River. Additionally, we provide comments on their distribution along the river, and between dry and wet seasons.MethodsZooplankton was collected with a plankton net (60 µm mesh and concentrated into a volume of 80 mL for further analysis, during the dry (October 2010 and wet (April 2011 seasons. Sampling was restricted to the marginal areas at depths between 80 and 150 cm.ResultsA total of 132 species was recorded among the three zooplankton groups studied. During the dry season a total of 82 species was registered and 102 species was registered for the wet season. Rotifera contributed with 66.7% of the species, followed by Cladocera (26.5% and Copepoda (6.8%.ConclusionsThe richness of species observed was high compared to other large rivers in Brazil. In the context of current policies for water management and river diversions in northeastern Brazil, the present study highlights the importance of this river system for biodiversity conservation.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of the Ceratiomyxales (Myxomycetes in northeastern Brazil

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    Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Order Ceratiomyxales, which belongs to subclass Ceratiomyxomycetidae, includes the exospore bearing Myxomycetes, solely comprising family Ceratiomyxaceae and genus Ceratiomyxa, with four species. Based on the literature, on herbarium collections, and on recent surveys carried out by the authors in different states and ecosystems, it was possible to determine the occurrence and distribution of C. fruticulosa (cosmopolitan,C. morchella and C. sphaerosperma (predominantly tropical or subtropical in northeastern Brazil. Species descriptions and illustrations are presented, as well as a map of their geographical distribution in eight of the nine states of Northeast Brazil. This order is being recorded for the first time for the state of Sergipe. Ceratiomyxa morchella and C. sphaerosperma are being cited for the first time for the state of Paraíba.A ordem Ceratiomyxales, pertencente à subclasse Ceratiomyxomycetidae, reúne os representantes exosporados dos Myxomycetes, compreendendo apenas a família Ceratiomyxaceae e o gênero Ceratiomyxa, com quatro espécies. Com base na literatura, coleções de herbário e coletas recentes realizadas pelos autores em diferentes estados e ecossistemas, foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência e distribuição na região Nordeste do Brasil de C. fruticulosa, cosmopolita, C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma, predominantemente tropicais ou subtropicais. São apresentadas descrições e ilustrações das espécies, bem como mapa de distribuição geográfica em oito dos nove estados situados no Nordeste do país. A ordem está sendo referida pela primeira vez para o estado de Sergipe. C. morchella e C. sphaerosperma constituem primeira referência para o estado da Paraíba.

  12. Acritarchs of the Ediacaran Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, Northeastern Brazil

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    Leticia Chiglino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report for the first time the occurrence of organic-walled microfossils in Ediacaran limestones and marls of the Frecheirinha Formation, Ubajara Group, and the first Precambrian acritarchs so far reported for northeastern Brazil. The assemblage of the Frecheirinha Formation represents a low-diversity microflora comprising Leiosphaeridia, Lophosphaeridium and subordinated Bavlinella (=Sphaerocongregus. Their thermal alteration index (TAI between 4+ and 5, suggests metamorphic temperatures exceeding 200-250°C. Higher temperatures are probably related to intruding granitic plutons (Meruoca, Mucambo. Reported δ13C values of carbonates of -3.5 ‰ VPDB (Vienna-Peedee Belemnite at the base, passing up section into a positive plateau of up to +3.7 ‰, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.7075 and 0.7080 suggest an Ediacaran age. The acritarch assemblage is comparable to the Late Ediacaran Leiosphere Palynoflora (LELP or Kotlin-Rovno assemblage, in broad agreement with chemostratigraphic data. Macrofossils belonging to the Ediacara fauna were reported from the overlying Jaibaras Group, which would constrain even further the depositional age of the Frecheirinha Formation to within ca. 575-555 Ma. A more comprehensive palynological study of the Frecheirinha Formation is necessary to confirm this age assignment.

  13. Intoxication of goats by Plumbago scandens in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Medeiros, R M; Barbosa, R C; Lima, E F; Simões, S V; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-06-01

    In the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil, goat mortality occurred with the ingestion of Plumbago scandens. The fresh plant was then given experimentally to 4 goats at 5, 10, 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. Depression, anorexia, salivation with foamy saliva, bellowing, bruxism, humpbacked posture, bloat, ruminal atony, continuous lateral head movements, tachycardia, dyspnea and dark brown to black urine were observed in the goats given 17.5 or 25 g/kg bw. The goats receiving 5 or 10 g/kg bw had less severe signs. The goat dosed with 25 g/kg bw died after 18-20 h. All others recovered in 3-9 d. At necropsy of the high dose goat, the main lesions were dark violet to black discoloration of the mucosa of the tongue, esophagus, reticulum and ventral sac of the rumen, and gelatinous edema in the visceral ruminal peritoneum. Histologically the reticulum and ventral rumen sac had diffuse epithelial necrosis and severe edema and neutrophilic infiltration of the submucosa. Separation of the ruminal epithelium from the submucosa was observed. Epithelial degeneration and necrosis was also seen in the omasum, esophagus and tongue. Reproduction of the disease with clinical signs similar to those observed by the farmer in the spontaneously affected goats suggests that the clinical mortality was caused by ingestion of Plumbago scandens.

  14. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil

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    M. J. N. Rodal

    Full Text Available The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid inland region (Serra Negra, 8° 35’ - 8° 38’ S and 38° 02’ - 38° 04’ W between the municipalities of Floresta and Inajá, state of Pernambuco have the same floristic composition and structure as that seen in other regional forests. In fifty 10 x 20 m plots all live and standing dead trees with trunk measuring > 5 cm diameter at breast height were measured. Floristic similarities between the forest studied and other regional forests were assessed using multivariate analysis. The results demonstrate that the dry forest studied can be classified into two groups that represent two major vegetational transitions: (1 a humid forest/dry forest transition; and (2 a deciduous thorn-woodland/ dry forest transition.

  15. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, M J N; Nascimento, L M

    2006-05-01

    The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto) and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto) of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid inland region (Serra Negra, 8 degrees 35 - 8 degrees 38 S and 38 degrees 02 - 38 degrees 04 W) between the municipalities of Floresta and Inajá, state of Pernambuco have the same floristic composition and structure as that seen in other regional forests. In fifty 10 x 20 m plots all live and standing dead trees with trunk measuring > 5 cm diameter at breast height were measured. Floristic similarities between the forest studied and other regional forests were assessed using multivariate analysis. The results demonstrate that the dry forest studied can be classified into two groups that represent two major vegetational transitions: (1) a humid forest/dry forest transition; and (2) a deciduous thorn-woodland/ dry forest transition.

  16. Population structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Carla Borges Barbosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the population genetic structure of Nellore cattle in northeastern Brazil. Pedigree information was collected from 175,231 animals born from 1967 to 2007. Probability of gene origin, inbreeding, average relatedness coefficient (AR, completeness pedigree, effective population size and generation interval were calculated. Generation interval was high due to the long period of time animals were used as reproducers. The bottleneck effect was evidenced as a result of intensive use of limited breeders over the last years. Low values were observed ​​in the effective number of founder animals (434 and ancestors (427 comparing with the number on the base (175,231 and reference populations (130,038. Generally, the variability explained by the founders and ancestors is considered low. The average coefficient of inbreeding (0.11% and AR (0.14% estimated for this population is considered low and can be partly explained by the increased population effective number in recent periods; however, it may be underestimated by shallow pedigree.

  17. Uranium and Thorium in zircon sands processed in Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazin, Clovis A.; Farias, Emerson E. G. de

    2008-01-01

    Zircon the main mineral of zirconium is a silicate mineral product (ZrSiO 4 ) obtained from beach sand deposits, along with other minerals such as kyanite, ilmenite, and rutile. All zircons contain some radioactive impurities due to the presence of uranium, thorium and their respective decay products in the crystalline structure of zircon, as well as potassium-40. Uranium and thorium substitute Zr 4+ in the mineral through an internal process called isomorphous replacement of zirconium. For this study, samples were collected both from a mineral sand processing plant located in the coastal region of Northeastern brazil and from the beach sands used in the process. The aim of this study was to assess the 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K contents in the beach sands and in the mineral products extracted from the sands in that facility, with special emphasis on zircon. Measurements were performed through gamma spectrometry, by using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) coupled to a multichannel analyzer. Activity concentration for 238 U and 232 Th in zircon sands ranged from 5462±143 to 19286±46 Bq kg -1 and from 1016±7 to 7162±38 Bq kg -1 , respectively. For 40 K, on the other hand, activity concentration values ranged from 81±14 to 681±26 Bq Kg -1 . The results of the measurements carried out for raw sand samples showed activity concentrations between 2.7±0.6 and 7.9±0.9 Bq kg -1 and 6.5±0.4 and 9.4±0.6 Bq kg -1 for 238 U and 23T h respectively, and from 48.8±3.1 to 76.1±2.4 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in kyanite, ilmenite and rutile samples were also determined. (author)

  18. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

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    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  19. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  20. Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis in milk from cows in northeastern Brazil

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    Joelson Marcolino Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Milk samples from 16 cows that tested positive on the tuberculin test in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, were used for mycobacteria isolation and identification. Mycobacteria were isolated from five (31.25% of the 16 milk samples; three samples were classified as M. bovis, and two as belonging to the Mycobacterium genus. This is probably the first study of isolation and identification of M. bovis in milk from cows in Northeastern Brazil, which suggests that humans are at risk of contamination by ingestion.

  1. Water scarcity under scenarios for global climate change and regional development in semiarid Northeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Araújo, José Carlos; Döll, Petra; Güntner, Andreas; Krol, Martinus S.; Rodrigues Abreu, Cláudia Beghini; Hauschild, Maike; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2004-01-01

    The State of Ceará, located in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, suffers under irregularly recurring droughts that go along with water scarcity. Structural policies to control and reduce water scarcity, as water supply and demand management, should be seen as long-term planning, and thus have to

  2. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  3. Porocephalus species (Pentastomida infecting Boa constrictor (Boidae and Lachesis muta (Viperidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Miriam Camargo Guarnieri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a great diversity of snakes, but there are few published works concerning parasitism in these animals. The present paper examined pulmonary infection by pentastomids in large snakes from northeastern Brazil, including six specimens of Boa constrictor and two examples of Lachesis muta from the Serpentarium of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, Brazil, all of which were collected in the Atlantic Coastal Forest. One specimen of B. constrictor was infected by Porocephalus sp. (intensity of infection 5.0 and one specimen of L. muta was infected by P. stilesi (intensity of infection 15.0.

  4. The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus

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    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented. PMID:23950667

  5. A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz R. R. Faria

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eufriesea Cockerell (Hymenoptera, Apidae from northeastern Brazil. Eufriesea pyrrhopyga sp. nov. a short-tongued Eufriesea is described as a new species. It can be easily recognized for its predominantly violet lower frons and thorax, violet tergum 1 contrasting with the strong reddish coloration on the lateral portions of terga 2 to 4 and on entire terga 5 and 6, and head pubescence with contrasting colors, white on the lower two-thirds of the face and black on upper frons and vertex. This new species, collected in Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil, apparently is restricted to the Pernambuco endemic center, and seems to be highly endangered.

  6. Plant extractivism in light of game theory: a case study in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael RV; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Background Game theory enables the predictive study of the behavior of agents that recognize the mutual interdependence of their decisions and act rationally and strategically to maximize their own gains. In this paper, the extractivism of pequi (Caryocar coriaceum Wittm.) and fava d?anta (Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.) in an area of common use of the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil is described as a model to illustrate a practical application of game theory in the interpretation of th...

  7. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodal,MJN.; Barbosa,MRV.; Thomas,WW.

    2008-01-01

    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic C...

  8. Thrips on fabaceous plants and weeds in an ecotone in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Élison Fabrício Bezerra; Zucchi, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Thrips (Thysanoptera) on 33 species of Fabaceae (ornamental and forage) and some weed species were surveyed in areas of caatinga-cerrado ecotone in northeastern Brazil. Twenty species of thrips were identified, all of which are associated for the first time with the plants sampled in this study, totaling 26 new host associations, based on collections of immatures. Five species are probably new to science, illustrating the diversity of thrips in the region. A few thrips species that ...

  9. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam has its origin in Tropical America. In Sergipe State (Brazil), its production is very important, and to explore its potential in local agriculture in the State, the Embrapa Coastal Tableland created a collection with 52 accessions located in Umbaúba City. Some accessions were from ...

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Maria Claudia Ribeiro; Costa, Pietra Lemos; Duque, Anderson Enio Silva; Soares, Efraim Naftali Lopes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida de

    2016-01-01

    The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.

  11. Habitat structural effect on squamata fauna of the restinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo J R; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we surveyed data on richness and composition of squamatan reptiles and habitat structural effect in nine areas of restinga ecosystem in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. The "restinga" ecosystems are coastal sand dune habitats on the coast of Brazil. Our main hypothesis is that the Squamata fauna composition along these restinga areas would be modulated by habitat structural. After 90 days of field sampling we recorded approximately 5% of reptile species known in Brazil. The composition of Squamata assemblages varied mainly based on the presence or absence of lizards of the genera Ameivula and Tropidurus. Our data showed that habitat structure consistently affected the composition of local Squamata fauna, especially lizards.

  12. Genetic improvement of Nellore cattle in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Carla Borges Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid region of Brazil represents approximately 57% of the northeastern territory. The main economic activity in this region is agriculture and livestock, in most cases, using traditional technologies. However, there is little published information currently available on cattle-raising in this part of Brazil. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and trends for productive and reproductive traits of Nellore cattle raised in semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Data were collected on weight-adjusted at 205 (W205, 365 (W365 and 550 (W550 days of life, age at first calving (AFC, calving interval (CI and scrotal circumference (SC at 550 days of life of cattle born between 1965 and 2011. Estimates of covariance and variance were obtained through univariate analysis using a Gibbs sampler. The estimated coefficients of heritability (mode were 0.27 (W205, 0.36 (W365 and 0.39 (W550, 0.37 (SC, 0.22 (AFC and 0.03 (CI. Little or no gain from selection is apparent in the genetic trend analysis over the 45 years of the study. However, environmental improvement has allowed phenotypic progress in growth traits and age at first age calving.

  13. Good manufacturing practices of artisanal products in Northeastern Brazil

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    Medeiros, J.M.S.D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the importance of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of artisanal products, aiming to generate a discussion about this subject. The elaboration of artisanal food has been gaining prominence in several countries of the world since these products carry the identity and culture of a place. The traditional and artisanal way of manufacturing provides the food with a variation in its characteristics, which makes it peculiar in comparison to its similar, pleasing the most diverse demands of consumers. In addition, they are considered healthier and natural foods. In the Northeast of Brazil, these products are highlighted by the significant commercialization, being sources of income generation for the region. Among the most prominent products are the coalho and butter types cheeses, bottled butter and carne de sol. Despite the economic and cultural importance of these products, the traditional way of manufacturing, without proper hygiene care, can be a limiting factor for the formal commercialization of these products. Therefore, adopting good manufacturing practices at artisanal food processing places may be the first step towards the production of higher quality products that meet the requirements of the legislation but retain their artisanal manufacturing characteristics.

  14. Use and knowledge of Cactaceae in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Camilla Marques de; Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva de; Costa, Gabriela Maciel; Carvalho, Thamires Kelly Nunes; Costa, Gyslaynne Gomes da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Pereira, Daniel Duarte; Ribeiro, João Everthon da Silva; Alves, Carlos Antônio Belarmino; Quirino, Zelma Glebya Maciel; Nunes, Ernane Nogueira

    2013-08-28

    This study aimed to record the use, and knowledge that residents from São Francisco community (Paraiba, Brazil) have regarding the Cactaceae. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 118 informants; 50 men and 68 women. The cacti cited in this study were organised into use categories and use values were calculated. Differences in the values applied to species and use categories by men and women were compared via a G test (Williams). The nine species identified were: Cereus jamacaru DC., Melocactus bahiensis (Brtitton & Rose) Luetzelb., Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck., Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill, Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Pilosocereus gounellei (F.A.C. Weber) Byles & Rowley, Pilosocereus pachycladus F. Ritter, Tacinga inamoena (K. Schum) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy, Tacinga palmadora (Britton & Rose) N.P. Taylor & Stuppy. In total, 1,129 use citations were recorded, divided into 11 categories. The use value categories with the highest scores were forage (0.42), food (0.30) and construction (building) (0.25). P. pachycladus showed the greatest use value, versatility and number of plant parts used. The survey showed that the Cactaceae is extremely important for several uses and categories attributed to different species. Apart from contributing to the ethnobotanical knowledge of the Cactaceae, another important focus of this study was to reinforce the necessity for further studies that record the traditional knowledge about this plant family, which has been lost in younger generations.

  15. Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils in northeastern Brazil as influenced by salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz Guilherme Medeiros; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Dos Santos; Wilcox, Bradford Paul; Green, Colleen Heather Machado; De Araújo, Rômulo José Tolêdo; De Araújo Filho, José Coelho

    2016-11-01

    In northeastern Brazil, large swaths of once-productive soils have been severely degraded by soil salinization, but the true extent of the damage has not been assessed. Emerging remote sensing technology based on hyperspectral analysis offers one possibility for large-scale assessment, but it has been unclear to what extent the spectral properties of soils are related to salinity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spectral properties of degraded (saline) and non-degraded agricultural soils in northeastern Brazil and determine the extent to which these properties correspond to soil salinity. We took soil samples from 78 locations within a 45,000-km 2 site in Pernambuco State. We used cluster analysis to group the soil samples on the basis of similarities in salinity and sodicity levels, and then obtained spectral data for each group. The physical properties analysis indicated a predominance of the coarse sand fraction in almost all the soil groups, and total porosity was similar for all the groups. The chemical analysis revealed different levels of degradation among the groups, ranging from non-degraded to strongly degraded conditions, as defined by the degree of salinity and sodicity. The soil properties showing the highest correlation with spectral reflectance were the exchangeable sodium percentage followed by fine sand. Differences in the reflectance curves for the various soil groups were relatively small and were not significant. These results suggest that, where soil crusts are not present, significant challenges remain for using hyperspectral remote sensing to assess soil salinity in northeastern Brazil.

  16. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

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    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  17. First record of Chantransia macrospora Wood, 1887 (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

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    Janiele França Vasconcelos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first record of Chantransia macrospora in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analyses of periphytic algae revealed C. macrospora individuals associated in particular with shells of Melanoides tuberculatus, a non-native species, suggesting that C. macrospora have been introduced into systems associated with the gastropods. In this context, new records of C. macrospora are still expected for the Brazilian semi-arid region in the next years.

  18. First record of Chantransia macrospora Wood, 1887 (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

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    Janiele França Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n4p129 This study presents the first record of Chantransia macrospora in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. Analyses of periphytic algae revealed C. macrospora individuals associated in particular with shells of Melanoides tuberculatus, a non-native species, suggesting that C. macrospora have been introduced into systems associated with the gastropods. In this context, new records of C. macrospora are still expected for the Brazilian semi-arid region in the next years.

  19. Dating by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Sergio T.; Khoury, Helen J.; Borges, Fabio M.; Sullasi, Henry L.; Avila, Gabriela M.; Pessis, Anne-Marie; Guzzo, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the age of a prehistoric campfire from Serido region in northeastern Brazil. The dating was performed by Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) by the method of multiple aliquot regenerative doses. Samples were collected from five different parts of the campfire in order to determine the accumulated dose, and samples of two parts of the campfire for determine the annual dose rate. After a statistical analysis of these values, we calculated an average age of 3640 +- 710 years. This age allowed to define a time frame for archaeological studies in this region. (author)

  20. Search for an ''Oklo Phenomenon'' in the Northeastern regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.W.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Armelin, M.J.A.; Fulfaro, R.; Fulfaro, V.J.; Neves, B.B.B.

    1982-01-01

    Rocks samples from the Northeastern region of Brazil were analysed for their 235 U isotopic abundance, in search for the occurrence of an ''Oklo Phenomenon'' here. The samples were collected in locations that could have been connected to the African continent, according to the continental-drift theory, in accordance to the Francevillian formations in the Gabon Republic, in which place the Oklo natural fossil reactor is situated. Two methods were used for the determination of the 235 U abundance: activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and activation analysis by delayed neutron counting. No evidence of 235 U depletion was found in the rock samples analysed. (author)

  1. Another new species of Phyllodytes (Anura: Hylidae) from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Victor G D; Dias, Iuri R; Marciano, Euvaldo

    2018-04-09

    A new species of the genus Phyllodytes is described from the State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Northeastern Brazil. Phyllodytes praeceptor sp. nov. can be differentiated from other species of Phyllodytes by its medium size (SVL 20.7-25.8 mm in males); odontoids moderately developed; vocal sac externally visible; eyes large and prominent; dorsum homogenously cream, except for a few scattered spots and blotches; venter areolate with two parallel, paramedial lines of larger tubercles; few tubercles in the ventral surface of thighs, the largest being the medial one; a large tubercle on the skin around the tibio-tarsal articulation; nuptial pad rounded and moderately expanded.

  2. Diatom assemblage in a tropical lake of northeastern Brazil

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    Lilian Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and spatial variation of diatom assemblage in surface sediments of Caçó Lake (shallow, mesotrophic and weakly acid lake - Maranhão State, Brazil were analyzed in order to know the distribution pattern of the species along the lake during rainy season (April 1999. Four zones were established in the lake based on 21 diatoms species and habitat affinities. The first three zones (prime three meters deep to six meters deep were marked by the occurrence of Pinnularia gigas, Frustulia rhomboides, Encyonopsis krasskei, Eunotia camelus, E. femoriformis and E. monodon. Zone IV (seven to nine meters deep was inhabited mainly by Surirella biseriata and Fragilariforma floridana. During the beginning of the rainy season, the diatom assemblage in Caçó Lake was composed mainly by benthic and epiphytic forms that reflected the low lake levels and the abundance of littoral vegetation present in this lake.Com o objetivo de se conhecer a dinâmica espacial e a distribuição das diatomáceas contidas no sedimento superficial do lago Caçó, durante o período de chuvas (abril de 1999 foram realizadas coletas em um "transect" horizontal. A partir da observação destas coletas efetuadas a cada 1 metro pode-se observar que a distribuição das diatomáceas esteve fortemente ligada a ocorrência do banco de macrófitas da sua margem, com a ocorrência maciça das espécies epifíticas e bentônicas. A análise de agrupamento de dados permitiu uma melhor visualização, da sua distribuição a cada profundidade e também das associações específicas em cada zona. Os resultados deste estudo permitiram concluir que a ocorrência e distribuição das diatomáceas do Lago Caçó está fortemente ligada ao banco de macrófitas localizado em suas margens, definindo assim zonas características dentro do lago.

  3. Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987 (Squamata, Tropiduridae. New record and geographic distribution map in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa, Luirick F. S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus cocorobensis Rodrigues, 1987. Brazil, state of Pernambuco, municipality of Floresta (08°36'04" S; 38°34'07" W; 316 m. Collectors: Members of the Wildlife Rescue Team from the Project of Integration of São Francisco river (PISF with the basins of septentrional northeastern. From July 2009 to February 2010, 55 specimens were collected in areas of Caatinga characterized by shrub vegetation with sandy soil, and deposited in the Scientific Collection of the Centro de Conservação e Manejo de Fauna da Caatinga – CEMAFAUNA-CAATINGA/UNIVASF, Petrolina, Brazil. Axis East Transposition of the São Franscisco river – Petrolândia (Leste Petrolândia: LPE (LPE 998.

  4. Lung infection rates in two sympatric Tropiduridae lizard species by pentastomids and nematodes in northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available We present data on pulmonary infection rates by parasites in the lizards Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 living sympatrically in the Chapada do Araripe mountain Range, northeastern Brazil. We found no parasite pulmonary infection in T. semitaeniatus. However, two pulmonary parasite species were found in the T. hispidus hosts, the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008 and the nematode Rhabdias sp. Overall prevalence was 5%. Prevalence of R. mottae was 2.5% and corresponded to only one parasite on each infected host. Prevalence of Rhabdias sp. was 2.5% and the range of infection was 1-2 parasites per host. This represents the first record of Rhabdias infecting lizards of the family Tropiduridae in the Neotropical region. Furthermore, we present a comparison of parameters of infection by pulmonary parasites including some recent studies in Brazil.

  5. The epidemiology of envenomation via snakebite in the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

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    Nayana da Rocha Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This communication describes a retrospective study of the epidemiology of snakebite cases that were recorded from 2007 to 2012 in the State of Piauí, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the State of Piauí's Health Department. RESULTS: A total of 1,528 cases were identified. The cases occurred most frequently in rural areas between January and July. Victims were predominantly male farmers, and were typically 30-39 years old. Most victims were bitten on the foot, and received medical assistance within 1-3h after being bitten. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological profile of snakebites in the State of Piauí is similar to that in all of Brazil.

  6. Internationalization process of a company in Brazil northeastern: influence of external agents and choices of management

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    Elis Magalhães Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the main characteristics of the international strategy formation process of an exporter fruit company, located in the São Francisco Valley (VCF, Northeastern of Brazil, regarding the influence of external agents and managerial choices of the firm. First, a brief contextualization of how this industry takes place in Brazil and abroad is presented. Seccondly, we discuss the theoretical concepts of strategies and then set up internationalization in the light of theories used as the basis for analysis, and these: Theory of Uppsala, Diamond Model Resource-based View (RBV, Product Lifecycle, Eclectic Paradigm Choice and Adaptive. The segment of empirical research is developed through an exploratory study involving company directors, through the application of semi-structured interviews. The analysis of data was performed by using the software Atlas.ti 6.0. Are apparent associations between models of internationalization and the way which the dimensions of analysis are mutually reinforced

  7. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Ribeiro, S C

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6 degrees 29' S and 34 degrees 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasitizing three females M. maximiliani, with a prevalence of 4% and an average infection intensity of 2.3 +/- 1.3 (range 1-5). The infection rate by pentastomids encountered in the present study was similar to that seen with other species of restinga lizards. Raillietiella mottae is a generalist parasite species that is probably transmitted by common and widely distributed insects making up part of the diet of many insectivorous lizard species from northeastern Brazil.

  8. Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in Herbaceous and Shrub Strata of Atlantic Forest Remnants in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, João V L; Mendonça, Milton D S; Lima, Iracilda M M; Grazia, Jocelia

    2017-06-01

    Most pentatomids are phytophagous, many of which are economically important crop pests. The family may also be a potentially important group to monitor the health of neotropical forests. However, there is a lack of biological inventories of Pentatomidae, especially in forest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. This is the first systematic survey of pentatomids reported in three Atlantic forest fragments in northeastern Brazil. In total, 997 individuals belonging to 38 species were recorded, some of which are considered economically important pests. Singletons and doubletons represented 45.9% of all species collected. The most abundant genera were Mormidea Amyot & Serville, 1843; Stictochilus Bergroth, 1918; Xynocoris Garbelotto & Campos 2014; and Edessa F., 1803. Species richness differed among fragments, with a richness gradient correlated with decreased urbanization and increased fragment size. The species abundance distribution fitted the logseries function but not the lognormal, in accordance with what is found for other assemblages in southern Brazil. Species composition also changed, in association with changes in temperature (revealed by the canonical correspondence analysis [CCA]), among fragments. Murici is one of the last remaining dense forests with high plant diversity in the region, having higher pentatomid species richness and a distinctive fauna. This first diversity study for Pentatomidae in fragments of tropical Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil reveals richness comparable with those from subtropical southern Brazil, with some species in common as well. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events in the costal reefs of northeastern Brazil

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    Roberto Sassi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the occurrence of seasonal changes in the pigmentation of colonies of Siderastrea spp. during bleaching events on coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil. Bleached affected almost 50% of coral colonies analyzed in Cabo Branco reefs (Paraiba state in the summer of 2005. The same phenomenon was detected along various coastal reefs in northeastern Brazil during the summer of 2007 and 2008. These events were seasonal, and began with the emergence of pale colonies that became pale-pink and then purple during the rainy months. The patterns and intensity of colonies pigmentation changes varied with the studied sites. The decrease in zooxanthellae density and chlorophyll-a content was quantified in the colonies with their pigmentation pattern altered (bleaching. Microbiological analyses revealed higher densities of bacteria in pink colonies (bleached as compared to brown colonies (normal. Environmental disturbances may lead to the pigmentation changes in Siderastrea spp., but the immediate causes of this phenomenon are not clear and require further investigations.

  10. Bryophyte communities of restingas in Northeastern Brazil and their similarity to those of other restingas in the country

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mércia Patrícia Pereira; Zickel, Carmen Sílvia; Pôrto, Kátia Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Restingas are a coastal component of the Atlantic Forest. They experience high temperatures and possess soils with a low capacity to retain water, low nutrient content and high salt concentrations. Studies on bryophytes of restingas have been mostly conducted in Southeastern Brazil, and so we aimed to characterize the bryophyte flora of seven areas of restinga in the Northeastern Region and to establish their floristic affinities with other restingas in Brazil. Fifty-five species wer...

  11. Prevalence and intensity of pentastomid infection in two species of snakes from northeastern Brazil

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    WO Almeida

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by pentastomids in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Fifteen snakes (four Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820 and eleven Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 were collected between January and April of 2005, in the municipality of Crato (07° 14' S and 39° 24' W, State of Ceará, Brazil. Laboratorial analysis of the respiratory tracts of the sampled snakes indicated differences in host infection rates: four individuals of P. nattereri (36.4% were infected by Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922 (mean infection intensity 1.5 ± 0.28, 1-2 and three specimens (27.3% by Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1863 (2.3 ± 1.32, 1-5. Only one individual of M. ibiboboca (25% was infected by a non-identified species of Raillietiella sp. These are the first data on pentastomid infection in snakes in Northeastern Brazil and both snake species comprise new host records for the pentastomids. The results also indicate that the generalist parasites C. tetrapoda and R. furcocerca share their definitive hosts.

  12. Parotocinclus seridoensis, a new hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rio Piranhas-Açu basin, northeastern Brazil

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    Telton Pedro A. Ramos

    Full Text Available A new species of Parotocinclus is described from the upper rio Piranhas-Açu basin, northeastern Brazil. The new species differs from all its congeners, except P. bidentatus, P. muriaensis (both from rio Paraíba do Sul basin, southeastern Brazil, and P. spilurus (rio Jaguaribe basin, northeastern Brazil by presenting the adipose fin rudimentary or absent. The new species differs from P. bidentatus, P. muriaensis, and P. spilurus mainly by presenting the abdomen region extensively naked, with few reduced rounded dermal platelets between the pectoral girdle and the anus. Parotocinclus seridoensis is probably an endemic species of the semi-arid Caatinga, region where the genus presents high species richness.

  13. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on anuran diversity in Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Kássio C; Guzzi, Anderson; Ávila, Robson W

    2018-01-01

    Anurans have close associations with environmental conditions and therefore represent an interesting vertebrate group for examining how resource availability and environmental variables influence species diversity. Associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity were tested in the Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta in northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one anuran species were sampled in the rainy season during monthly excursions (December 2015 to June 2016) into areas of Restinga on two islands in the Parnaíba River delta. The fourth highest anuran diversity was found in this type of environment in Brazil and is the third in northeastern Brazil. Microenvironments, characterized by a combination of vernal pools with different vegetational and physical structures, better explained anuran species composition in the Parnaíba River delta.

  14. Larval morphology and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus Bokermann, 1966 (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Thamires F; De Lima, Marcelo G; Do Nascimento, Filipe Augusto C; Dos Santos, Ednilza M

    2014-03-13

    This paper describes the tadpole and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus, based on specimens from the Parque Nacional do Catimbau, in the municipality of Buíque, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The overall morphology of P. acuminatus tadpole is similar to that of most species of the genus. The presence of a double row of marginal papillae surrounding all the oral apparatus (except on most of the upper labium which has a dorsal gap) was a characteristic that differentiate P. acuminatus from the other species of the genus. Furthermore, the call structure of the species (unpulsed notes with harmonic structure) fits it in the group composed of P. kautskyi and P. melanomystax.

  15. Serological and molecular detection of Theileria equi in sport horses of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edlainne P; Vidotto, Odilon; Almeida, Jonatas C; Ribeiro, Luana P S; Borges, Marcos V; Pequeno, Walter H C; Stipp, Danilo T; de Oliveira, Celso J B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C

    2016-08-01

    Theileriosis is a worldwide protozoal tick-borne disease caused by Theileria equi, which may produce a variety of clinical signs and turn infected horses into lifetime carriers. This study has aimed to perform a serological and molecular detection of T. equi and associated factors in sports horses from six areas of northeastern Brazil. In overall, 59.6% horses were positive by indirect immunofluorescence assay and 50.4% by polymerase chain reaction. No significant association was found when presence of ticks, age, gender, anemia or total plasma proteins was analyzed with seropositivity and molecular techniques. Although a significant association of infection was found in two cities. Thus, local risk factors other than presence of ticks, horse age, gender, anemia and total plasmatic proteins may dictate prevalence of T. equi infection in sports horses, even in highly endemic areas with no control of infection prior to horse competitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BATS IN SETTLEMENTS FROM AN ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    CAIO GRACO ZEPPELINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bats are key components of ecological networks, and studies in degraded areas are especially important to understand the impact of the human settlements on bats communities. Here, we surveyed the bat fauna in Guaribas Biological Reserve, a protected area in the Atlantic Forest in Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, and compared it with the bat fauna that occupies the nearby villages. In the villages, we recorded 650 individuals from 14 species, while 1,127 individuals from 20 species were recorded in the Reserve. Diversity estimation pointed out 19 species for the settlements, and 22 for the Reserve. A Bray-Curtis/Sorensen similarity cluster analysis informed that the Reserve areas and the villages form two distinct groups. Additionally, a Wilcox test pointed out that both areas have significantly distinct abundances and species richnesses. Only a subset of the assemblage, mainly formed by generalist or opportunist species, occupies the villages, exploring resources that are offered by human activities.

  17. Paleo magnetism of the Ceara-Mirim dyke swarm, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernesto, M.; Furtado, M.H.; Martins, G.; Macedo, J.W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The Mesozoic tholeiitic Ceara-Mirim dyke swarm has a general east-west trend cutting the Precambrian basement of northeastern Brazil. The dykes occur mainly in the State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN) but enter the neighbouring State of Ceara to the west where they trend SW-NE. Available K-Ar radiometric dates vary between 214 and 216 Ma. HORN et al. (1988) used a procedure which allowed the removal of argon-loss effects to conclude that the ages might be situated between Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Paleo magnetic data suggest that the emplacement of the sub-swarms was not simultaneous since they show distinct magnetization directions. New paleo magnetic results that confirm the above conclusion are presented here for the western part of the swarm, where the dykes show a SW-NE structural orientation. (author)

  18. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50 and 21% (69 donkeys by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50. The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051. This is the first report ofNeospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  19. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  20. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil

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    Gustavo Taboada Soldati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil.

  1. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera from cacao agroforestry systems in northeastern Brazil, with two new species of Trigonalys Westwood

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    Bernardo Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Trigonalidae from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is conducted. A total of 65 specimens were studied, and three species are recognized. Trigonalys melanoleuca Westwood is diagnosed and illustrated. Two new species are described and illustrated. Trigonalys erythrocephala sp. n. has most of head reddish brown; metasomal armature in sternum III conspicuous, Y-shaped; supra-antennal elevation conspicuous; hind coxa with sharp lateral angles, its dorso-mesal portion strigate; legs entirely dark brown; and fore wing lightly infuscate, darker towards anterior margin. Trigonalys gotica sp. n. with body blackish or dark brown and with pale yellow marks; mesopleuron with an oblique mark; female armature absent; frons and vertex punctate-areolate; supra-antennal elevation subtle; propodeal foramen V-shaped; and fore wing vein M arising distinctly basad to 1cu-a.

  2. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, M J N; Barbosa, M R V; Thomas, W W

    2008-08-01

    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence--absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica) and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga) of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  3. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJN. Rodal

    Full Text Available Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  4. Astyanax vermilion and Astyanax burgerai: new characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Characiformes from Northeastern Bahia, Brazil

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    Angela M. Zanata

    Full Text Available Two new Astyanax species, A. vermilion, from rio Almada and rio Cachoeira, and A. burgerai, from rio Almada, Bahia State, Brazil, are described. Astyanax vermilion is distinguished from most of its congeners and from all other Astyanax species known from northeastern Brazilian drainages by having distal portion of pelvic fins dark, a combination of sexually dimorphic characters, posteroventral portion of body and fins (except pectoral reddish in life, and inconspicuous humeral and caudal spots. It also differs by having highest body depth just anterior of dorsal-fin origin, 32-34 lateral-line scales, and presence of one or two maxillary teeth. Astyanax burgerai is diagnosed by the presence of two vertically elongated humeral blotches, absence of a conspicuous and broad dark midlateral stripe (at least on anterior half of body, body highest along vertical slightly behind midlength of pectoral fin, 31-34 lateral-line scales, and two or three teeth on premaxillary outer series.

  5. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Paulino de Albuquerque, Ulysses

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil. PMID:21961025

  6. Severe coinfection of melioidosis and dengue fever in northeastern Brazil: first case report

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    Rafael Nogueira Macedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This report focuses on a fatality involving severe dengue fever and melioidosis in a 28-year-old truck driver residing in Pacoti in northeastern Brazil. He exhibited long-term respiratory symptoms (48 days and went through a wide-ranging clinical investigation at three hospitals, after initial clinical diagnoses of pneumonia, visceral leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, and fungal sepsis. After death, Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in a culture of ascitic fluid. Dengue virus type 1 was detected by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; this infection was the cause of death. This description reinforces the need to consider melioidosis among the reported differential diagnoses of community-acquired infections where both melioidosis and dengue fever are endemic.

  7. Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Barros, Cecília; Piovesan, Enelise Katia; Oliveira Agostinho, Sonia Maria

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a detailed taxonomic study on the marine ostracods from the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil, in wells from the wells Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and Poty-1PO-01-PE, which record the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. Besides the taxonomic data, this paper contributes to the paleoenvironmental knowledge of Cretaceous-Paleogene ostracods from the Paraíba Basin. The analysis of 98 samples of the well Itamaracá-1IT-03-PE and 59 samples of the Poty-1PO-01-PE resulted in the record of 34 ostracode species, all representative of a marine environment with normal salinity. Seven new species are proposed: Cytherella centrocompressa sp. nov.; Cytherella paraibensis sp. nov.; Neonesidea potyensis sp. nov.; Bythoceratina spinosa sp. nov.; Eucytherura ventrotuberculata sp. nov.; Langiella fauthi sp. nov. and Protobuntonia punctatum sp. nov.

  8. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  9. Genetic variability in Melipona quinquefasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) from northeastern Brazil determined using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J O P; Freitas, B M; Jorge, D M M; Torres, D C; Soares, C E A; Grangeiro, T B

    2009-01-01

    Melipona quinquefasciata is a ground-nesting South American stingless bee whose geographic distribution was believed to comprise only the central and southern states of Brazil. We obtained partial sequences (about 500-570 bp) of first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) nuclear ribosomal DNA from Melipona specimens putatively identified as M. quinquefasciata collected from different localities in northeastern Brazil. To confirm the taxonomic identity of the northeastern samples, specimens from the state of Goiás (Central region of Brazil) were included for comparison. All sequences were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers EU073751-EU073759). The mean nucleotide divergence (excluding sites with insertions/deletions) in the ITS1 sequences was only 1.4%, ranging from 0 to 4.1%. When the sites with insertions/deletions were also taken into account, sequence divergences varied from 0 to 5.3%. In all pairwise comparisons, the ITS1 sequence from the specimens collected in Goiás was most divergent compared to the ITS1 sequences of the bees from the other locations. However, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that all ITS1 sequences from northeastern specimens along with the sample of Goiás were resolved in a single clade with a bootstrap support of 100%. The ITS1 sequencing data thus support the occurrence of M. quinquefasciata in northeast Brazil.

  10. Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil

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    Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although malocclusions represent a serious public health issue, there is insufficient information about this problem in adolescents in Brazil, especially in poorer areas. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of facial alterations, dental malocclusions, and deleterious oral habits (DOH among adolescents in a developing area in northeastern Brazil and to test the hypothesis that the occurrence of DOH in infancy is associated with DOH during adolescence. The study included a probabilistic population-based sample of 2,060 Brazilian students aged 12-15 years. Facial characteristics (type of facial profile, facial symmetry, and passive lip sealing and malocclusions (Angle and Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI were evaluated. DOH in infancy and adolescence were evaluated by interviews with the parents and adolescents. Most adolescents presented with normal facial characteristics. The malocclusion prevalence (Angle was 83%. The DAI ranged from 13 to 69 (mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 7.7. Orthodontic treatment was necessary in 45.1% of the sample. The most prevalent DOH in adolescents were nail biting, object biting, cheek/lip biting, and bruxism, which were associated with finger sucking during infancy (P < 0.05. We conclude that malocclusions and DOH are common among Brazilian adolescents and that finger sucking during infancy may be a good predictor of DOH occurrence during adolescence.

  11. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

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    Patricia Mirella da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  12. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of a squash and a pumpkin from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, H K; Rodríguez-Amaya, D B

    1990-06-01

    The carotenoid composition of a squash and a pumpkin from Northeastern Brazil was determined. Nineteen carotenoids were detected in Cucurbita moschata variety "Baianinha"; beta-carotene was the principal carotenoid, contributing about 74% of an average total carotenoid content of 317.8 micrograms/g. In C. maxima variety "Jerimum Caboclo", 11 carotenoids were found with lutein, and beta-carotene as the major pigments accounting for about 60% and 27%, respectively, of an average total carotenoid content of 78.4 micrograms/g. The abundance of beta-carotene in the C. moschata variety "Baianinha" makes this squash one of the richest sources of provitamin A. The average vitamin A value was 43,175 IU (International Units) per 100 g or 4,317 RE (retinol equivalents) per 100 g. Its vitamin A values is more than 11 times that of C. maxima variety "Jerimum Caboclo" and five times that of C. moschata cultivar "Menina Verde", the squash found previously to be highest in provitamin A among the Cucurbita vegetables most commercialized in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil).

  13. Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) as seed disperser of the plant Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Ribeiro, Leonardo; Gogliath, Melissa; Freire, Eliza M.

    2008-01-01

    Tropidurus semitaeniatus is broadly distributed in the rocky habitats of the caatingas of northeastern Brazil (Vanzolini et al., 1980). In the context of a behavioral ecology work, a T. semitaeniatus population was studied at the Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC Seridó; 06.5767º S, 37.2558º W, datum: WGS84; elev. 192 m), Serra Negra do Norte municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. One of the studied aspects included the foraging behavior of lizards recorded by focal animal samples t...

  14. Pisces, Anguilliformes, Moringuidae, Moringua edwardsi (Jordan and Bollman, 1889: First record in Atol das Rocas, northeastern Brazil

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    Paiva, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringua edwardsi is recorded for the first time at Atol das Rocas, northeastern Brazil. Previous records of thespecies were located in the western Atlantic Ocean, from Florida to southeastern Brazil, but with many gaps between theseregions. A single specimen was collected in Atol das Rocas in July 2007 and it is deposited in the Dias da Rocha IchthyologicalCollection. The new record of M. edwardsi fills a geographic distribution gap of this species and complements the inventoryof fish species inhabiting one of the most unique marine protected areas in the world.

  15. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roseane Campos; Márcio Santos; Gabriel Tunon; Luana Cunha; Lucas Magalhães; Juliana Moraes; Danielle Ramalho; Sanmy Lima; José Antônio Pacheco; Michael Lipscomb; Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus; Roque Pacheco de Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs ...

  16. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza M. X. Freire; Jaqueiuto S. Jorge; Leonardo B. Ribeiro; Raul F. D. Sales

    2011-01-01

    We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests) environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be ...

  17. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B.; Monteiro, Helena S.A.; Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C.; Ximenes, Rafael M.; Borges Nojosa, Diva M.; de O. Luna, Karla P.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Corrêa Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exh...

  18. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cocentino,Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro; Fujii,Mutue Toyota; Reis,Thiago Nogueira de Vasconcelos; Guimarães-Barros,Nathalia Cristina; Rocha,Marcia de França; Neumann-Leitão,Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is...

  19. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Miocene wave-dominated estuarine system in the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Rosana; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Góes, Ana Maria

    2017-11-01

    A number of publications have documented the effect of the Miocene transgression on several coasts of the world. However, this event is incompletely documented along the Brazilian margin, despite the existence of an impressive record of Miocene deposits exposed mostly as several coastal cliffs along more than 5000 km of distance. The transgressive nature of Miocene deposits, so far recognized only in a few localities of northeastern Brazil, needs to be amplified in order to better characterize the impact of the Miocene transgression in eastern South America. In this work, we provide facies analysis of early/middle Miocene strata exposed in the Paraíba Basin, northeastern Brazil, aiming reconstruct the depositional paleoenvironments and analyze their evolution within the context of relative sea-level fluctuations data. The results revealed deposits characterized by several features that were related to the action of tidal currents, such as alternating thicker/thinner forest packages, abundant reactivation surfaces, mud drapes and oppositely-dipping (herringbone) cross sets. These sedimentary structures were associated with an ichnological assemblage indicative of marine-influenced and brackish water, best represented by Ophiomorpha, Planolites-Palaeophycus-Thalassinoides and Thallassinoides-Planolites-Palaeophycus ichnofabrics. Sedimentation occurred in environments consisting of estuarine channel, estuarine central basin, tidal inlet/tidal channel, tidal delta/washover, tidal flat/shoal and foreshore, which were related to an estuarine setting, at least in part of a wave-dominated type. Analysis of facies stratal patterns led to suggest that the estuarine deposits of the Paraíba Basin reflect a rise in relative sea level probably during the transgressive and/or highstand stage of a depositional sequence formed directly overlying Cretaceous rocks. This rise can be correlated with the worldwide early/mid Miocene marine transgression. However, while the eustatic sea

  1. Cemented Horizons and Hardpans in the Coastal Tablelands of Northeastern Brazil

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    João Bosco Vasconcellos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Horizons with varying degrees of cementation are a common feature of the soils from the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil. In most cases, these horizons are represented by the following subsurface horizons: fragipan, duripan, ortstein, and placic. The aims of this study were to analyze differences regarding the development and the degree of expression of cementation in soils from the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil: Planossolo Háplico (p-SX, Espodossolo Humilúvico (p-EK, Espodossolo Ferrihumilúvico (p-ESK, and Argissolo Acinzentado (p-PAC pedons. The pedons studied displayed features related to drainage impediments. The cemented horizons from p-SX and p-EK had the same designation (Btgm, displaying a duric character that coincided with gleization features and are under podzolized horizons. In the p-ESK, the podzolization process is of such magnitude that it leads to the cementation of its own spodic horizons, which were both of the ortstein type (Bhsx and Bsm. In the p-PAC cementation is observed in two placic horizons and in the Btx/Bt horizon, as well as in the upper parts of the Bt/Btx horizon. Analysis of the micrographies from the cemented horizons showed predominance of a low porosity matrix. Such porosity is relatively greater in the horizons of “x” subscript than in the horizons with duric character. The Fe segregation lines were notable in the cemented horizons from p-EK and p-PAC, which corroborates the presence of placic horizons in such pedons. The preponderance of kaolinite in the clay fraction was widely verified in all the cemented horizons analyzed. Water immersion tests were the criteria adopted to define the duric character of the Btgm horizons from p-SX and p-EK, and in the Bsm horizon from the p-ESK. These tests were also used to confirm field morphology. In most cases, the maximum values of Fe, Al, and Si, determined by different extractions, occurred in positions overlaying the cemented

  2. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, André S; Andrade, Humber A; Hazin, Fábio H V

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks) whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Feeding ecology of three juvenile mojarras (Gerreidae in a tropical estuary of northeastern Brazil

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    Antônio Limeira Felinto de Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Distributions and feeding ecology of mojarra species from shallow water of a tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil were observed aiming to investigate differences in distribution and resource partitioning among juveniles of three species of mojarras. Fishes were collected with a beach seine across four sites along a salinity gradient from January to December of 2011. Highest abundances were recorded during the rainy season in the upper and middle estuary. Microcrustaceans, mainly copepods, were the preferential prey items of all mojarras, irrespective of size or hydrological season, suggesting these areas may be important nursery habitats. Juveniles of mojarra used two important mechanisms for exploitation of resources: (1 spatial segregation along the salinity and temperature gradient, such as abundance of Eucinostomus melanopterus increased from downstream to upstream estuary, while Eugerres brasilianus displayed an opposite pattern; (2 differences related to the volumetric proportion of the main prey items, with indications that E. melanopterus and Diapterus rhombeus fed predominantly on Calanoida and Cyclopoida, while the diet of E. brasilianus was dominated by items of infauna. Such strategies were important for resource partitioning, favouring the coexistence of these three species in the estuary.

  4. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies.

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    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patricia S; Smart, Peter L; Richards, David A; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2004-12-09

    The tropics are the main source of the atmosphere's sensible and latent heat, and water vapour, and are therefore important for reconstructions of past climate. But long, accurately dated records of southern tropical palaeoclimate, which would allow the establishment of climatic connections to distant regions, have not been available. Here we present a 210,000-year (210-kyr) record of wet periods in tropical northeastern Brazil--a region that is currently semi-arid. The record is obtained from speleothems and travertine deposits that are accurately dated using the U/Th method. We find wet periods that are synchronous with periods of weak East Asian summer monsoons, cold periods in Greenland, Heinrich events in the North Atlantic and periods of decreased river runoff to the Cariaco basin. We infer that the wet periods may be explained with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. This widespread synchroneity of climate anomalies suggests a relatively rapid global reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere system. We conclude that the wet periods probably affected rainforest distribution, as plant fossils show that forest expansion occurred during these intermittent wet intervals, and opened a forest corridor between the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests.

  5. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

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    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  6. Influence of Extreme Strength in Water Quality of the Jucazinho Reservoir, Northeastern Brazil, PE

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    Rafael Roney Camara de Melo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jucazinho reservoir was built in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, to water supply in a great part of the population that live in the semi-arid of Pernambuco. This reservoir controls the high part of Capibaribe river basin, area affected several actions that can compromise the reservoir water quality such as disposal of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and agriculture with use of fertilizers. This study aimed to identify the factors that lead to water quality of the Jucazinho reservoir using a database containing information of nine years of reservoir water quality monitoring in line with a multivariate statistical technique known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA. To use this technique, it was selected two components which determine the quality of the reservoir water. The first principal component, ranging from an annual basis, explained the relationship between the development of cyanobacteria, the concentration of dissolved solids and electrical conductivity, comparing it with the variation in the dam volume, total phosphorus levels and turbidity. The second principal component, ranging from a mensal basis, explained the photosynthetic activity performed by cyanobacteria confronting with the variation in the dam volume. It observed the relationship between water quality parameters with rainfall, featuring an annual and seasonal pattern that can be used as reference to behaviour studies of this reservoir.

  7. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Jamille Bitencourt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of H. prope unae.

  8. Traditional uses of medicinal animals in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work presents an inventory of the traditional medicinal uses of animals in the municipality of Bom Sucesso in Paraíba State (PB in the semiarid northeastern region of Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured interviews with 50 people who use zootherapeutic products. A total of 25 animal species used for medicinal purposes were identified (18 vertebrates and seven invertebrates distributed among five taxonomic categories; the groups with the largest numbers of citations were: mammals (8 citations, insects (7, and reptiles (5. The most cited animal species were: Tubinambis merianae “teju” lizards (44 citations; Apis mellifera Italian honeybees (318 citations; Gallus gallus chickens (31 citations; Ovis aries sheep (31 citations; Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes (14 citations; Boa constrictor (12 citations; and Bos taurus cattle (12 citations. A significant number of illnesses and conditions treated with animal-based medicines were cited, and the category with the greatest number of citations was “problems affecting the respiratory system”. Our results suggest that the use of zootherapeutics in the region is persistent, and that knowledge about these curative practices is an integral part of the regional culture. As such, studies concerning the uses of zootherapeutics are important windows to understanding human/environmental/cultural interactions and a pathway to conciliating regional cultures with efforts to conserve the native fauna.

  9. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE COBRAS RIVER SUB-BASIN, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    ALEXANDRE DE OLIVEIRA LIMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream water quality is dependent on many factors, including the source and quantity of the streamflow and the types of geology and soil along the path of the stream. This study aims to evaluate the origin and the mechanisms controlling the input of ions that effect surface water quality in the sub-basin of the Rio das Cobras, Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeastern Brazil. Thirteen ponds were identified for study: three in the main river and ten in the tributaries between, thus covering the whole area and lithology of the sub-basin. The samples were collected at two different times (late dry and rainy periods in the hydrological years 2009 and 2010, equating to total of four collection times. We analyzed the spatial and seasonal behavior of water quality in the sub-basin, using Piper diagrams, and analyzed the source of the ions using Guibbs diagram and molar ratios. With respect to ions, we found that water predominate in 82% sodium and 76% bicarbonate water (cations and anions, respectively. The main salinity control mechanism was related to the interaction of the colloidal particles (minerals and organic sediment with the ions dissolved in water. Based on the analysis of nitrates and nitrites there was no evidence of contamination from anthropogenic sources.

  10. Spatial and temporal variation in artisanal catches of dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus off north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, M F; Kinas, P G; Lessa, R; Ferrandis, E

    2015-02-01

    The sampling of fish from the artisanal fleet operating with surface lines off north-eastern Brazil was carried out between 1998 and 2000. Generalized linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize mean abundance indices using catch and fishing effort data on dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus and to identify abundance trends in time and space, using 1215 surface line deployments. A standard relative abundance index (catch per unit effort, CPUE) was estimated for the most frequent vessels used in the sets, employing factors and coefficients generated in the GLMs. According to the models, C. hippurus catches are affected by the operating characteristics and power of different fishing vessels. These differences highlight the need for standardization of catch and effort data for artisanal fisheries. The highest mean abundance values for C. hippurus were off the state of Rio Grande do Norte, with an increasing tendency in areas with greater depths and more distant from the coast, reaching maximal values in areas whose depths range from 200 to 500 m. The highest mean abundance values occurred between April and June. The higher estimated abundance of C. hippurus in this period off the state of Rio Grande do Norte and within the 200-500 m depth range may be related to a migration pattern of food sources, as its main prey, the flying fish Hirundichthys affinis, uses floating algae as refuge and to deposit its pelagic eggs. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Students' attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Silva, Vanessa N; Trovão, Dilma M B M; Oliveira, José V; Mourão, José S; Dias, Thelma L P; Alves, Ângelo G C; Lucena, Reinaldo F P; Barboza, Raynner R D; Montenegro, Paulo F G P; Vieira, Washington L S; Souto, Wedson M S

    2014-03-27

    Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process.

  12. Students’ attitudes toward and knowledge about snakes in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Humans in various cultures have feared snakes, provoking an aversion and persecution that hinders conservation efforts for these reptiles. Such fact suggests that conservation strategies for snakes should consider the interactions and perceptions of the local population towards these animals. The aim of this study was to investigate students' perception of snakes and if attitudes and knowledge may differ according to gender and local residence (urban or rural). Methods Data was collected in the second half of 2012 and consisted of questionnaires applied to 108 students in the Basic Education School in the municipality of Sumé, located in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. Results The male respondents recognized more species than female did. Part of the students affirmed to have a fear of snakes, especially women. Nearly half of respondents (49%) showed negative behaviour towards these animals, reflecting the influence of potential risk and myths associated with snakes, and supported by a limited knowledge about these animals and their ecological and utilitarian role. We find that the rural students recognized significantly more species than the urban students. Conclusions Our results point to the need for educational interventions in order to increase knowledge about the positive aspects associated with snakes, seeking to minimize the influence of myths and beliefs that contribute to a strong aversion to snakes by the locals. Conservation strategies should therefore engage students but also teachers, who are key individuals in the process. PMID:24673877

  13. A new species of Ereymatermes Constantino (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae from the northeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Eliana M. Cancello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ereymatermes Constantino is a nasute genus endemic to the Neotropical region, which included Ereymatermes rotundiceps Constantino from the forest of the lower Japurá River, AM, Brazil, and E. panamensis Roisin from the Panama Canal area. Herein Ereymatermes piquira, a new species from the northeastern Atlantic Forest, is described and illustrated based on the soldier and worker castes. The meaning of the two types of workers ("worker with broad gap" and "worker with narrow gap" and its relation to feeding habits are discussed.Ereymatermes Constantino é um gênero endêmico da região Neotropical e continha as espécies Ereymatermes rotundiceps Constantino, descrita da floresta do baixo Rio Japurá, AM, e E. panamensis Roisin descrita da área do Canal de Panamá. Aqui, Ereymatermes piquira, uma nova espécie da Mata Atlântica do nordeste é descrita e ilustrada a partir de soldados e operários. O significado dos dois tipos de operários ("operário com intervalo amplo" e "operário com intervalo estreito" e sua relação com hábitos alimentares são discutidos.

  14. Regional movements of the tiger shark, Galeocerdo cuvier, off Northeastern Brazil: inferences regarding shark attack hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Fábio H V; Afonso, André S; De Castilho, Pedro C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Rocha, Bruno C L M

    2013-09-01

    An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.

  15. Assessing homogeneity and climate variability of temperature and precipitation series in the capitals of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Medeiros, Deusdedit; Matschullat, Jörg; Silva, Isamara; Petta, Reinaldo

    2016-03-01

    A 51-year dataset (1961 to 2011) from nine meteorological stations in the capitals of northeastern Brazil (NEB), with daily data of precipitation totals and of mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, was statistically analyzed for data homogeneity and for signals of climate variability. The hypothesis was explored that a connection exists between inhomogeneities of the time series and the meteorological systems influencing the region. Results of the homogeneity analysis depend on the selected test variable, the test algorithm and the chosen significance level; all more or less subjective choices. Most of the temperature series was classified as "suspect", while most of the precipitation series was categorized as "useful". Displaying and visually checking the time series demonstrates the power of expertise and may allow for a deeper data analysis. Consistent changes in the seasonality of temperature and precipitation emerge over NEB despite manifold breaks in the temperature series. Both series appear to be coupled. The intra-annual temperature and precipitation ranges have increased, along with an intensified seasonal cycle. Temperature mainly increased during DJF, MAM and SON, with decreases in JJA being related to wetter conditions and more frequent heavy precipitation events. Drought conditions mostly increased in SON and DJF, depending on the timing of the local dry season.

  16. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A N; Dantas, E W; Oliveira, H S B; Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C

    2011-05-01

    This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy), are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  17. Vertical and temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the Carpina potable water reservoir in northeastern Brazil

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    AN Moura

    Full Text Available This study analysed vertical and temporal variations of cyanobacteria in a potable water supply in northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from four reservoir depths in the four months; September and December 2007; and March and June 2008. The water samples for the determination of nutrients and cyanobacteria were collected using a horizontal van Dorn bottle. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for taxonomic analysis using an optical microscope, and water aliquots were preserved in acetic Lugol solution for determination of density using an inverted microscope. High water temperatures, alkaline pH, low transparency, high phosphorous content and limited nitrogen content were found throughout the study. Dissolved oxygen stratification occurred throughout the study period whereas temperature stratification occurred in all sampling months, with the exception of June. No significant vertical differences were recorded for turbidity or total and dissolved forms of nutrients. There were high levels of biomass arising from Planktothrix agardhii, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Geitlerinema amphibium and Pseudanabaena catenata. The study demonstrates that, in a tropical eutrophic environment with high temperatures throughout the water column, perennial multi-species cyanobacterial blooms, formed by species capable of regulating their position in the water column (those that have gas vesicles for buoyancy, are dominant in the photic and aphotic strata.

  18. Petrology and isotope systematics of magma mushes: some porphyritic granitoids of northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, J.; Long, L.E.; Sial, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    More than 80 coarsely porphyritic granitoid plutons with K-feldspar megacrysts (Itaporanga-type granites) intrude metamorphic rocks of Northeastern Brazil. Textural evidence for filter pressing and flow foliation indicates that these bodies were emplaced as viscous, crystal-laden mushes. A representative Itaporanga-type pluton, the Monte das Gameleiras intrusion, consists of a variety of rock types with SiO 2 ranging from 49.5 to 71.6 weight percent. Chemically and petrographically, this hornblende-bearing pluton has I-type characteristics with some S-type affinities. Whole-rock oxygen isotope data are in keeping with the distribution of δO 18 , for unaltered granitic rocks. Similarly, REE data suggest a single magmatic process, at least for the more felsic rock types, without post-intrusive effects. A 5-point, whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron for the Monte das Gameleiras pluton gives t = 511 ± 26 Ma andan initial, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7099 ± 0.0004. This is contrasted with disparate ages calculated from texturally similar bodies such as the Fazenda Nova pluton, for which a 5-point whole-rock isochron gives t = 630 ± 24 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7065 ± 0.0005, and the type locality Itaporanga pluton, for which a 6-point isochron gives t= 625 ± 22 Ma. (author) [pt

  19. Amphibian DNA shows marked genetic structure and tracks pleistocene climate change in northeastern Brazil.

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    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Bates, John M

    2007-12-01

    The glacial refugia paradigm has been broadly applied to patterns of species dynamics and population diversification. However, recent geological studies have demonstrated striking Pleistocene climate changes in currently semiarid northeastern Brazil at time intervals much more frequent than the climatic oscillations associated with glacial and interglacial periods. These geomorphic data documented recurrent pulses of wet regimes in the past 210,000 years that correlate with climate anomalies affecting multiple continents. While analyzing DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) and one nuclear marker (cellular-myelocytomatosis proto-oncogene) in the forest-associated frogs Proceratophrys boiei and Ischnocnema gr. ramagii, we found evidence of biological responses consistent with these pluvial maxima events. Sampled areas included old, naturally isolated forest enclaves within the semiarid Caatinga, as well as recent man-made fragments of humid coastal Atlantic forest. Results show that mtDNA lineages in enclave populations are monophyletic or nearly so, whereas nonenclave populations are polyphyletic and more diverse. The studied taxa show evidence of demographic expansions at times that match phases of pluvial maxima inferred from geological data. Divergence times between several populations fall within comparatively drier intervals suggested by geomorphology. Mitochondrial and nuclear data show local populations to be genetically structured, with some high levels of differentiation that suggest the need of further taxonomic work.

  20. Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil

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    Monte Cristina Maria Gomes do

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992_1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation-8.7 months-was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators.

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus: frequency and associated factors in cats in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, L C; Silva, A N; Freitas, J S; Cruz, R D S; Said, R A; Munhoz, A D

    2017-05-10

    Our aims were to determine the frequencies of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in owned and stray cats in the northeastern region of Brazil, ascertain the status of FeLV infection, and investigate potential associated factors among the owned cats. Blood samples from 200 asymptomatic owned cats and 30 stray cats were processed using nested PCR and commercial immunochromatographic tests to diagnose infections. To evaluate the factors associated with FIV and/or FeLV in owned cats, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each owner about the animal's environment, and these data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression. The frequencies for owned cats were 6% (12/200) and 3% (6/200) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. No owned cat was positive for both viruses. Stray cats showed frequencies of 6.66% (2/30) and 0% (0/30) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Contact with other cats and living in peri-urban areas were considered to be risk factors (P feline population more accurately, particularly with regard to infections by FeLV, which have complex pathogenesis.

  2. HISTOPLASMIN SURVEY IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS: RESULTS FROM AN ENDEMIC AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Fabricia Salvador Bezerra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Background. Disseminated histoplasmosis is common in AIDS patients with advanced immunosuppression in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Histoplasma infection in patients with HIV/AIDS living in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará. Methods. Intradermal tests with histoplasmin (mycelial phase were performed in 161 HIV patients with CD4 ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 . Evidence of recent illness was evaluated with immunodiffusion (ID tests in 76 of these individuals. Results. A total of 11.8% of patients reacted to histoplasmin and 2.63% had ID test positive to Histoplasma. The presence of mango trees (Mangifera indica in the patient neighborhood (OR = 2.870; 95% CI = 1.081-7.617; p = 0.040 and past activity involving soil (OR = 2.834; 95% CI = 1.045-7.687; p = 0.045 or visits to a farm (OR = 3.869; 95% CI = 1.189-12.591; p = 0.033 were significantly associated with Histoplasma infection. Conclusions. Patients with HIV living in Fortaleza have an expressive prevalence of infection with Histoplasma.

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: clinical analysis of 78 cases from Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil

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    CASTRO-COSTA CARLOS M. DE

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the clinical characteristics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil. For this, we analyzed retrospectively (from 1980 to 1999 78 cases of ALS from the Service of Neurology of the University Hospital of Fortaleza diagnosed clinically and laboratorially (EMG, muscle biopsy, myelography, blood biochemistry, muscle enzymes and cranio-cervical X-ray. The results showed that they were mostly sporadic ALS (76/78, and they were divided into definite (n= 36, probable (n= 20, possible (n= 15 and suspected (n= 7, according to the level of diagnostic certainty. They were also subdivided into juvenile (n= 17, early-onset adult (n= 18, age-specific (n= 39 and late-onset (n= 4 groups. Clinically, they presented as initials symptoms, principally, asymmetrical (30/78 and symmetrical (24/78 weakness of extremities, besides bulbar signs, fasciculations, and atrophy. Curiously, pain as first symptom occurred in an expressive fashion (17/78. The predominant initial anatomic site, in this series, was the spinal cord, and mainly affecting the arms. As to the symptom accrual from region to region, this occurs more quickly in contiguous areas, and fasciculations are predominant when bulbar region was associated.

  4. BENCHMARKS FOR MILK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN THE PERNAMBUCO AGRESTE REGION, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MARLA CONCEIÇÃO OLIVEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and assess the technological, zootechnical and socioeconomic profiles and identify and quantify benchmarks for dairy cattle production systems, in a non-experimental approach, aiming to contribute to the sustainability and competitiveness of dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region, northeastern Brazil. Thirty-six milk production systems of family and corporate farming were evaluated during twelve months, in order to identify and quantify the benchmarks. The systems were characterized regarding their size and technological, zootechnical and economic profiles. The correlation coefficients of the return rate on invested capital were assessed and regression equations were developed for each indicator, according to four scenarios of annual return rates (4, 6, 8 and 10%. The indicators evaluated were milk production per dairy cows, milk production per area, average price of milk, effective operational cost, total operating cost, total cost per price of milk and profitability. The dairy farming in the Pernambuco Agreste region pays the production costs, but tends to a not adequate remuneration of family labor and a need of external capital input for replacement of the assets. The productivity of production factors area and animals showed higher correlation with cost-effectiveness, denoting the need for increase the production through increases in land area and milk productivity per dairy cow. The identification and quantification of benchmarks may help to identify the weak points of dairy farming in the Agreste region, making it sustainable and competitive.

  5. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil

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    José Diomedes Barbosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barbosa J.D., Bomjardim H.dosA., Lima D.H.daS., Reis A.dosS.B., Barboza F.B., Albernaz T.T., Oliveira C.M.C., Fonseca A.H., Nicolino R.R. & da Silva J.B. Detection of brucellosis in water buffaloes for exportation in northern and northeastern of Brazil. [Detecção de brucelose em búfalos d’agua para exportação no norte e nordeste do Brasil}. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3: 129-135, 2016. Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7 Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brazil. E-mail: adivaldofonseca@yahoo.com The prevalence of brucellosis in buffaloes was evaluated by the Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen (BAPA in 5.163 water buffaloes from Maranhão state, Pará state and Marajó Island, Brazil. The detection of buffaloes positive for brucellosis by BAPA was 7.37% in Marajó Island, 8.45% in Pará state and 29.86% in Maranhão state. The locations with the highest prevalences were Santa Cruz do Arari, in Marajó Island (12.50%; Ipixuna, in Pará state (30.25%; and Santa Inês, in Maranhão state (34.76%. After the confirmatory test (Complement Fixation Test, only 7 animals remained positive in Marajó Island, and 22 remained positive in the state of Pará. None of the 66 animals that reacted positively in the BAPA test in Maranhão reacted positively in the CF. The high prevalence of B. abortus that was observed in animals, especially in the state of Maranhão, is worrisome for the health system for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis.

  6. Sr-Nd evidence of paleoproterozoic mantle metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, M.H.B.M.; Pimentel, M.M.; Jardim de Sa, E.F

    2001-01-01

    In the Borborema Province (Northeastern Brazil), the Brasiliano/Pan-African Cycle is expressed by two prominent and penecontemporaneous features: a regional network of transcurrent shear zones and associated large granitoid magmatism. The Rio Grande do Norte Domain (RGND) is an orogenic domain located in the northeastern part of the Borborema Province, and its tectonic evolution is largely related to the Brasiliano orogeny (ca. 600 Ma). This domain includes four major tectonic terranes, which are represented by two metavolcanosedimentary sequences Jaguaribe-Oeste Potiguar and Serido belts, and its gneiss-migmatite Paleoproterozoic basement the Rio Piranhas and Sao Jose de Campestre massifs (Brito Neves et al., 2000). The rocks have been metamorphosed up to the amphibolite facies. Its deformational fabrics are dominated by extensive Brasiliano ductile shear zones displaying predominantly dextral transcurrent kinematic regime. These structures control the emplacement of several Neoproterozoic granitoid intrusions which are made up mainly by porphyritic granitoid suites with subalkaline monzonitic affinity. These occur as isolated plutons of various sizes or as composite intrusions, associated with basic-tointermediate suites. In the latter case, magma mingling and mixing attest that these are contemporaneous igneous suites. Several features suggest coeval relationships with granitic magmas, possibly implying processes such as assimilation or magma mixing. Field evidence of magma mixing include (i) extensive capture of feldspar phenocrysts of the acid mushes by the basic magmas, (ii) common presence of globular to ellipsoidal basic enclaves in the granitic suites, (iii) stockwork-type features consisting of felsic material veining through a diorite host and (iv) syn-plutonic basic dykes intruded into the porphyritic granites (Jardim de S 1994). In this work, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions from six distinct basic-to-intermediate suites were investigated to

  7. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist

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    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.

  8. Luminescence dated Late Pleistocene wave-built terraces in northeastern Brazil

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    Kenitiro Suguio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents field and chronological investigations along the coast of northeastern Brazil from ~4°S to 9°S latitude, which corresponds to ~700 km of coastline under a semi-diurnal mesotidal regime. We investigated wave-built terrace deposits and dated sediments using the optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence methods on quartz grains. The wave-built terraces yielded two main age groups: 200-230 ka and 100-130 ka, which we interpreted as depositional ages. We correlated these age groups with oxygen-isotope stages 7c and 5e, respectively. These events correspond to the antepenultimate and penultimate transgressions along the Brazilian coast. The deposits occur mainly in patches on low-lying flat plateaus along the littoral zone and incision valleys that cut across coastal tablelands. The altitude of the base of the 200-230 ka terraces ranges from 10 m above mean sea level (asl to -2m asl, whereas the base of the 100-130 ka varies from 12 m asl to -2 m asl. Both terraces were deposited in the foreshore and upper shoreface zones. We noted a coincidence between sea-level highstand chronologies in northeastern Brazil and those in the Bahamas and Bermuda.Este estudo apresenta uma investigação de campo e geocronológica realizada ao longo da costa nordeste do Brasil entre ~4°S e 9°S de latitude, o que corresponde a ~700 km de costa submetida a um regime de meso-maré. Nós investigamos terraços marinhos construídos por ondas e datamos sedimentos usando luminescência oticamente estimulada e termoluminescência em grãos de quartzo. Os terraços marinhos forneceram dois grupos de idades: 200-230 ka e 100-130 ka, que interpretamos como idades de deposição. Nós correlacionamos estas idades com idades do estágio isotópico do oxigênio 7c e 5e, respectivamente. Estes eventos correspondem a antepenúltima e penúltima transgressões que ocorreram ao longo da costa brasileira. Os depósitos ocorrem predominantemente em

  9. High Zika Virus Seroprevalence in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil Limits the Potential for Further Outbreaks

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    Eduardo Martins Netto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and plaque reduction neutralization tests. Sera sampled retrospectively during 2013 to 2015 from 277 HIV-infected patients were used to assess the spread of ZIKV over time. Individuals were georeferenced, and sociodemographic indicators were compared between ZIKV-positive and -negative areas and areas with and without microcephaly cases. Epidemiological key parameters were modeled in a Bayesian framework. ZIKV seroprevalence increased rapidly during 2015 to 2016, reaching 63.3% by 2016 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4 to 66.8%, comparable to the seroprevalence of DENV (75.7%; CI, 69.4 to 81.1% and higher than that of CHIKV (7.4%; CI, 5.6 to 9.8%. Of 19 microcephaly pregnancies, 94.7% showed ZIKV IgG antibodies, compared to 69.3% of 257 non-microcephaly pregnancies (P = 0.017. Analyses of sociodemographic data revealed a higher ZIKV burden in low socioeconomic status (SES areas. High seroprevalence, combined with case data dynamics allowed estimates of the basic reproduction number R0 of 2.1 (CI, 1.8 to 2.5 at the onset of the outbreak and an effective reproductive number Reff of <1 in subsequent years. Our data corroborate ZIKV-associated congenital disease and an association of low SES and ZIKV infection and suggest that population immunity caused cessation of the outbreak. Similar studies from other areas will be required to determine the fate of the American

  10. Structure and dynamics of the shark assemblage off Recife, Northeastern Brazil.

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    André S Afonso

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological factors that regulate elasmobranch abundance in nearshore waters is essential to effectively manage coastal ecosystems and promote conservation. However, little is known about elasmobranch populations in the western South Atlantic Ocean. An 8-year, standardized longline and drumline survey conducted in nearshore waters off Recife, northeastern Brazil, allowed us to describe the shark assemblage and to monitor abundance dynamics using zero-inflated generalized additive models. This region is mostly used by several carcharhinids and one ginglymostomid, but sphyrnids are also present. Blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, were mostly mature individuals and declined in abundance throughout the survey, contrasting with nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, which proliferated possibly due to this species being prohibited from all harvest since 2004 in this region. Tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, were mostly juveniles smaller than 200 cm and seem to use nearshore waters off Recife between January and September. No long-term trend in tiger shark abundance was discernible. Spatial distribution was similar in true coastal species (i.e. blacknose and nurse sharks whereas tiger sharks were most abundant at the middle continental shelf. The sea surface temperature, tidal amplitude, wind direction, water turbidity, and pluviosity were all selected to predict shark abundance off Recife. Interspecific variability in abundance dynamics across spatiotemporal and environmental gradients suggest that the ecological processes regulating shark abundance are generally independent between species, which could add complexity to multi-species fisheries management frameworks. Yet, further research is warranted to ascertain trends at population levels in the South Atlantic Ocean.

  11. Plant extractivism in light of game theory: a case study in northeastern Brazil.

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    Silva, Rafael Rv; Gomes, Laura Jane; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-02-23

    Game theory enables the predictive study of the behavior of agents that recognize the mutual interdependence of their decisions and act rationally and strategically to maximize their own gains. In this paper, the extractivism of pequi (Caryocar coriaceum Wittm.) and fava d'anta (Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul.) in an area of common use of the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil is described as a model to illustrate a practical application of game theory in the interpretation of the phenomena analyzed in ethnobiological research. Field research was conducted in the Araripe-Apodi National Forest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 55 informants recognized as knowledgeable and experienced in the extractivism of pequi and fava d'anta in the region. In the interviews, information that could contribute to the identification and understanding of the focal points of extractivism in the region was surveyed. Data were analyzed under an analytical/descriptive approach using the "content analysis" technique. There was a logic of competitive entrepreneurship around the commercial extractivism of pequi and fava d'anta in the region. Among the extractivists of pequi, one of the main collection rules refers to the prohibition of removing immature fruits by using sticks or shaking the branches. In the extractivism of fava d'anta, no specific rules have been established by collectors, but there is a predominant behavior of withdrawing all available fruits (pods) on a tree in a single visit. In an analysis guided by game theory, the collection decisions adopted by extractivists to maximize gain from the activity can be considered justifiable from the standpoint of economic rationality. The "game of extractivism" of pequi and fava d'anta operates under conditions similar to the "tragedy of the commons." In this game, the non-cooperative solution is converted to the Nash equilibrium. The approach used in this study contributed to the identification of strategies and

  12. Paleoweathering features in the Sergi Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous), northeastern Brazil, and implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Cristina; Mizusaki, Ana M.; Pimentel, Nuno; Faccini, Ubiratan F.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Paleoweathering in the Sergi Formation has been classified and analyzed to ascertain its origin and relationship with stratigraphic evolution. The Sergi Formation belongs to the pre-rift sequence of the Recôncavo Basin (northeastern Brazil) and comprises a complex association of eolian and fluvial sandstones and lacustrine mudstones. This formation can be subdivided into three depositional sequences bounded by regional unconformities. Four paleoweathering types, each one related to a distinct origin, have been described in the Sergi Formation: (1) textural mottling, which is distinguished by alternating rock colors as a result of the iron oxide mobilization within mineral phases that evolved under alternating oxidation (yellowish, brownish and reddish shades) and reduction (grayish or greenish hues) conditions; (2) non-textural mottling, which displays a discoloration pattern that is independent of the original rock texture; (3) carbonate concentrations, usually related to carbonate nodule formation, which display a massive internal structure that reveals their origin through continuous growth or crystallization; and (4) banded carbonates (silicified), associated with the beginning of regular surface formation due to the chemical precipitation of carbonates within lacustrine environments. Both mottling color motifs and carbonate accumulation usually represent groundwater oscillation rather than pedogenesis. Only carbonate intraclasts and banded carbonate (silicified) have their origin ascribed to pedogenesis sensu stricto, although the carbonate intraclasts do not represent soil deposits in situ, but calcretes eroded from areas close to channels, and the banded carbonates (silicified) have strong diagenetic modifications. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that fluvial and meteoric water have controlled paleoweathering evolution as well as deposition, yet both aspects are ruled by the same mechanisms (relief, sedimentation rate and, above all, climate).

  13. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BRS Isis: New seedless grape cultivar for the tropical viticulture in Northeastern of Brazil

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    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the yield components of the grape BRS Isis grown in tropical conditions of the São Francisco Valley. The work was carried out during five growing seasons (2013–2015 in Petrolina, PE. The phenological cycle was 127 days between pruning to harvest. It was obtained 65.8% of sprouting on the rootstock IAC 313 and 60.4% on ‘SO4’. The bud fertility rates were high, around 1.00 bunches per shoot. The average production per plant was 20.63 kg on ‘SO4’ and 18.34 kg on ‘IAC 313’, corresponding to an yield at 29.45 ton/ha/season on ‘SO4’ and 26.19 ton/ha/season on ‘IAC 313’. The bunches are medium in size and cylindrical shaped with mass of 400 g on ‘SO4’ and 370 g on ‘IAC 313’. The bunch length and width were also slightly higher on ‘SO4’ (21.32 cm × 11.89 cm compared to ‘IAC 313’ (20.42 cm × 11.50 cm. The berries are large, elliptical shaped, crunchy with a neutral flavor. The grape presented SS content around 16.0°Brix and low TA (0.44 and 0.49%, giving an apropriate SS/TA ratio and pleasant taste. The results showed that ‘BRS Isis’ can be considered as a new option of seedless grape for the tropical viticulture in the Northeastern of Brazil.

  15. Frequency of healthy eating habits among students of a public university in Northeastern Brazil

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    Natanael de Jesus Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of healthy eating habits among students of a public university in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based study. The sample was randomly composed of 933 undergraduate students of both genders aged 18-35 years. The frequency of healthy eating habits was assessed based on the adherence to the 10 Steps to Healthy Eating proposed by Brazil’s Ministry of Health. The frequency of each step was measured through questions compiled from previous publications. Results: The steps to the healthy eating with the lowest frequencies of adherence were related to the practice of adding salt to prepared foods (18.6%, n=185 and to the consumption of fruits and vegetables (28.3%, n=281 and foods rich in fat (21.5%, n=213 and sugar (48.9%, n=486. However, there was an adequate consumption of beans (83.8%, n=832 and a prevalence of normal nutritional status of 69.6% (n=691 among the students. None of the interviewees followed all the steps to the healthy eating. The average adherence rate was at least 6 steps. Men and women presented different habits and food preferences. Conclusion: The university students presented a low frequency of healthy eating habits due to the high intake of food high in fat and sugar and mainly the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and the practice of adding salt to prepared foods. This may, in turn, predispose them to increased risks of morbidity and mortality from noncommunicable diseases.

  16. [Nutritional status of children and adolescents from a town in the semiarid Northeastern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Elyssia Karine Nunes Mendonça; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Temoteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Costa, Emília Chagas; Asakura, Leiko

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of schoolchildren, resident in a semiarid region in the Northeastern Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 860 children and adolescents aged from 5-19 years-old, enrolled in three public schools in the county. The selection of schools was non-probabilistic type and unintentional. The initial population, which integrated the database, was composed by 1,035 children and teenagers, and 175 students (16.9%) were excluded because of inconsistency in the anthropometric data, resulting in a sample of 860 students. The following outcomes were considered: stunting (malnutrition), overweight and obesity (overweight), being the height/age and body mass index/age (BMI/Age), indices respectively used. Children and adolescents with height <-2 standard deviations and overweight and obese weight z score ≥1 were considered stunted. The statistical analysis was descriptive. The prevalence of stunting and overweight/obesity was 9.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Overweight and stunting were higher in adolescents aged 15 and over, compared to other age groups analyzed. In relation to gender, malnutrition presented itself in a similar way, but overweight was more frequent among females. The results revealed that excess weight, here represented by the sum of overweight and obesity, was more prevalent than stunting (malnutrition), highlighting the urgent need for attention to this problem in order to design interventions capable of contributing to the improvement of schoolchildren nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Work-related diseases and health-related compensation claims, Northeastern Brazil, 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Norma Suely Souto; Santana, Vilma Sousa; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh

    2008-08-01

    To estimate the contribution of work-related diseases to sick leaves due to general and occupational health problems. Sociodemographic, occupational and health data from 29,658 records of temporary disability benefits, granted on account of health problems by the Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (National Institute of Social Security) in the state of Bahia (Northeastern Brazil), were analyzed. All constant ICD-10 clinical diagnoses were taken into consideration, except for those referring to external causes and factors that influence contact with health services. The link between diagnosis and occupation was based on the ICD-10 code and whether the type of compensation was due to a "work-related accident/disease" or not. From all the benefits, 3.1% were granted due to work-related diseases: 70% were musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases, while 14.5% were related to the nervous system. In general, benefits granted at more than two times the expected frequency were as follows: tenosynovitis in the manufacturing sector (Proportion Ratio-PR=2.70), carpal tunnel syndrome in the financial intermediation sector (PR=2.43), and lumbar disc degeneration in the transportation, postal service and telecommunications sectors (PR=2.17). However, no causal connection could be established for these diseases, in these activity sectors, in a significant percentage of benefits. Results suggest the existence of possible occupational risk factors for diseases in these fields of activity, as well as the underreporting of the link between diseases and work, thus disguising the responsibility of companies and the perspective of prevention through work reorganization.

  18. Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil: genetic progress and population structure

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    Dirlane Novais Caires

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the history of the Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil by determining its population structure and genetic progress. Pedigree information from animals born in the period between 1965 and 2006 and weight-adjusted data at 205 (W205, 365 (W365 and 550 (W550 days of age for bovines born between 1975 and 2006 were used. The (covariance components and genetic value were estimated using the application MTDFREML. Also, the software ENDOG was used for pedigree analysis and parameter estimation based on the probabilities of gene origin, inbreeding and average generation interval. The heritability coefficients for direct genetic effects were 0.21±0.03, 0.26±0.04 and 0.36±0.05 for W205, W365 and W550, respectively. During the first 20 years studied, the observed effective size was small. The generation intervals by gametic pathway were: 7.7±3.4 (sire-son, 7.8±3.7 (sire-daughter, 6.9±3.3 (dam-son, 6.8 ± 3.1 (dam-daughter, and mean interval of 7.3±3.4 years. The studied population showed moderate heritability coefficients, whereas the genetic gains based on the studied traits may be higher than those estimated by genetic tendencies. Reduced generation interval, increased effective size and continuous mating control of relatives are important strategies for the genetic progress of the Tabapuã breed in the region.

  19. A new species of Charax (Ostariophysi, Characiformes, Characidae from northeastern Brazil

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    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Charax awa sp. n. is herein described from the Rio Mearim, Rio Munim and Rio Turiaçu basins, three coastal river basins of northeastern Brazil located between the Rios Gurupi and Parnaíba basins. These have a complex and still poorly known biogeographic history. This region is ecologically extremely relevant since it comprises three of the main Brazilian biomes, as well as, transition zones between them: Amazônia, Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga. Therefore, this area has faunal and floristic representatives of these three biomes, which makes it particularly relevant in terms of ecology, biodiversity and conservation. Charax awa sp. n. possesses a relatively small orbital diameter (22.1–28.5 % HL, what distinguishes it from most of its congeners, except from C. notulatus and C. caudimaculatus. It differs from C. caudimaculatus by a longer snout, and from C. notulatus by the number of scales around the caudal peduncle, as well as by the number of vertebrae. The new species herein described differs from its geographically closely distributed congeners, C. leticiae, C. niger, and C. pauciradiatus mainly by the relative horizontal orbital diameter. It is a “small-eyed” species. In addition, C. awa sp. n. can be distinguished from C. leticiae by having a maxilla extending to the vertical line posterior to the pupil, near the posterior orbital margin and by having a lower humeral spot distance. It can be distinguished from C. pauciradiatus by more scale rows from the pelvic-fin origin to the lateral line and more scale rows from the dorsal-fin origin to the lateral line and it differs from C. niger by having more transverse scale rows in space from the humeral spot to the supracleithrum. In addition, it differs from C. pauciradiatus and C. niger by the absence of bony hooks on anal and pelvic-fins rays of adult males.

  20. Redescription of the endangered hypoptopomatine catfish Parotocinclus spilurus (Fowler, 1941 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the upper rio Jaguaribe basin, northeastern Brazil

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    Telton Pedro A. Ramos

    Full Text Available Abstract Parotocinclus spilurus (Fowler was originally described as a species of Plecostomus based on six specimens collected in the rio Salgado, Icó Municipality, Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Because the original description of P. spilurus is brief and uninformative, a detailed redescription of this endangered species based on the type series and on freshly collected topotypes was made. Data on osteology, intraspecific variation, sexual dimorphism and color pattern in life are presented for the first time, aiming at providing the necessary characters to differentiate the species from its congeners, as well as providing data on the distribution, habitat and conservation.

  1. Necrophagous beetles associated with carcasses in a semi-arid environment in northeastern Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Ana C G; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2013-03-10

    Data on the ecology and bionomics of necrophagous beetles are scarce in tropical countries despite their relevance in forensic investigations. We performed a survey on the diversity and temporal pattern of colonization of beetles on pig carcasses in a fragment of dry forest in northeastern Brazil. We collected 1550 adults of diverse feeding habits from 12 families, of which 96% had necrophagous and/or copro-necrophagous habits and belonged to four families: Dermestidae, Scarabaeidae, Cleridae and Trogidae. Three species, Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes and Omorgus suberosus are reported for the first time with an expanded geographical distribution that includes the semi-arid region in Brazil. Adult beetles were collected as early as 24h after death. One endemic species, Deltochilum verruciferum, stood out in terms of numerical dominance and temporal occurrence during different stages of decomposition. Its intimate association with carrion emphasizes their potential role in forensic entomology in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae as seed disperser of the plant Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil

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    Barros Ribeiro, Leonardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus semitaeniatus is broadly distributed in the rocky habitats of the caatingas of northeastern Brazil (Vanzolini et al., 1980. In the context of a behavioral ecology work, a T. semitaeniatus population was studied at the Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC Seridó; 06.5767º S, 37.2558º W, datum: WGS84; elev. 192 m, Serra Negra do Norte municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. One of the studied aspects included the foraging behavior of lizards recorded by focal animal samples that consisted of 10 continuous minutes of behavioral monitoring on different individuals, with one session from 0700-1000 h and other from 1400- 1700 h, during two consecutive days.

  3. Identification and pest status of Holopothrips fulvus (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae on dwarf-cashew crops in northeastern Brazil

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    Maria G.A. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae, is one of the most important sources of agricultural income in northeastern Brazil, but many of the arthropods associated with the crop have yet to be identified. We describe here for the first time the damage caused by Holopothrips fulvus (Morgan (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae to dwarf-cashew trees cultivated in the municipality of Pacajús, Ceará, Brazil. Leaf tissue injuries were caused by the sucking mouthparts of the insect and were characterized by dark necrotic spots on the epidermis that resulted in yellowing, wilting and, ultimately, abscission of the leaves. H. fulvus also fed on developing kernels and pseudofruits producing injuries that manifested in the form of chlorotic specks. Additional information is given on the pest status and important aspects of the morphology of the insect, including sexual dimorphism, redescription of the adults and description of the second instar larvae.

  4. Late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics in northeastern Brazil, inferences from marine core GeoB 3104-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; W. Arz, Helge; Pätzold, Jürgen; Wefer, Gerold

    2000-06-01

    Late Quaternary paleoenvironments from northeastern (NE) Brazil have been studied by pollen analysis of marine sediment. The studied core GeoB 3104-1 (3°40' S, 37°43' W, 767 m b.s.l.) from the upper continental slope off NE Brazil is 517 cm long and >42,000 14C yr BP old. Chronological control was obtained by 12 radiocarbon (AMS) dates from individuals of the foraminiferal species Globigerinoides sacculifer. Modern pollen analogs were received from 15 river, lake and forest soil surface samples from NE Brazil. Marine pollen dates indicate the predominance of semi-arid caatinga vegetation in NE Brazil during the recorded period between >42,000 and 8500 14C yr BP. The increased fluvial input of terrigenous material, with high concentrations of pollen and specially fern spores, into the marine deposits, about 40,000, 33,000 and 24,000 14C yr BP and between 15,500 and 11,800 14C yr BP, indicate short-term periods of strong rainfall on the NE Brazilian continent. The expansion of mountain, floodplain and gallery forests characterize the interval between 15,500 and 11,800 14C yr BP as the wettest recorded period in NE Brazil, which allowed floristic exchanges between Atlantic rain forest and Amazonian rain forest, and vice versa. The paleodata from core GeoB 3104-1 confirm the, in general, dry pre-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and LGM conditions and the change to wet Lateglacial environments in tropical South America. The annual movement of the intertropical convergence zone over NE Brazil, the strong influence of the Antarctic cold fronts and changes of the high-pressure cell over the southern Atlantic, may explain the very wet Lateglacial period in NE Brazil. The documented NE Brazilian short-term signals correlate with the documented Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and Heinrich events from the northern Hemisphere and suggest strong teleconnections.

  5. Hawkmoth fauna (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera in a semi-deciduous rainforest remnant: composition, temporal fluctuations, and new records for northeastern Brazil

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    LUIS M. PRIMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a qualitative and quantitative inventory of the hawkmoth fauna (Sphingidae of an area of semi-deciduous seasonal rainforest in the state of Pernambuco (Tapacurá Ecological Station, northeastern Brazil. Hawkmoths were sampled monthly from October 2004 to February 2007 (27 months. We recorded 31 species from 16 genera, three tribes, and three families. Macroglossinae was the most abundant subfamily and represented ca. 71% of all species. Out of the 277 individuals collected, 88.4% were males. Five new records were made for northeastern Brazil: Enyo gorgon (Cramer, 1777, Perigonia stulta (Herrich-Schäffer, [1854], Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (Poey, 1832, Nyceryx coffaeae (Walker, 1856 and Xylophanes chiron (Drury, 1773. Eight further species were recorded for the first time for the Pernambuco Endemism Center, showing the important role played by Tapacurá Station in preserving the biodiversity of this insect group. Species richness and abundance were directly related to rainfall: about 70% of all individuals were captured during the rainy season. Changes in Sphingidae populations may, however, be caused by other factors that directly affect either larvae and adults of those insects, such as matrix effect and forest fragment size, which influence migration processes and the presence of predators.

  6. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

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    KA. Silva

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.

  7. Physiological Response of Local and Saanen x Local Cross Goats during the Late Rainy Season in North-eastern Brazil

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    Degli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare in vivo performance and environmental adaptation of two genetic types of goats raised in north-eastern Brazil, 20 females (10 local and 10 Saanen x local were used in this experiment. During the late rainy season the goats were monitored for the following parameters: body weight, body (BT and skin temperature (ST, respiratory (RR and heart rate (HR as well as the air temperature (AT and humidity (HU in the pens in the morning (MR and afternoon (AR. From May to June the crossbred goats showed a significant gain (P< 0.05; the live weight of F1 was superior to the local goats (P< 0.05 at the end of the experiment. The physiological response during the AR was significantly superior to MR (P< 0.05 for all parameters. The local goats achieved the highest values of BT and ST during the experiment. On average, the physiological rhythms (RR and HR were higher in crossbred than local goats. In conclusion, crossbred goats showed to be less at risk to environmental stress condition in north-eastern Brazil.

  8. Ulcer due to chronic venous disease: a sociodemographic study in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edson Marques; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; de Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão; Aragão, José Aderval; de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Bitencurt

    2013-07-01

    Venous ulcers account for 70% of chronic leg ulcers and affect about 2-7% of the population, causing much socioeconomic impact and reducing patients' quality of life. In this study we aimed to describe the clinical features of venous ulcers and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ulcers due to chronic venous disease (CVD). This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at the Vascular Surgery Service, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil. The study included a consecutive series of 154 patients with active venous ulcers (CEAP C6) in the lower limb due to CVD. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, monthly income, education, occupation, and caregiver) and clinical data (affected limb, ulcer site, etiopathogenesis, recurrence, and time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer) were collected. A possible correlation of time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer and number of recurrences with primary or secondary etiology was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test. Of the 154 patients analyzed, 79% were female, 94% were ethnically black or brown, 90% had a monthly income less than or equal to minimum wage, 47% were illiterate, 35% had not completed elementary school, 50% had informal jobs, 19.5% were retired, and 18.2% received sick pay from the social security system. The mean age was 53.7 years. Both limbs were affected similarly, and venous ulcers were located predominantly on the medial aspect of the leg (84%). The median time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer was 36 months, being significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.0003). The prevalence of recurrence was also significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.001). According to CEAP classification, 65% of ulcers were primary (Ep), 94.1% demonstrated reflux involving the superficial system (As), 92% had incompetent perforators (Ap), 35% demonstrated reflux involving the deep system

  9. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  10. Lead and stable Pb-isotope characteristics of tropical soils in north-eastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schucknecht, Anne; Matschullat, Jörg; Reimann, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Stable Pb-isotope ratios are widely used as tracers for Pb-sources in the environment. Recently, a few publications have challenged the predominating view of environmental applications of Pb-isotopes. Present applications of Pb-isotopic tracers in soils largely represent the northern hemisphere. This study focuses on tropical soils from Paraíba, north-eastern Brazil. Lead concentrations and Pb-isotopic signatures (both 7N HNO 3 ) were determined at 30 sites along a 327 km E–W-transect, from the Atlantic coast at João Pessoa to some kilometers west of Patos, to identify possible processes for the observed (and anticipated) distribution pattern. Thirty samples each of litter (ORG) and top mineral soil (TOP) were taken on pasture land at suitable distance from roads or other potential contamination sources. Lead-content was determined by inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and the ratios of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb, 206 Pb/ 208 Pb, and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb by ICP-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Both sample materials show similarly low Pb-concentrations with a lower median in the ORG samples (ORG 3.4 mg kg −1 versus TOP 6.9 mg kg −1 ). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios revealed a large spread along the transect with median 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of 1.160 (ORG) and 1.175 (TOP). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios differ noticeably between sample sites located in the Atlantic Forest biome along the coast and sample sites in the inland Caatinga biome. The “forest” sites were characterised by a significant lower median and a lower spread in the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 206 Pb/ 208 Pb ratios compared to the Caatinga sites. Results indicate a very restricted influence of anthropogenic activities (individual sites only). The main process influencing the spatial variability of Pb-isotope ratios is supposed to be precipitation-dependent bioproductivity and weathering.

  11. Diffuse and enteroaggregative patterns of adherence of Escherichia coli isolated from stools of children in northeastern Brazil

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    Scaletsky Isabel Cristina Affonso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal diseases remain highly endemic in northeastern Brazil. The attributable fraction of all diarrheal diseases among children less than 2 years of age due to Escherichia coli was examined in a 2-year prospective study in two large urban centers of Brazil. Between May 1997 and June 1999, fecal E. coli isolates from 237 children with diarrhea (217 acute and 20 persistent cases and 231 children without diarrhea (controls attending two hospitals in Northeast Brazil were tested for their pattern of adherence to HEp-2 cells and for colony hybridization with DNA probes specific for the six pathotypes of diarrheagenic E. coli. Enteroinvasive E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli were not isolated from any children. Diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were the most frequent isolates with similar frequencies from children with or without diarrhea. Atypical EPEC (EAF-negative strains were isolated with similiar frequency from both cases (5.5% and controls (5.6%. Enteropathogenic E. coli (typical EPEC strains, characterized by localized adherence pattern of adherence, hybridization with the EAF probe, and belonging to the classical O serogroups, were significantly associated with diarrhea (P = 0.03. These E. coli strains associated with diarrhea accounted for 9% of all children with diarrhea. Collectively, in Northeast Brazil, E. coli strains comprise a small proportion of severe diarrhea prevalence in children.

  12. Dating by thermoluminescence of some costal sand deposits of last climatic cycle, from the northeastern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rivera, A.

    1988-01-01

    Six coastal quartz sand deposits from the northeastern region of the Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil), with reasonnably well known ages, from ∼ 1700 yr to ∼ 120.000 yr, were dated by thermoluminescence. (M.W.O.) [pt

  13. Evaluation of adherence to treatment by patients seen in a psychosocial care center in northeastern Brazil

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    Thaís Teles Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of mental disorders, nonadherence to medication, the main cause of psychiatric morbidity, is observed in about 50% of the cases and is responsible for numerous losses. This study evaluated adherence to drug treatment by patients seen in a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS in northeastern Brazil. Adherence to treatment was evaluated using the Haynes-Sackett and Morisky-Green-Levine tests. All patients registered in the CAPS were included in the study (n= 101. Only 11.88% of the patients adhered to drug treatment. The main reasons not to use medication were: oblivion (68.83%, feeling unwell after taking the medication (54.22%, not having money to buy the medication (43.83%, not finding the medication in the public health service (39.94% and fear of harm that might be caused by the drug (28.90%. Furthermore, 85.1% of the patients did not know their diseases, 88.1% did not know their treatment, 86.4% did not feel good when they took their medication, and 88.1% took their medication incorrectly. The results revealed that the lack of information about diseases and drugs used, the nuisance posed by drug therapy and the low access to medications reduce adherence to treatment and, consequently, treatment effectiveness.No tratamento de desordens mentais, a não-adesão ao tratamento ocorre em cerca de 50% dos casos e é responsável por inúmeros prejuízos, além de ser a principal causa de morbidade psiquiátrica. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso de pacientes atendidos em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS no Nordeste do Brasil. A avaliação da adesão ao tratamento foi feita através dos testes de Haynes-Sackett e Morisky-Green-Levine. Todos os pacientes cadastrados no CAPS foram incluídos no estudo (n = 101. Observou-se que apenas 11,88% dos pacientes aderiram ao tratamento medicamentoso. As principais razões para o não uso dos medicamentos foram: esquecimento (68,83%, sentir-se mal ap

  14. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz C.R. Pessenda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental, carbon isotopes (δ13C, 14C and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years.Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de reconstruir trocas de vegetação (com referências climáticas que ocorreram durante o Holoceno na ilha de Fernando de Noronha, Estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa utilizou-se de análises geoquímicas (minerais, elementar, isótopos do carbono (δ13C, 14C e análises polínicas em solos e sedimentos coletados na Lagoa da Viração e no manguezal do Sueste. Os isótopos do carbono dos solos indicaram que não houve trocas significativas de vegetação durante os últimos 7400 anos AP, sugerindo

  15. Fluxes of zooplankton biomass between a tidal estuary and the sea in Northeastern Brazil

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    Mauro de Melo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify the zooplankton biomass transport between the Santa Cruz Channel (SCC at Catuama north inlet and the adjacent shelf located in Itamaracá estuarine ecosystem, Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in August 2001 at spring and neap tides at three stations every 3-hour interval. Collections were made in three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 µm mesh size net. Current data were obtained with an ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. In laboratory, samples were filtered for wet weigh determination. High biomass variation was recorded, with highest values at nocturnal flood and ebb during spring tide. The average instantaneous biomass transport was 139.48 ± 72.58 mg.m-2s-1, during spring tide and 36.63 ± 27.66 mg.m-2s-1, during neap tide. No significant difference was registered between importation and exportation flows (p > 0.05, showing that the estuary both exports and imports high biomass during the rainy season. It can be concluded that the outwelling at SCC is high, however, differently from other places, importation is also high, probably due to the presence of reefs and patches of seagrass (Halodule wrightii toward the shelf that create a distinct productive environment.Este trabalho objetivou quantificar o transporte da biomassa zooplanctônica entre o Canal de Santa Cruz (CSC, na Barra de Catuama, e a plataforma adjacente no sistema estuarino de Itamaracá, Nordeste do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas em agosto/2001 durante as marés de sizígia e quadratura em três estações a cada 3 horas. As coletas foram em três profundidades com auxílio de bomba acoplada à rede de plâncton com 300 µm de abertura de malha. Dados de corrente foram obtidos com perfilador acústico de corrente (ADCP. Em laboratório, as amostras foram pesadas para obter o peso úmido. Foram registradas grandes variações na biomassa com valores mais altos nas marés enchente e

  16. Competitive interactions among zoanthids (cnidaria: zoanthidae in an intertidal zone of northeastern Brazil

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    Emanuelle Fontenele Rabelo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sessile organisms that live in consolidated substrates frequently compete for space. Coral species have many strategies to face this competition, including harming their opponents or hindering their growth. In the present study, the competitive interactions between three species of zoanthids were investigated in the intertidal zone of a sandstone reef environment in northeastern Brazil. The competitive abilities of the three species were evaluated by periodic observation of the natural fringes of contact and experimental evaluation of their growth rate through removal of 100 cm² of colonies of each species. Palythoa caribaeorum and Zoanthus sociatus had similar growth rates, and both species grew faster than Protopalythoa variabilis. The recolonization strategy seems to differ among species. The contact fringes between P. caribaeorum and Z. sociatus remained unchanged over time, without any type of aggressive interaction between them, suggesting that stand-off was the strategy used by these organisms. Palythoa caribaeorum and Z. sociatus grew among the polyps of P. variabilis, often killing its colonies. The coexistence of zoanthids reveals a capacity for survival in the face of competition for limited resources such as free substrate, which led to the colonization and establishment of zoanthids in intertidal environments.A competição por espaço é comum em organismos sésseis que vivem em substrato consolidado. Os corais apresentam muitas estratégias para competição por espaço, incluindo danos ao oponente ou inibição do crescimento. No presente estudo, as interações competitivas entre três espécies de zoantídeos foram investigadas em um ambiente de recifes de arenito no nordeste brasileiro. As habilidades competitivas dos zoantídeos foram analisadas por observações periódicas das margens de contato entre as colônias em ambiente natural e avaliação experimental da taxa de crescimento, através da remoção de uma área de

  17. Quinones from plants of northeastern Brazil: structural diversity, chemical transformations, NMR data and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Telma L G; Monte, Francisco J Q; Santos, Allana Kellen L; Fonseca, Aluisio M; Santos, Hélcio S; Oliveira, Mailcar F; Costa, Sonia M O; Pessoa, Otilia D L; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2007-05-20

    The present review focus in quinones found in species of Brazilian northeastern Capraria biflora, Lippia sidoides, Lippia microphylla and Tabebuia serratifolia. The review cover ethnopharmacological aspects including photography of species, chemical structure feature, NMR datea and biological properties. Chemical transformations of lapachol to form enamine derivatives and biological activities are discussed.

  18. [Risk factors associated among anemia in pregnancy women of network public health of a capital of Brazil Northeastern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; De Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women receiving public health care in a capital city in Northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 428 patients obtained on the basis of the estimated prevalence of anemia during pregnancy (50%), a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), an error of 5% and a sample loss of 20%. Pregnant women who lived in the city and were served by the municipal public health network were considered to be eligible for the study. Socioeconomic, lifestyle, clinical and anthropometric data and dietary iron intake were obtained, and capillary hemoglobin was determined. Anemia was identified as a hemoglobin level public health system of the city is a moderate public health problem, requiring the planning of effective measures for its control.

  19. A new species of Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 (Apicomplexa: Adelerina) from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Borges-Leite, M Juliana; Maia, João P; Zanchi-Silva, Djan; da Rocha Braga, Roberta; Harris, D James

    2017-01-01

    Based on both unique morphological characteristics of the gamont, distinct changes caused to the host erythrocyte and analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new parasite of the genus Hepatozoon Miller, 1908 is described from the snake Philodryas nattereri Steindachner (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in northeastern Brazil. The new species, Hepatozoon musa n. sp., is characterized by large and curved mature gamonts (18.9 ± 0.9 μm in length and 3.8 ± 0.3 μm in width) that considerably engorge infected host erythrocytes and displace the nucleus laterally, which become longer and thinner. Phylogenetic estimates indicate the new species is more closely related to the recently described Hepatozoon cuestensis O'Dwyer, Moço, Paduan, Spenassatto, Silva & Ribolla, 2013, from Brazilian rattlesnakes. These recent findings highlight the need for further studies of Hepatozoon to better determine the biodiversity of this common but poorly-studied parasite group.

  20. Primitive decapods from the deep sea: first record of blind lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Polychelidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Luis Ernesto Arruda Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report herein the occurrence of the infraorder Polychelida in Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected by the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", developed by the Brazilian Oil Company (PETROBRAS. Three species were recorded for the first time in this region: Pentacheles validus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, Polycheles typhlops Heller, 1862, and Stereomastis sculpta (Smith, 1880 at 2000 m, 400 m and 2057 m depth, respectively. The Brazilian deep-sea floor remains poorly known, but progress has been made as a result of collections obtained by oceanographic expeditions and research projects developed by PETROBRAS in Campos Basin (Rio de Janeiro and Potiguar Basin (Rio Grande do Norte, expanding the knowledge of the distribution area of Polychelidae in Brazilian deep sea waters.

  1. Mental health, well-being, and poverty: A study in urban and rural communities in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD.

  2. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata, Iguanidae) in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, D A; Brito, S V; Teixeira, A A M; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection). A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females). The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18), while in males, it was 75% (6/8) and in females, 60% (6/10). Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  3. Nematodes associated with Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata, Iguanidae in Semi-arid areas of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Teles

    Full Text Available Abstract Nematodes were analyzed in Iguana iguana, a large lizard Iguanidae that is widely distributed throughout the Americas. The aims of the study were investigate the helminths associated with the lizard, I. iguana in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil and analyze the parasitological indices (prevalence, and mean intensity of infection. A total of 18 specimens of I. iguana were examined (8 males and 10 females. The overall prevalence of infection was 66.6% (12/18, while in males, it was 75% (6/8 and in females, 60% (6/10. Iguana iguana was identified as a new host for Physaloptera sp., Atractis sp., Piratuba sp. and Subulura sp. This registered contributes to the knowledge of helminth diversity associated with this host.

  4. Population dynamics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Camila Magalhães; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva Dos Fernandes; Mendonça, Kamila Vieira; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de

    2014-12-15

    The main objective of this study was to quantify population and identify culturable species of Aeromonas in sediment and surface water collected along a salinity gradient in an urban estuary in Northeastern Brazil. Thirty sediment samples and 30 water samples were collected from 3 sampling locations (A, B and C) between October 2007 and April 2008. The Aeromonas count was 10-7050CFU/mL (A), 25-38,500CFU/mL (B) andwater samples, and ∼100-37,500CFU/g (A), 1200-43,500CFU/g (B) andantibiotics tested. Resistance to erythromycin was mostly plasmidial. In conclusion, due to pollution, the Cocó River is contaminated by pathogenic strains of Aeromonas spp. with a high incidence of antibacterial resistance, posing a serious risk to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, R R; Toledo, J J

    2016-01-01

    Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  6. Venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops erythromelas from five geographic populations within the Caatinga ecoregion of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Roberta Jeane B; Monteiro, Helena S A; Gonçalves-Machado, Larissa; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Ximenes, Rafael M; Borges-Nojosa, Diva M; Luna, Karla P de O; Zingali, Russolina B; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gutiérrez, José María; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-30

    The Caatinga lancehead, Bothrops erythromelas, is a medically relevant species, responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in most parts of its distribution range in northeastern Brazil. The spectrum and geographic variability of its venom toxins were investigated applying a venomics approach to venom pools from five geographic areas within the Caatinga ecoregion. Despite its wide habitat, populations of B. erythromelas from Ceará, Pernambuco, Juazeiro, Paraiba, and Ilha de Itaparica exhibit highly conserved venom proteomes. Mirroring their compositional conservation, the five geographic venom pools also showed qualitatively and quantitatively overlapping antivenomic profiles against antivenoms generated in Vital Brazil (BR) and Clodomiro Picado (CR) Institutes, using different venoms in the immunization mixtures. The paraspecificity exhibited by the Brazilian SAB and the Costa Rican BCL antivenoms against venom toxins from B. erythromelas indicates large immunoreactive epitope conservation across genus Bothrops during the last ~14 million years, thus offering promise for the possibility of generating a broad-spectrum bothropic antivenom. Biological Significance Accidental snakebite envenomings represent an important public health hazard in Brazil. Ninety per cent of the yearly estimated 20-30,000 snakebite accidents are caused by species of the Bothrops genus. Bothrops erythromelas, a small, moderately stocky terrestrial venomous snake, is responsible for most of the snakebite accidents in its broad distribution range in the Caatinga, a large ecoregion in northeastern Brazil. To gain a deeper insight into the spectrum of medically important toxins present in the venom of the Caatinga lancehead, we applied a venomics approach to define the proteome and geographic variability of adult B. erythromelas venoms from five geographic regions. Although intraspecific compositional variation between venoms among specimens from different geographic regions has long been

  7. Comparative research performance of top universities from the northeastern Brazil on three pharmacological disciplines as seen in scopus database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean P. Kamdem, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postgraduate programmes around the world are periodically subjected to research performance evaluation through bibliometric indicators. In this research, we characterized and compared the research performance of 15 universities from Northeastern Brazil, in which 13 were among the top Universities of the Latin America. Methods: Specifically, total documents, citations and the h-index of each university were retrieved from the Elsevier Scopus database and were analysed not only for historical scientific achievement but also across the period of the past 6 years (2010–2015. Using these bibliometric indicators, we also investigated the performance of programmes at these Universities that have their papers indexed in the Scopus database under the category of “Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceuticals” for the same period. Results: We found that the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE and the Federal University of Ceará (UFC were the most productive institutions, producing 17847 and 15048 documents, respectively. The number of papers published by each of these universities in the past six years represented more than 50% of their entire productivity. With regards to their scientific output in “Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics”, UFC showed the highest number of published documents followed by UFPE and the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB. UFC received the highest h-index (with and without self-citations and number of citations and shared their most cited papers with foreign institutions from the USA and Germany. However, papers from UFC were published in journals with lower impact factors (2.322. Conclusions: The present study shows where each of these universities stands and can be helpful in identifying potential collaborators in these areas of knowledge. Keywords: Citations, CNPq, h-index, Northeastern Brazil, UFC

  8. Coadministration of nematophagous fungi for biological control over gastrointestinal helminths in sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor de; Santos, Antonielson dos; Morais, Dayana Firmino de; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed to evaluate coadministration of Duddingtonia flagrans and Monacrosporium thaumasium in a sodium alginate matrix for controlling gastrointestinal helminths in young and adult sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. An area of 1ha was divided into two paddocks, in which two experimental groups (fungus and control) were formed, each consisting of six adult females and ten young males. In each group, two subgroups were formed in accordance with the animal category (adult or young). In the fungus group, each animal received 3g of pellets containing 0.6g of fungal mycelium, with 0.3g of D. flagrans and 0.3g of M. thaumasium for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months. In the control group, each animal received 3g of pellets without fungus for each 10 kg of body weight, in their feed twice a week, for six months, serving as a witness group. Reductions in numbers of eggs per gram of feces of 76% among the adult sheep in the fungus group and 83% among the young sheep in the fungus group were observed, in comparison with their respective control subgroups. The groups that received these fungi needed less salvage deworming and presented better packed cell volume percentages, better weight gain and lower levels of L3/kg dry matter in their paddock than the control groups. Thus, it was concluded that coadministration of D. flagrans and M. thaumasium was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths of adults and young sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The zooplankton biodiversity of some freshwater environments in Parnaíba basin (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JDN. Paranhos

    Full Text Available The plankton fauna of the state of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, especially in the Parnaíba basin, is still poorly known; the results of most studies of the subject have not been published and can only be found in grey literature (unpublished scientific works, such as course completion work and consulting reports. Thus, this paper presents data from samples taken recently from different water bodies in Piauí and represents the second study to be published on the region's zooplankton since the pioneering work of Spandl (1926. A total of 38 species were recorded, including 23 new occurrences of rotifers, 10 of cladocerans and 2 of copepods for the state of Piauí. The greatest richness was observed for the rotifers, of which the genus Brachionus must be highlighted, especially at the Joana reservoir. Among the crustaceans, the greatest richness was observed at the Bezerra reservoir, where cladocerans of the genus Bosmina were prominent. The rotifers Brachionus havanaensis Rousselet, 1911 and Filinia longiseta (Ehrenberg, 1834; the cladocerans Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1967 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1874; and the copepods Notodiaptomus cearensis Wright, 1936 and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer, 1927 occurred in all or in most environments in which the respective groups were studied. The results presented here expand the taxonomic list of zooplankton for the state of Piauí, including a total fauna of 30 species of rotifers, 15 of cladocerans and 3 of copepods. The zooplankton richness was considered low in the studied reservoirs compared to other freshwater ecosystems from Northeastern Brazil; however, the few studies developed in the Parnaíba basin suggest that the diversity for these organisms should be higher.

  10. Renewable energy: possible options for cerrado and caatinga, Northeastern region, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Netto, D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Combustao e Propulsao

    1994-07-01

    This work suggests and discusses some alternatives to implement and/or complement the use of existing renewable energy sources by small and medium size communities in the cerrado and caatinga regions of Brazil. (author)

  11. Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) as seed disperser of the plant Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Ribeiro, Leonardo; Gogliath, Melissa; Freire, Eliza María Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Tropidurus semitaeniatus is broadly distributed in the rocky habitats of the caatingas of northeastern Brazil (Vanzolini et al., 1980). In the context of a behavioral ecology work, a T. semitaeniatus population was studied at the Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC Seridó; 06.5767º S, 37.2558º W, datum: WGS84; elev. 192 m), Serra Negra do Norte municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. One of the studied aspects included the foraging behavior of lizards recorded by focal animal samples t...

  12. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    BATISTA,Marisa Cristina Aranha; ABREU,Bruno Vinicius de Barros; DUTRA,Richard Pereira; CUNHA,Mayara Soares; AMARAL,Flavia Maria Mendonça do; TORRES,Luce Maria Brandão; RIBEIRO,Maria Nilce de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Geopropolis, a mixture of plant resin, wax, soil and salivary secretion, is produced by the stingless bee Melipona fasciculata. This aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis collected from beehives in two phytogeographical regions, flooded fields and cerrado, in the municipalities of Palmeirândia and Fernando Falcão, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The geopropolis compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass sp...

  13. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  14. Molecular and serological investigation of infectious diseases in captive and free-range crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous - Linnaeus, 1776) from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jonatas C; Melo, Renata P B; Kim, Pomy C P; Guerra, Neurisvan R; Alves, Leucio C; Costa, Diego F; Alves, Clebert José; Porto, Wagnner J N; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to detect DNA and antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in captive and free-range crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from northeastern Brazil. Twenty-five crab-eating foxes from different states of northeastern Brazil were sampled by this study. Blood samples were collected by cephalic or jugular vein punctures. The whole blood was submitted to PCR, and the sera samples to the serological analysis as follows: MAT for T. gondii, NAT for N. caninum, and ELISA for L. chagasi. The frequence of antibodies anti-T. gondii was 50% and 29.41% for free-range and captive wild canids, respectively. The frequence of antibodies anti-N. caninum observed by this study was 62.50% and 23.52% for free-range and captive wild canids, respectively. The frequence of antibodies anti-L. chagasi was 4.0% for captive wild canids. Co-infections cases were identified as follows: one captive wild canid seropositive for T. gondii and L. chagasi and two free-range animals seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum. All PCR assays performed were negative for the pathogens analyzed. This study describes the presence of antibodies anti-T. gondii, N. caninum e L. chagasi in wild canids from northeastern Brazil and highlights the necessity of further studies on infectious diseases in free-range and captive wild canids.

  15. Limnological characteristics of a reservoir in semiarid Northeastern Brazil subject to intensive tilapia farming (Orechromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Luis Artur Valões Bezerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: There is currently no consensus regarding the physical and chemical variability of tropical reservoirs. In semiarid Northeastern Brazil, reservoirs are among other things used for human consumption, industrial water supply and intensive fish farming, all of which can impact water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical variability of the water in Sítios Novos, a reservoir in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, comparing samples collected in areas of intensive tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus farming to samples from areas not directly impacted by aquaculture, in both the dry and the rainy season. METHODS: Between October 2010 and July 2011, data were collected on temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity, salinity, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen levels in the water column using a multiparametric probe at four different sampling locations. Physical and chemical differences between the four locations were evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis (KW test and Dunn's post test, while the t test, followed by Welchʼs correction, was used to compare samples collected in different seasons. RESULTS: No influence of intensive aquaculture was detected when comparing sampling locations near fish farms (180C and 300C to locations not directly impacted by aquaculture (LIMN1, near the dam, and LIMN2, near the debouch of the São Gonçalo river. However, the sampling locations differed significantly (p<0.05 with regard to conductivity, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a levels. CONCLUSIONS: The physical and chemical variability was greater between seasons than between locations when the data were analyzed with the t test. That analysis showed significant differences for 22 of 40 comparisons between the 10 physical and chemical parameters in the two seasons at the four sampling locations. In conclusion, the physical and chemical variability registered for the Sítios Novos reservoir

  16. Contribution on the Northeastern Minas Gerais geologic-geochronologic study, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Cordani, U.G.; Basei, M.A.S.; Teixeira, W.; Kawashita, K.

    1987-01-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of integrated Rb-Sr, K-Ar, and U-Pb determinations, when applied to basic regional geology. The different interpretative values of these methodologies contribute to the understanding of the tectonic processes developed in the south-eastern border of the Sao Francisco Craton (northeastern Minas Gerais). The Brazilian Orogenic Cycle is characterized in the area by the Salinas metasediments and the gneissic-migmatitic rocks of the eastern sector. Rb-Sr and U-Pb data indicate the generation of most or even all of these rocks in the 660-570 Ma, interval. No indications of ancient terrains were obtained, and previous ideas of a pervasive reworking of an Archean or Lower Proterozoic crust must be discarded. The K-Ar analyses indicate a crustal level in which temperature remained above 250 O C until at least 480 Ma. (author)

  17. An integrative approach to characterize hydrological processes and water quality in a semi-arid watershed in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Fernandes, N.; Veiga, L. H. S.; Melo, L. R.; Santos, A. C. S.; Araujo, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions face serious challenges in the management of scarce water resources. This situation tends to become worse with the increasing population growth rates and consequently increasing water demand. Groundwater is the most important water resource in these areas and, therefore, the sustainability of its use depends on the effectiveness in which it is managed, both in terms of quantity and quality. The Caetité Experimental Basin (CEB), located in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity, but also changes in landscape and potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations as well as the survival of the local community are highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. Hydrogeological studies in this area are scarce, and the potential contamination and overexploitation of groundwater can not be ruled out. Therefore, a national project was launched in order to improve the understanding and quantification of the interaction between the hydrogeological system and human health. The methodological approach involved hydrological and geochemical monitoring and characterization of the CEB, use of isotopic techniques, groundwater modeling, water quality diagnosis and human health risk assessment due to water ingestion. The results suggested that the groundwater in the CEB are not totally connected, with evidence of a mixture of recent and old waters. The Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl is the dominant water type (50%) followed by Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl water type (17%). The relevant non-radioactive contaminants are Mn, F, NO3 and Ba, mostly from natural origin, with the exception of NO3 that could be associated with the livestock activities. The estimated effective doses due to groundwater ingestion containing radionuclides are below the recommended

  18. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, HM; Hernandes, FA; Pichorim, M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  20. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Ribeiro, SC.

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6° 29' S and 34° 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasit...

  1. Triatomines in dwellings and outbuildings in an endemic area of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Antonio Fernando Rodrigues; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Silveira, Maxwell Souza; Madi, Rubens Riscala; Santana, Thiago Bicudo Krempel; Melo, Cláudia Moura de

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study identified the triatomines collected in intra and peri-domestic environments, observed the occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and correlated this information with housing conditions and the fauna associated with the rural areas of the City of Itabaianinha, located in the State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Quarterly visits were conducted between March 2009 and March 2010, and the homes to be visited for the active search of insects were det...

  2. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  3. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection.

  4. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane; Santos, Márcio; Tunon, Gabriel; Cunha, Luana; Magalhães, Lucas; Moraes, Juliana; Ramalho, Danielle; Lima, Sanmy; Pacheco, José Antônio; Lipscomb, Michael; Ribeiro de Jesus, Amélia; Pacheco de Almeida, Roque

    2017-05-11

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs) are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  5. Geochronological and mineralogical constraints on depth of emplacement and ascencion rates of epidote-bearing magmas from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Ferreira, Valderez P.; Pessoa, Ricardo R.; Brasilino, Roberta G.; Morais Neto, João M.

    2008-10-01

    Calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic granitoid plutons in the Borborema province, northeastern Brazil, have been studied to constrain depth of emplacement by mineralogical and geological methods and to estimate upward magma transport rate based on partial dissolution of magmatic epidote. Laser-probe incremental heating 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of biotite and hornblende single crystals from the Neoproterozoic Tavares and Brejinho high-K calc-alkalic magmatic epidote (mEp)-bearing plutons reveals age differences of around 60 M.y. between these two minerals in each of these two intrusions. These data suggest solidification at relatively great depth followed by prolonged cooling interval between the closure temperatures of biotite and hornblende. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates that hornblende in several mEp-bearing plutons in the Transversal Domain of the Borborema province solidified at 5 to 7 kbar, whereas in the Seridó and Macururé terranes, solidification pressures range from 3 to 4 kbar. Partial dissolution of epidote indicates very rapid upward transport. Partial corrosion occurred during 15-35 years (Cachoerinha-Salgueiro terrane), 10-30 years (Alto Pajeú), 15 years (Seridó), and 10 years (Macururé) corresponding to upward transport rates of 450-1300, 650-1050, 1200, and 1800 m/year respectively in these four terranes. Rapid upward magma migration in most cases was probably facilitated by diking simultaneous with regional shearing.

  6. Habitat use, daily activity periods, and thermal ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza M. X. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the use of spatial, temporal, and thermal resources by the Neotropical lizard Ameiva ameiva during rainy and dry seasons in a caatinga (xerophilous open forests environment in northeasternBrazil. Lizards used the vegetation habitats and microhabitats in the ground, but never were seen in the rocky habitat. Adults usually used the arboreal-shrubby habitat, whereas juveniles were sighted more often in the shrubby-herbaceous habitat. Ontogenetic differences in spatial use seem to be linked to different thermal needs between age groups owing to differences in body size. Body temperatures were significantly higher in juveniles than in adults. Most teiid species have elevated body temperatures, usually above 37oC, and are active during the hottest times of day, as was observed for A. ameiva in this study. Seasonality influenced habitat use and daily activity periods of adults, but not body temperatures. We verified annual fluctuations in adult abundance, with a decline of active lizards in the dry season; this phenomenon may be related to aestivation and/or increased mortality rate during the driest months.

  7. Stigma and violence in dealing with madness: narratives from psychosocial care centers in Bahia and Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mônica; Torrenté, Maurice de

    2009-08-01

    To analyze stigmatization processes and types of violence experienced by individuals with mental disorders. A qualitative study was carried out, based on individual interviews with users and focus groups with family members and professionals at five psychosocial care centers in the municipalities of Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Vitória da Conquista, and Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil, in 2006-2007. The analysis categories were constructed based on the stigma concept proposed by Goffman, and four types of violence were systematized: interpersonal, institutional, symbolic and structural. Users and family members recounted examples of disqualification, reprimands, embarrassment, humiliation, negligence and physical aggression that had the aims of domination, exploitation and oppression. Professionals reported that people who suffer from mental disorders remain the target of prejudice that is culturally ingrained and naturalized. The main consequence is continuation of their isolation from social life as a form of 'treatment' or as an excluding attitude manifested by discriminatory reactions in the form of rejection, indifference and verbal or physical aggressiveness. The various ways of expressing stigma denote a sociocultural situation of violence against individuals with mental disorders. It is proposed that state monitoring bodies capable of planning and evaluating countermeasures against stigmatization should be set up.

  8. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Henrique Fernandes; Costa Neto, Eraldo Medeiros; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2012-07-02

    This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: "molt", "walking dance" and "spawning". This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  9. Commercialization of animal-derived remedies as complementary medicine in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo R N; Léo Neto, Nivaldo A; Brooks, Sharon E; Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2009-07-30

    In this study, we aim to document the use of animal species in traditional medicine and healing practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. While widespread and of great importance to large population that has limited access to contemporary medicine, such practices are poorly understood and the potential value of medicinal animal species largely unknown. Based on interviews with the merchants of medicinal animals, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 36 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 40 health problems that were classified into 10 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (0.91) was cited for diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which include relief of symptoms such as acne and furuncles. This study demonstrates that many animal species play an important role in healing practices. Animals provide the raw materials for remedies prescribed clinically and are also used in the form of amulets and charms in magic-religious rituals and ceremonies. The medicinal value of animal species depends on the local knowledge that exists within user communities, and therefore, the conservation of animal species is imperative to the preservation of local medicinal knowledge and culture.

  10. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

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    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  11. Natural environmental water sources in endemic regions of northeastern Brazil are potential reservoirs of viable Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo; Holanda, Maísa Viana de; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Sabadia, José Antônio Beltrão; Duarte, Cynthia Romariz; Almeida, Rosa Livia Freitas; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; Frota, Cristiane Cunha

    2017-12-01

    The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M. leprae gyrA gene and sequencing of the PCR products. Physicochemical properties of each water source were also assessed. M. leprae gyrA mRNA was found in 23 (76.7%) of the water sources. No association was found between depth of the water and sample positivity, nor was there any association between the type of water used by the population and sample positivity. An association between viable M. leprae and temperature and pH was found. Georeferencing showed a relation between the residences of leprosy cases and water source containing the bacterium. The finding of viable M. leprae in natural water sources associated with human contact suggests that the environment plays an important role in maintaining endemic leprosy in the study region.

  12. Germination responses of the invasive Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae): comparisons with seeds from two ecosystems in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Laura C; Meiado, Marcos V; Lopes, Ariadna V; Leal, Inara R

    2013-09-01

    Life history traits are considered key indicators of plant invasibility. Among them, the germination behavior of seeds is of major relevance because it is influenced by environmental factors of invaded ecosystem. Here, we investigated how seed traits and seed tolerance to environmental factors on seed germination of Calotropis procera vary depending on the invaded ecosystems in northeastern Brazil. We have tested seeds from two vegetation types - Caatinga and Restinga - to different levels of light intensity, salinity, and water stress. Previous to those experiments, seed-set and morphometric analysis were carried out for both studied populations. We have observed a higher seed-set in Caatinga. Seeds produced in this ecosystem had lower seed moisture content. Seeds from Restinga showed lower germination time when light intensity decreased. We observed a reduction in both the germinability and the synchronization index with decreasing osmotic potential and increasing salinity. Nevertheless, both populations exhibited changes in photoblastism when seeds were submitted to water and saline stress. In conclusion, C. procera seeds are tolerant to environmental factors assessed. That characteristic ensures the colonization success and wide distribution of this plant species in the studied ecosystems.

  13. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.

  14. Carbonate cements in contemporaneous beachrocks, Jaguaribe beach, Itamaracá island, northeastern Brazil: petrographic, geochemical and isotopic aspects

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    Guerra Núbia C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Holocene beachrocks of the Jaguaribe beach, State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, consist of horizontal, cemented layers approximately 40 cm thick. The cement shows three textural varieties: (a calciferous, surrounding siliciclastic grains, (b micritic, with an acicular fringe; and (c cryptocrystalline calcite in pores. Early cementation took place at the water table below beach ridges, where geochemical, hydrodynamic and, perhaps, also microbiological conditions favored rapid precipitation of aragonite and/or high-Mg calcite. delta13C values range from -1.8 to +1.5? for dissolved carbonate in interstitial water and from +0.2 to +2.1? for bioclastic components. delta18O values range from -2.8 to +0.5? for seawater, freshwater and interstitial water. delta13C values and diagenetic features suggest that cementation occurred in meteoric-vadose and/or marine-phreatic water by loss of CO2 during evaporation of the interstitial water. Locally, superimposed low-Mg calcite cements point to subsequent freshwater influence. Total-rock cement composition of vertically stacked beachrock beds at the Jaguaribe beach shows that the highest beachrock bed is older than the one (of same petrographic composition situated at the current groundwater level. This implies a downward progression of cementation, which probably followed the sea-level fall after a local high stand.

  15. Phenology of an agarophyte Gracilaria birdiae Plastino and E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta in Northeastern Brazil

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    Marcella A. A. Carneiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive phenology and thallus length of Gracilaria birdiae were studied over a period of 12 months in a natural bed in Northeastern Brazil. Fertile specimens of G. birdiae were observed during the entire study period. Tetrasporophytes were the most common with an annual mean of 80.1±5.6%, followed by cystocarpic plants (9.3±3.4%, male gametophytes (8.3±3.6% and infertile plants (2.2±3.4%. Only male gametophytes and infertile plants showed a variation in occurrence frequency during the year (p<0.05. With respect to thallus length, a distinct seasonal variation was observed for all reproductive stages (p<0.05, with the highest values recorded during the rainy season (March to August and the lowest in the dry season (September to February. The results demonstrate that the size of individuals in this population is significantly affected by the periodic changes in the environment caused by rainfall regimes and hydrodynamism.

  16. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

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    de Magalhães Henrique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  17. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  18. Epidemiological aspects and spatial distribution of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil

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    Roseane Campos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a systemic disease endemic in tropical countries and transmitted through sand flies. In particular, Canis familiaris (or domesticated dogs are believed to be a major urban reservoir for the parasite causing the disease Leishmania. The average number of human VL cases was 58 per year in the state of Sergipe. The city of Aracaju, capital of Sergipe in Northeastern Brazil, had 159 cases of VL in humans. Correlatively, the percentage of serologically positive dogs for leishmaniasis increased from 4.73% in 2008 to 12.69% in 2014. Thus, these studies aimed to delineate the spatial distribution and epidemiological aspects of human and canine VL as mutually supportive for increased incidence. The number of human cases of VL and the frequency of canine positive serology for VL both increased between 2008 and 2014. Spatial distribution analyses mapped areas of the city with the highest concentration of human and canine VL cases. The neighbourhoods that showed the highest disease frequency were located on the outskirts of the city and in urbanised areas or subjected to development. Exponential increase in VL-positive dogs further suggests that the disease is expanding in urban areas, where it can serve as a reservoir for transmission of dogs to humans via the sand fly vector.

  19. The “Hidden Diversity” of Medicinal Plants in Northeastern Brazil: Diagnosis and Prospects for Conservation and Biological Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Deyvson Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    Increases in ethnobotanical studies and knowledge in recent decades have led to a greater and more accurate interpretation of the overall patterns related to the use of medicinal plants, allowing for a clear identification of some ecological and cultural phenomena. “Hidden diversity” of medicinal plants refers in the present study to the existence of several species of medicinal plants known by the same vernacular name in a given region. Although this phenomenon has previously been observed in a localized and sporadic manner, its full dimensions have not yet been established. In the present study, we sought to assess the hidden diversity of medicinal plants in northeastern Brazil based on the ethnospecies catalogued by local studies. The results indicate that there are an average of at least 2.78 different species per cataloged ethnospecies in the region. Phylogenetic proximity and its attendant morphological similarity favor the interchangeable use of these species, resulting in serious ecological and sanitary implications as well as a wide range of options for conservation and bioprospecting. PMID:24228056

  20. Energy for development in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A F [Getulio Vargas Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Warkov, S

    1979-09-01

    Work on the prospects for alternative energy systems, especially solar and biomass, and the interrelationship of energy and rural development in the semi-arid areas of North-East Brazil is reported. The approach is interdisciplinary and raises questions about some economic and social costs and benefits that may be associated with energy-policy choices in this one sub-region of Brazil. Following an appraisal of fuel wood, solar cookers, irrigation and fertilizers in the context of energy and rural development, the social, demographic and cultural characteristics of the region are described. The drought-stricken area of the rural Northeast (Sertao) is the poorest in the country, with small land units, scarce surface water, subsistance agriculture, low capital formation, transportation deficiencies, resistance to change, high rates of out-migration and the like. The description of some regional development projects leads to a comparison of various technologies that might efficiently improve the supply of water. Work performed in the State of Paraiba on simple water distillation technology is reviewed and a social and economic cost/benefit study proposed. Factors affecting rural electrification are considered. A social impact analysis of viable alternatives to conventional electrical energy systems is put forward and the status of wind and solar generation of electricity is reviewed. A final section describes the current status of work in Brazil on biomass alternatives and compares the prospects for sugar cane and manioc plant alcohol. A proposal is made for a multi-disciplinary assessment of the socio-economic impacts of alternate energy sources. 42 references.

  1. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  2. Natural forest regeneration in abandoned sugarcane fields in northeastern Brazil: floristic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Ladivania Medeiros do; Sampaio,Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Rodal,Maria Jesus Nogueira; Silva,Suzene Izídio da; Lins e Silva,Ana Carolina Borges

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were undertaken to examine the floristic changes during secondary succession in three areas of 12 and three of 20-year-old secondary forests in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Two hundred and six species were identified, with 136 being found in the 12-year-old secondary forest and 161 species in the 20-year-old forest. Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the most important families, increasing in species numbers with regeneration age. Of the 216 species, 115 were trees, 48 shrubs, 16 herbaceous pla...

  3. A new species of Bufo Laurenti (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Brazil

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    Maria Nazaré Stevaux

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid load, Bufo jimi sp. nov., is described from Maracás and Itagibá, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species shows close relationships to B. paracnemis Lutz, 1925 by sharing the presence of tibial glands and the paratoid glands shape. The new species is a member of the Bufo marinus-group, and is characlerized by having well-defined glands in most part of dorsal faceof the forearms, in the extcrn side of the feet and in both sides of cloacal region.

  4. A new species of Cymadusa Savigny, 1816 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Ampithoidae from northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz F. Andrade

    Full Text Available A new species of the amphipod family Ampithoidae Stebbing, 1899 is described from the northeastern Brazilian waters. The new described taxon is grouped in the genus Cymadusa Savigny, 1816, since it presents all the diagnostic characteristics of the genus. The examined material was collected by scuba diving in the Rocas Atoll, off Rio Grande do Norte state coast, Camamu Bay and Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia state. The new species described here is close to C. filosa Savigny, 1816, type species of the genus, by presenting anterior margin of gnathopod 1 poorly setose, male gnathopod 2 densely setose, with palmar corner not defined by a spine and dactylus subequal in length to palm, being considered part of the C. filosa complex. Among the species of this complex, the one which most resembles to the new taxon is C. imbroglio Rabindranath, 1972, which is distinguished by the absence of both the trapezoid process in the palm and spine at the palmar corner in the gnathopod 2. This is the second species of the genus Cymadusa recorded from Brazilian waters.

  5. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

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    L. A. N. N. Agra

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country’s northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2 equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73% over K-strategist (27% species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil.

  6. EXHUMING INDIGENOUS CORPSES: THE ANACÉ EMERGENCE AND THE NEW ETHNIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL DRAMAS IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    Potyguara Alencar dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although with few records among studies in political ethnology of indigenous groups in Northeast Brazil, the awakening of the ethnonym anacé, on the west coast of Ceará State, has been especially important to considerations on the new frontiers of development programs and the current mobilization of regimens of memory and political agency around the certification of territorial rights for indigenous peoples in the region. The article analyzes the re-elaboration of the anacé ethnicity from two events that mix a narrative of the indigenous emergence with the national drama that stated Northeast Brazil as a problematic region in what regards development. How is the indigenous presence in a scenario of large-scale projects implementation combined with a region characterized as economically problematic? And how this compound affects the current anacé political mobilization? In order to analyze these issues, this paper proposes reflections shared by authors in political ethnology, development anthropology and anthropology of globalization.

  7. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in feral cats from the Fernando de Noronha Island, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, R P B; Almeida, J C; Lima, D C V; Pedrosa, C M; Magalhães, F J R; Alcântara, A M; Barros, L D; Vieira, R F C; Garcia, J L; Mota, R A

    2016-07-15

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have a different phenotypic and genotypic pattern, with predominance of virulent isolates and recombinant genotypes, compared to the North Hemisphere. Considering that a new T. gondii genotype, non-pathogenic to mice, was previously identified from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil, this study aimed to identify genotypes of this parasite in tissue samples of feral cats (Felis catus) from this Brazilian Island. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 18/31 (58%) feral cats. Two non-virulent T. gondii isolates were obtained by mouse bioassay. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico) and an atypical strain of T. gondii (ToxoDB #146) was identified. This is the first report of this genotype in feral cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pentastomids infecting an invader lizard, Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae in northeastern Brazil

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    LA. Anjos

    Full Text Available From January to April 2006, 37 specimens of Hemidactylus mabouia were collected in houses, in the municipality of Barbalha (7° 20' S and 39° 18' W, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. Among the individuals captured, 17 were infected with pentastomids, totalling a prevalence of 45.9%, which did not differ between sexes. Host size did not influence the infection intensity. Two species of pentastomids were found: Raillietiella frenatus and R. mottae. The prevalence of R. frenatus (43.2% was higher than R. mottae (2.7%, whereas the infection intensity of R. frenatus was comparatively lower (1.8 ± 1.4 than R. mottae (36 parasites in a single host. Overall mean intensity of infection was 3.8 ± 8.4 pentastomids. We found no pentastomid infecting juvenile geckos. The parameters of infection in this host population are in accordance to the findings of other studies, in which the high parasitism rate was associated to the feeding habits of geckos living in houses and buildings. Hemidactylus mabouia is a new host to R. mottae and the infection by R. frenatus is the first record of the occurrence this pentastomid species in Brazil.

  9. Prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 in nursing mothers from the state of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Flávia C F; Kashima Haddad, Simone; de Medeiros Filho, João G; Costa, Maria José C; Diniz, Margareth F M; Fernandes, Melina P; de Araújo, Lenisio B; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2008-08-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus known as a direct causal agent of a malignant disease. The vertical route of HTLV transmission is the most frequent pathway of the virus contamination. This study was performed to determine the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infection among nursing women. From January 2004 to January 2005, blood samples from 1033 nursing mothers from Paraíba, Brazil were evaluated for HTLV antibodies by ELISA and HTLV-1 viral particles confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HTLV antibodies were detected in 7 women. The overall seroprevalence ratio was 0.68% and HTLV-1 viral sequences were confirmed by PCR in 2 women. These preliminary data suggest that HTLV screening should be introduced as a mandatory test before breastfeeding and breast milk donation in Paraíba, Brazil. Additionally, counseling programs would help reduce the prevalence ratio of HTLV-1 infected individuals in this Brazilian region.

  10. Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

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    Jivanildo Miranda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP, Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas, lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats.

  11. Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats.

  12. Ticks on domestic animals in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil Carrapatos em animais domésticos em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to discuss some aspects of ticks associated with domestic animals in the State of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, based on a literature review and present new data obtained from recent tick collections carried out in this northeastern Brazilian state. From August 2007 to June 2008, 1,405 ticks were collected and five species were identified: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentornitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille,1806. Dogs from urban areas were found exclusively infested by R. sanguineus, whereas dogs from rural areas were found infested by A. cajennense, A. ovale, R. (B. microplus, and R. sanguineus. The only tick species found on cattle and goats was R. (B. microplus. Horses were found infested by D. nitens and at a lesser extent by A. cajennense and R. (B. microplus. The only tick species found on donkeys was D. nitens. This study confirms the presence of A. cajennense inPernambuco and describes for the first time the presence of A. ovale in this state. The medical and veterinary relevance and control of ticks associated with domestic animals in Pernambuco are also briefly discussed.O objetivo desse artigo é discutir alguns aspectos relacionados aos carrapatos que parasitam animais domésticos no Estado de Pernambuco com base numa revisão da literatura e apresentar novos dados obtidos a partir de recentes coletas de carrapatos realizadas nesse estado do nordeste brasileiro. De agosto de 2007 a junho de 2008, 1.405 carrapatos foram coletados e cinco espécies foram identificadas: Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844, Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806. Cães de áreas urbanas foram encontrados infestados exclusivamente por R. sanguineus ao passo que cães de

  13. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil

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    F. N. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  14. Morphometric Variations in the Grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa from Two Localities of Pernambuco in Northeastern Brazil

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    Cisneiros, Roberta Araújo; de Almeida, Argus Vasconcelos; de Melo, Gabriel Rivas; da Câmara, Cláudio Augusto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes morphometric variations in the grasshopper, Chromacris speciosa (Thunberg, 1824) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) from two locations in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The distance between the sites chosen for collections (Recife and São Lourenço da Mata) is approximately 16 km. The investigation was based on a comparative study of external morphological characteristics of the grasshoppers. Morphometric measurements took into account the different body parts and appendages. Statistical analysis of the measurements revealed significant differences in the size of the specimens between the two locations. Homogeneity tests of the covariance and equality matrices between mean vectors of the results revealed that the grasshopper populations in Recife and São Lourenço da Mata are distinctly different. These findings provide morphological evidence for intraspecific variation in morphological characteristics of the C. speciosa populations from the two locations. PMID:23421530

  15. Reproductive phenology of Mauritia flexuosa L. (Arecaceae) in a coastal restinga environment in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, F N; Valente, R M; Rêgo, M M C; Esposito, M C

    2017-03-01

    The buriti, Mauritia flexuosa, is the most common palm in Brazil, where it has considerable ecological and economic importance. However, few data are available on the phenology of the species, mainly in coastal restinga ecosystems. The present study monitored the reproductive phenology of M. flexuosa in the restinga of Barreirinhas, in the Brazilian Northeast, and investigated the relationship between phenophases and climatic variables. The presence/absence of flowers and fruits was recorded monthly in 25 individuals of each sex between August, 2009, and October, 2012. There was no difference in the phenology of male and female specimens, with flowering and fruiting occurring exclusively in the dry season. We believe that the specific abiotic characteristics of the study environment, such as the intense sunlight and availability of water in the soil, contribute to the reproductive success of M. flexuosa in the dry season, with consequent germination and establishment of seedlings occurring during the subsequent rainy season.

  16. Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (Odonata, Corduliidae from northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Ângelo Parise Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Navicordulia aemulatrix sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MZSP: Brazil, Santa Catarina State, [São Bento do Sul municipality, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W], [railroad station] Rio Vermelho, II.1952 is described and illustrated based on three males. The long cercus (2.9-3.2 mm places this species in the longistyla-group together with N. kiautai, N. longistyla and N. nitens but it differs from them mainly by the shape of cercus, with carinated part occupying 0.33 of cercus total length, and also by dorsal, ventro-medial and ventro-lateral tubercles developed. An unusual process on tergal portion of prothorax is reported for the first time in Navicordulia. The rate of description of new species of South American 'Corduliidae' is discussed. A map with records of Atlantic Forest Navicordulia species and a list of Brazilian corduliids by state are also presented.

  17. An outbreak of poisoning by Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in cattle in northeastern Brazil.

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    Mendonça, Fábio S; Nascimento, Naiara C F; Almeida, Valdir M; Braga, Thaiza C; Ribeiro, Daniele P; Chaves, Hisadora A S; Silva Filho, Givaldo B; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2018-03-01

    In the world, Kalanchoe species are primarily ornamentals and houseplants, but some have escaped cultivation and can be found in the field. In Latin America, there are no reports of spontaneous poisoning by Kalanchoe species in animals. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of an outbreak of poisoning by Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in cattle in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from the owner and veterinarian during technical visits. Prunings of this plant were disposed of in a pasture with a shortness of forage. Seventeen cattle had clinical signs, and thirteen died 4-5 days after the first clinical signs were observed. Clinical signs and gross and histological lesions include gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular disorders. Kalanchoe spp. contain cardiotoxic glycosides, and the clinical signs and lesions in cattle of this outbreak were consistent with poisoning by plants that contain these toxins.

  18. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  19. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records

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    Mônica A. Ulysséa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. The Caatingas occur predominantly in northeastern Brazil and comparatively it is the biome that received less attention than any other ecosystem in Brazil, representing the region where invertebrate groups are less known. We present here the first list of ant species of the Caatingas, compiling information from the literature, from a study of samples preserved in alcohol in the Laboratory of Entomology (Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, and from a field survey conducted in Milagres, Bahia, submitting standardized 1-m² samples of the leaf-litter to Winkler extractors. Summing all information, 11 subfamilies, 61 genera and 173 species (plus one subspecies of ants are recognized in the biome. This species number does not consider morphospecies that could not be named due to the lack of reliable recent taxonomic information for some Neotropical ant genera. The list presented here for ant species of the Caatingas is therefore underestimated, but it is relevant because it allows the identification of areas to be sampled in order to improve our knowledge of the diversity of ants in this biome.

  20. Migratory flows and foraging habitat selection by shorebirds along the northeastern coast of Brazil: The case of Baía de Todos os Santos

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    Lunardi, Vitor O.; Macedo, Regina H.; Granadeiro, José P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of Nearctic shorebirds migrate and winter along the coast of northeastern Brazil, but there is little information on their migratory flows, foraging ecology, and on the structure of the species assemblages that they form with resident shorebirds. We studied these issues on intertidal flats of Baía de Todos os Santos (Bahia), the second largest bay in Brazil. During a full year cycle we carried out weekly bird counts in an intertidal area of 280 ha divided in sectors, where we also measured environmental parameters. The analyses of weekly counts resulted in a detailed phenology of use of the area by shorebirds. Five species were resident and ten were Nearctic migrants. Several of the latter had clear peaks in numbers in March and October, revealing the use of the bay as a stopover during both the north-bound and south-bound migration flows. A canonical correspondence analysis of the relationship between environmental parameters and bird numbers indicated that the foraging bird assemblage could be divided into five main groups, occupying distinct ecological gradients in the study area. The most important factors driving this structure were invertebrate prey abundance, percentage of fine sediments, area of mangrove cover and distance to channels. Our findings imply that maintenance of the diversity of intertidal habitats in this bay is crucial to satisfy the particular habitat requirements of resident and migrant shorebirds using the northeastern coastal regions of Brazil.

  1. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae for better understanding of leprosy transmission in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Amanda N B; Lima, Luana N G C; Mota, Rosa M S; Almeida, Rosa L F; Pontes, Maria A; Gonçalves, Heitor de S; Frota, Cristiane C; Vissa, Varalakshmi D; Brennan, Patrick J; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia R F S; Suffys, Philip N

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010. Among the 1,519 new patients detected during the study period, 998 (65.7%) were MB and we performed DNA extraction and genotyping on 160 skin biopsy samples, resulting in 159 (16%) good multilocus VNTR types. Thirty-eight of these patients also provided VNTR types from M. leprae in nasal swabs. The SNP-Type was obtained for 157 patients and 87% were of type 4. Upon consideration all VNTR markers, 156 different genotypes and three pairs with identical genotypes were observed; no epidemiologic relation could be observed between individuals in these pairs. Considerable variability in differentiating index (DI) was observed between the different markers and the four with highest DI [(AT)15, (TA)18, (AT)17 and (GAA)21] frequently demonstrated differences in copy number when comparing genotypes from both type of samples. Excluding these markers from analysis resulted in 83 genotypes, 20 of which included 96 of the patients (60.3%). These clusters were composed of two (n = 8), three (n = 6), four (n = 1), five (n = 2), six (n = 1), 19 (n = 1) and 23 (n = 23) individuals and suggests that recent transmission is contributing to the maintenance of leprosy in Fortaleza. When comparing epidemiological and clinical variables among patients within clustered or with unique M. leprae genotypes, a positive bacterial index in skin biopsies and knowledge of working with someone with the disease were significantly associated with clustering. A tendency to belong to a cluster was

  2. Population biology of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda: Ucididae) in an estuary from semiarid northeastern Brazil.

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    Leite, Marcos de Miranda Leão; Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Silva, José Roberto Feitosa

    2013-12-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is an important resource of estuarine regions along the Brazilian coast. U. cordatus is distributed from Florida, U.S.A., to the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The species plays an important role in processing leaf litter in the mangroves, which optimizes the processes of energy transfer and nutrient cycling, and is considered a keystone species in the ecosystem. Population declines have been reported in different parts of the Brazilian coast. In the present study we evaluated aspects of the population structure, sex ratio and size at morphological sexual maturity. We analyzed 977 specimens collected monthly over 24 months (2010-2012), in a mangrove of the Jaguaribe River, in the municipality of Aracati on the East coast of Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil. The study area has a mild semiarid tropical climate, with mean temperatures between 26 and 28 degrees C. The area is located within the eco-region of the semiarid Northeast coast, where mangroves occur in small areas and estuaries are affected by mesomareal regimes. The population structure was evaluated by the frequency distribution of size classes in each month, and the overall sex ratio was analyzed using the chi-square test. Size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated based on the allometry of the cheliped of the males and the abdomen width of the females, using the program REGRANS. The size-frequency distribution was unimodal in both sexes. The overall sex ratio (M:F) (1:0.6) was significantly different from 1:1. Analysis of the sex ratio by size class showed that the proportion of males increased significantly from size class 55-60 mm upward, and this pattern persisted in the larger size classes. In the smaller size classes the sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The size at morphological sexual maturity was estimated at a carapace width (CW) of 52 mm and 45 mm for males and females, respectively. Analysis of the population parameters indicated that the

  3. Mapping Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil by integrating geophysics, remote sensing and geological field data

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    Andrades-Filho, Clódis de Oliveira; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego; Medeiros, Walter Eugênio; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Oliveira, Roberto Gusmão de

    2014-12-01

    Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits corresponding respectively to the Barreiras Formation and Post-Barreiras Sediments are abundant along the Brazilian coast. Such deposits are valuable for reconstructing sea level fluctuations and recording tectonic reactivation along the passive margin of South America. Despite this relevance, much effort remains to be invested in discriminating these units in their various areas of occurrence. The main objective of this work is to develop and test a new methodology for semi-automated mapping of Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil integrating geophysical and remote sensing data. The central onshore Paraíba Basin was selected due to the recent availability of a detailed map based on the integration of surface and subsurface geological data. We used airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e., potassium-K and thorium-Th concentration) and morphometric data (i.e., relief-dissection, slope and elevation) extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM) generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The procedures included: (a) data integration using geographic information systems (GIS); (b) exploratory statistical analyses, including the definition of parameters and thresholds for class discrimination for a set of sample plots; and (c) development and application of a decision-tree classification. Data validation was based on: (i) statistical analysis of geochemical and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data consisting of K and Th concentrations; and (ii) map validation with the support of a confusion matrix, overall accuracy, as well as quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment based on field points. The concentration of K successfully separated the sedimentary units of the basin from Precambrian basement rocks. The relief-dissection morphometric variable allowed the discrimination between the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras Sediments. In

  4. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

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    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  5. Physical violence by an intimate partner and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services among women in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Carneiro, Jackelyne Faierstein; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical violence by an intimate partner (PVIP) and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,026 women, based on data from a prospective cohort study designed to investigate intimate partner violence among pregnant women enrolled in the Family Health Program (PSF) in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. The use of prenatal care services was assessed with basis on the guidelines from the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care and Childbirth (Brazilian Ministry of Health) and considered the time of the first prenatal care visit and the total number of visits during the pregnancy. Data were collected through two face-to-face interviews (one in the last pregnancy trimester and the other in the postpartum period), using standardized questionnaires and data on Pregnancy Card records. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals to measure the association between an PVIP and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services, using the stepwise method. The prevalence of the inappropriate use of prenatal care services was 44.1% and of an PVIP, 25.6%. In the logistic regression analysis, an intimatePVIP was associated with inappropriate prenatal care (OR = 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.85; p = 0.04) after adjustment by variables confirmed as confounders (parity, alcohol use in pregnancy, and education level). Women who are victims of an PVIP have more chance of receiving inappropriate prenatal care due to late onset of prenatal care, fewer prenatal care visits, or both.

  6. Estimating synchronous demographic changes across populations using hABC and its application for a herpetological community from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehara, Marcelo; Garda, Adrian A; Werneck, Fernanda P; Oliveira, Eliana F; da Fonseca, Emanuel M; Camurugi, Felipe; Magalhães, Felipe de M; Lanna, Flávia M; Sites, Jack W; Marques, Ricardo; Silveira-Filho, Ricardo; São Pedro, Vinícius A; Colli, Guarino R; Costa, Gabriel C; Burbrink, Frank T

    2017-09-01

    Many studies propose that Quaternary climatic cycles contracted and/or expanded the ranges of species and biomes. Strong expansion-contraction dynamics of biomes presume concerted demographic changes of associated fauna. The analysis of temporal concordance of demographic changes can be used to test the influence of Quaternary climate on diversification processes. Hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) is a powerful and flexible approach that models genetic data from multiple species, and can be used to estimate the temporal concordance of demographic processes. Using available single-locus data, we can now perform large-scale analyses, both in terms of number of species and geographic scope. Here, we first compared the power of four alternative hABC models for a collection of single-locus data. We found that the model incorporating an a priori hypothesis about the timing of simultaneous demographic change had the best performance. Second, we applied the hABC models to a data set of seven squamate and four amphibian species occurring in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (Caatinga) in northeastern Brazil, which, according to paleoclimatic evidence, experienced an increase in aridity during the Pleistocene. If this increase was important for the diversification of associated xeric-adapted species, simultaneous population expansions should be evident at the community level. We found a strong signal of synchronous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene, supporting the increase of the Caatinga during this time. This expansion likely enhanced the formation of communities adapted to high aridity and seasonality and caused regional extirpation of taxa adapted to wet forest. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nest site selection and hatching success of hawksbill and loggerhead sea turtles (Testudines, Cheloniidae at Arembepe Beach, northeastern Brazil

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    Thiago Zagonel Serafini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nest site selection influences the hatching success of sea turtles and represents a crucial aspect of their reproductive process. Arembepe Beach, in the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is a known nest site for Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. For the nesting seasons in 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, we analyzed the influence of beach profile and amount of beach vegetation cover on nest site selection and the hatching success for both species. Loggerhead turtles nested preferentially in the sand zone, while hawksbill turtles demonstrated no preferences for either sand or vegetation zone. Beach vegetation was important in the modulation of nest site selection behavior for both species, but the amount of beach vegetation cover influenced (negatively hatching success only for the hawksbill, mainly via the increment of non-hatched eggs.Hatching success, outside the tide risk zone, was not influenced by the position of the nests along the beach profile. The pattern of nest distribution by species indicated that management of nests at risk of inundation and erosion by the tide is more important for loggerhead turtles than for hawksbill turtles. Beach vegetation is animportant factor in the conservation of these sea turtle species. Nests that are at risk due to tidal inundation and erosion can be translocated to any position along the beach profile without producing any significant effect on hatching success, as long as highdensities of beach vegetation cover are avoided for hawksbill nests. It is important to point out that the pattern we report here for distribution of hawksbill nests along the beach profile could be due in part to the influence of pure and hybrid individuals, since there are reports of hybridization among hawksbills and loggerheads to the study site.

  8. Influence of a multideficient diet from northeastern Brazil on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious, freely moving rats

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    F.M.F. Monteiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The "regional basic diet" or RBD is a multideficient diet (providing 8% protein which is known to produce dietary deficiencies in some populations in northeastern Brazil. The present study investigated the effects of RBD-induced malnutrition on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams the RBD during mating and pregnancy (RBD-1 group or during nursing and a 10-day period after weaning (RBD-2 group. At 90 days of age, only RBD-2 rats weighed significantly (P<0.001 less than control rats born to dams fed a standard commercial diet (23% protein during pregnancy and nursing. Baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate of both RBD-1 and RBD-2 rats were comparable to those of controls. The slopes for both reflex bradycardia and tachycardia (bpm/mmHg induced by intravenous phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were unchanged in either RBD-1 (-2.08 ± 0.11 and -3.10 ± 0.43, respectively or RBD-2 (-2.32 ± 0.30 and -3.73 ± 0.53, respectively rats, when compared to controls (-2.09 ± 0.10 and -3.17 ± 0.33, respectively. This study shows that, after a prolonged period of nutritional recovery, the patterns of resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity of both pre- and postnatally malnourished rats were similar to those of controls. The decreased body weight and the tendency to increased reflex tachycardia in RBD-2 rats may suggest that this type of maternal malnutrition during lactation is more critical than during pregnancy.

  9. Knowledge and extractivism of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. in a local community of the Brazilian Savanna, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Ivanilda Soares; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Monteiro, Júlio Marcelino

    2014-09-09

    This study aims to understand how the stem bark of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. is used by a rural community in the savanna of Northeastern Brazil, associated with a preliminary assessment involving plant population structure and extractivism in the main sites of collection. A population structure study and analysis of bark extractivism was conducted in two sites: one within the forest and another at its edge. We had the intention of testing whether there are differences between these sites; since the local extractive practice is prohibited, expecting more intense extraction in the forest interior than its edge by the local fiscalization. We interviewed 120 informants who reported knowing and using the species, and also the places of extractivism. We also calculated quantitative measures of local knowledge, and the influence of gender and age on the knowledge about this species. Knowledge of the uses was evenly distributed between men and women. A total of 28 specimens were recorded at Site 1, whereas 23 were identified at Site 2, with the specimens at both sites distributed in 4-diameter classes with 4-cm intervals. Nine of the specimens found in Site 1 (32.14%) showed some sign of extraction. No specimen from Site 2 showed signs of extraction. In Site 1, the total area of stem bark removed was 43,468 cm2, and the total area of stem bark available was 33,200 cm2. In Site 2, only the available stem-bark area of 44,666 cm2 was identified because no specimens were harvested. There is no difference in knowledge of this species regarding the gender and age. Stryphnodendron rotundifolium is a key resource for the studied community. A large proportion of bark collected from the first diameter size class may affect the growth of these individuals and may influence the recruitment process. Perhaps, this effect may explain the absence of individuals in some size classes.

  10. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from northeastern Brazil with upper gastrointestinal diseases

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    Meyssa Quezado de Figueiredo Cavalcante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastric inflammation and significantly increases the risk of duodenal and gastric ulcer disease and distal gastric carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients from a Brazilian region where there is a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate vacA mosaicism and cagA status in the gastric mucosa of 134 H. pylori-positive patients, including 76 with gastritis: 28 with peptic ulcer disease and 30 with gastric cancer. The s1m1 variant was the predominant vacA genotype observed, whereas the s1 allele was more frequently observed in patients with more severe diseases associated with H. pylori infection [p = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 5.72, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-38.60]. Furthermore, all of the s1 alleles were s1b. Mixed vacA m1/m2 strains were found more frequently in patients with gastric cancer and a cagA-positive status was significantly associated with gastric cancer (p = 0.016, OR = 10.36, 95% CI = 1.35-217.31. Patients with gastric cancer (21/21, 100%, p = 0.006 or peptic ulcers (20/21, 95%, p = 0.02 were more frequently colonised by more virulent H. pylori strains compared to gastritis patients (41/61, 67.2%. In conclusion, in the northeastern of Brazil, which is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of gastric cancer in the country, infection with the most virulent H. pylori strains, carrying the cagA gene and s1m1 vacA alleles, predominates and is correlated with more severe H. pylori-associated diseases.

  11. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES PATIENTS IN A CENTER OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    José Huygens Parente GARCIA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver transplantation has been accepted as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. Currently, Brazil has a well-established public organ transplant program, performing 7,425 solid organs transplants in 2012 alone, among which 1,595 were liver transplants. Jehovah's Witnesses report 7,6 million members worldwide. For religious reasons they refuse transfusion of whole blood or its primary components (red cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets. Objective This study aims to present the results obtained with Jehovah's Witnesses patients by a liver transplantation service. Method We conducted a retrospective review of medical records from Jehovah's Witnesses patients (n = 4 who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from September 2009 to September 2011 at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital of the Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Coagulation parameters such as Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Platelets, INR were evaluated during the preoperative, immediate postoperative, postoperative day (POD 7 and POD 30. Results Coagulation parameters were expressed as means: hematocrit, 35.07% ± 6.65%, 24.6% ± 4.74%, 19.85% ± 2.10%, 31.85% ± 5.99%; hemoglobin, 12.57 g/dL ± 2.22, 8.92 g/dL ± 1.75, 6.92 g/dL ± 0.58, 11.17 g/dL ± 0.9; platelets, 160,975 mm 3 ± 148000, 128,000 mm 3 ± 34836, 65,000 mm 3 ± 33496, 234,250 mm 3 ± 287003 and INR, 143 ± 0.10, 2.4 ± 0.34, 1.24 ± 0.10, 1.14 ± 0.09. Conclusion Liver transplantation can successfully be performed in Jehovah's Witnesses patient population provided that: 1 the medical team has extensive expertise in that field, 2 the patient has an adequate level of hematologic factors preoperatively, and 3 there is availability of specialized equipment such as cell saver to minimize blood loss and thus avoid transfusion requirements.

  12. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

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    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  13. [Policy analysis: study of public policy of environmental health in a metropolis of northeastern Brazil].

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    Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araújo Júnior, José Luiz do Amaral Correa de

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of health policies has improved in Brazil despite a plethora of different methodological approaches. Based on the model developed by Walt and Gilson in 1994, the Environmental Health Program (EHP) of Recife as a policy based on the Health Promotion principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and Agenda 21 was analyzed. An attempt was made to understand the context during the development and implementation of the EHP, the drafting process and which actors influenced the EHP agenda content and proposal. A qualitative case study was conducted, with semi-structured interviews with key actors. In terms of context, the findings include the influence of the municipal election, the socio-sanitary characteristics of Recife, the choice of the Secretary of Health and the management teams, acceptance by the technicians and the funding increase. In terms of the process, the acceptance of the managers must be stressed. Regarding the actors, the managers, sector technicians, non-sectorial actors with viability studies stood out. The content of the EHP coincided with the SUS and Health Promotion principles. Implementation was influenced by the dengue fever epidemic (2002), and cultural institutional factors that put pressure on the order of implementation of the planned actions.

  14. Social determinants and their interference in homicide rates in a city in northeastern Brazil

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    Geziel dos Santos de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to analyze the possible relationship between social determinants and homicide mortality in Fortaleza (CE, Brazil. METHOD: To investigate whether the rate of mortality by homicides is related to social determinants, an ecological study with emphasis on spatial analysis was conducted in the city of Fortaleza. Social, economic, demographic and sanitation data, as well as information regarding years of potential life lost, and Human Development Index were collected. The dependent variable was the rate of homicides in the period 2004 to 2006. In order to verify the relationship between the outcome variable and the predictor variables, we performed a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS: We found associations between social determinants and the rate of mortality by homicides. Variables related to income and education were proven determinants for mortality. The multiple regression model showed that 51% of homicides in Fortaleza neighborhoods are explained by years of potential life lost, proportion of households with poor housing, average years of schooling, per capita income and percentage of household heads with 15 or more years of study. The coefficients for years of potential life lost and households with poor housing were positive. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the mortality by homicide is associated with high levels of poverty and uncontrolled urbanization, which migrates to the peripheries of urban centers.

  15. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

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    Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  16. First records of pollen rain in bromeliad tanks in an area of caatinga in northeastern Brazil

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    Jéssica Mirella de Souza Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Bromeliaceae have leaves in a spiral configuration. Because of the shape of the rosette thus formed and the imbricate configuration of the leaf sheaths, there is usually a tank in which rainwater and other components of the environment, including pollen grains, accumulate, making such tanks effective pollen rain collectors. The objective of this study was to use bromeliads as a tool to increase knowledge about the vegetation of the caatinga (shrublands in the Canudos region of the state of Bahia, located in the semi-arid zone of Brazil, as well as to analyze the dynamics of pollen dispersal and deposition. To that end, we collected samples of the water from the tanks of bromeliads at the Canudos Biological Station. A total of 149 pollen types were detected, 88 of which could be identified botanically. The families that were the most well-represented among the pollen types were Fabaceae (with 25, Asteraceae (with 9, and Euphorbiaceae (with 7. Ten pollen types were presented as potential indicators of caatinga vegetation. We conclude that tank bromeliads are useful for gathering information about pollen rain and pollen dynamics, as well as about the transport and deposition of pollen in the caatinga.

  17. Thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated with flowers in a restinga fragment in northeastern Brazil.

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    Lima, I M B; Almeida-Filho, M A; Lima, M G A; Bonilla, O H; Lima, E F B

    2018-03-22

    With the growing volume of research involving Thysanoptera in Brazil, studies were carried out to improve our understanding of the diversity of thrips in areas where the fauna has historically been neglected. Accordingly, we recorded the diversity of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) associated with a restinga fragment located on the campus of the State University of Ceará (UECE), Fortaleza, Ceará state, and computed the estimated richness and diversity indices. Samples were collected from 2011 through 2013 from flowers of 86 plant species. The material was taken to the Laboratory of Insect-Plant Interaction, where thrips were screened under stereomicroscope. We collected 456 adults and 58 immatures, representing 14 species, in addition to one unidentified species of Treherniella. Microcephalothrips abdominalis was found on a large number of host plants, and Frankliniella insularis was the most common species. About two-thirds of the total richness of thrips species was associated with three plant families (Amaranthaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Poaceae); six thrips species were each associated with only one plant species. The richness of the species collected was close to that estimated by Bootstrap and Jackknife 1 analysis. The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Simpson (D) diversity indexes were 1,7607 and 0.7769, respectively. Although the species are common, 46 new associations between plant species and thrips were established, 13 of which are true host associations, which demonstrates the importance of coastal vegetation in maintaining populations of thrips.

  18. Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

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    Teixeira, Simone F; Duarte, Yalan F; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2010-09-01

    The mutton snapper Lutjanus analis is an overexploited species of economic importance for the Northeast region of Brazil. To determine the reproductive aspects of the mutton snapper, biological data were sampled from Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará States, between 7 and 200m depth, from February 1997 to December 1999, performed in the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone Study Program (REVIZEE-NE Program). Data on total length (TL), fork length (FL), standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and gutted weight (GW) were measured. The gonads were collected and fixed in FAACC for histological analysis on maturational stage and calculation of the gonadosomatic index (GSI). A total of 135 fishes were collected; from these, 74 were females and 61 were males. Females were between 28.0 and 69.0cm (TL) and the males between 35.0 and 75.0cm (TL). Mutton snapper are gonochorists, and the spawning season, determined by the maturity stages frequency and the GSI, occurred between November and April, with peak spawning in March. The mature females' minimum length was 28.0cm fork length, smaller than the minimum maturation length previously reported for the species in Cuba. The exploitation status of the species and the biological traits enhances the importance of establishing spatial and seasonal protection measures such as protected areas both in nursery and spawning sites.

  19. Ethnopharmacological study of Stryphnodendron rotundifoliumin two communities in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil

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    Dayanne Rakelly de Oliveira

    Full Text Available This work describes the local knowledge of the medicinal use of Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., Fabaceae, according to informants in two areas of the Araripe bioregion, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. We used interviews to investigate the ethnomedicinal use of the local species to determine the mode of use, frequency of administration, duration of treatment and restrictions of use. In traditional medicine, the use of S. rotundifoliumis associated with the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. The part of the plant most used was the stem bark (86.11%, the predominant mode of preparation was immersion in water (52.83%, and oral administration was the most cited (48.43%. For inflammatory and infectious diseases, the treatment lasted 3-10 days and the frequency of administration was 2-3 times/day. For gastroprotective effects, treatment lasted up to 30 days, and the herb was administered 1-3 times/day. For pain complaints, the therapy varied from 2-3 days to continuous administration.The informants (46.87% did not mention restrictions of use, except for pregnant women, with a rate of 25%. A comparison of these results with the ethnopharmacological information from other studies showed that some of the traditional indications are scientifically supported by the literature or clinical studies. Nevertheless, the results showed that pharmacologists have not fully investigated all the possible bioactivities that healers credit to this plant.

  20. Survival dynamics of Melocactus conoideus Buining & Brederoo (Cactaceae, a threatened species endemic to northeastern Brazil

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    Hévila Prates Luz-Freire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the survival of species are essential to understanding their biology and to developing effective conservation and management plans. This study aimed to determine the best model to explain the survival of the species Melocactus conoideus on the basis of time, density, age structure and habitat location, as well as to describe the interactions among those factors. The study was conducted in three M. conoideus habitat patches in the municipality of Vitória da Conquista, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, only one of which was within a "conservation unit" (protected area. In each patch, we selected 120 specimens of M. conoideus, which were marked with identification plates and classified by developmental stage and density. The survival of those individuals was monitored for a period of one year. The overall survival of M. conoideus was 87.5% and was found to correlate with the month, as well as with the interaction between the factors Patch and Density. Our results show that the survival of M. conoideus individuals is related to the intrinsic characteristics of each habitat patch and suggest that more areas should be set aside for the conservation of this species.

  1. The Impact of Trampling on Reef Macrobenthos in Northeastern Brazil: How Effective are Current Conservation Strategies?

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    Santos, Gleice S.; Burgos, Douglas C.; Lira, Simone M. A.; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    Tropical reefs are used for intensive tourism in various parts of the world. However, few studies have investigated the effect of regular trampling on these fragile ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different conservation strategies (open access, partial protection, and total long-term closure) on intertidal reef tops in Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré, Pernambuco State, Brazil. Analysis of the macrobenthic community was performed with photo transects and image analysis (CPCe). Twenty-seven transects were surveyed from January to August 2012, in intensively impacted (I) open-access sites, in partially protected (P) sites with occasional, illegal trampling, and in a permanently closed (C) site. In I sites, total live cover was half the cover found in adjacent P sites. The area of bare rock averaged 53.6 and 25.0 % in I and P sites, respectively. In the C site, the area of bare rock was only 19.8 %. In I and P sites, macroalgae ( Palisada perforata) were dominating, while in the C site, the zoanthid Zoanthus sociatus was most abundant. Shell-bearing vermetids ( Petaloconchus varians) and bivalves ( Isognomon bicolor) were more abundant at the C site, being possible bioindicators for areas with zero or little trampling. Twelve years of total closure produced near-pristine communities in the C site, dominated by zoanthids and fragile mollusks. This study showed that trampling has severe and long-lasting consequences for the structure of these ecosystems.

  2. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a way to maximize the integration of variable renewable energy in power systems: The case of wind generation in northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares MC Borba, Bruno; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have proposed different tools for analyzing the integration of variable renewable energy into power grids. This study applies an optimization tool to model the expansion of the electric power system in northeastern Brazil, enabling the most efficient dispatch of the variable output of the wind farms that will be built in the region over the next 20 years. The expected combined expansion of wind generation with conventional inflexible generation facilities, such as nuclear plants and run-of-the-river hydropower plants, poses risks of future mismatch between supply and demand in northeastern Brazil. Therefore, this article evaluates the possibility of using a fleet of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to regularize possible energy imbalances. Findings indicate that a dedicated fleet of 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015, and a further 1.5 million in 2030, could be recharged overnight to take advantage of the surplus power generated by wind farms. To avoid the initial costs of smart grids, this article suggests, as a first step, the use of a governmental PHEV fleet that allows fleet managers to control battery charging times. Finally, the study demonstrates the advantages of optimizing simultaneously the power and transport sectors to test the strategy suggested here. -- Highlights: ► We evaluated the use of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) to regularize possible energy imbalances in northeastern Brazil. ► This imbalance might result from the large-scale wind power penetration along with conventional inflexible power plants in the region. ► We adapted the MESSAGE optimization tool to the base conditions of the Brazilian power system. ► 500 thousand PHEVs in 2015 and 1.5 million in 2030 could be recharged taking advantage of wind energy surplus.

  3. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  4. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

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    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  5. Mechanisms of northeastern Brazil rainfall anomalies due to Southern Tropical Atlantic variability

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    Neelin, J.; Su, H.

    2004-05-01

    Observational studies have shown that the rainfall anomalies in eastern equatorial South America, including Nordeste Brazil, have a positive correlation with tropical southern Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Such relationships are reproduced in model simulations with the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM), which includes a simple land model. A suite of model ensemble experiments is analysed using observed SST over the tropical oceans, the tropical Atlantic and the tropical southern Atlantic (30S-0), respectively (with climatological SST in the remainder of the oceans). Warm tropical south Atlantic SST anomalies yield positive precipitation anomalies over the Nordeste and the southern edge of the Atlantic marine intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Mechanisms associated with moisture variations are responsible for the land precipitation changes. Increases in moisture over the Atlantic cause positive anomalies in moisture advection, spreading increased moisture downwind. Where the basic state is far from the convective stability threshold, moisture changes have little effect, but the margins of the climatological convection zone are affected. The increased moisture supply due to advection is enhanced by increases in low-level convergence required by moist static energy balances. The moisture convergence term is several times larger, but experiments altering the moisture advection confirm that the feedback is initiated by wind acting on moisture gradient. This mechanism has several features in common with the recently published "upped-ante" mechanism for El Nino impacts on this region. In that case, the moisture gradient is initiated by warm free tropospheric temperature anomalies increasing the typical value of low-level moisture required to sustain convection in the convection zones. Both mechanisms suggest the usefulness of coordinating ocean and land in situ observations of boundary layer moisture.

  6. Spatial modeling of limnological parameters in a solar saltwork of northeastern Brazil

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    Diógenes Félix da Silva Costa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AimIn this research, we aimed to model limnological parameters in the Salina Unidos (Macau-Brazil using GIS technology. We hypothesized that in solar saltworks, the geochemical characteristics of the brines (i.e. the strong solution of salts vary considerably through the salt ponds circuit, in which drastic changes can damage the entire salt production.MethodsGeochemical parameters were monitored in seven sampling points distributed along the salt ponds circuit, during a complete cycle of salt production, i.e., from January to December 2007. The open source software Spring 5.1.6 was used to build, store, analyze and model the spatial distribution of the parameters.ResultsWe identified a spatial gradient of the salinity and temperature, with values increasing from evaporation ponds to concentration ponds, showing a relationship with the salt production. The parameters, depth, dissolved oxygen concentrations and total dissolved reactive phosphorus showed a decrease from the evaporation ponds towards the concentration ponds. Among the dissolved inorganic nitrogen forms analyzed (NH3-, NO2- and NO3-, nitrate was the predominant, namely in the concentration ponds, where it reached the highest concentrations. The concentration of chlorophyll awas higher in the initial and intermediate evaporation ponds, showing a distinct dynamics of in relation to other environmental variables.ConclusionsThe increased concentration of the analyzed limnological parameters, from the evaporation ponds towards the concentration ponds, evidenced a heterogeneous distribution varying significantly with season. The geochemical spatialization of brine, as illustrated by GIS approach, is very important for the conservation of these environments because this spatial heterogeneity can provide a high diversity of habitat types. This spatial analysis proved to be a practical tool for an adequate management of solar saltworks considering the environmental (ecosystem and the socio

  7. Floristic similarity and dispersal syndromes in a rocky outcrop in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil.

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    Costa, Elainne Cristina Silva; Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Melo, José Iranildo Miranda de

    2015-09-01

    Floristic studies provide valuable information on species richness in a region, and are particularly important if these areas belong to less studied environments, such as rocky outcrops, that may increase our knowledge. An important aspect for species colonization includes the mechanisms of diaspores dispersal in each community; these are essential to understand its structure, dynamics, and the regeneration process, and constitute an important tool for conservation. We developed a floristic survey on a granite-gneiss outcrop with the objective to increase the knowledge on plant diversity, through a floristic similarity analysis and detection of dispersal syndromes of sampled species, in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The fieldwork included collection and observation of the botanical material in loco during a period of 12 months. A total of 161 species belonging to 127 genera and 50 families of angiosperms were recorded. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae were the most representative families in number of species. Allophylus quercifolius (Mart.) Radlk. (Capparaceae) and Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lythraceae) represented new records for the State of Paraiba. The autochoric syndrome was the most representative, with 51.5 % of the recorded species; the anemochory was the second most representative syndrome with 26.7 % of the species; and finally the zoochory, representing 22.3 % of the species. The floristic similarity dendrogram showed the formation of three well-defined groups, whose area with the highest value (J = 33.2) is located in a Caatinga region called Cariri Paraibano, while the lowest value observed (J = 5.2), occurred in a settled area in two geomorphological units, a crystalline complex and a plateau region. These results may be due to the varying topographic conditions and edaphic heterogeneity arising from the specific geological formation of the region. These results yet demonstrate that, in rocky outcrops, abiotic syndromes represent an

  8. Triatomines in dwellings and outbuildings in an endemic area of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil

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    Antonio Fernando Rodrigues Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study identified the triatomines collected in intra and peri-domestic environments, observed the occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and correlated this information with housing conditions and the fauna associated with the rural areas of the City of Itabaianinha, located in the State of Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: Quarterly visits were conducted between March 2009 and March 2010, and the homes to be visited for the active search of insects were determined by random selection. In each housing unit, the insects were collected by a manual search with a metal clip and flashlight to inspect openings and cavities, with a collection time of one hour/home/individual. The Pirisa® dislodge chemical was used to force the insects to leave their ecotopes. Analysis of the intestinal contents of triatomines was performed in the laboratory to establish the presence of Trypanosomatidae. RESULTS: Of the 103 dwellings surveyed, 17.5% were infested with Panstrongylus megistus. The village of Mutuca exhibited the highest infestation rate (38.1%. All the villages with relevant infestation rates were situated in the northern area of the city. The highest percentage of vector infection was found in the village of Água Boa (56.5%. The rural dwellings were found to be primarily brick or wooden house with or without roughcast or plastered walls, and the outbuilding most frequently associated with triatomines was the chicken run. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasise the need for broader vector control and surveillance and for educational campaigns in the context of the Chagas Disease Control Program.

  9. Triatomines in dwellings and outbuildings in an endemic area of Chagas disease in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio Fernando Rodrigues; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Silveira, Maxwell Souza; Madi, Rubens Riscala; Santana, Thiago Bicudo Krempel; Melo, Cláudia Moura de

    2012-12-01

    The present study identified the triatomines collected in intra and peri-domestic environments, observed the occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and correlated this information with housing conditions and the fauna associated with the rural areas of the City of Itabaianinha, located in the State of Sergipe, Brazil. Quarterly visits were conducted between March 2009 and March 2010, and the homes to be visited for the active search of insects were determined by random selection. In each housing unit, the insects were collected by a manual search with a metal clip and flashlight to inspect openings and cavities, with a collection time of one hour/home/individual. The Pirisa® dislodge chemical was used to force the insects to leave their ecotopes. Analysis of the intestinal contents of triatomines was performed in the laboratory to establish the presence of Trypanosomatidae. Of the 103 dwellings surveyed, 17.5% were infested with Panstrongylus megistus. The village of Mutuca exhibited the highest infestation rate (38.1%). All the villages with relevant infestation rates were situated in the northern area of the city. The highest percentage of vector infection was found in the village of Água Boa (56.5%). The rural dwellings were found to be primarily brick or wooden house with or without roughcast or plastered walls, and the outbuilding most frequently associated with triatomines was the chicken run. These results emphasise the need for broader vector control and surveillance and for educational campaigns in the context of the Chagas Disease Control Program.

  10. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

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    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  11. Seasonality of insects in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil Sazonalidade de insetos na Caatinga do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Alexandre Vasconcellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects are essential to tropical ecosystems functioning. In semi-arid regions, the increase in abundance and/or activity (e.g. reproduction and foraging behavior of insects is usually associated with climatic variables. The present study investigates which climatic variables are best predictors of insect abundance in an area of Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. Individuals were sampled for 24 months using Malaise and pitfall traps, and beating trays. A total of 58925 individuals belonging to 20 insect orders were collected. The most abundant orders were Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola and Coleoptera. Most orders studied showed a clear maximum abundance in the rainy season. Rainfall and humidity were the best predictors of insect abundance in the Caatinga. However, no climatic variable could explain Psocoptera and Blattodea variance in abundance/activity. Our results suggest that climatic changes associated with rainfall patterns in the Caatinga may affect ecosystem processes and services that depend direct or indirectly on insect abundance/activity.Os insetos são abundantes e essenciais para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas terrestres tropicais. No entanto, a abundância e/ou atividade (e.g. reprodução ou forrageio destes organismos podem ser fortemente influenciadas pelas variáveis climáticas. Este estudo examina quais as variáveis climáticas podem atuar como preditoras da abundância e/ou atividade dos insetos em uma área de Caatinga do Nordeste brasileiro. Ao longo de 24 meses, os insetos foram coletados mensalmente utilizando armadilhas Malaise, armadilhas tipo "pitfall" e guarda-chuva entomológico. Um total de 58925 indivíduos de 20 ordens foi coletado. As ordens mais abundantes foram Hymenoptera, Diptera, Collembola e Coleoptera. Entre as doze ordens mais abundantes, dez apresentaram os seus maiores picos durante a estação chuvosa. A precipitação e a umidade relativa foram os principais preditores dos padrões de abund

  12. Hydrology, plankton, and corals of the Maracajaú reefs (Northeastern Brazil: an ecosystem under severe thermal stress

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    Elga Miranda Mayal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides baseline information on the hydrological conditions and on the coral and plankton communities at the Maracajaú reef ecosystem (Northeastern Brazil. Studies were performed from February to June 2000, covering the transition from dry to rainy season. In this area, there is an offshore coral reef formation, where corals were observed in loco; the water samples were collected to obtain the hydrological and plankton data. Six scleractinian species were identified. Stable isotope analysis on the carbonate fraction of Favia gravida fragments showed that these corals were under severe thermal stress. Chlorophyll-a varied from 1.1 to 9.3 mg m-3, with higher values during the rainy season. Average zooplankton wet weight biomass were 117.0 (microzooplankton and 15.7 mg m -3(mesozooplankton. A total of 136 Phytoplankton and 61 zooplankton taxa were identified. Seasonal forcing determined the phyto-micro-and mesozooplankton community structure, rather than the coastal-offshore gradient.Esta pesquisa apresenta informações básicas sobre as condições hidrológicas e sobre as comunidades de corais e do plâncton no ecossistema recifal de Maracajaú (Nordeste do Brasil. Estudos foram realizados de fevereiro a junho de 2000, cobrindo o período de transição das estações seca a chuvosa. Nesta area existe uma formação de recife de coral afastada da costa, onde os corais foram observados in loco e amostras de água foram coletadas para a obtenção de dados hidrológicos e planctônicos. Foram identificadas seis espécies de escleractíneos. Análises com isótopos estáveis em fragmentos de carbonato de Favia gravida mostraram que este coral está sob estresse termal severo. As concentrações de clorofila-a variaram de 1,1 mg m-3 a 9,3 mg m-3, com maiores valores durante o período chuvoso. A biomassa média em peso úmido do zooplâncton foi de 117,0 mg m-3 para o microzooplâncton e de 15,7 mg m-3 para o mesozooplâncton. Foram

  13. The natural gas as a strategic option for the development of Brazil Northeastern region; O gas natural como uma opcao estrategica para o desenvolvimento da Regiao Nordeste Setentrional do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcusso, Jose Luiz; Lima Junior, Giovanni G.B.; Nascimento Filho, Epitacio [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Gerencia de Exploracao e Producao

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents development, status and future of natural gas industry in northeastern Brazil (States of Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara), highlighting the gradual increase in product offering and showing main difficulties in achieving a larger market share. PETROBRAS (Brazilian National Oil Company) contribution for economical development of these is also pointed up. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  14. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon sp. in cats from São Luís Island, Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil.

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    de Bortoli, Caroline P; André, Marcos R; Braga, Maria do Socorro C; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2011-10-01

    Few molecular studies have been done concerning the molecular characterization of Hepatozoon species among domestic and wild felids. The present work aimed to characterize molecularly the presence of Hepatozoon sp. DNA in cat blood samples from São Luís Island, Maranhão state, Northeastern Brazil. EDTA-whole blood samples were collected from 200 domestic cats with outdoor and wood areas access from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. Each sample of extracted DNA was used as a template in PCR reactions aiming to amplify a partial sequence of 18S rRNA of Hepatozoon spp. We also performed sequence alignment to establish the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals using DNA sequences based on 18S rRNA. From 200 sampled cats, Hepatozoon DNA was only found in one animal (0.5%). The found Hepatozoon DNA showed 97% of identity with Hemobartonella felis isolates 1 and 2 from Spain. When analyzing the phylogenetic tree, the found Hepatozoon DNA was in the same clade than H. felis isolates. Our findings suggest that more than one species of Hepatozoon could infect felids in Brazil.

  15. Prevalence of refractive errors in students in Northeastern Brazil Prevalência dos erros refrativos em estudantes do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in the public and private school system in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Refractometry was performed on both eyes of 1,024 randomly selected students, enrolled in the 2001 school year and the data were evaluated by the SPSS Data Editor 10.0. Ametropia was divided into: 1- from 0.1 to 0.99 diopter (D; 2- 1.0 to 2.99D; 3- 3.00 to 5.99D and 4- 6D or greater. Astigmatism was regrouped in: I- with-the-rule (axis from 0 to 30 and 150 to 180 degrees, II- against-the-rule (axis between 60 and 120 degrees and III- oblique (axis between > 30 and 120 and OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das ametropias em estudantes das redes pública e privada de Natal-RN. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada refratometria de 2.048 olhos de estudantes matriculados no ano letivo de 2001 e os dados avaliados com planilha do SPSS Data Editor 11. As ametropias foram divididas em: 1- de 0,1 até 0,99D (dioptria; 2- 1,0 até 2,99D; 3- 3,00 até 5,99D e 4- 6D ou maior. O astigmatismo foi reagrupado em I- a favor da regra (eixo entre 0 a 30 e 150 a 180 graus, II- contra a regra (eixo entre 60 e 120 graus e III- oblíquo (eixo entre >30 e 120 e <150 graus. A faixa etária foi categorizada em 1- 5 a 10 anos, 2- 11 a 15 anos, 3- 16 a 20 anos, 4- 21anos ou mais. RESULTADOS: Dos erros refrativos, a hipermetropia foi o mais comum com 71%, em seguida astigmatismo, 34% e miopia, 13,3%. 48,5% dos míopes e 34,1% dos hipermétropes tinham astigmatismo. De acordo com as dioptrias, 58,1% dos míopes estão no grupo 1, 39% distribuídos entre os grupos 2 e 3. Os hipermétropes enquadram-se em sua maioria no grupo 1 (61,7% e o astigmatismo no mesmo grupo com 70,6%. A associação dos eixos do astigmatismo dos dois olhos mostrou 95,2% com eixo a favor da regra nos dois olhos, diminuindo a porcentagem para os do eixo contra a regra (82,1% e menor ainda para os do eixo oblíquo, apenas 50%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados

  16. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  17. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  18. The Barreiras Group in the Northeastern coast of the State of Bahia, Brazil: depositional mechanisms and processes

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    GERALDO S. VILAS BÔAS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barreiras Group is a Miocene to Lower Pleistocene continental terrigenous sedimentary deposit exhibiting a large occurrence along the Brazilian coast. In the Conde region, located in the northeastern part of the State of Bahia, the sedimentological characteristics of these sediments are indicative of a deposition as gravelly and sandy bed load in braided fluvial systems, related to alluvial fans, under an arid to semi-arid climate. The basal portion of the group is dominated by a gravelly-sandy lithofacies deposited by debris flows and pseudoplastic debris flows, with lesser occurrences of subaqueous deposits, characterizing a proximal fluvial system deposition. The upper portion is made up of gravelly-sandy sediments that include subaqueous, debris flows and pseudoplastic debris flows deposits. They suggest deposition in a more distal zone as indicated by the larger occurrence of subaqueous deposits and the presence, though rare, of downstream-accretion macroforms. Besides the climate control, deposition of the Barreiras Group was strongly influenced by the intraplate tectonism, which has been affecting the South America Platform since the Middle Miocene, when neotectonism began in Brazil.O Grupo Barreiras é uma cobertura sedimentar terrígena, de idade Miocênica a pleistocênica inferior, que tem grande ocorrência ao longo do litoral brasileiro. Na região de Conde, localizada na porção nordeste do Estado da Bahia, as características sedimentológicas desses depósitos são indicativas de uma deposição por sistemas fluviais de padrão entrelaçado, com carga de leito areno-cascalhosa, associados a leques aluviais, em condições de clima árido a semi-árido. A porção basal do grupo é dominada por litofácies areno-cascalhosas depositadas por fluxos de detritos e fluxos de detritos pseudoplásticos, com uma ocorrência menor de depósitos de fluxo subaquoso, caracterizando uma deposição em um sistema fluvial proximal. A por

  19. Characterization of leaves used in infusion preparation grown in northeastern Brazil by chemometric methods based on their multi-elemental composition

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    Maria de Fátima Lopes FERNANDES

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In many places of the world, medicinal plants represent the only form of treatment for various diseases. This work aimed to determine and correlate minerals of infusions and leaves of medicinal plants grown in Northeastern Brazil. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis and Pearson correlation were performed. The higher content of Na was for Ocimum basilicum L. (94.3 mg/100g and Datura stramonium L. (91.6 mg/100g. The plants examined had low levels of K in infusions. All samples contain Mg at significant levels. The cluster analysis divided the medicinal plants into three groups, associated with Passiflora edulis, Capraria biflora and Phyllanthus amarus. Ca and Al were the minerals that contributed most to an association between the plants in principal component 1; while K, Na and Mg contributed most in principal component 2. Furthermore, the high percentage of extraction, mainly Ca and Mg, suggests these plants could be used as potential mineral supplements.

  20. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  1. Bulk rock and mineral chemistries and ascent rates of high-K calc-alkalic epidote-bearing magmas, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasilino, R. G.; Sial, A. N.; Ferreira, V. P.; Pimentel, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    A manifestation of the Pan-African-Brasiliano orogeny (700-550 Ma) in northeastern Brazil was the emplacement of widespread Neoproterozoic granitoids in diverse tectonic terranes. Among these plutons are the magmatic epidote-bearing Conceição das Creoulas, Caldeirão Encantado, Murici, and Boqueirão plutons, located close to the boundary between the Alto Pajeú and Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro terranes. The plutons are high-K calc-alkalic granodiorites to monzogranites, with tabular K-feldspar megacrysts. Pistacite [atomic Fe+ 3/(Fe3++ Al)] in epidote in these granitoids ranges from 21 to 27%. High oxygen fugacity (log fO2 - 19 to - 13) and the preservation of epidote suggest that the magma was oxidized. Al-in-hornblende barometry indicates hornblende solidification between 6 and 8 kbar, at 620 to 780 °C according to the hornblende-plagioclase thermometer. Zircon saturation thermometry attests to a near-liquidus temperature range from 794 to 853 °C. Partial corrosion of magmatic epidote in these four plutons occurred during an interval of no more than 10-30 years, which corresponds to maximum magma ascent rates of 650-1000 m/year. Diking, associated with regional shearing, probably facilitated rapid transport of granitic magma through hot continental crust at peak metamorphism, and permitted survival of epidote that was out of equilibrium at the low pressure of final emplacement. Similarities between mineralogical composition, chemistry, and isotopic compositions (εNd(0.60Ga) between - 2 and - 5,TDM from 1.2 to 1.3 Ga, δ18O values > 10‰, V-SMOW) of these four plutons and Neoproterozoic magmatic epidote-bearing plutons elsewhere in northeastern Brazil, argue for similar metabasaltic/mafic sources that had previously experienced low-temperature alteration.

  2. Clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of college students exposed to traumatic experiences: a census of seven college institutions in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Liana R Netto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies show that most of the adult population will be exposed to at least one potentially traumatic event in the course of his/her life; adolescence and early adulthood are the most vulnerable periods of life for exposure to traumatic experiences (70% of their deaths are due to external causes. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is characterized by the development of dysfunctional symptoms that cause distress or social, academic, or occupational impairment, as result of exposure to a traumatic event. The aim of this multicentric study is to establish the proportion of college students, within seven institutions in Northeastern Brazil, who were exposed to traumatic experience and met PTSD criteria. METHODS/DESIGN: A one-phase census protocol of seven college institutions in three metropolitan regions in Northeastern Brazil was performed (April to July 2011. All students aged 18 years or older, matriculated and attending their first or final semester were eligible. The self-applied protocol consisted of a socio-demographic questionnaire and the following scales adjusted to Brazilian Portuguese standards Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ, PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C, Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. Data were entered into SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: 2213 (85.5% students consented to participate, and completely filled in the protocols. Of these, 66.1% were woman, mean age 23.9 (SD 6.3, 82.7% were single, and 57.3% attended university outside their native cities. The total PTSD prevalence was 14%, and the median for frequency of trauma exposure was 5 events. CONCLUSION: A high frequency of exposure to violence, as well as a high rate of PTSD, suicide attempts, and high-risk sexual behavior was found in Brazilian college students. This highlights the importance of effective public health actions in relation to the prevention and treatment of PTSD and other dysfunctional behaviors resulting from traumatic exposure in young individuals

  3. Vegetation dynamics during the late Pleistocene in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, based on carbon isotopes in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Ribeiro, Adauto de Souza; Gouveia, Susy Eli Marques; Aravena, Ramon; Boulet, Rene; Bendassolli, José Albertino

    2004-09-01

    The study place is in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. A vegetation transect of 78 km was studied among four vegetation types: Restinga (coastal vegetation), Cerrado (woody savanna), Cerradão (dense woody savanna), and Forest, as well as three forested sites around Lagoa do Caçó, located approximately 10 km of the transect. Soil profiles in this transect were sampled for δ13C analysis, as well as buried charcoal fragments were used for 14C dating. The data interpretation indicated that approximately between 15,000 and ˜9000 14C yr B.P., arboreal vegetation prevailed in the whole transect, probably due to the presence of a humid climate. Approximately between ˜9000 and 4000-3000 14C yr B.P., there was the expansion of the savanna, probably related to the presence of drier climate. From ˜4000-3000 14C yr B.P. to the present, the results indicated an increase in the arboreal density in the area, due to the return to a more humid and probably similar climate to the present. The presence of buried charcoal fragments in several soil depths suggested the occurrence of palaeofires during the Holocene. The vegetation dynamic inferred in this study for northeastern Brazil is in agreement with the results obtained in areas of Amazon region, based on pollen analysis of lake sediments and carbon isotope analysis of soil organic matter (SOM), implying than similar climatic conditions have affected these areas during the late Pleistocene until the present.

  4. A serological and molecular survey of Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. among dogs in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

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    Andréa Pereira da Costa

    Full Text Available This study evaluated exposure and infection by tick-borne agents (Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia spp. in 172 dogs in rural areas and 150 dogs in urban areas of the municipality of Chapadinha, state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, using molecular and serological methods. Overall, 16.1% of the sampled dogs (52/322 were seroreactive to B. vogeli, with endpoint titers ranging from 40 to 640. For E. canis, 14.6% of the dogs (47/322 were seroreactive, with endpoint titers from 80 to 163,840. Antibodies reactive to at least one of the five species of Rickettsia were detected in 18.9% of the dogs (61/322, with endpoint titers ranging from 64 to 4,096. High endpoint titers were observed for Rickettsia amblyommii. Three (0.9% and nine (2.8% canine blood samples were PCR-positive for Babesia spp. and E. canis. The ticks collected from urban dogs were all Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, whereas the rural dogs were infested by R. sanguineus s.l, Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. One A. ovale tick was found to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. This study provides an epidemiological background for controlling and preventing canine tick-borne diseases in a neglected region of Brazil.

  5. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil.

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    Rohde, Cláudia; Silva, Diva Maria Izabel O; Oliveira, Geórgia F; Monteiro, Liv S; Montes, Martín A; Garcia, Ana Cristina L

    2014-12-01

    Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments.

  6. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  7. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  8. Immunological responses of the mangrove oysters Crassostrea gasar naturally infected by Perkinsus sp. in the Mamanguape Estuary, Paraíba state (Northeastern, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando; Hégaret, Hélène; Soudant, Philippe; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Mirella da Silva, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Perkinsus genus includes protozoan parasites of marine mollusks, especially bivalves. In the last four years, this parasite has been detected in mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae and Crassostrea gasar from the Northeastern region of Brazil. Hemocytes are the key cells of the oyster immune system, being responsible for a variety of cellular and humoral reactions, such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and the release of several effector molecules that control the invasion and proliferation of microorganisms. In Brazil, there is little information on perkinsosis and none on the immune responses of native oysters' species against Perkinsus spp. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of natural infection by Perkinsus sp. on the immunological parameters of mangrove oysters C. gasar cultured in the Mamanguape River Estuary (Paraíba, Brazil). Adults oysters (N = 40/month) were sampled in December 2011, March, May, August and October 2012. Gills were removed and used to determine the presence and intensity of the Perkinsus sp. infection, according to a scale of four levels (1-4), using the Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium assay. Immunological parameters were measured in hemolymph samples by flow cytometry, including: total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), cell mortality, phagocytic capacity, and production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The plasma was used to determine the hemagglutination activity. The results showed the occurrence of Perkinsus sp. with the highest mean prevalence (93.3%) seen so far in oyster populations in Brazil. Despite that, no oyster mortality was associated. In contrast, we observed an increase in hemocyte mortality and a suppression of two of the main defense mechanisms, phagocytosis and ROS production in infected oysters. The increase in the percentage of blast-like cells on the hemolymph, and the increase in THC in oysters heavily infected (at the maximum intensity, 4) suggest an induction of

  9. Epidemiological situation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality in a municipality in northeastern Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luana Rodrigues da; Araújo, Ellen Thallita Hill; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Oliveira, Adélia Dalva da Silva; Carvalho, Patrícia Maria Gomes de; Rodrigues, Tatyanne Silva; Campelo, Viriato

    2018-01-01

    The number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths covers different segments of the population differently, making monitoring of this mortality essential. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of AIDS-related mortality in a municipality in the northeastern region of Brazil. Retrospective cross-sectional study based on data from death certificates in the mortality information system of the Health Information Center, Municipal Health Foundation, Brazil. Between 2003 and 2013, we investigated death certificates on which AIDS-related mortality was reported. Sociodemographic data, year, place, type of establishment where death occurred and underlying and associated causes that led to AIDS-related death were described. The Mann-Kendall test was used to verify the growth trend of the standardized mortality rate over the period studied. Among the 1,066 AIDS-related deaths, 69.7% were among men; 47.2% of the individuals were 28-41 years of age, 32.7% had had 4-7 years of schooling, 66.9% were pardos (mixed race), 55.7% were unmarried and 15.3% were housekeepers. Hospitals were the site of 97% of the deaths, and 91% occurred at public hospitals. Respiratory failure was the main cause of death. The prevalence of infectious and parasitic diseases was 99.0%. AIDS-related mortality increased by 160% over the period studied, from 5.5/100,000 inhabitants in 2003 to 14.3/100,000 in 2013. In the Brazilian municipality studied here, AIDS-related mortality was most prevalent among men and young adults of lower socioeconomic level. Over the period studied, the mortality rate increased.

  10. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP. This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L, whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption.

  11. Increasing efficiency in ethanol production: Water footprint and economic productivity of sugarcane ethanol under nine different water regimes in north-eastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, D.; Santiago, A. D.; Garrido, A.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol production in Brazil has grown by 219% between 2001 and 2012, increasing the use of land and water resources. In the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil, irrigation is the main way for improving sugarcane production. This study aimed at quantifying water consumed in ethanol production from sugarcane in this region using the water footprint (WF) indicator and complementing it with an evaluation of the water apparent productivity (WAP). This way we were able to provide a measure of the crop´s physical and economic water productivity using, respectively, the WF and WAP concepts. We studied sugarcane cultivation under nine different water regimes, including rainfed and full irrigation. Data from a mill of the state of Alagoas for three production seasons were used. Irrigation influenced sugarcane yield increasing total profit per hectare and economic water productivity. Full irrigation showed the lowest WF, 1229 litres of water per litre of ethanol (L/L), whereas rainfed production showed the highest WF, 1646 L/L. However, the lower WF in full irrigation as compared to the rest of the water regimes implied the use of higher volumes of blue water per cultivated hectare. Lower water regimes yielded the lowest economic productivity, 0.72 US$/m3 for rainfed production as compared to 1.11 US$/m3 for full irrigation. Since economic revenues are increased with higher water regimes, there are incentives for the development of these higher water regimes. This will lead to higher general crop water and economic productivity at field level, as green water is replaced by blue water consumption. (Author)

  12. From the Atlantic Forest to the borders of Amazonia: species richness, distribution, and host association of ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Eder; Bernard, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil. We evaluate species richness and similarity between ecoregions and tested correlations between species richness and the number of studies in each ecoregion and federative unit. We recorded 50 species and 15 genera of bat ectoparasitic flies on 36 species and 27 genera of bat hosts. The Atlantic Forest had the highest fly species richness (n = 31; 62%), followed by Caatinga (n = 27; 54%). We detected the formation of distinct groups, with low species overlap between ecoregions for both flies and bats. Fly species richness was correlated with host species richness and with the number of studies in each federative unit, but not with the number of studies by ecoregion. Due to the formation of distinct groups with low species overlap for both groups, host availability is likely to be one of the factors that most influence the occurrence of highly specific flies. We also discuss host specificity for some species, produced an updated list of species and distribution for both nycteribiid and streblid flies with information on interaction networks, and conclude by presenting recommendations for more effective inventories of bat ectoparasites in the future.

  13. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae) in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Leonardo B.; Freire,Eliza M. X.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825), as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items) in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation...

  14. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha C.F.D.; Cunha-Barros M.; Menezes V.A.; Fontes A.F.; Vrcibradic D.; Van Sluys M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hos...

  15. Out with the garbage: the parasitic strategy of the mantisfly Plega hagenella mass-infesting colonies of the eusocial bee Melipona subnitida in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Koedam, Dirk; Machado, Renato Jose Pires; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Between April and June of 2012 mantisflies ( Plega hagenella) were found to be extensively parasitizing the nests of two groups of managed colonzies of eusocial stingless bees ( Melipona subnitida) in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. The mantisfly larvae developed inside closed brood cells of the bee comb, where each mantispid larva fed on the bee larva or pupa present in a single brood cell. Mature mantispid larvae pupated inside silken cocoons spun in place within their hosts' brood cells then emerged as pharate adults inside the bee colony. Pharate adults were never attacked and killed by host colony workers. Instead, colony workers picked up the pharates and removed them from the nest unharmed, treating them similar to the way that the general refuse is removed from the nest. Adult mantispids subsequently eclosed from their pupal exuviae outside the nest. Manipulative experiments showed that post-eclosion adult mantispids placed back within active bee colonies were quickly attacked and killed. These observations demonstrate that pharate and post-eclosion adults of P. hagenella are perceived differently by colony workers and that delayed adult eclosion is an important functional element in the parasitic life strategy of P. hagenella, allowing adults to escape without injury from the bee colonies they parasitize.

  16. Soil weed seed bank in situ and ex situ at a smallholder field in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the density, floristic composition,  phytosociology and diversity of a soil weed seed bank ex situ by germination in a greenhouse and in situ by weed sampling on a smallholder corn field located in Lago Verde County, Maranhão State. Fifteen pairs of 25 m2 plots were designated. In half of these plots, 90 soil samples were collected with an open metal template measuring 25 x 16 x 3 cm and placed in a greenhouse to germinate. In the other half, 90 weed samples were collected using the same metal template. We recorded a total of 1,998 individuals from 40 species, 31 genera and 16 families, from which 659 individuals germinated in situ and 1,339 exsitu. Density was higher ex situ, with 372 plants m-2. The Cyperaceae family had the highest floristic richness with nine species, followed by the Poaceae with six. The dominant species based on the Importance Value Index were Lindernia crustacea (IVI 27.7% in situ and Scleria lithosperma (IVI 37.0% ex situ. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ, with H’ = 2.66 nats ind-1. These results could help predict infestation potential and could lead to improved weed management strategies in corn-growing areas on smallholdings in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil.

  17. Sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; Silveira, Gian Libânio da; Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra de

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and risk factors relating to gastrointestinal helminthiasis, and to characterize the sanitary management practiced among sheep herds in the Sertão region of the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil, based on factors that condition the ways of controlling these parasites in these herds. The research was carried out between April and July 2012. We visited 54 farms, where fecal and blood samples were individually collected from 465 animals. On each farm, a questionnaire was applied to gather information on variables relating to potential risk factors. The prevalence of sheep gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the region was 75.9%. At least one animal tested positive for this helminthiasis on 53 (98.1%) of the 54 farms evaluated. The eggs per gram of feces (EPG) analysis showed the following infection burdens: 51.8% with mild infection, 27.1% moderate infection, 9.9% heavy infection and 11.2% fatal infection. Among the sheep farms visited, anthelmintics were used on 81.5% (p helminthiasis, because the animals are more prone to reinfection. The Sertão region of Paraíba presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis among sheep, and the farm area is the most relevant risk factor for the development of these parasites.

  18. A new species of Centris (Centris (Fabricius from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. (C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Thiago Mahlmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, C. (C. byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species C. pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and C. byrsonimae sp. n.. Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of C. pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of C. pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of C. pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of C. byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group.

  19. Prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies and risk factors in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.

  20. Data bank for economic viability calculation of energy sources for a typical rural community at the Brazil Northern and Northeastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Vanni, Silvia Regina

    2009-01-01

    This work elaborates a data bank containing information relevant relative to energy sources in Brazil with viability and sustainability, The data bank was elaborated using the computer program Excel, where all the references are linked to the articles and to the correspondent sites. This data bank was the base for the development or the Program for the Calculation of the Economic Viability of the Alternative Energies Solar, Aeolian and Biomass (PEASEB), which results were compared to the energy generated by innovator and compact reactors (IRIS)

  1. Augen gneisses versus Augen gneisses from the Jaguaribeana Belt, northeastern region from Brazil: stratigraphy, geochemistry and U-Pb ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Jaziel Martins; Silva, Elvis Roberto da; Bertrand, Jean Michel; Leterrier, Jacques

    1997-01-01

    The Jaguaribeana Belt is located at Borborema Province, Ceara State, Brazil and this study aims to present Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) data and the augen gneisses petrographic and geochemical study of the Jaguaribe Belt, and to realize comparisons between these and the augen gneisses from the Oros Belt. It describes the geological characteristics of this region, the augen gneisses petrography and geochemical data and the U-Pb method results for a discussion about the augen gneisses from the Oros and Jaguaribe Belt

  2. The conservation of native priority medicinal plants in a Caatinga area in Ceará, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA O. SANTOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a “Caatinga” area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the “snowball” technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.

  3. Tolerance of benthic macroinvertebrates to organic enrichment in highland streams of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Aline Correa Mazzoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: the aim of this study was to determine the ecological valence of benthic macroinvertebrates at different pollution levels in highland rivers and streams of Rio Grande do Sul; METHODS: the dataset proceeds from samplings performed between 2002-2011 in 35 lotic ecosystems. The Chemical Index was used to determine pollution levels. Indices of richness and Shannon diversity were applied to characterize the structure of benthic communities. The descriptors used to determine taxa's ecological valence were selected according to Coefficient of Variation and regression analyses. Groups of tolerance were identified using Interquartile range and cluster analysis; RESULTS: Conductivity and Chemical Index were the descriptors best related with diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate community. These metrics were used to determine the tolerance range of 38 taxa. Interquartile range and cluster analysis revealed three groups of taxa, according to their occurrence in different levels of pollution: taxa with narrow amplitudes, present at sites with very low or very high load of organic enrichment; taxa with moderate amplitude, found until moderately polluted sites; and taxa with occurrence in widespread environmental conditions. The results, when compared to other studies in Brazil, showed differences in some taxa's tolerance. This observation indicates the need to assess the bioindication potential of these taxa in genus and species level; CONCLUSION: the present study contributes to increase knowledge about the bioindicator potential of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, the study supports an advanced biomonitoring of ecological quality in mountain streams of southern Brazil.

  4. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Trevizani, Nathália Abreu Borges; Dias, Letícia Sena; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça de; Melo, Bernardino Vaz de; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  5. Unraveling algae and cyanobacteria biodiversity in bromeliad phytotelmata in different vegetation formations in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Geraldo José Peixoto Ramos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of algal and cyanobacterial diversity of phytotelmata remains poorly-known, especially for bromeliads from different vegetation formations. We investigated the microalgae communities of four species of tank bromeliads from different vegetation formations in Bahia State, Northeast Brazil, highlighting the composition, richness and diversity of taxa. Sampling of water stored in bromeliads was carried out quarterly between 2014 and 2016, and abiotic variables and morphometric attributes of bromeliads were measured. A total of 89 taxa of algae and cyanobacteria were recorded for the four bromeliad species studied. The microalgae communities of the phytotelmata varied among vegetation formations, with one tank bromeliad, Alcantarea nahoumii, with more complex architecture (higher number of leaves and thus more cavities, being distinguished by its high species richness (73 taxa. The bromeliads exhibited little similarity in species composition, with only one species (Phacus polytrophos occurring in all four species. Throughout the entire sampling period, classes with higher species richness, especially due to A. nahoumii, were Zygnematophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae, which accounted for about 80 % of all species inventoried. Our results contribute to the knowledge of microalga communities of bromeliad phytotelmata in Brazil with regard to species richness and composition, as well as significant environmental characteristics.

  6. Energy balances in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation in the northeastern side of the São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de C. Victoria, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Under land and climate change scenarios, agriculture has experienced water competitions among other sectors in the São Paulo state, Brazil. On the one hand, in several occasions, in the northeastern side of this state, nowadays sugar-cane is expanding, while coffee plantations are losing space. On the other hand, both crops have replaced the natural vegetation composed by Savannah and Atlantic Coastal Forest species. Under this dynamic situation, geosciences are valuable tools for evaluating the large-scale energy and mass exchanges between these different agro-ecosystems and the lower atmosphere. For quantification of the energy balance components in these mixed agro-ecosystems, the bands 1 and 2 from the MODIS product MOD13Q1 were used throughout SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm, which was applied together with a net of 12 automatic weather stations, during the year 2015 in the main sugar cane and coffee growing regions, located at the northeastern side of the state. The fraction of the global solar radiation (RG) transformed into net radiation (Rn) was 52% for sugar cane and 53% for both, coffee and natural vegetation. The respective annual fractions of Rn used as λE were 0.68, 0.87 and 0.77, while for the sensible heat (H) fluxes they were 0.27, 0.07 and 0.16. From April to July, heat advection raised λE values above Rn promoting negative H, however these effects were much and less strong in coffee and sugar cane crops, respectively. The smallest daily Rn fraction for all agro-ecosystems was for the soil heat flux (G), with averages of 5%, 6% and 7% in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation. From the energy balance analyses, we could conclude that, sugar-cane crop presented lower annual water consumption than that for coffee crop, what can be seen as an advantage in situations of water scarcity. However, the replacement of natural vegetation by sugar cane can contribute for warming the environment, while when this

  7. Population analysis of Scomberomorus cavalla (Cuvier, 1829 (Perciformes, Scombridae from the Northern and Northeastern coast of Brazil

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    EL. Santa Brígida

    Full Text Available Scomberomorus cavalla is a pelagic fish species widely distributed on the Atlantic west coast, and a noticeable decrease in its capture level in the USA and Gulf of Mexico is occurring, compared to the levels reached by the species in the past. Likewise, in some areas of Brazil, there has been indication of over-harvesting. However, there are no molecular studies focusing on the management of such an important item. Thus, in the present study, 380 nucleotide base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region of samples from Macapá, Bragança, and Fortaleza were sequenced. Phylogenetic and population analyses revealed that there is only one panmitic population, and low levels of genetic variability were verified. These results, as well as the noticed over-harvesting of S. cavalla, represent very important data to determine the management of such stock in order to prevent a collapse or the risk of future extinction.

  8. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  9. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  10. Paleocene calcareous nannofossils biostratigraphy from the Sergipe Sub-basin, northeastern Brazil: Implications for this depositional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Oliveira, Geize Carolinne Correia; de Oliveira, Rick Souza; Monte Guerra, Rodrigo; de Lima Filho, Mario Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    This study reports on the biostratigraphy of Paleocene calcareous nannofossils and paleoenvironmental inferences based on five wells drilled on the offshore portion of the Sergipe Sub-basin. Five biostratigraphic zones were defined for the Paleocene in zones of Brazilian continental margin basins N-305, N-307, N-330, N-340 and N-350, and four hiatuses were identified based on the absence of marker species. These hiatuses were interpreted as excavations originated by turbulent to hyperpycnal flows, revealing an important application of biostratigraphy to better understand depositional environments that are often limited by little variation in lithology or low variation in the well log patterns. In Paleoecological terms, the Sergipe Sub-basin, in the Paleocene, experienced geological and environmental events similar to those of other sedimentary basins on the eastern passive continental margin of Brazil, but has a more complete biostratigraphic record of calcareous nannofossils.

  11. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  12. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

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    Raquel Patrícia Ataíde Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level, including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05: the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for

  13. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  14. Determinant Variables, Enteric Pathogen Burden, Gut Function and Immune-related Inflammatory Biomarkers Associated With Childhood Malnutrition: A Prospective Case-Control Study in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Lima, Aldo A M; Leite, Álvaro M; Di Moura, Alessandra; Lima, Noélia L; Soares, Alberto M; Abreu, Cláudia B; Filho, José Quirino; Mota, Rosa M S; Lima, Ila F N; Havt, Alexandre; Medeiros, Pedro H Q S; Prata, Mara M G; Guedes, Marjorie M; Cavalcante, Paloma A; Veras, Herlice N; Santos, Ana K S; Moore, Sean R; Pinkerton, Relana C; Houpt, Eric R; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-12-01

    Malnutrition results in serious consequences for growth and cognitive development in children. We studied select child and maternal biologic factors, socioeconomic factors, enteric pathogenic burden and gut function biomarkers in 402 children 6-24 months of age in Northeastern Brazil. In this prospective case-control study, not being fed colostrum [odds ratio (OR): 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73-6.26], maternal age ≥18 years (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.22) and no electric fan (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.22-4.96) or bicycle (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10-2.95) in the household were positively associated, and higher birth weight (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.19-0.38), larger head circumference (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.66-0.82) and shortness of breath in the last 2 weeks (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.27-0.90) were negatively associated with malnutrition. Subclinical enteric pathogen infections were common, and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infections were more prevalent in malnourished children (P = 0.045). Biomarkers such as the lactulose-mannitol test, myeloperoxidase, neopterin and calprotectin were highly elevated in both malnourished and nourished children. Nourished children had a better systemic immune response than the malnourished children, as detected by elevated serum amyloid A-1 and soluble cluster of differentiation protein 14 biomarkers (P malnutrition in children. There was a substantial subclinical enteric pathogen burden, particularly with enteroaggregative E. coli, in malnourished children.

  15. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

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    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Liming in the sugarcane burnt system and the green harvest practice affect soil bacterial community in northeastern São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Val-Moraes, Silvana Pompeia; de Macedo, Helena Suleiman; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pereira, Rodrigo Matheus; Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Mendes, Lucas William; de Figueiredo, Eduardo Barretto; La Scala, Newton; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-12-01

    Here we show that both liming the burnt sugarcane and the green harvest practice alter bacterial community structure, diversity and composition in sugarcane fields in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used to analyze changes in soil bacterial communities. The field experiment consisted of sugarcane-cultivated soils under different regimes: green sugarcane (GS), burnt sugarcane (BS), BS in soil amended with lime applied to increase soil pH (BSL), and native forest (NF) as control soil. The bacterial community structures revealed disparate patterns in sugarcane-cultivated soils and forest soil (R = 0.786, P = 0.002), and overlapping patterns were shown for the bacterial community structure among the different management regimes applied to sugarcane (R = 0.194, P = 0.002). The numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the libraries were 117, 185, 173 and 166 for NF, BS, BSL and GS, respectively. Sugarcane-cultivated soils revealed higher bacterial diversity than NF soil, with BS soil accounting for a higher richness of unique OTUs (101 unique OTUs) than NF soil (23 unique OTUs). Cluster analysis based on OTUs revealed similar bacterial communities in NF and GS soils, while the bacterial community from BS soil was most distinct from the others. Acidobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla across the different soils with Acidobacteria Gp1 accounting for a higher abundance in NF and GS soils than burnt sugarcane-cultivated soils (BS and BSL). In turn, Acidobacteria Gp4 abundance was higher in BS soils than in other soils. These differential responses in soil bacterial community structure, diversity and composition can be associated with the agricultural management, mainly liming practices, and harvest methods in the sugarcane-cultivated soils, and they can be detected shortly after harvest.

  17. Community-Based Entomological Surveillance Reveals Urban Foci of Chagas Disease Vectors in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

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    Cynara Carvalho Parente

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral.We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014. Triatomine natural T. cruzi infection was assessed by examination of insect feces by optical microscopy. Sites of triatomine capture were georeferenced through Google Earth and analyzed with ArcGIS. A total of 191 triatomines were collected, consisting of 82.2% Triatoma pseudomaculata, 7.9% Rhodnius nasutus, 5.8% T. brasiliensis, 3.7% Panstrongylus lutzi, and 0.5% P. megistus, with an overall natural infection index of 17.8%. Most infestations were reported in the districts of Dom José (36.2%, Padre Palhano (24.7%, and Alto do Cristo (10.6%. The overwhelming majority of insects (185/96.9% were captured inside houses, and most insects tended to be collected in intermittent peaks. Moreover, captured triatomines tended to constitute colonies. The acute case reported in 2008 was found to be situated within a T. pseudomaculata hotspot.The triatomine collection events carried out by dwellers were aggregated in time and space into distinct foci, suggesting that insects are intermittently and artificially introduced into the city, possibly via accidental migration from their natural reservoirs. The relatively high T. cruzi infection rate indicates considerable circulation of the parasite in these areas, increasing the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease infection. These data suggest a need to strengthen epidemiological surveillance and integrate appropriate control actions targeting triatomines, T. cruzi reservoirs, and human populations. Our data also identify Chagas

  18. Vertical and temporal variation in phytoplankton assemblages correlated with environmental conditions in the Mundaú reservoir, semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, G A S T; Moura, A N; Vilar, M C P; Cordeiro-Araújo, M K; Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community at the Mundaú reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, and to correlate it to environmental conditions over two distinct seasons, dry and rainy. Samples were collected bimonthly at eight depths in the dry and rainy season for analyses of the physical and chemical variables of the water, as well as density, abundance, dominance, species diversity index and equitability of the community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way) was used to analyse the vertical and seasonal differences, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to assess associations between phytoplankton and environmental variables Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya and Subba Raju was the only dominant species and Geitlerinema amphibium (C. Agardh) Anagnostidis, Merismopedia punctata Meyen and Synedra rumpens Kützing. Others six taxa were abundant in at least one of the samples. Distinct vertical distribution patterns were observed for the abundant taxa between depths and seasons. The cyanobacteria, with the exception of C. raciborskii, showed similar seasonal patterns, with higher densities in the dry season. The CCA showed a strong correlation between the density of the phytoplanktonic species and abiotic variables. The vertical changes in abundant taxa revealed distinct patterns regulated by the variation in the environmental factors that were directly linked to seasonality, with the success of one or more species being dependent on their life strategies and ecological needs. The present study restates the importance of environmental and seasonal factors for phytoplankton composition and distribution in a freshwater tropical reservoir through a vertical gradient.

  19. Vertical and temporal variation in phytoplankton assemblages correlated with environmental conditions in the Mundaú reservoir, semi-arid northeastern Brazil

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    GAST LIRA

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyse the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community at the Mundaú reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, and to correlate it to environmental conditions over two distinct seasons, dry and rainy. Samples were collected bimonthly at eight depths in the dry and rainy season for analyses of the physical and chemical variables of the water, as well as density, abundance, dominance, species diversity index and equitability of the community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way was used to analyse the vertical and seasonal differences, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to assess associations between phytoplankton and environmental variables Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska Seenaya and Subba Raju was the only dominant species and Geitlerinema amphibium (C. Agardh Anagnostidis, Merismopedia punctata Meyen and Synedra rumpens Kützing. Others six taxa were abundant in at least one of the samples. Distinct vertical distribution patterns were observed for the abundant taxa between depths and seasons. The cyanobacteria, with the exception of C. raciborskii, showed similar seasonal patterns, with higher densities in the dry season. The CCA showed a strong correlation between the density of the phytoplanktonic species and abiotic variables. The vertical changes in abundant taxa revealed distinct patterns regulated by the variation in the environmental factors that were directly linked to seasonality, with the success of one or more species being dependent on their life strategies and ecological needs. The present study restates the importance of environmental and seasonal factors for phytoplankton composition and distribution in a freshwater tropical reservoir through a vertical gradient.

  20. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

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    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  1. Formal education, previous interaction and perception influence the attitudes of people toward the conservation of snakes in a large urban center of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luan Tavares; Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Borges-Nojosa, Diva Maria

    2016-06-20

    The attitudes and perceptions of people toward animals are influenced by sociodemographic factors, such as formal education and gender, and by personal experience. Understanding these interactions is critical for the establishment of conservation strategies for animals that have conflictual relationships with humans, such as snakes. Our study aims to explain how perceptions and the human fear of snakes vary and are influenced by formal education and gender. In addition, it aims to show how prior interaction with these animals influence these perceptions and the human fear toward snakes and how these perceptions and fear influence the importance of conservation of these animals. We collected data from June 2010 to December 2013 using questionnaires given to 1142 visitors of a scientific serpentarium (Núcleo Regional de Ofiologia da Universidade Federal do Ceará) in the municipality of Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Negative perceptions toward snakes were less frequent according to an increase in levels of schooling. Women had more negative perceptions and were more afraid of snakes than were men. Prior interaction with snakes decreased the occurrence of negative perceptions and reduced the level of human fear of these animals. People with negative perceptions classified the conservation of snakes as not important and were more afraid of these animals. Understanding the relationship between sociodemographic factors, prior experiences, perceptions, fear, and the importance given to conservation can help to better understand human attitudes toward snakes. Environmental education activities considering gender differences, involving preliminary interaction with snakes and focusing on priority targets identified in our study, such as people with low formal education, can increase the efficiency of measures for the conservation of these animals.

  2. Ethno-ornithology and conservation of wild birds in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of birds as pets has been recognized as one of the principal threats to global avifauna. Most of the information about the use and sale of birds as pets has been limited to areas of high biodiversity and whose impacts of anthropic actions have been widely broadcast internationally, for example for the Amazon Forest and forest remnants of Southeast Asia. The Caatinga predominates in the semi-arid region of Brazil, and is one of the semi-arid biomes with the greatest biological diversity in the world, where 511 species of birds exist. Many of these birds are used as pets, a common practice in the region, which has important conservationist implications but has been little studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detail aspects of the use of birds as pets in a locality in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Information on the use of avifauna was obtained through interviews and visits to the homes of 78 wild bird keepers. A total of 41 species of birds were recorded, mostly of the families Emberizidae (n = 9 species), Columbidae (n = 7 species), Icteridae (n = 6 species) and Psittacidae (n = 3 species). The birds that were most often recorded were Paroaria dominicana (n = 79 especimens), Sporophila albogularis (n = 67), Aratinga cactorum (n = 49), Sporophila lineola (n = 36), Sicalis flaveola (n = 29) and Sporophila nigricollis (n = 27). The use of wild birds in the area studied, as an example of what occurs in other places in the semi-arid Northeast, demonstrates that such activities persist in the region, in spite of being illegal, and have been happening in clandestine or semi-clandestine manner. No statistically significant correlation were found between socioeconomic factors and keeping birds as pets reflects the cultural importance of this practice of rearing wild birds for pets in the region, which is widespread among the local population, independent of socioeconomic factors. Obviously

  3. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto Lins Ponte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%, bloating (68.5%, borborygmus (59.3% and diarrhea (46.3% compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (pT-13910 and G>A-22018 with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  4. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins; de Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares; Havt, Alexandre; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Cid, David A C; Prata, Mara de Moura Gondim; Soares, Alberto Melo; Guerrant, Richard L; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%), bloating (68.5%), borborygmus (59.3%) and diarrhea (46.3%) compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (plactose-tolerant phenotype (plactose, we found that the most effective cutoff for glucose levels obtained for lactose malabsorbers was T-13910 and G>A-22018) with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  5. Biodiversity assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates along a reservoir cascade in the lower São Francisco river (northeastern Brazil

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    M. Callisto

    Full Text Available In order to verify the cascade-system effect in benthic macroinvertebrate communities, and the implications for policy making and proposals for conservation and sustainable use of the lower portion of São Francisco river basin (Bahia State, Brazil, a three-reservoir cascade system including two stretches downstream were studied during dry (June, 1997 and rainy (March, 1998 periods. The dominant groups found were Mollusca (Melanoides tuberculata, Oligochaeta, and Chironomidae larvae. Low Shannon-Wiener and Pielou index values were found, but with no significant difference between the sampling periods. However, density and taxonomic richness were significantly different (t(0.05; 31 = -2.1945; p < 0.05; e t(0.05; 31 = -3.0600; p < 0.01 between the sampling periods, with a reduction in the number of taxaand macroinvertebrate abundance during the rainy period. An increasing gradient in benthic macroinvertebrate community structures was noted along the reservoir cascade from the first reservoir (Apolônio Sales, followed by a decrease downstream from the third reservoir of the system (Xingó. Despite the negative consequences of rapid proliferation of dams, which have caused widespread loss of freshwater habitats, the reservoir cascade system promoted an increase in benthic macroinvertebrate diversity, due to water-quality improvement along the system.

  6. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  7. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  8. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus in northeastern Brazil

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    Rocha C.F.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts’ bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100% prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets and ecology (especially microhabitat use.

  9. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

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    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  10. Niche differences between two sympatric whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer, Teiidae in the restinga habitat of northeastern Brazil

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    EJR. Dias

    Full Text Available Differences among sympatric lizard species usually result from differences in the use of three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these three. However, differences in resource utilization among sympatric species may simply reflect their specific ecological needs rather than competitive pressures. In this study, we analyzed the temporal, spatial and food niche of two congeneric teiids (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer living sympatrically in the "restinga" habitat of Abaeté in the Salvador Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil to assess the degree of niche differentiation among them. The whiptail species overlapped considerably in an hourly activity (Ojk = 0.93, in microhabitat use (Ojk = 0.97 and in the prey items consumed (Ojk = 0.89. Differences in amount of vegetation in the microhabitats used by both lizard species may have contributed to differences in the activity period and in the distribution of the main prey eaten by these lizards which may, in turn, facilitate their coexistence in Abaeté. Although sympatric C. ocellifer and C. abaetensis in Abaeté differed only slightly in their use of microhabitats, period of activity and diet, the most important niche dimension segregating the two species seemed to be the food niche.

  11. Niche differences between two sympatric whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer, Teiidae) in the restinga habitat of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, E J R; Rocha, C F D

    2007-02-01

    Differences among sympatric lizard species usually result from differences in the use of three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these three. However, differences in resource utilization among sympatric species may simply reflect their specific ecological needs rather than competitive pressures. In this study, we analyzed the temporal, spatial and food niche of two congeneric teiids (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer) living sympatrically in the "restinga" habitat of Abaeté in the Salvador Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil to assess the degree of niche differentiation among them. The whiptail species overlapped considerably in an hourly activity (Ojk = 0.93), in microhabitat use (Ojk = 0.97) and in the prey items consumed (Ojk = 0.89). Differences in amount of vegetation in the microhabitats used by both lizard species may have contributed to differences in the activity period and in the distribution of the main prey eaten by these lizards which may, in turn, facilitate their coexistence in Abaeté. Although sympatric C. ocellifer and C. abaetensis in Abaeté differed only slightly in their use of microhabitats, period of activity and diet, the most important niche dimension segregating the two species seemed to be the food niche.

  12. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Paulo Roberto Lins; de Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Quintela Soares; Havt, Alexandre; Caetano, Joselany Afio; Cid, David A C; de Moura Gondim Prata, Mara; Soares, Alberto Melo; Guerrant, Richard L; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Lima, Aldo Ângelo Moreira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%), bloating (68.5%), borborygmus (59.3%) and diarrhea (46.3%) compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (plactose-tolerant phenotype (plactose, we found that the most effective cutoff for glucose levels obtained for lactose malabsorbers was T-13910 and G>A-22018) with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL. PMID:26934237

  13. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  14. Agrosocial analysis of the family farmers’ perception on agroforestry systems in northeastern Pará state, Brazil

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    Idemê Gomes Amaral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 a case study was undertaken in agroforestry systems as practiced by family farmers in the Arapuã-Simeira colonization project, municipality of Garrafão do Norte, Pará state, in northern Brazil, with the purpose of describing and systematizing the agrosocial characteristics of the family farmers and their experiences and perceptions of agroforestry systems. The methodology consisted of field research, application of standard questionnaires, observation and discussion in group. Farmers gave preference to some perennial cultures and forest species for intercropping, and the main explication for the introduction of species in their fields was economic gain and social behavior. Multifaceted thinking is seen in the choice of agriculture products and management options, resulting in each property having a combination of different agricultural systems that are adapted to local conditions. The farmer knows better than anyone else how to determine the ideal combination for his agricultural system. The study shows the agrosocial and socialcultural trajectory of the farmers and hypothesis are advanced on what would imply the adoption of agroforestry systems in family agriculture. A systemic approach can be very useful in understanding the relationships and social processes that are important aspects of the rural and agrarian question.

  15. Aspects of peridomiciliary ecotopes in rural areas of Northeastern Brazil associated to triatomine (Hemiptera, Reduviidae infestation, vectors of Chagas disease

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    Otília Sarquis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial ecotopes of 121 peridomiciliary environments in four rural localities in the state of Ceará, Brazil, were studied and the type of material of the ecotopes was identified as triatomine infestation. Two thousand two hundred and four Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 340 Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 121 Rhodnius nasutus Stall, and 5 Panstrongylus lutzi (Neiva and Pinto were captured. Out of the 323 ecotopes found (X =2.0 ± 1.8 per dwelling such as pigpens, henhouses, corrals, perches, dovecotes, piles of roofing tiles, bricks, wood, and straw 30.3% were infested by triatomines in all different developmental stages, including eggs. A substantial number of triatomines were found in perches, however the largest infestation took place in roofing materials used in the construction of goat/sheep corrals, henhouses, and pigpens, where 98% of them were captured: 1372 triatomines were located in the roofing tile covers, 285 in the straw, 187 in the perches, 77 in the coverings of roofing tiles and straw, and 13 in the straw and wood. Among all the different pile of materials, roofing tiles were the most infested (50% followed by bricks (38.9% and woods (36.1%. T. brasiliensis colonized mainly brick piles (chi2=16.539; p < 0.05 and roofing tiles (chi2=5,090.58; p < 0.05; T. pseudomaculata preferred wood perches (chi2= 472.39; p < 0.05 and woodpiles (chi2=126.0 p < 0.05, and R. nasutus was principally found in roofing straw (chi2=384.43; p < 0.05. These findings suggest that triatomines tend to colonize peridomiciliary ecotopes similar to their original habitats.

  16. Nutritional status and adequacy of enteral nutrition in pediatric cancer patients at a reference center in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel Barbosa, J; Pedrosa, F; Coelho Cabral, P

    2012-01-01

    Individualized nutritional support is important to pediatric cancer patients and should be integrated to the overall treatment of these patients. Analyze the nutritional status of cancer patients submitted to enteral nutrition (EN) and assess the adequacy of this form of nutrition. A case series study was carried out at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of the Institute of Integrative Medicine Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, Brazil, Recife-PE) between January and December 2009. Clinical and anthropometric data were obtained from medical charts and nutritional follow-up charts. Z scores for height for age, weight for age and body mass index for age indicators (H/A, W/A and BMI/A, respectively) were calculated using the AnthroPlus program. Caloric and protein requirements were calculated based on the recommendations of the Brazilian National Council of Oncologic Nutrition. At the beginning of EN, 32.4% of the sample had short stature and 23.9% were underweight based on the BMI/A indicator. The assessment of EN adequacy demonstrated that 49.3% reached the caloric requirements and 76.1% reached the protein requirements, with maximal intakes of 65.6 Kcal/Kg/day and 1.95 g of protein/kg/day. Malnourished patients had greater mean Z scores for W/A and BMI/A at the end of EN, whereas no significant changes were found among patients with adequate nutritional status and significant reductions in these indicators were found among those with overweight or obesity. The patients either maintained or achieved a significant improvement in nutritional status, which demonstrates the importance of nutritional support and follow up during hospitalization.

  17. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

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    Francyregis A Nunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant

  18. Study of polymorphic variants of the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) and its possible effects on smoking habits of a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Neto, E S; Mágulas, J O; Sousa, J J S; Moura, A C M; Pinto, G R; Yoshioka, F K N; Canalle, R; Motta, F J N

    2014-10-20

    Previous studies have revealed a genetic component, including genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic pathway, particularly in the serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2A). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of the T102C (rs6313) and A-1438G (rs6311) polymorphisms with tobacco use in a population from northeastern Brazil. We evaluated these polymorphisms in 135 nonsmokers and 135 smokers using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies and associations of polymorphisms with smoking were assessed with the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, the Fisher exact test, and odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). There were no differences in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies between nonsmokers and smokers for A-1438G (P = 0.80) and T102C (P = 0.35). However, these polymorphisms were significantly associated with habit frequency (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 6.87, 95%CI = 1.23-38.31, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 1.06-12.75, P = 0.07), age of onset (C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.17-9.07, P = 0.03, and nicotine dependence level (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 1.17-9.18, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.13-6.99, P = 0.04; T/C: P = 0.03, OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.13-8.57, P = 0.04; T/C+C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.06, 95%CI = 1.22-7.70, P = 0.02). Therefore, these polymorphisms may not contribute significantly to smoking initiation, they do appear to be associated with habit maintenance.

  19. Isotopic variations ({delta}{sup 13} C and {delta}{sup 18} O) in Siderastrea stellata (Cnidaria-Anthozoa), Itamaraca island, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Ferreira, Valderez P.; Sial, Alcides N. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Mayeal, Elga M.; Exner, Marco Antonio [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia. Lab. de Macro e Megabentos

    1998-12-01

    Isotopic determinations for O and C were performed in coral skeletons collected in beach rocks from two localities (Orange and Catuama), Itamaraca Island, north littoral of the State of pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Large variations of {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C in corals from both localities are found, the largest ones being observed at the Orange locality {delta}{sup 13} C in this locality varies from -0.8 to +1.8% PDB and {delta}{sup 1.8} O from -5.3 to -1.8% PDB, while at the Catuama locality, they vary from -1.8 to 0.1% PDB and -3.8 to -2.7% PDB, respectively. Large variations in {delta}{sup 18} O (up to 2.5%) coupled with weakly defined positive correlation between {delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C, can be attributed to temperature variations as consequence of climatic perturbations. Temperature estimates, calculated from {delta}{sup 18} O values, assuming isotopic equilibrium with seawater, yield values between 24.9 deg C and 43.1 deg C at Orange, and from 28.4 deg C to 35 deg C at Catuama, all of them (expect one growth band from one sample) are high enough for the full development of the coral colony. Temperature average is 31.4 deg C at Orange, which is a little bit higher than that at Catuama, but both of them indicate thermal stress conditions. In all analyzed specimens, expect for one, at Orange, T increases was accompanied by decreasing in the organic activity, as suggested by corresponding negative {delta}{sup 13} C anomaly. Therefore, the observed bleaching is possibly related to thermal stress and the high T may be related to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warning event. On the other hand, anthropogenic action at Orange, local of intense tourism throughout the year, coupled with high rate of sedimentation in the region, may contribute to the observed coral bleaching. (author)

  20. Influence of tree species on the herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics in a silvopastoral system in semi-arid northeastern Brazil

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    R. S. C. Menezes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies from some semi-arid regions of the world have shown the beneficial effect of trees in silvopastoral systems, by promoting the formation of resource islands and increasing the sustainability of the system. No data are available in this respect for tree species of common occurrence in semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. In the present study, conducted in the summer of 1996, three tree species (Zyziphus joazeiro, Spondias tuberosa and Prosopis juliflora: found within Cenchrus ciliaris pastures were selected to evaluate differences on herbaceous understory and soil chemical characteristics between samples taken under the tree canopy and in open grass areas. Transects extending from the tree trunk to open grass areas were established, and soil (0-15 cm and herbaceous understory (standing live biomass in 1 m² plots samples were taken at 0, 25, 50, 100, 150 and 200% of the average canopy radius (average radius was 6.6 ± 0.5, 4.5 ± 0.5, and 5.3 ± 0.8 m for Z. joazeiro, P. juliflora, and S. tuberosa , respectively. Higher levels of soil C, N, P, Ca, Mg, K, and Na were found under the canopies of Z. joazeiro and P. juliflora: trees, as compared to open grass areas. Only soil Mg organic P were higher under the canopies of S. tuberosa trees, as compared to open grass areas. Herbaceous understory biomass was significantly lower under the canopy of S. tuberosa and P. juliflora trees (107 and 96 g m-2, respectively relatively to open grass areas (145 and 194 g m-2. No herbaceous biomass differences were found between Z. joazeiro canopies and open grass areas (107 and 87 g m-2, respectively. Among the three tree species studied, Z. joazeiro was the one that presented the greatest potential for use in a silvopastoral system at the study site, since it had a larger nutrient stock in the soil without negatively affecting herbaceous understory biomass, relatively to open grass areas.

  1. 3D modeling of magnetotelluric data unraveling the tectonic setting and sources of magmatism in the northeastern corner of Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, A. L.; Vitorello, I.; Padua, M. B.; Batista, J. C.; Fuck, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex orogenic system formed by crustal blocks of different ages, origin and evolution amalgamated during the West Gondwana convergence in late Neoproterozoic-early Phanerozoic Brasiliano Orogeny. We discuss here new magnetotelluric (MT) data collected along four linear profiles crisscrossing the northeastern corner of the province to assess its deep electrical resistivity structure. Dimensionality analysis showed that a 3D electrical structure predominates in the subsurface and thus the data were modeled by a 3D MT data inversion scheme. The modeling revealed several subvertical discontinuities, with significant lateral contrast in the overall geoelectric structure, down to upper mantle depths. A major conductivity anomaly is registered in the crust beneath Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Serido Group) and this anomaly deepens to upper mantle depths in the northwest direction below a zone of Paleoproterozoic plutons (Caico Complex). It has been suggested that the Serido Group was originally initiated as a sedimentary basin developed upon a Paleoproterozoic basement during a Neoproterozoic extension event related to a collisional foredeep of a south-dipping subduction slab, contrary to our northwest-dipping conductivity vergence. In case of the Caico Complex, because of the petrogenesis of its orthogneisses that indicates partial melting of a metasomatically enriched spinel-to garnet-bearing lherzolite with adakitic features, we also propose a subduction zone environment for its original magmatism. Considering the tenuous evidence indicating that this conductive anomaly could extend down into the upper mantle in the same region where teleseismic tomography register an attenuation of P waves, it can be concluded that this zone could also be the source of the metasomatic fluids and minerals observed along north-south Mesozoic volcanic plugs and flows of alkaline rocks and alkali basalts (Macau-Queimadas belt). In

  2. Sorovares de Salmonella em carne de eqüídeos abatidos no nordeste do Brasil Salmonella serovars in meat of horses slaughtered in northeastern Brazil

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    Ernesto Hofer

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nas décadas de 60 e 70, houve um extraordinário incremento da exportação de produtos cárneos de eqüídeos dos países da América do Sul para a Europa e Japão. Este acontecimento favoreceu o aumento de risco da veiculação de Salmonella através desses produtos, para as populações humana e animal, consumidoras. Assim, num estabelecimento industrial e exportador de carne de eqüídeos localizado no nordeste do Brasil (Pernambuco, foram analisados bacteriologicamente, 19.238 fragmentos de músculos mais externos, que revelaram 666 exames positivos referentes a 433 animais (eqüinos e asininos e resultando no isolamento de 745 cepas de Salmonella. Na amostragem foram caracterizados do ponto de vista antigênico 98 sorovares, predominantemente classificados na subespécie I (98,9% e tendo como os mais freqüentes S. Anatum, S. Carrau, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona e S. Typhimurium. Pelas análises efetuadas admite-se que as causas primordiais da presença de Salmonella nas carnes, provavelmente decorreu do contato com os excretas dos animais abatidos, bem como pela possível contaminação ambiental resultante, tendo em vista a ausência de portadores humanos, pesquisados numa parcela do pessoal.In the sixties and seventies there was an extraordinary increase in export of horse meat products to Europe and Japan. This favored an increase in risk of Salmonella outspread through those products to human and animal consumer populations. Thus, from an exporting company dealing with horse meat located in northeastern Brazil (state of Pernambuco, 19,238 fragments of more external muscles, Salmonella was isolated from 666 samples colleted from 433 animals (horses and donkeys. The serotyping of 745 isolates showed 98 serovars pertaining to 14 serogroups, predominantly classified into subspecies I (98.9%. S. Anatum, S. Carrau, S. Saintpaul, S. Agona, and S. Typhimurium were the most frequent serovars isolated. Preliminary data indicate that the primary

  3. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  4. Quantification and classification of the main environmental impacts on a Halodule wrightii seagrass meadow on a tropical island in northeastern Brazil

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    Maria Elisa Pitanga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stress mechanisms have caused a worldwide decrease in seagrasses, which are vulnerable to environmental and/or anthropogenic pressure. The loss of seagrass meadows of Halodule wrightii is reported for the littoral of Itamaracá Island (Northeastern Brazil. The present study identified the main anthropogenic factors that negatively influenced over the abundance and distribution of seagrass meadows between July and September 2007 at the Jaguaribe and Pilar Beaches, Eastern littoral of Itamaracá. Anthropogenic impact included the discharge of untreated sewage through fluvial channels, urban and commercial development along the coast, the anchoring of motorized and non-motorized boats, diverse fishing techniques and the dumping of solid waste. The data indicates that the Pilar is an environment with a higher impact index (71.43% when compared with the Jaguaribe (57.14%, standing out the number of boats with a central motor, the total number of boats, the presence of shellfish gatherers and coastal urban development. The present study reinforces the need for defining management and conservation measures for this ecosystem, which has high ecological and economic value.Múltiplos mecanismos estressores têm causado em todo mundo declínio das angiospermas marinhas, que são vulneráveis a pressões ambientais e/ou antrópicas. A perda de prados de Halodule wrightii tem sido relatada para o litoral da Ilha de Itamaracá (Nordeste do Brasil. O presente estudo identificou os principais fatores antrópicos que influenciaram negativamente na abundância e distribuição desses prados entre Julho e Setembro de 2007 nas praias de Jaguaribe e do Pilar, litoral leste de Itamaracá. O impacto antropogênico incluiu despejo de efluentes in natura nos canais fluviais, desenvolvimento urbano e comercial na linha de costa, ancoragem de embarcações motorizadas e não-motorizadas, técnicas diversas de pesca e disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os dados

  5. Assessment of carbon storage under rainforests in Humic Hapludox along a climosequence extending from the Atlantic coast to the highlands of northeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jane Kelly Silva, E-mail: janeksaraujo@gmail.com [Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Severino de Souza Júnior, Valdomiro, E-mail: valdomiro.souzajunior@ufrpe.br [Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/n, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Marques, Flávio Adriano, E-mail: flavio.marques@embrapa.br [EMBRAPA Solos/UEP Nordeste, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Rua Antônio Falcão 402, 51020-240 Recife, PE (Brazil); Voroney, Paul, E-mail: pvoroney@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, N1G 2W1 Guelph, ON (Canada); Silva Souza, Regilene Angelica da, E-mail: regilene.angelica@ufra.edu.br [Instituto de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Av. Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, 66077-830 Belém, PA (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    An understanding of the stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the umbric epipedon of Oxisols located in the tropical forests surrounded by a semi-arid region is limited but essential because of their importance in the global cycle of carbon (C). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of climatic (temperature and rainfall), soil organic matter (SOM) composition and litter on the stability of C in surfaces and subsurfaces in five Humic Oxisols along a 475-km climosequence from 143 to 963 m a.s.l. in a tropical environment in northeastern Brazil. We assessed vertical changes in SOC; soil total nitrogen (N); C from the microbial biomass; δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and the humified composition of SOM; the composition of the humin (HUM) fraction by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR); and Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at depth. The elemental and isotopic composition of the litter samples were analyzed in all areas studied. The results indicated that the current climate and recalcitrant organic compounds are not preponderant factors in the formation of the umbric epipedon, as suggested by the partial influence of temperature and rainfall on SOM. In addition, SOM was dominated by easily decomposable compounds, as indicated by the predominance of aliphatic C–H groups in the HUM fraction in the FTIR spectra; by the thermal oxidation through DSC-TG, which revealed that approximately 50% of the HUM was composed easily decomposable compounds; and by the high proportion of organic C present in the microbial biomass. Values of δ{sup 13}C showed a predominance of C3 plant-C in SOM whereas δ{sup 15}N patterns indicated that N dynamics differ among the profiles and drive the accumulation of C. These findings can help to characterize the susceptibility of these soils to changes in climate and land use and the implications for the sequestration of soil C. - Highlights: • SOM was assessed in thick umbric epipedon in areas surrounded by

  6. Ground-foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and rainfall effect on pitfall trapping in a deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil

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    Francyregis A Nunes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The semi-arid Caatinga is the fourth largest biome of Brazil, which biota still remains one of the most poorly known, especially with regard to invertebrate groups. In this study, a ground-foraging ant assemblage was surveyed during one year and the effect of rainfall on pitfall trapping was assessed. The study was performed in an area located in the municipality of Pentecoste (3º48’ S - 39º20’ W, in the State of Ceará. A 200m transect with 20 equidistant sampling points was established. Transect sampling was performed once a month during 12 months, over the period August 2008-August 2009. At each sampling point, a pitfall trap partially filled with a mixture of ethanol and monoethylene glycol was placed at the beginning of each month and remained in the field for seven days. 39 species belonging to six subfamilies and 19 genera, plus two unidentified species, were collected, with Pheidole (10 spp. and Camponotus (8 spp. being the taxa with the most species. 23 species were frequent, being found in more than 50% of the 12 transect samplings. Five species had an intermediate frequency (25 to 50%, while 13 were relatively infrequent (less than 25%. Most of the species (22 showed low occurrence, being found in less than 10% of the 240 samples (20 samples each month, during 12 months. Only five species were collected in more than 50% of the samples, those species being also responsible for most of the total abundance (number of captured individuals of all species observed each month. The speciesaccumulation curves (observed and estimated indicated that sampling sufficiency was attained, and that about 92% of the estimated ground-foraging ant fauna had been collected. 40 and 29 species were collected in the dry and rainy season, respectively, with monthly species richness ranging from 13 to 28. The total ant abundance showed a drastic decrease during the rainy season, and a negative linear correlation was found between rainfall and total ant

  7. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  8. Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid of Northeastern Brazil

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    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar as doenças que ocorrem no sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em 411 necropsias de bovinos realizadas no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2008. Dos 411 casos analisados 139 (33,81% apresentaram alterações clínicas do sistema nervoso e as fichas foram revisadas para determinar os principais achados referentes à epidemiologia, aos sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. Em 28 (20,14% casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. As principais enfermidades foram raiva (48,7% dos casos com sinais nervosos, abscessos cerebrais (7,2% incluindo três casos de abscesso da pituitária, febre catarral maligna (6,3%, botulismo (6,3%, alterações congênitas (4,5%, traumatismo (4,5%, tuberculose (2,7%, tétano (2,7%, infecção por herpesvírus bovino-5 (2,7%, encefalomielite não supurativa (2,7%, intoxicação por Prosopis juliflora (2,7%, status spongiosus congênito de causa desconhecida (1,8% e polioencefalomalacia (1,8%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (0,9% foram criptococose, listeriose, encefalite tromboembólica, linfossarcoma, tripanossomíase e babesiose por Babesia bovis.Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil were evaluated by a retrospective study of 411 cattle necropsies performed in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, from January 2000 to December 2008. Of the 411 cases analyzed, 139 (33.81% were from cattle that presented nervous signs and the records were reviewed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and macroscopic and histologic main features. Diagnosis was inconclusive in 28 cases (20.14%. In cases with diagnosis the main diseases were rabies (48.7% of the cases with nervous signs, brain abscesses (7.2% including three cases of

  9. Four new species of free-living marine nematodes of the family Desmodoridae (Nematoda: Desmodorida) and a redescription of Desmodora nini (Inglis, 1963) from the continental shelf off northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrazábal-Filho, Alexandre L; Silva, Maria Cristina Da; Esteves, André M

    2015-09-24

    Four new species of marine nematodes were collected from the continental shelf of the Potiguar Basin in northeastern Brazil. Zalonema vicentei sp. n. and Zalonema mariae sp. n. are characterized by having multispiral fovea amphidialis, lateral alae and ventral ala. These features also are found in Pseudochromadora, Desmodorella and Psammonema. They differ in the cephalic arrangement, and shape of the cephalic capsule and the fovea amphidialis. Croconema fortis sp. n. resembles Desmodora in the shape of the fovea amphidialis and cephalic capsule, but differs in the number of subcephalic setae and ornamentation on the cuticule. Desmodora paraconica sp. n. is characterized by the loop-shaped fovea amphidialis and the long conical-cylindrical tail. This species is similar to the genus Bolbonema, but differs in having the cephalic setae anterior to the fovea amphidialis. Desmodora nini is redescribed, to record details lacking in the original description.

  10. Participação social em saúde em áreas rurais do Nordeste do Brasil Social participation in health in rural northeastern Brazil

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    José Patrício Bispo Júnior

    2008-06-01

    desenvolvimento de práticas sociais de amadurecimento político e elevação da consciência cidadã.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the social participation taking place through Municipal Health Councils (MHC in two small towns in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: A qualitative, exploratory, multicase study focused on the MHCs of Lafayete Coutinho (state of Bahia and Groaíras (state of Ceará was conducted. Data were gathered from February-April 2005 through analysis of documents, direct observation of MHC meetings, and semistructured interviews. Documents analyzed included decrees, laws, and municipal regulations; city health department annual management reports; municipal health plans; and reports of municipal health conferences. MHC meeting minutes for the period between inception of these councils and 2004 were also reviewed. Interviews of 17 council members took place, eight of whom were from Lafayete Coutinho and nine from Groaíras. RESULTS: Both councils had irregular practices regarding membership structure and nomination of members, such as frequent changes in appointed members and continuous "reshuffling" of council structure. In addition, new council members were appointed each time a new mayor took charge. Sporadic frequency of meetings was also observed. In Lafayete Coutinho, of 96 meetings planned, just 37 took place; in Groaíras, of 186 meetings planned, 93 took place. Analysis of MHC efforts to formulate and control municipal health policies revealed three themes: health status of the population and public policies; organization and functioning of health services; and financial management and accounting. The interviews showed that council members were dissatisfied with the practices of the MHCs and revealed a lack of confidence in how truly representative the councils are and how much power they have. CONCLUSIONS: Social participation strategies in Brazil must be reconsidered with an angle toward promoting political responsibility and raising awareness among citizens.

  11. Three new species of the genus Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Brazil, with remarks on the other species of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Borges, D.M.; Cascon, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper three new species of the genus Adelophryne from the coastal Atlantic forest in Brazil are described. The species are separated from the two species formerly known from the Amazon forest by caatinga vegetation and a distance of at least 1600 km. A. pachydactylus from Bahia has a

  12. Barriers in access to healthcare in countries with different health systems. A cross-sectional study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Vargas, Ingrid; Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; De Paepe, Pierre; da Silva, Maria Rejane Ferreira; Unger, Jean Pierre; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2014-04-01

    There are few comprehensive studies available on barriers encountered from the initial seeking of healthcare through to the resolution of the health problem; in other words, on access in its broad domain. For Colombia and Brazil, countries with different healthcare systems but common stated principles, there have been no such analyses to date. This paper compares factors that influence access in its broad domain in two municipalities of each country, by means of a cross-sectional study based on a survey of a multistage probability sample of people who had had at least one health problem within the last three months (2163 in Colombia and 2155 in Brazil). The results reveal important barriers to healthcare access in both samples, with notable differences between and within countries, once differences in sociodemographic characteristics and health needs are accounted for. In the Colombian study areas, the greatest barriers were encountered in initial access to healthcare and in resolving the problem, and similarly when entering the health service in the Brazilian study areas. Differences can also be detected in the use of services: in Colombia greater geographical and economic barriers and the need for authorization from insurers are more relevant, whereas in Brazil, it is the limited availability of health centres, doctors and drugs that leads to longer waiting times. There are also differences according to enrolment status and insurance scheme in Colombia, and between areas in Brazil. The barriers appear to be related to the Colombian system's segmented, non-universal nature, and to the involvement of insurance companies, and to chronic underfunding of the public system in Brazil. Further research is required, but the results obtained reveal critical points to be tackled by health policies in both countries. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Vegetal test-system investigation on cytotoxicity of water from urban streams located in the northeastern region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.4924 Vegetal test-system investigation on cytotoxicity of water from urban streams located in the northeastern region of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.4924

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    Marcus Eduardo Kamide Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in consumption of water, the destruction of riparian forests and the pollution caused by humans, have severely degraded several water resources. Numerous stream crisscross the city of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil and most of their sources are scattered through the urban region. Current analysis assesses the cytotoxic potential of water from the Corregozinho, Isalto, Morangueira and Ozório streams, located within the high-populated northeastern region of Maringá, inside the urban perimeter. Root meristematic cells of Allium cepa were used as test-system. The roots of onion were prepared by Feulgen’s reaction and stained with Schiff's reagent. Results showed that there were no statistically significant changes evaluated by the chi-square test on the rates of cell division in cells of Allium cepa roots treated with the water of the streams when compared to data from controls. However, further analyses should be undertaken at different times for a periodic assessment of conditions in the streams, coupled with an awareness of the population on the environment.The increase in consumption of water, the destruction of riparian forests and the pollution caused by humans, have severely degraded several water resources. Numerous stream crisscross the city of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil and most of their sources are scattered through the urban region. Current analysis assesses the cytotoxic potential of water from the Corregozinho, Isalto, Morangueira and Ozório streams, located within the high-populated northeastern region of Maringá, inside the urban perimeter. Root meristematic cells of Allium cepa were used as test-system. The roots of onion were prepared by Feulgen’s reaction and stained with Schiff's reagent. Results showed that there were no statistically significant changes evaluated by the chi-square test on the rates of cell division in cells of Allium cepa roots treated with the water of the streams when compared to

  14. Climate change and desertification in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil | Alterações climáticas e desertificação no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil

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    Eberson Pessoa Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most discussed scientific debates of today are climate change and desertification process. However, although they represent major challenges for humanity, mostly studies of these phenomena are realized in isolation. Both because global warming is still an uncertainty in academia where two chains are facing bitterly about this issue. Therefore, this paper aims to carry out a review of the literature, trying to analyze the complex and contradictory discourses surrounding climate change and its effects on the process of desertification in northeastern Brazil (NEB, in order to evaluate different scientific contributions on this topic, as well as raising the gaps. Although studies are scarce on the issue, the evidence of climate change (greater variability in rainfall and increased frequency of extreme events - droughts and floods and intensification of desertification processes with the expansion of the Areas Susceptible to Desertification are sharp in NEB. Thus, this study aimed to contribute to the understanding of the complex phenomena of the discussion above, as well as highlighting the need for more research to planning the activities of the society.

  15. Genetic differentiation in the populations of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (1860 (Characiformes: Serrasalminae, from the river basins of northeastern Brazil

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    L. A. Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract The red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri, is an important resource for artisanal and commercial fisheries. The present study determines the genetic differentiation among P. nattereri populations from the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. The DNA was isolated using a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and the Control Region was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were sequenced using the didesoxyterminal method. A sequence of 1039 bps was obtained from the Control Region of 60 specimens, which presented 33 polymorphic sites, 41 haplotypes, һ =0.978 and π =0.009. The neutrality tests (D and Fs were significant (P < 0.05 for most of the populations analyzed. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation (72% arises between groups. The fixation index was highly significant (FST = 0.707, P < 0.00001. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that the specimens represented a monophyletic group. Genetic distances between populations varied from 0.8% to 1.9%, and were <0.5% within populations. The degree of genetic differentiation found among the stocks of P. nattereri indicates the need for the development of independent management plans for the different river basins in order to preserve the genetic variability of their populations.

  16. Higher Income and Integration into the Workforce Are the Main Factors Associated with Quality of Life in Acromegalic Patients in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuimarãesSá, Adriana Maria; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Souza, Marinilde Teles; Nascimento, Gilvan Cortês; da Silva Pereira Damianse, Sabrina; de Carvalho Rocha, Viviane Chaves; Dos Santos Faria, Manuel; de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Adalgisa

    2018-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with quality of life in patients with acromegaly with follow-up at the referral service in neuroendocrinology of the state of Maranhão, northeast Brazil. The Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acro-QoL) was used. Factors independently associated with quality of life were identified using multivariate linear regression, with p values integrated into the job market and quality of life scores in the overall domain ( β = 0.288, p = 0.003), psychological domain ( β = 0.291, p = 0.032), and personal relationship domain ( β = 0.314, p = 0.019). We also observed a positive association with income and the quality of life scores in all domains as follows: overall domain ( β = 0.037, p = 0.003), physical domain ( β = 0.988, p = 0.001), psychological domain ( β = 0.342, p = 0.008), physical appearance domain ( β = 0.270, p = 0.049), and personal relationship domain ( β = 0.315, p = 0.012). For patients with acromegaly living in one of the least developed regions of Brazil, integration into the job market and a higher income were associated with a better quality of life.

  17. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

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    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  18. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

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    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  19. Estudo epidemiológico da esquistossomose mansônica em áreas de irrigação do Nordeste brasileiro Epidemiological study on mansoni schistosomiasis in irrigation areas of Northeastern Brazil

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    Amaury D. Coutinho

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available É mundialmente reconhecida a importância das áreas de irrigação na disseminação da esquistossomose. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido no período de outubro de 1986 a dezembro de 1987 em 23 perímetros de irrigação do Nordeste semi-árido. A análise sócio-econômica-sanitária mostrou vários aspectos de interesse epidemiológico, salientando-se a presença de trabalhadores flutuantes originários de áreas endêmicas da parasitose e vivendo em más condições sanitárias nos lotes de irrigação. O estudo coprológico indicou os seguintes resultados: de 10.279 indivíduos examinados (82% da população somente 3 (três casos apresentaram-se positivos para S. mansoni. O estudo malacológico mostrou a presença exclusiva da Biomphalaria straminea em 17.188 amostras coletadas. Somente em um dos perímetros (São Gonçalo, Souza, PB foi constatada a infecção esquistossomótica ativa em 17 caramujos. Esses resultados indicam que as áreas de irrigação estudadas não constituem, no momento, problema relevante de transmissão da esquistossomose. Os autores consideram, porém, necessária uma permanente vigilância epidemiológica em todas as áreas de irrigação do Nordeste.It is acknowledged throughout the world that irrigation is very important in the dissemination of schistosomiasis. The present study, involving 23 irrigation projects in the semi-arid region of five northeastern states of Brazil, was conducted during the period of October 1986 to December 1987. Socio-economic-sanitary analysis identified a number of aspects of epidemiological importance, mainly the presence of migrant farm workers, coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis and living in poor sanitary conditions in the irrigation areas. Parasitological exams of stool samples indicated that, out of 10,229 individuals examined (82% of the population, only three were S. mansoni positive. Malacological studies identified Biomphalaria straminea as the only species

  20. Dirofilariose canina na Ilha de São Luís, Nordeste do Brasil: uma zoonose potencial Canine heartworm on São Luís Island, Northeastern Brazil: a potential zoonosis

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    Silvia Maria Mendes Ahid

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Um inquérito sobre a prevalência da dirofilariose canina foi realizado entre 1.495 cães de 64 localidades na Ilha de São Luís, de 1991 a 1994, através da pesquisa de microfilárias. Desses, 1.358 cães (12,8% positivos não tinham história pregressa conhecida, sendo 1.265 errantes (10,3% microfilarêmicos e 93 domiciliados (37,8%. A dirofilariose foi detectada em 46 das localidade, porém a prevalência da infecção aumenta consideravelmente quando se trata de cães da orla marítima, de onde procederam 47% dos animais positivos. Em alguns bairros costeiros, a prevalência é elevada, como em Olho d'Água e Calhau (46% e 43% positivos, respectivamente. A pesquisa de microfilárias em 137 cães estritamente domiciliados (DO e com história pregressa conhecida (43% microfilarêmicos permitiu a comprovação da existência de transmissão na Ilha. Este estudo é o primeiro dessa natureza e abrangência realizado no Nordeste do País. Sabendo-se que a dirofilariose é uma zoonose, e diante da elevada prevalência de cães microfilarêmicos, particularmente os domiciliados da orla marítima da Ilha, chama-se a atenção para que se considere tal parasitose como possível causa de lesões pulmonares solitárias na população humana local e naquelas assentadas em áreas com clima e paisagem semelhantes no Nordeste.A survey on the prevalence of canine heartworm was conducted in 1,495 dogs from Maranhão Island, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, from 1991 to 1994, by testing for microfilariae in blood. Of the total, 1,358 (12.8% of which were infected were dogs with no known history; they included 1,265 homeless animals (10.3% with microfilariae and 93 kept by owners at the time the survey was conducted (37.8% of which were infected. Prevalence is high among dogs captured and/or living along the seashore. Examples of such high coastal prevalence rates were found in Olho d'Água and Calhau (46% and 43%, respectively. The search for

  1. Diarrhea outbreaks in northeastern Brazil in 2013, according to media and health information systems - Surveillance of climate risk and health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Renata; Gracie, Renata; Sena, Aderita; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Barcellos, Christovam

    2016-03-01

    This study has the objective of analyzing information about diarrhea outbreaks in Brazil's northeast in the year 2013. Information came from electronic media and from health information systems. A total of 33 news events related to diarrhea outbreaks were identified, some of them mentioning causes and aggravating factors. The analysis of spatial and temporal distribution of the news, admissions and deaths showed that more than 100,000 persons were affected and, according to the news analyzed, the most affected states were Alagoas and Pernambuco, with a greater extent in the months from May to July. The use of alternative sources of water such as ponds, wells, water trucks and household water reservoirs were identified as the most immediate causes of these outbreaks. However, other underlying factors such as precarious water supply systems in the semi-arid region, the exceptional conditions of drought, considered the worst in the last 60 years, as well as the capacity of the health sector to respond to a large number of cases, should be considered to recover the context in which these outbreaks are produced.

  2. Capture techniques' use of Caranguejo-uçá crabs (Ucides cordatus) in Paraíba state (northeastern Brazil) and its socio-environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Douglas M; Ferreira, Emmanoela N; Bezerra, Dandara M M S Q; Rocha, Pollyana D; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    The present study was undertaken in two traditional communities that are located on the margins of the estuary and mangrove complex of the Mamanguape River, Paraíba state (PB), Brazil. This work describes the crabs capture techniques tapamento and redinha, and identifies the negative socio-environmental impacts of redinha, using qualitative methods (open and semi-structured interviews, guided tours, direct observation and the administration of questionnaires). Results indicate that currently only two principle techniques are used to capture Ucides cordatus: redinha and tapamento. Tapamento has a low impact in relation to redinha. Redinha was pointed out by interviewees as a system that has social impact (social conflicts, breaking of traditions, substitution and extinction of techniques) and environmental impact (less selective captures and high productivity, mangrove pollution, death of crabs caught in traps, cutting of the roots of Rhizophora mangle, micro-habitat loss resulting from galleries destroyed and polluted). Knowledge of crab harvesting carried out using these two techniques and the possible social and environmental impacts caused by redinha, can lead to more effective planning and actions towards the conservation of the species.

  3. Palynology of carcinolites and limestones from the Baunilha Grande Ecofacies of the Pirabas Formation (Miocene of Pará state, northeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Luzia; de Araújo Távora, Vladimir; Dino, Rodolfo

    2015-10-01

    The Pirabas Formation records important transgressive/regressive marine events in northern Brazil during the Miocene. Here, we present the results of a palynological analysis of four samples from finely stratified gray limestone and associated carbonate concretions bearing decapod crustacean remains. These sampled strata are representatives of the Baunilha Grande Ecofacies, and our analysis enhances the knowledge of local biostratigraphy and paleoecology. The palynoflora is dominated by taxa typical of Neogene tropical areas, such as Zonocostites ramonae (the most common species), together with Retitricolpites and Retitricolporites genera. Commonly represented are the smooth and apiculate trilete/monolete spores (Polypodiisporites, Verrucosisporites, Magnastriatites, and Deltoidospora), in conjunction with some freshwater algae (Ovoidites and Botryococcus). Gymnosperm pollen grains were absent. Marine microplankton (dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and foraminiferal test linings) are scarce, although present in all samples. The presence of the index species, Malvacipolloides maristellae and Pachydermites diederixii, co-occurring with Zonocostites ramonae and Lanagiopollis crassa, suggests that these sediments and concretions belong to the "T-13 Malvacipolloides maristellae" palynozone (Jaramillo et al., 2011), considered as late-Early Miocene in age. Palynological and sedimentological evidence further points to a predominantly continental depositional environment with a weak marine influence, as indicated by the persistent presence of sparse dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs and foraminiferal test linings, typical of a mangrove environment.

  4. Evaluation of patient’s satisfaction in a public-private health facility in Northeastern Brazil and the judicialization of healthcare

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    SILVA JUNIOR, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the degree of satisfaction of users of a public-private healthcare service in the Northeast of Brazil, as well as their level of knowledge about their rights and about the judicial procedure used to guarantee these rights. The analysis was based on the responses to a questionnaire applied to 67 patients who are users of a healthcare assistance center that is part of the Brazilian National Public Health System, at Universidade de Fortaleza. The users showed satisfaction with the services offered, seeing them as good or excellent. The main problem highlighted was the difficulty of access to medications provided by the public health system and the lack of knowledge on health-related rights. There was a low demand for justice related to health issues; this can be explained by both the low level of knowledge on the rights related to this field and the low educational level of most respondents. The improvement of the degree of satisfaction can help reduce the judicialization, even though more knowledgeable users might become more demanding and appeal more to justice. Alternative solutions for resolving disputes, such as mediation and restorative justice, can help reduce the appeal to justice.

  5. High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

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    Mariana Goveia Melo RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3, five carcinomas (5/6, one hyperplasia (1/1 and nine dysplasia cases (9/11. Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.

  6. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) (Teiidae) in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

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    Santana, G G; Vasconcellos, A; Gadelha, Y E A; Vieira, W L S; Almeida, W O; Nóbrega, R P; Alves, R R N

    2010-05-01

    The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29A females). Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%), coleopterans (23.9%) and arachnids (10.9%); termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%). There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length) between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.

  7. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

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    GG. Santana

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.

  8. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  9. Allozyme diversity and morphometrics of Melocactus paucispinus (Cactaceae) and evidence for hybridization with M. concinnus in the Chapada Diamantina, North-eastern Brazil.

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    Lambert, Sabrina Mota; Borba, Eduardo Leite; Machado, Marlon Câmara; Da Silva Andrade, Sónia Cristina

    2006-03-01

    Melocacatus paucispinus (Cactaceae) is endemic to the state of Bahia, Brazil, and due to its rarity and desirability to collectors it has been considered threatened with extinction. This species is usually sympatric and inter-fertile with M. concinnus, and morphological evidence for hybridization between them is present in some populations. Levels of genetic and morphological variation and sub-structuring in populations of these species were assessed and an attempt was made to verify the occurrence of natural hybridization between them. Genetic variability was surveyed using allozymes (12 loci) and morphological variability using multivariate morphometric analyses (17 vegetative characters) in ten populations of M. paucispinus and three of M. concinnus occurring in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia. Genetic variability was low in both species (P = 0.0-33.3, A = 1.0-1.6, H(e) = 0.000-0.123 in M. paucispinus; P = 0.0-25.0, A = 1.0-1.4, H(e) = 0.000-0.104 in M. concinnus). Deficit of heterozygotes within the populations was detected in both species, with high values of F(IS) (0.732 and 0.901 in M. paucispinus and M. concinnus, respectively). Evidence of hybridization was detected by the relative allele frequency in the two diaphorase loci. High levels of genetic (F(ST) = 0.504 in M. paucispinus and 0.349 in M. concinnus) and morphological (A = 0.20 in M. paucispinus and 0.17 in M. concinnus) structuring among populations were found. The Melocactus spp. displayed levels of genetic variability lower than the values reported for other cactus species. The evidence indicates the occurrence of introgression in both species at two sites. The high F(ST) values cannot be explained by geographical substructuring, but are consistent with hybridization. Conversely, morphological differentiation in M. paucispinus, but not in M. concinnus, is probably due to isolation by distance.

  10. Capture techniques' use of Caranguejo-uçá crabs (Ucides cordatus in Paraíba state (northeastern Brazil and its socio-environmental implications

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    Douglas M. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in two traditional communities that are located on the margins of the estuary and mangrove complex of the Mamanguape River, Paraíba state (PB, Brazil. This work describes the crabs capture techniques tapamento and redinha, and identifies the negative socio-environmental impacts of redinha, using qualitative methods (open and semi-structured interviews, guided tours, direct observation and the administration of questionnaires. Results indicate that currently only two principle techniques are used to capture Ucides cordatus: redinha and tapamento. Tapamento has a low impact in relation to redinha. Redinha was pointed out by interviewees as a system that has social impact (social conflicts, breaking of traditions, substitution and extinction of techniques and environmental impact (less selective captures and high productivity, mangrove pollution, death of crabs caught in traps, cutting of the roots of Rhizophora mangle, micro-habitat loss resulting from galleries destroyed and polluted. Knowledge of crab harvesting carried out using these two techniques and the possible social and environmental impacts caused by redinha, can lead to more effective planning and actions towards the conservation of the species.O estudo foi realizado em duas comunidades tradicionais localizadas às margens do complexo estuário-manguezal do rio Mamanguape, Paraíba (PB, Brasil. Foram descritas as técnicas de captura (tapamento e redinha, identificando os impactos socioambientais negativos provocados pela redinha na captura de caranguejos, utilizando métodos qualitativos (entrevistas abertas e semiestruturadas, turnês guiadas, observação direta e questionários. Os resultados indicaram que atualmente apenas estas técnicas são usadas na captura de Ucides cordatus. O tapamento apresenta baixo impacto em relação à redinha, que é apontada pelos entrevistados como causadora de impactos sociais (conflitos sociais, rompimento de

  11. Pollination biology of Paliavana tenuiflora (Gesneriaceae: Sinningeae in Northeastern Brazil Biologia da polinização de Paliavana tenuiflora (Gesneriaceae: Sinningeae no nordeste do Brasil

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    Patrícia Alves Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the floral biology, breeding system, visitors and pollinators of Paliavana tenuiflora were analyzed in campos rupestres in the Chapada Diamantina, Mucugê, Bahia, Brazil. Paliavana tenuiflora is a shrub with blue-violet, bell-shaped flowers, with anthesis at 11:00 h; the flowers last about six days. Large amounts of nectar are produced (volume average 15.5µL, concentration 22.7% and sugar content 5.0 mg mL-1. The amount of nectar is not related to the time of day, but concentration varied with volume. The species is self-compatible, but fruit set depends on pollinators. Although nectar is available by day and night, flowers of P. tenuiflora fit the bee pollination syndrome, and are actually pollinated by Bombusbrevivillus. However, the hummingbird Phaethornis pretrei can be considered an occasional pollinator, due to its behavior and low frequency of visits. Our results suggest a mixed pollination system, although the importance of P.pretrei as a pollinator remains to be better evaluated.No presente estudo a biologia floral, o sistema reprodutivo, os visitantes e os polinizadores de Paliavana tenuiflora foram analisados em campos rupestres na Chapada Diamantina, Mucugê, Bahia, Brasil. Paliavana tenuiflora é um arbusto com flores campanulares azul-violeta, com antese às 11:00 h, e duração das flores por aproximadamente seis dias. Grandes quantidades de néctar são produzidas (médias de volume 15,5µl, concentração 22,7% e teor de açúcar 5,0 mg µL-1. A produção de néctar não está relacionada com o período do dia, mas a concentração variou com o volume. A espécie é autocompatível, mas a formação de frutos depende de polinizadores. Apesar do néctar estar disponível de dia e de noite, P. tenuiflora se encaixa na síndrome de polinização por abelhas e, de fato, é polinizada por Bombus brevivillus. Entretanto, o beija-flor Phaethornis pretrei pode ser considerado polinizador ocasional, devido a seu

  12. Comparison of crude and adjusted mortality rates from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil Comparación de las tasas de mortalidad bruta y ajustada debida a las principales causas de muerte en el nordeste del Brasil

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    Elisabeth França

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present how the adjustment of incompleteness and misclassification of causes of death in the vital registration (VR system can contribute to more accurate estimates of the risk of mortality from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: After estimating the total numbers of deaths by age and sex in Brazil's Northeast region in 2002-2004 by correcting for undercount in the VR data, adjustment algorithms were applied to the reported cause-of-death structure. Average anual age-standardized mortality rates were computed by cause, with and without the corrections, and compared to death rates for Brazil's South region after adjustments for potential misdiagnosis. RESULTS: Death rates from ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and perinatal conditions were more than 100% higher for both sexes than what was suggested by the routine VR data. Corrected cause-specific mortality rates were higher in the Northeast region versus the South region for the majority of causes of death, including several noncommunicable conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to adjust VR data for undercount of cases reported and misdiagnoses will cause underestimation of mortality risks for the populations of the Northeast region, which are more vulnerable than those in other regions of the country. In order to more reliably understand the pattern of disease, all cause-specific mortality rates in poor populations should be adjusted.OBJETIVO: Presentar de qué manera el ajuste de los datos incompletos y de la clasificación errónea de las causas de muerte registradas en el sistema del registro civil puede ayudar a estimar los riesgos de mortalidad debida a las principales causas de muerte en el nordeste del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Después de calcular el número total de defunciones por edad y sexo en el nordeste del Brasil entre 2002 y 2004 mediante la corrección del subregistro de los datos del registro

  13. Ediacaran to Cambrian magmatic suites in the Rio Grande do Norte domain, extreme Northeastern Borborema Province (NE of Brazil): Current knowledge

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    do Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Leite; Galindo, Antonio Carlos; de Medeiros, Vladimir Cruz

    2015-03-01

    The Ediacaran-Cambrian plutonic activity is one of the most important geological features of the Rio Grande do Norte Domain (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). It is represented by several batholiths, stocks and dykes. Based on the petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristic of different rocks, this plutonic activity can be grouped in six separate suites: shoshonitic (Shos), porphyritic high-K calc-alkaline (PHKCalcAlk), equigranular high K calc-alkaline (EHKCalcAlk), calc-alkaline (CalcAlk), alkaline (Alk) and charnockitic alkaline (ChAlk). Geochemically, the Shos, CalcAlk and Alk suites are differentiated from the others, while ChAlc can be distinguished from the others in some diagrams. The greatest difficulty lies in distinguishing between the chemically similar PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. To this end, existing geochronological data as well as related petrographic and textural field aspects may be used to distinguish the two mentioned suites (PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk). Petrographically, the Shos suite has composition between gabbro/diorite and quartz monzonite. Monzogranites (with subordinate granodiorites and quartz monzonites) predominate in both PHKCalcAlk and EHKCalcAlk. Calc is composed of granodiorites to tonalites. Alc is formed by alkali feldspar granites (with subordinate alkali feldspar quartz syenites and syenogranites), whereas ChAlc has quartz mangerites and charnockites. The suites were emplaced between the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma) and Cambrian (541-485 Ma), predominantly in the Ediacaran, based on 34 U-Pb datings (zircon, titanite, monazite and columbite-tantalite), 17 Rb-Sr (whole rock) and 1 Sm-Nd (total rock and mineral) internal isochrons. The Shos suite has U-Pb ages varying from 599 ± 16 (Poço Verde pluton) to 579 ± 7 (Acari and São João do Sabugi plutons), slightly older than those of the PHKCalcAlk suite, which ranges between 591 ± 4 Ma (Totoró pluton) and 544 ± 7 Ma (São José de Espinharas pluton). The Calc

  14. Efeito da suplementação com ferro na biodisponibilidade de zinco em uma dieta regional do nordeste do Brasil Effects of supplementation with iron on the bioavailability of zinc in the regional diet of northeastern Brazil

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    Lúcia F. C. Pedrosa

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos da suplementação com ferro na biodisponibilidade de zinco de uma dieta "regional" do Nordeste (DRNE, em ratos albinos Wistar, consumindo rações à base da referida dieta (DRNE e rações controle. As rações DRNE, continham 16 mg de Zn/kg e níveis de 35 mg, 70 mg e 140mg Fe/kg. As rações controle foram elaboradas segundo o "Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets", contendo níveis de proteína, ferro e zinco ajustados aos das rações experimentais DRNE. Os parâmetros utilizados para medir a biodisponibilidade do zinco foram: Índice de Absorção Aparente do Zn e nível total de Zn nos fêmures. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a suplementação com ferro diminuiu a biodisponibilidade do Zn, e os efeitos dessa interferência foram influenciados pela qualidade da dieta e pelas proporções Fe:Zn. Tal fato deve ser considerado nas práticas que envolvem fortificação de alimentos e/ou suplementos medicamentosos, comuns nas populações com carências nutricionais.The effects of supplementation with iron on the zinc bioavailability of the regional diet of northeastern Brazil (RDN, were investigated. One assay with Wistar rats, feed on RDN and control diets was carried out. The RDN diets contained 16 mg Zn/kg and levels of 35 mg, 70 mg and 140 mg Fe/kg, respectively. The control diets were prepared according to the standards of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets, with levels of protein, iron and zinc identical to those of RDN diets. Index of apparent absorption and zinc retained in the femur of the animals were the parameters utilized to measure zinc bioavailability. The results demonstrated that the supplementation with iron decreased the zinc bioavailability, and the effects were seen to affect diet quality and the Fe:Zn ratio. This fact must be taken into consideration in practices such as the fortying of foodstuffs and the administration of vitamin-mineral supplements to populations with

  15. Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil Avaliação da saúde da ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae no Litoral Sul da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil

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    Rosana Pinho Brandão

    Full Text Available This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae.Este estudo investigou a saúde de ostras da espécie Crassostrea rhizophorae de estoques naturais do Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil, durante o verão e o inverno de 2010, em três pontos amostrais distribuídos nos estuários dos rios Maraú (Baía de Camamu e Graciosa. Um total de 180 ostras (30/ponto amostral/período foram examinadas macroscopicamente para a presença de patógenos e alterações anatômicas e posteriormente fixadas em solução de Davidson, processadas para inclusão em parafina, seccionadas e coradas com hematoxilina de Harris e eosina. A análise histológica evidenciou a presença de organismos com características similares a Rickettsia (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus em fase esporocística, metacercária inespecífica e metacestóide de Tylocephalum. As prevalências de infecção foram baixas, com exceção do

  16. Tuberculose associada à AIDS: situação de região do Nordeste brasileiro Tuberculosis associated with AIDS: the position in a Northeastern region of Brazil

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    Ligia R. S. Kerr-Pontes

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os principais aspectos da co-infecção pelo HIV e o Mycobacterium tuberculosis nos pacientes adultos assistidos pelo hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil, responsável pela notificação de 89,3% dos casos registrados no Estado, entre 1986-92. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de prontuários de pacientes maiores de 15 anos, com diagnóstico de AIDS, atendidos em hospital de referência estadual, região Nordeste do Brasil. A análise dos dados seguem o critério do Ministério da Saúde, para definição dessa doença. RESULTADOS: A tuberculose apresentou-se em 30,6% dos pacientes estudados (151/493 e foi diagnosticada até o primeiro ano após o diagnóstico da AIDS em 76,8% dos casos. Observou-se um tendência crescente na proporção de casos de tuberculose entre pacientes com AIDS conforme decresce o nível de escolaridade (INTRODUCTION: The main aspects of the HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection in the adult patients attended by the main reference hospital for infectious diseases in the State of Ceará, Brazil, responsible for the notification of 89.3% of the cases registered in the state between 1986 and 1992 were investigated. METHODOLOGY: Data were collected from the case histories of patients of more than 15 years of age with a diagnosis of AIDS, attended in a state reference hospital in Northeastern Brazil. The analysis of the data obeys the criteria of the Ministry of Health for the definition of this disease. RESULTS: Tuberculosis had been present in 30.6% of the patients studied (151/493 and it was diagnosed by the first year after the AIDS diagnosis in 76.8% of the cases. The proportion of AIDS cases with tuberculosis is significantly greater (p=0,032 among men (94.7% than among women (88.3%. An increased linear trend in the proportion of cases with tuberculosis was noticed in the AIDS cases according to the decrease in level of schooling (p<0,001. The

  17. Sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae survey in an urban transmission area of visceral leishmaniasis, Northeastern Brazil Pesquisa de flebotomíneos (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae em área urbana de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a major public health challenge in Brazil, especially in states where it is endemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of sand fly population density with environmental variables (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity in urban areas of the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. Sand flies were captured with Center Disease Control (CDC traps installed monthly in the intra and peridomicile of three houses. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 7,347 sand flies were captured, being 93.85% Lutzomyia longipalpis and 6.15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Sand flies were more commonly found in the peridomicile and there was no difference between the number of males and females. The variables rainy season as well as relative humidity and rainfall, alone or together, did not have an effect on sand fly population density. However, high temperatures had a negative effect. The study of the behavior of sand flies in specific units of endemic areas can provide input to public health authorities for planning appropriate VL vector control measures.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é um grande desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil, particularmente nos estados onde é endêmica. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação da densidade populacional de flebotomíneos com as variáveis ambientais (temperatura, precipitação de chuva e umidade relativa do ar em bairros urbanos de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados com armadilhas CDC instaladas mensalmente no intra e peridomicílio de três casas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e na regressão linear. Foram capturados 7.347 flebotomíneos, sendo 93,85% Lutzomyia longipalpis e 6,15% Lutzomyia evandroi. Os flebotomíneos foram encontrados mais comumente no peridomicílio e nenhuma diferença significativa entre o número de machos e fêmeas foi

  18. Outbreaks of rhinofacial and rhinopharyngeal zygomycosis in sheep in Paraíba, northeastern Brazil Surtos de zigomicose rinofacial e rinofaríngea em ovinos na Paraíba

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    Franklin Riet-Correa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two outbreaks of zigomycosis with rhinofacial and two other with rhinopharyngeal lesions involving fungi with filamentous coaenocytic hyphae characteristic of entomoph-thoramycetous fungi are reported in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. One outbreak of rhinofacial zygomycosis occurred during the rainy season affecting 5 sheep. Another outbreak of the clinical form affected one out of 40 sheep during the dry season. Common clinical signs of the rhinofacial infection were bilateral serosanguineous nasal discharge with swelling of nostrils, upper lip, and the skin of the face. At necropsy the nasal mucosa showed dark brownish ulcerated areas which extended from the mucocutaneous region to 10cm inside the nasal vestibule. The mucosa of the hard palate was also ulcerated. The cutting surface of nostrils and palate showed a brownish or red spongeous tissue of friable consistency. One outbreak of rhinopharyngitis took place on an irrigated coconut farm; 7 out of 60 adult sheep were affected. Another outbreak affected a sheep in a flock of 80 during the dry season. Clinical signs as noisy respiration and dyspnoea due to mechanical blockage of the nasal cavities, swelling of the nostrils, and serosanguineous nasal discharge were observed. Six out of 8 sheep in this group showed exophthalmia, keratitis and unilateral corneal ulceration of the eye. The sheep either died of their infection or were euthanized after a clinical course of 7-30 days. At necropsy there was a dense yellow exudate in the nasopharyngeal area affecting the ethmoidal region, turbinate bones, paranasal sinuses, hard and soft palates, orbital cavity, pharynges, regional muscles and lymph nodes. Histopathologically both forms of the disease showed multifocal granulomas with an eosinophilic necrotic reaction (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon containing ribbon-type coenocytic hyphae with 7-30mum in diameter similar to hyphae of zygomycetous fungi, possibly Conidiobolus spp

  19. Psychological Responses to Drought in Northeastern Brazil

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    Angela E. L. Coêlho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio de los efectos acumulativos de la sequía en el nordeste Del Brasil, evaluó las respuestas psicológicas (ansiedad, distress emocional y trastorno por estrés pós traumático de 102 individuos que vivían en la ciudad de Queimadas/Paraíba, en un área propensa a la sequía, y comparó con las respuestas de 102 personas que vivían en la ciudad de Areia/Paraíba, libre de la sequía, y de tamaño comparable con la primera. De acuerdo con lo esperado, los resultados revelaron que los residentes en el área de sequía (Queimadas tenían niveles significativamente más altos de ansiedad e distress emocional, en comparación con los residentes Del área sin problemas de sequía (Areia. En el área de sequía, las mujeres tenían niveles significativamente más altos de ansiedad y los hombres tenían niveles significativamente más altos de distress emocional, en comparación con mujeres y hombres, respectivamente, en el área sin problemas de sequía. Probablemente, debido a la vulnerabilidad de su papel social, las mujeres tenían niveles significativamente más altos de ansiedad y distress emocional si comparadas con los hombres. Como también ya se esperaba los casos de trastorno por estrés pós traumático, no se relacionaban con la sequía. Aunque descriptivos, los resultados proporcionan datos para comparaciones en el caso de agravamiento de la sequía, y ofrecen sugerencias para futuras investigaciones sobre las consecuencias psicológicas de la sequía.

  20. Mineralogy of bismutotanitalite from Northeastern. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adusumilli, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Bismutotantalite samples were identified in the Carnauba dos Dantas pegmatites (State of Rio Grande do Norte). The study of the various species includes the optical characteristics and determination of X-ray fluorescence and diffraction whose results allowed to show the existence of ordered and disordered Bismutotantalites. The degree of ''order-disorder'' has been ascribed to the complex chemical composition and possible diadoch exchange between the Bi, - Fe, - Sn, - Mn and Ta ions under influence of the varying physical and chemical conditions during the development of the pegmatite. (author) [pt

  1. A qualidade sócioambiental em assentamentos rurais do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil The socio-environmental quality of rural settlements in Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil

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    Kilvia Kalidia Sales de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O processo de Reforma Agrária é oferecido como uma possível estratégia para redução da pobreza e aumento da equidade social, mas depende de políticas públicas eficientes, tornando os agricultores beneficiados auto-sustentáveis. Objetivando apresentar as principais problemáticas socioambientais de 33 assentamentos rurais do Rio Grande do Norte (nordeste brasileiro, foram avaliados aspectos sociais, econômicos e ambientais de 631 famílias desses assentamentos e de 16 relatórios PRAD (Plano de Recuperação de Áreas Degradadas do período de 2007 a 2010. Observou-se que a emancipação de um assentamento, medida através da geração de renda, grau de escolaridade e mudanças de hábitos ambientais, não está ligada ao seu tempo de fundação, e que a sua renda pouco depende da agricultura, sendo afetada principalmente pela proximidade de centros urbanos, pelo número de aposentados na família e pela participação em programas sociais. Os dados ambientais apontam o baixo nível de escolaridade e a maior idade dos assentamentos como fatores determinantes para o aumento da degradação das Reservas Legais e Áreas de Proteção Permanentes. Esses dados sugerem que o processo de Reforma Agrária ainda é deficiente na região nordeste, não priorizando a independência social dos assentamentos e ignorando a sua temática ambiental.The Brazilian land reform is a possible strategy to reduce poverty and increase social equality, but it depends on efficient public policies capable of making the peasants self-sustainable. With the goal of presenting the main socio-economic challenges of 33 rural settlements of former landless peasants in Rio Grande do Norte State (Northeastern Brazil, we evaluated socio, economic and environmental aspects of 631 families from these settlements and 16 "Restoration Plan for Degraded Areas" (PRAD, prepared between 2007 and 2010. The emancipation of a settlement, measured through income generation, schooling

  2. The high-K calc-alkalic Serra da Lagoinha batholith, States of Ceara and Paraiba (Northeastern region, Brazil): coexistence and mixing of dioritic and quartz monzonitic to granitic magmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Gorki; Sobreira, Mauricio de Nassau de Mattos

    1999-01-01

    The Serra da Lagoinha batholith (SLB) has an outcrop area of 200 km 2 is located in the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, and intrudes schists and phylites at the border of the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro fold belt. Its southern border is defined by a major curved NE-SW sinistral transcurrent shear zone (Boqueirao dos Cochos) connecting the E-W dextral shear zones of Patos to the north and Pernambuco to the south. The SLB has three lithologic domains: the felsic porphyritic domain composed of K-feldspar megacrystic monzonitic, quartz monzonitic, quartz monzodioritic, granitic to granodioritic rocks; the k-dioritic domain composed of biotite (quartz) dioritic to tonalitic rocks and the hybrid domain composed of monzonitic and biotite (quartz) dioritic rocks. Field evidences show that these lithologic domains were produced by the coexistence and mixing of K-diorites with potassic monzonitic to granodioritic magmas. The mafic rocks are enriched in Nb, ba, and Zr and LREE in relation to the felsic porphyritic rocks. The REE patterns for mafic and felsic rocks are similar and enriched in the LREE in relation to the HREE, with (La/Yb) N varying from 22.43 to 36.10 for the felsic and from 27.21 to 58.87 for the mafic rocks. Al Τ in amphibole geobarometer (Hollister 1987) shows that amphibole crystallization in the SLB occurred at approximately 4.5 kbar. Geothermometry based on the coexistence of amphibole and plagioclase, (Blundy and Holland 1990) gives a temperature of 742 deg C. Whole rock Oxygen isotope data showed average values for mafic of δ 18 O = + 7.9 permil SMOW and for the felsic rocks of δ 18 O + 9.1 permil SMOW , suggesting either isotopic equilibrium of coexistent magmas of distinct sources or crystal fractionation process controlling the evolution from mafic to felsic rocks. Quartz corrected values for the felsic porphyritic rocks averaged δ 18 O = + 9.2 permil, suggesting that the whole rock data represent magmatic values. Sm-Nd systematics show T

  3. Compactação primária do abomaso em 14 bovinos no estado de Pernambuco Primary abomasal impaction in 14 cattle from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil

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    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2009-05-01

    roughage for feeding cows in many regions, especially during the dry season, impaction of the abomasum has been poorly reported in Brazil, probably because the condition is misdiagnosed by practitioners. The present paper aimed to accomplish a retrospective study on primary abomasal impaction in 14 cattle from Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. Eight moderate cases, without severe abdominal distention and with no rumen compaction, were treated conservatively, and four severe cases, with severe abdominal distention and rumen compaction, were treated surgically. One bull was slaughtered and one cow died without treatment. The greater number of abomasal impaction cases was in Holstein cows with six cases (42.9%, followed by crossbred cattle with five cases (35.8%, and the breeds Brown-Swiss, Nelore and Marchigiana, each with one case (21.3%. The food composition was characterized by low quality fibers and varied greatly among cases. Most frequent clinical signs were apathy, dehydration, hypomotility and ruminal bloat, intestinal hypomotility and scanty or absent feces with mucus. The hematological findings revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenemia in most cases. Ruminal fluid analysis showed compromised flora and fauna dynamics and increased chlorine ion concentration. Clinical (4/8 and chirurgical (2/4 recovery rate achieved 50%. The clinical and chirurgical methods remain as viable options for the treatment of light and severe impaction, but the prognosis is always reserved especially when associated to late pregnancy.

  4. Diversity and genetic structure in natural populations of Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes in northeastern Brazil Diversidade e estrutura genética em populações naturais de Hancornia speciosa var. speciosa Gomes no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Vilela Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree native from Brazil that belongs to Apocinaceae family, and is popularly known as Mangabeira. Its fruits are widely consumed raw or processed as fruit jam, juices and ice creams, which have made it a target of intense exploitation. The extractive activities and intense human activity on the environment of natural occurrence of H. speciosa has caused genetic erosion in the species and little is known about the ecology or genetic structure of natural populations. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of H. speciosa var. speciosa. The genetic variability was assessed using 11 allozyme loci with a sample of 164 individuals distributed in six natural populations located in the States of Pernambuco and Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The results showed a high level of genetic diversity within the species (e= 0.36 seeing that the most of the genetic variability of H. speciosa var. speciosa is within its natural populations with low difference among populations ( or = 0.081. The inbreeding values within ( = -0.555 and among populations ( =-0.428 were low showing lacking of endogamy and a surplus of heterozygotes. The estimated gene flow ( m was high, ranging from 2.20 to 13.18, indicating to be enough to prevent the effects of genetic drift and genetic differentiation among populations. The multivariate analyses indicated that there is a relationship between genetic and geographical distances, which was confirmed by a spatial pattern analysis using Mantel test (r = 0.3598; p = 0.0920 with 1000 random permutations. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation.Hancornia speciosa Gomes é uma árvore frutífera nativa do Brasil, pertencente à família Apocinaceae, e é conhecida popularmente como Mangabeira. Seus frutos são amplamente consumidos in natura ou processados como sucos, sorvetes e

  5. Plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equídeos da microrregião do Cariri Cearense Plant poisonings in ruminants and horses in Southern Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

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    Cícero Wanderlô Casimiro Bezerra

    2012-06-01

    de 53.473 bovinos, 4.799 caprinos, 9.149 ovinos e 7.060 equídeos.A survey on toxic plants for ruminants and equidae was performed on the municipalities of Juazeiro do Norte, Crato, Barbalha, and Missão Velha on the Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil. Twenty one interviews were realized with farmers, veterinary practitioners, agronomists and agriculture technicians. Poisonings by Ipomoea asarifolia mentioned in 38% and 19% interviews as toxic for bovines and sheep, respectively, and Enterolobium contotisiliquum, mentioned as toxic for cattle (47.6% of the interviews and sheep (4.7%, were more frequent. Also occur in the region poisonings by Mascagnia rigida (38% of the interviews, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (=A. macrocarpa (14%, Ricinus communis (14%, Thiloa glaucocarpa (9%, and Sorghum halepense (4% in cattle, Mimosa tenuiflora in cattle, sheep, and goats (38%, Brachiaria decumbens in sheep and cattle (38%, Manihot spp. in cattle and goats (28% , and Leucaena leucocephala in sheep and horses (4%. Several plants previously unknown as toxic, but mentioned by the respondents as poisonous, were given to experimental animals at different doses. Only Casearia commersoniana was toxic to goats at the daily doses of 20g kg-1 body weight during 2-4 days. Clinical signs, similar to those reported by the farmers, were stiffness, mild bloat, polaquiuria, vocalization, jugular engorgement and pulsation, swaying gait, falling, spasticity, paddling movements, opisthotonos, and tachyicardia and dyspnea followed by bradycardia and bradypnea. Deaths occurred 6 and 19 hours after first clinical signs. No significant gross or histologic lesions were observed. It is concluded that poisonings by plants are important cause of losses in the region, which has a population of 53,473 bovines, 4,799 goats, 9,149 sheep, and 7,060 equidae.

  6. Isolation of rabies virus from the parotid salivary glands of foxes (Pseudalopex vetulus from Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil Isolamento de vírus rábico de glândulas salivares parótidas de raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rabies virus in the parotid salivary glands, 12 road-killed rabies-positive hoary foxes (Pseudoalopex vetulus were tested by using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT. All 12 parotid salivary glands were positive for both tests, although in some cases several passages were required. The findings of this study support the importance of the hoary fox as rabies reservoir in the semi-arid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil.Para determinar a presença de vírus rábico em glândulas salivares parótidas, 12 raposas (Pseudalopex vetulus atropeladas em rodovias e positivas para raiva foram testadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e teste de inoculação em camundongos (IC. Todas as 12 glândulas salivares parótidas foram positivas em ambos os testes, embora, em alguns casos, várias passagens terem sido necessárias. Os achados do presente trabalho reforçam a importância das raposas como reservatórios de raiva no semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil.

  7. Prevalência de extremos antropométricos em crianças do estado de Alagoas Prevalencia de extremos antropométricos en niños del estado de Alagoas, Noreste de Brasil Prevalence of extreme anthropometric measurements in children from Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo foi estimar a prevalência de extremos antropométricos indicativos do estado nutricional de crianças. Realizou-se estudo transversal com amostra probabilística de 1.386 crianças menores de cinco anos do estado de Alagoas. As prevalências de déficits (z El objetivo del artículo fue estimar la prevalencia de extremos antropométricos indicativos del estado nutricional de niños. Se realizó estudio transversal con muestra probabilística de 1.386 niños menores de cinco años del estado de Alagoas. Las prevalencias de déficit (zThe objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of extreme anthropometric measurements in children indicative of their nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 1,386 children under five in the state of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of deficits (z <-2; WHO-2006 standard for weight-for-age (underweight, weight-for-height (wasting and height-for-age (stunting were 2.9% (n = 40, 1.2% (n = 17, and 10.3% (n = 144, respectively. Excess of weight-for-height (overweight was seen in 135 children (9.7%. In conclusion, the prevalences of underweight and wasting are epidemiologically irrelevant and stunting and overweight have a similar prevalence.

  8. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist Espécies necrófagas de Diptera e Coleoptera na Região Nordeste do Brasil: estado da arte e desafios para o Entomologista Forense

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    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.Inventários de insetos necrófagos no Brasil abordam em sua maioria espécies das regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do país. Esta revisão visa apresentar um checklist de espécies necrófagas de Diptera e Coleoptera de importância forense no Nordeste brasileiro, uma área que concentra elevadas taxas de homicídio. Nós conduzimos uma revisão bibliográfica consultando artigos, teses e dissertações sobre espécies necrófagas na região, e contatamos cientistas que desenvolvem pesquisa em entomologia forense. Cinquenta e duas esp

  9. Liquefied natural gas as an instrument of enhancing natural gas markets in Northeastern Brazil; Gas natural liquefeito: o indutor da massificacao do uso do gas natural no nordeste brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho, Emilio Jose Rocha; Nobre, Junior, Ernesto Ferreira; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Mestrado em Engenharia de Transportes; br, nobre@nupeltd ufc; br, barruda@nupeltd ufc; Praca, Eduardo Rocha [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa, Transporte, Logistica e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian Government, through the Program of massification of the use of the natural gas (NG), it tries to motivate the increase of the participation of this fuel in the national energy head office, stimulating his/her use in the most several sections. In the specific case of the Northeast, where thankfully problems of offer of this energy one exist, the discussion fits if the current proposal of the construction of costly gas pipelines should be implemented or she should use alternative forms to supply the demand for NG of the area (virtual gas pipelines: LNG or CNG). These technologies can induce the use in mass of NG, allowing not only the use of this energy nobleman for great consumers, as well as for the small ones, stimulating the increase of the energy efficiency. This article has as objective to do a reflection on the Northeastern market of NG and the forms of provisioning, using LNG, of areas now no assisted by the mesh of gas pipelines and that you/they are potential consuming. Before that solution alternatives will be discussed for a crucial subject in the expansion of the market of NG: the need of the construction of gas pipelines to supply markets no formed. Corroborating, like this, with the Plan of massification of the use of NG, generating alternative subsidies for the projects of expansion of markets of the energy. (author)

  10. Investigation of an outbreak of endemic coccidioidomycosis in Brazil's northeastern state of Piauí with a review of the occurrence and distribution of Coccidioides immitis in three other Brazilian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, B; Lazera, M; Monteiro, P C; Lima, F C; Leal, M J; Ferreira Filho, P L; Kaufman, L; Pinner, R W; Ajello, L

    1999-11-01

    An outbreak of coccidioidomycosis is described that involved three individuals and eight of their dogs, who had engaged in a successful hunt for nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the environs of Oeiras, a community in Brazil's north eastern state of Piauí. Diagnosis was based on clinical, serological and cultural findings. Four of 24 soil samples collected in and around the burrow of an armadillo yielded cultures of Coccidioides immitis, thus establishing the endemicity of that mould in the state of Piauí. A literature review revealed that C. immitis, aside from that state, is endemic in three other Brazilian states--Bahia, Ceará and Maranhão. These four contiguous states have semi-arid regions where climatic conditions and their flora are similar to those that exist in C. immitis's endemic regions in North, Central and South America.

  11. Spatial variation in the structure and composition of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil Variação espacial na estrutura da comunidade herbácea em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid environments of the world, microhabitats serve as models for the structure of vegetation communities. The goal of this study was to identify differences in the structures of the herbaceous communities growing on a crystalline substrate and those growing on a sedimentary substrate in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. One hundred 1 × 1 m plots were established in each area for quantitative sampling, with 69 species recorded in the crystalline area and 76 in the sedimentary area. The average plant density was higher in the sedimentary area, and average diameters and heights were greater in the crystalline area. The families and species with a high Importance Value Index (IVI and a high Mixed Ecological Value Index (MEVI differed between the areas. Of the species with high densities, only four were found in both areas. Shannon-Weiner diversity index values in the crystalline (2.96 nats/ind.-1 and sedimentary (2.89 nats/ind.-1 areas were similar. Evenness values on both substrates were also similar (0.72 and 0.71 in the crystalline and sedimentary areas, respectively. This study shows that variations in plant establishment conditions between crystalline and sedimentary areas in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil should be considered as structure-modeling factors for the herbaceous community.Nos ambientes áridos e semiáridos do mundo, os micro-habitats modelam a estrutura das comunidades vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar diferenças nas estruturas das comunidades herbáceas instaladas sobre o solo do embasamento cristalino e a bacia sedimentar em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Foram estabelecidas 100 parcelas de 1 × 1 m em cada área para amostragem das comunidades. Foram registradas 69 espécies na área cristalina e 76 na área sedimentar. A densidade média das plantas foi maior na área sedimentar e os diâmetros e as alturas médias foram maiores na área cristalina. As fam

  12. Geology and geophysics of the Vila Nova Greenstone Belt, northeastern portion of the Amazonian Craton, Amapa, Brazil; Geologia e geofisica do greenstone belt Vila Nova, porcao NE do Craton Amazonico, Amapa, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, Cristiano; Philipp, Ruy Paulo, E-mail: cborghetti@terra.com.br, E-mail: ruy.philipp@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    A few outcrops and strong weathering conditions prevail in the region of the Vila Nova Greenstone Belt in the southeastern Amapa (Brazil). This paper describes the use of airborne geophysical data for geological and structural analysis during geological mapping. This integration aims to improve the geological and tectonic understanding of this portion of the Amazonian Craton. The magnetometric and gamma-spectrometric qualitative interpretation of the images took place in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Recognition of magnetometric and gamma-ray spectrometric units present in the study area was based on the hierarchical classification of polygons outlined by visual interpretation. The major geological domains and the structural patterns were defined by integration of geophysical data, geological mapping and petrographic analysis. The results allowed the recognition of Archean basement rocks composed of orthogneisses and granitoids of the Tumucumaque Complex, the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Vila Nova Complex and Paleoproterozoic granite massifs. The integration of geophysical and field data resulted in the increase of the geological mapping definition, highlighting the importance of this methodology for recognition of complex structural and lithological fabrics in areas of difficult access and scarce fresh rock outcrops. (author)

  13. Study of new occurrences of plastic (ball) clays from northeastern Brazil for use in refractory ceramics; Estudo de novas ocorrencias de argilas plasticas (ball clays) do nordeste do Brasil para uso em ceramicas refratarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaxo, J.M.; Bastos, P. de M.; Santana, L.N.L.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C., E-mail: julianamelo25@gmail.com, E-mail: paulos@cstr.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: lisiane.navarro@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: romualdo.menezes@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: gelmires.neves@ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: heber.ferreira@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-10-15

    The northeast of Brazil has large deposits of ball clays generally situated in Barreiras Formation and are used in white ceramic and refractory materials. These clays are composed of secondary kaolinite and organic matter, being very plastic and when subjected to elevated temperatures burn with white colors and present phase transformations showing mainly crystals formation of mullite and cristobalite. This work aims to study new deposits of ball clays in order to use them to refractory materials production. The clays were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, refractoriness, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples were pressed and sintered at 1000, 1150, 1250, 1280 and 1400 °C. The characterization after firing was carried out by XRD and SEM. Then, the physical and mechanical properties - absorption, porosity and flexural strength, were determined. The results showed that the clays presented formation of mullite crystals with physical, chemical and mineralogical properties suitable for use in refractory ceramics. (author)

  14. The influence of El Niño and edge effects on the reproductive phenology and floral visitors of Eschweilera tetrapetala Mori (Lecythidaceae, an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil

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    Isiara Silva Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the reproductive phenology and floral visitors of Eschweilera tetrapetala growing along the edge and in the interior of a submontane forest in the Chapada Diamantina mountains, Bahia State, Brazil. We sought to determine if there were inter-annual differences in intensity and seasonality associated with environmental conditions, and if there were differences in floral visitors between the two environmental contexts. Phenological observations were performed for three years, and included the occurrence of an El Niño event. We applied circular statistics to detect seasonal trends, performed cross correlations between phenophases and climate, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for inter-annual variation, and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test for edge-interior differences in the species richness of floral visitors. We observed inter-annual variations in the intensity and seasonality of flower production that accompanied variations in rainfall, possibly associated with El Niño events. Floral visitor richness differed between the forest edge and interior, with seven species recorded for the interior and only one for the edge. Reduced fruit set was also observed at the forest edge. This study contributes to our understanding of the influence of El Niño and edge effects on the reproductive phenologies of tropical plants.

  15. The Brazilian Northeastern paleoclimate according to the isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischkorn, Horst; Santiago, Maria Marlucia Freitas

    1992-01-01

    This work interprets measures in deep well waters of the Serra Grande aquifer from the Piaui State. It uses the temperature and quantity effects on the oxygen isotopic composition in the pluvial water, together the noble gases analysis dissolved in water and 14 C dating in the bicarbonates to establish a time scale, aiming to reconstruct the Brazil Northeastern region paleoclimate at the Pleistocene final era, as well as to elucidate the hydric resources formation conditions (that date from this epoch) in the deep aquifers of the region sedimentary basins

  16. Structure of bee-flower system in the coastal sand dune of Abaeté, northeastern Brazil Estrutura do sistema abelha-flor nas dunas litorâneas de Abaeté, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Blandina F. Viana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For twelve months (from January to December of 1996 we investigated bee-flower interactions in a sea coastal ecosystem in Bahia, Brazil. Samples were taken three times each month. 3983 individuals belonging to 49 bee species, grouped in 13 morph-functional categories, visited 66 plant species belonging to 39 botanic families. It was observed 310 interactions between bees and plants at species level. The use of floral resources by bees was not homogeneous; most of the plant species received a low number of visitors. No restricted plant-bee species relationship in resource use concerning the subset of analyzed interactions was detected. In Abaeté the generalist relationships predominated.As interações entre abelhas e flores foram investigadas três vezes por mês, durante doze meses (entre janeiro a dezembro de 1996 em um ambiente de dunas litorâneas com vegetação de restinga no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram amostrados 3983 indivíduos de abelhas pertencentes a 49 espécies, agrupadas em 13 categorias morfo-funcionais. Essas visitaram 66 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 39 famílias vegetais. Trezentos e dez (310 interações entre abelhas e plantas, em nível de espécie foram observadas. O uso de recursos florais por abelhas não foi homogêneo, a maioria das espécies de plantas recebeu um baixo número de visitantes. Não foi notada nenhuma relação especializada, em nível de espécie, entre plantas e abelhas no subconjunto de interações analisadas. Em Abaeté, houve predominância de relações de generalistas.

  17. Perfil de utilização de medicamentos por idosos em área urbana do Nordeste do Brasil Medication use patterns among elderly people in urban area in Northeastern Brazil

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    João Macêdo Coelho Filho

    2004-08-01

    medicamentos entre idosos no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To identify medication use patterns among elderly people residing in areas with different socioeconomic status in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 668 elderly (aged 60 years or older residing in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, selected from a multistage random sampling stratified by socioeconomic status (higher, intermediate, and lower areas, were interviewed in a household survey. Descriptive statistics for dichotomous variables were presented as percent of the respective totals, and those for continuous variables as mean ± SD. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the use of prescription, non-prescription and inappropriate drugs. RESULTS: Most (80.3% in the hgiher area were on at least one non- prescription drug. More than one third (37.4% were on at least one non- prescription drug and nearly 20% used at least one inappropriate in the lower area. PD use was associated with advanced age (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.8; male sex (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.3-0.7; health service visits (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.9-3.1; chronic diseases (OR=4.0, 95% CI=2.5-6.2; and higher socioeconomic status (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.5-2.6.Non- prescription drug use was associated with disability (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.2, and higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.5-0.8. Inappropriate drugs use was mainly associated with male sex (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-0.8; chronic diseases (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2-3.3; and higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5-0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of elderly using prescription, non- prescription and inappropriate drugs were remarkable and inequalities were seen particularly among those from different socioeconomic status. These results emphasize the need for strategies to optimize the access and rationalize the use of drugs for elderly people in Brazil.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases in northeastern, Brazil Caracterização clínica e epidemiológica dos casos de dengue hemorrágica no nordeste do Brasil

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    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The dengue hemorrhagic dengue (DHF remains an important public health problem in Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of DHF cases during the 2003 epidemic in Ceará. METHODS: Suspected DHF cases with onset of symptoms between January and December 2003 were investigated. RESULTS: 37,964 classic dengue cases and 291 DHF cases were reported. Among the cases discarded, 75.5% were serologically positive but did not meet the criteria recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. The DHF patients' median age was 30 years (2 - 88. Among the hemorrhagic manifestations, petechiae were the most (32.6% frequent. Cases of gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, pericardial pleural effusion, hepatomegaly, hypotension and shock showed higher risk of progression to death (p INTRODUÇÃO: A febre hemorrágica do dengue (FHD permanece como um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os aspectos epidemiológicos dos casos de dengue hemorrágico durante a epidemia de 2003, no Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados os casos suspeitos de FHD, com início de sintomas no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Foram reportados 37.964 casos de dengue clássica, com 291 casos de FHD. Entre os casos descartados, 75,5% apresentaram sorologia positiva, mas não preenchem os critérios recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. A mediana de idade dos pacientes com FHD foi de 30 anos (2 - 88. Para manifestações hemorrágicas, as petéquias com 32,6% foram as mais frequentes. Os casos de hemorragia digestiva, ascite, derrame pleural e pericárdico, hepatomegalia, hipotensão e choque apresentaram maior risco de progressão para óbito (p <0,05. CONCLUSÕES: A introdução de um novo sorotipo (DENV-3 no Ceará, encontrando a população suscetível e a alta densidade do vetor podem ter sido os principais responsáveis pela magnitude da epidemia. A

  19. Hemograma, proteinograma, ionograma e dosagens bioquímicas e enzimáticas de ovinos acometidos por conidiobolomicose no nordeste do Brasil Hematology and blood biochemistry in sheep with conidiobolomycosis in northeastern Brazil

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    Maria do Carmo de S. Batista

    2009-01-01

    , hypoproteinemia (hypoglobulinemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and increased values of phosphorus. Serum activities of AST and GGT were increased and serum activity of FA decreased. Serum values of urea and creatinine were within normal values. Hypoglycemia and hyperbilirrubinemia were also observed. These results can be used for experimental studies with the disease, for treatments trials, and to detect early cases of the disease without clinical signs. Otherwise the hematologic and blood biochemistry values of healthy sheep can be used as reference values for hair sheep in the semi-arid region of Brazil.

  20. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares como indicadores da recuperação de áreas degradadas no nordeste do Brasil Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as indicators of the recovery of degraded areas in northeastern Brazil

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    Romero Francisco Vieira Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se atributos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na região sob desertificação de Gilbués, PI, Brasil, objetivando monitorar áreas sob diferentes níveis de degradação e recuperação do solo. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na camada de 0-0,2 m, durante o período seco de 2009 em quatro áreas pertencentes a um Argissolo, visualmente definidas como: REC - área em recuperação por contenção da erosão e plantio de gramíneas e leguminosas exóticas; DEG- área altamente degradada; IDEG - área moderadamente degradada; MN - área de vegetação nativa. Foram analisados a colonização radicular, o número mais provável de propágulos infectivos (NMP, índices de diversidade (Shannon-Wiener, diversidade e dominância de Simpson, equitabilidade de Pielou e Margalef e os atributos químicos do solo pH, H+Al, fósforo e matéria orgânica, usados como variáveis explicativas da variabilidade de atributos dos FMAs por meio de análises multivariadas. A colonização radicular e o NMP de propágulos foram superiores em REC. Os índices de Shannon-Wiener, dominância de Simpson e Margalef foram menores na área DEG, demonstrando serem bons indicadores de alterações na comunidade de FMAs em áreas degradadas. Pela análise de agrupamento hierárquico, a área DEG teve maior dissimilaridade em relação às demais. Pela análise por componentes principais, os índices de Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, de Simpson, a dominância de Simpson e os teores de fósforo foram os parâmetros que mais explicaram a variância total.Attributes of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were evaluated in a region in the process of desertification at Gilbués, Piauí, Brazil, with the objective of monitoring areas with different levels of soil degradation and recovery. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 0.2 m during the dry season of 2009 in four areas of ultisol, which were visually defined as: REC - an area under recovery by erosion

  1. Aspectos relacionados à administração e conservação de vacinas em centros de saúde no Nordeste do Brasil Aspects related to vaccine management and preservation in healthcare centers in the Northeastern Brazil

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    Geisy Lanne Muniz Luna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo caracteriza a experiência e atualização do conhecimento sobre imunização da equipe de enfermagem responsável pelas salas de vacinas, descreve as condições de trabalho nesse setor a partir da visão dessa equipe e identifica os procedimentos e atividades diárias realizados por esses profissionais. Trata-se de estudo transversal, realizado em 2007, nas salas de vacinas de 11 Centros de Saúde da Família (CSF em Fortaleza (CE, com a participação de 22 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. Utilizou check-list e questionário autoaplicável como instrumentos de coleta. Entre as participantes, 44,4% das enfermeiras e 30,8% dos técnicos/auxiliares têm mais de cinco anos de experiência; 55,6% das enfermeiras não possuíam treinamento em vacinas; 88,9% das enfermeiras e 76,9% dos outros profissionais se mantêm atualizados consultando livros, manuais e Internet. Detectaram-se lacunas quanto a estrutura física, verificação e registro do mapa de temperatura e orientações sobre os efeitos pósvacinais na maioria das salas estudadas. O estudo sinaliza que gerenciar o trabalho com imunobiológicos requer conhecimento e treinamento específico para que se possa ofertar serviço de qualidade e que não comprometa a erradicação e o controle de doenças imunopreveníveis.This study characterizes the expertise and updated knowledge on immunization of nursing team responsible for vaccine rooms; it describes the work conditions in that sector from the team's view, and identifies the procedures and daily activities performed by such professionals. This cross-sectional study conducted in 2007 in vaccine rooms of 11 Family Healthcare Centers (CSF in Fortaleza (CE, Brazil, involved 22 nursing team professionals and used a checklist and self-applicable questionnaire as the survey instrument. Among the participants, 44.4% were nurses and 30.8% technicians/assistants have an experience of more than five years; 55.6% of the nurses had

  2. Composição florística de uma comunidade savânica no Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil Floristic composition of a savanna community in Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil

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    Ana Cláudia Pereira de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    species recorded, 73 are associated with Cerrado, 69 also with Caatinga, 60 with Atlantic Forest, 47 with Amazonian forest, 14 with the Pantanal and 11 with the Pampa flora. Thirty-nine species are first listed for Rio Grande do Norte (RN; Stylosanthes gracilis Kunth (Fabaceae and Aristida laevis (Nees Kunth (Poaceae are first records for the Northeast of Brazil. Aspilia procumbens Baker (Asteraceae showed a restricted distribution in the state and is listed as critically endangered. Stilpnopappus cearensis Hobber is listed as vulnerable to extinction. It was concluded that this area can be floristically classified as Cerrado, which points to a key area for conservation.

  3. Epidemia de dengue em Fortaleza, Ceará: inquérito soro-epidemiológico aleatório Dengue epidemic in a Northeastern Brazil: random epidemiological serum survey

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    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Seguindo-se à epidemia de dengue (DEN, em 1994, em Fortaleza, Ceará, causada pelo sorotipo 2 (DEN-2, realizou-se inquérito soro-epidemiológico aleatório para avaliar e dimensionar o impacto da mesma e a prevalência do dengue por distrito sanitário. MÉTODO: Foi aplicado questionário contendo informações gerais, condições socio-econômicas, informações sobre o quadro clínico e tempo de doença. A amostra foi calculada para estimar uma prevalência de 20%, com erro relativo de 10%, e intervalo de confiança de 95% (erro a de 5%. O sorteio e as análises foram realizadas por meio de computador usando programas apropriados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Foram colhidas 1.341 amostras de soro de 9 distritos sanitários, testadas por inibição da hemaglutinação, sendo classificadas como negativas e positivas (respostas primária - RP e secundária - RS. Foram reativas 588 (44% amostras, sendo 93 (7% RP e 495 (37% RS. A prevalência global em Fortaleza variou de 21% a 71%. Houve 41% (243/588 de infecções assintomáticas (IA e 59% (346/588 sintomáticas (IS. Não houve diferença da prevalência quanto ao sexo, faixa etária e escolaridade, ao contrário da condição socioeconômica que apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p OBJECTIVE: A seroepidemiological random survey was carried out in Fortaleza city, State of Ceará, Brazil, following an epidemic of dengue virus type 2 (DEN 2, with the purpose of evaluating the frequency of clinical manifestations (signs and symptoms and the prevalence of dengue infection. METHOD: A questionnaire calling for information on address, sex, age, clinical, epidemiological and economic status was applied to the population, followed by venupuncture collection of 5-10 ml of blood for testing by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI. The sample was calculated to obtain a prevalence of 20% with relative risk of 10% and confidence interval of 95%. All information obtained was analyzed by

  4. Taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence in a small village from Northeastern Brazil Prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose em Mulungu do Morro, Bahia

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    Irenio Gomes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Although not considered as an endemic region, the Northeast of Brazil has the necessary conditions for the development of taeniasis-cysticercosis complex. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that Mulungu do Morro municipality, in the State of Bahia, has a high seroprevalence to cysticercosis in epileptic patients. OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of taeniasis and positive cysticercosis serology in the population of Mulungu do Morro. METHOD: blood and stool samples were collected from a random sampling of the population, by family. The identification of antibodies against T. solium cysticerci was made by EITB and T. solium antigens were identified using a polyclonal antibody-capture ELISA. RESULTS: the cysticercosis seroprevalence was 1.6% (C.I. = 0.8 to 2.8% and the taeniasis prevalence 4.5% (C.I. = 3.0 to 6.5%. Seropositivity to cysticercosis was higher among those who lived in a house of a person testing positive for coproantigen, p=0.017. CONCLUSION: our results demonstrate that the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is endemic in Mulungu do Morro. We believe that all areas in the world with the same socio-economic and sanitary characteristics are likely to have high prevalence of this parasite.Embora alguns autores não a considerem uma região endêmica, existem no Nordeste do Brasil as condições necessárias para o desenvolvimento do complexo teníase/ cisticercose. Em uma publicação prévia demosntramos no município de Mulungu do Morro, Bahia, alta soroprevalência para cisticercose em pacientes epilépticos. OBJETIVO: determinar a prevalência de teníase e sorologia positiva para cisticercose na população de Mulungu do Morro. MÉTODO: foram coletadas amostras de sangue e fezes em 175 famílias definidas aleatoriamente. A identificação de anticorpos séricos anti-cisticerco foi feita através do método de EITB e a presença de teníase foi verificada através de ELISA de captura para identificação de antígenos do

  5. Estrutura de florestas secundárias após dois diferentes sistemas agrícolas no nordeste do estado do Pará, Amazônia Oriental Structure of secondary forests after two different systems of land use in the northeastern Pará state, Brazil

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    Mauro Antônio Cavaleiro de Macedo Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e comparar a estrutura de florestas secundárias com quatro anos de idade, que foram formadas após a utilização de dois diferentes sistemas de eliminação da cobertura vegetal - o sistema alternativo (SA que tritura a biomassa e o sistema tradicional (ST que utiliza o fogo. O estudo foi conduzido na região Bragantina que está localizada no nordeste do Pará. Para tal, foram selecionadas três áreas amostrais para cada sistema de uso da terra. Dentro de cada área amostral foram alocadas aleatoriamente quatro parcelas de 15 m² (3 x 5 m, totalizando 60 m² por área de estudo e 180 m² por sistema de uso. Foi encontrada uma diversidade média (H' de 2,94 para o SA e 3,32 para o ST, a densidade média foi 459.556 ind. ha-1 no SA e 466.833 ind. ha-1 no ST, a área basal do estrato superior do SA foi de 8,48 m² ha-1 e a do ST 3,07 m² ha-1, a biomassa seca estimada para o SA foi de 6,68 ton ha-1 e 2,80 ton ha-1 para o ST. Ocorreram diferenças estatísticas (ANOVA; P The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the structure of 4-year old secondary forests that were established after the use of two different systems of elimination of forest coverage: i the alternative system (SA on which plant biomass is only triturated, and ii the traditional system (ST which uses fire. The study was conducted out in the Bragantina area, northeastern Pará state, Brazil. For each land use system we selected three areas in which four 15-m² (3 X 5 m plots were randomly established to. Mean diversity (H' was of 2.94 for SA and 3.32 for ST, mean density was 459,556 ind. ha-1 in SA and 466,833 ind. ha-1 in ST, mean basal area of the superior stratum in SA was 8.48 m² ha-1 and the one of ST was 3.07 m² ha-1. There were statistical differences (ANOVA; P < 0.05 in vertical structure parameters and biomass. We conclude that SA management technique facilitates the development of the structure arboreal

  6. Teores de ácido anacárdico em pedúnculos de cajueiro Anacardium microcarpum e em oito clones de Anacardium occidentale var. nanum disponíveis no Nordeste do Brasil Anacardic acid content in cashew apples from Annacardium microcarpum and eight clones of Anacardium occidentale from Northeastern Brazil

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    Tânia da Silveira Agostini-Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O ácido anacárdico, composto fenólico presente em pedúnculos de caju e em algumas plantas medicinais, vem sendo associado a uma série de atividades biológicas específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor deste composto em pedúnculos de cajueiro A. microcarpum e em oito clones de A. occidentale var. nanum disponíveis na região Nordeste do Brasil, avaliando, também, algumas características físico-químicas e sensoriais destes pedúnculos. Os pedúnculos do clone BRS 189 apresentaram os maiores teores de ácido anacárdico. Pedúnculos da espécie Anacardium microcarpum e pedúnculos de cajueiro anão precoce, clones END 189 e 183, Embrapa 50 e 51 e CCP 09 não diferiram significativamente dos pedúnculos procedentes do clone controle, CCP 076. Pedúnculos do clone CCP 1001 apresentaram os menores teores de ácido anacárdico. As análises físico-químicas e sensoriais confirmaram evidências de que os clones CCP 09 e 1001 não são apropriados para o consumo in natura.Anacardic acid, a phenolic compound present in cashew apple and in some medicinal plants, is being associated to some specific biological effects. The purpose of this work was to determine anacardic acid content in peduncles of A. microcarpum and eight clones of A. occidentale from Northeastern Brazil, evaluating some physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of these peduncles. Cashew apples from BRS 189 clone of early cashew tree presented the highest values of anacardic acid. Cashew apples from A. microcarpum and END 189, END 183, Embrapa 50, Embrapa 51 e CCP 09 clones of early cashew tree did not differ from control CCP 076 clone. Cashew apples from CCP 1001 clone presented the minor values of anacardic acid. Physical-chemical and sensory analyses showed evidence that CCP 09 and CCP 1001 clone are not appropriate to fresh consuption.

  7. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

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    Katz Naftale

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  8. Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M.G. Price (Polypodiopsida: Polypodiaceae): distribution extension in Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Santiago, Augusto César; Xavier, Sergio; Pietrobom, Marcio Roberto; Barros, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Pecluma recurvata (Kaulf.) M. G. Price has been recorded in Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil (Atlantic Forest). Our work further extends the distribution of P. recurvata to northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, in state of Pernambuco, representing a range extension of ca. 880 Km north.

  9. O cultivo do algodão herbáceo no sistema de sequeiro no Nordeste do Brasil, no cenário de mudanças climática Cultivation of upland cotton in the rainfed system in Northeastern Brazil in the climate change scenario

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    Madson T. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o impacto das mudanças climáticas no algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch cultivado no Nordeste do Brasil a partir de estimativas da disponibilidade de terras aptas para a atividade agrícola de sequeiro. Essas informações, baseadas em cenários de aumento de temperatura e variabilidade da precipitação pluvial do Painel Intergovernamental de Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC, alimentam um modelo inter-regional de balanço hídrico. Os dados utilizados no estudo foram séries climatológicas diárias de precipitação pluvial, maior que 30 anos, coeficientes da cultura, evapotranspiração potencial e a duração do ciclo. Os cenários denominados A, B e C correspondem, respectivamente, aos aumentos de temperatura média do ar em 1,5; 3,0 e 5,0 ºC associados com as oscilações percentuais de precipitação de ±10; ±25 e ±40%. O Índice de Satisfação das Necessidades de Água para a cultura (ISNA, definido como a relação entre a evapotranspiração real e a evapotranspiração máxima (ETr/ETm foi utilizado como critério na definição das áreas favoráveis ao cultivo do algodoeiro. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que os cenários de mudanças climáticas podem provocar reduções de áreas favoráveis ao algodoeiro herbáceo em toda a região Nordeste do Brasil.The main objective of the study was to analyse the impact of climate change on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. latifolium Hutch grown in Northeastern Brazil from estimates of the availability of land suitable for rainfed agriculture. This information, based on scenarios of increased temperature and rainfall variability of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, was used in a model of inter-regional water balance. The data series used in the study were climatological daily rainfall of more than 30 years, crop coefficients, evapotranspiration potential and cycle length. The scenarios named A, B and

  10. Conservação dos recursos hídricos em brejos de altitude: o caso de Brejo dos Cavalos, Caruaru, PE Conservation of water resources in humid areas in Northeastern Brazil: a case study of "Brejo dos Cavalos", Caruaru, PE

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    Ricardo A. P. Braga

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Brejos de altitude são formações vegetais disjuntas da Mata Atlântica, que ocorrem no Agreste de Pernambuco e Paraíba, como ilhas de umidade no ambiente semi-árido da Caatinga. O Parque Vasconcelos Sobrinho, situado na Serra dos Cavalos, em Caruaru, PE, é um exemplo do pouco que resta desses brejos na região. Com 359 ha, abriga uma floresta exuberante e diversos corpos d'água, porém vem sofrendo intenso processo de degradação, em decorrência da agricultura irrigada em seu interior e da exploração de argila no entorno. Para uma caracterização dos recursos hídricos foram obtidos, no período de 1998 a 2000, dados de chuva, de vazão nos riachos do Chuchu e Capoeirão, e de qualidade da água, nos dois cursos d'água e nos três maiores reservatórios existentes no Parque. No estudo de demandas pelo uso da água, ênfase maior foi dada aos conflitos da atividade de irrigação em relação ao uso da água para abastecimento público e à preservação dos ecossistemas locais. Neste trabalho, conclui-se que em Brejo dos Cavalos a precipitação pluviométrica é superior a do seu entorno, devido a razões orográficas e à própria existência da floresta remanescente, mas o desmatamento progressivo tende a alterar as condições microclimáticas locais. Neste contexto, o cultivo do chuchu é o principal consumidor de água no Parque, gerando perda de vazão dos cursos d'água e menor aporte para os reservatórios, os quais já começaram a sofrer assoreamento, devido a processos erosivos gerados sobretudo pelos desmontes na exploração da argila. Tais constatações exigem ação imediata do poder público, principalmente a implantação de um Plano de Manejo para o Parque.Humid areas at high altitude are found in semi-arid region of Pernambuco and Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. Although the vegetation in the surrounding area is the semi-arid 'caatinga', in these high altitude areas, natural vegetation is similar to that of the

  11. Implementação da estratégia Atenção Integrada às Doenças Prevalentes na Infância no Nordeste, Brasil Investigación sobre uso de medicamentos por ancianos jubilados, Belo Horizonte,MG Implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy in Northeastern Brazil

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    João Joaquim Freitas do Amaral

    2008-08-01

    ás, residentes en Belo Horizonte (sudeste de Brasil, en 2003. Los ancianos fueron entrevistados por farmacéuticos, utilizando cuestionario padronizado. Fueron estimadas la prevalencia de uso y la media de medicamentos usados en los últimos 15 días anteriores a la entrevista, las cuales fueron estratificadas de acuerdo con el género según variables sociodemográficas y de salud. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de uso de medicamentos fue de 90,1%, significativamente más alto entre las mujeres (93,4% de que entre los hombres (84,3%. Mujeres utilizaron en media 4,6±3,2 productos y hombres 3,3±2,6 (pOBJECTIVE: The majority of child deaths are avoidable. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses strategy, developed by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, aims to reduce child mortality by means of actions to improve performance of health professionals, the health system organization, and family and community practices. The article aimed to describe factors associated with the implementation of this strategy in three states of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study conducted in 443 municipalities in the states of Northeastern Brazil Ceará, Paraíba and Pernambuco, in 2006. The distribution of economic, geographic, environmental, nutritional, health service organization, and child mortality independent variables were compared between municipalities with and without the strategy. These factors were assessed by means of a hierarchical model, where Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios, after adjustment of confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 54% of the municipalities studied had the strategy: in the state of Ceará, 65 had it and 43 did not have it; in the state of Paraíba, 27 had it and 21 did not have it; and in the state of Pernambuco, 147 had it and 140 did not have it. After controlling for confounding factors, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with the absence of the

  12. Application of isotopic and chemical methods to the study of hydrological problems in Brazilian northeastern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponte, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrological studies are reported with samples of ground water from several region of northern - and northeastern Brazil: Marajo Island (State of Para), State of Piaui, Ceara and Rio Grande do Norte. A description is given of the utilization of chemical and isotopic methods, in particular measurements of tritium concentration and 14 C- counting techniques for the determination of the origin and residence time of water. (I.C.R.) [pt

  13. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  14. Stratigraphic and structural analysis of the Rio do Peixe Basin, Northeastern Brazil: integration on the pioneer seismic survey 0295{sub R}IO{sub D}O{sub P}EIXE{sub 2}D; Analise estratigrafica e estrutural da Bacia do Rio do Peixe, Nordeste do Brasil: integracao a partir do levantamento sismico pioneiro 0295{sub R}IO{sub D}O{sub P}EIXE{sub 2}D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoba, Valeria Centurion; Antunes, Alex Francisco; Sa, Emanuel Ferraz Jardim de; Silva, Ajosenildo Nunes da; Sousa, Debora do Carmo; Lins, Fernando Antonio Pessoa Lira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Geologia e Geofisica de Petroleo. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geodinamica e Geofisica

    2007-11-15

    The Northeast Brazil Interior Basins are the erosional remnants of a series of basins located south of he Potiguar Basin, overlying the crystalline basement of Precambrian Borborema Province . These basins were originated during the Early Cretaceous rifting that shaped the present continental margin of northeastern Brazil. Besides their exploration potential, the Interior Basins represent terrain analogues for better understanding of the continental margin basins, one of the objectives of the Interior Basins Project (agreement PETROBRAS/UFRN/PPGG), which supported the seismic survey in the Rio do Peixe Basin, subject to this paper. Combined with gravity and field data, the seismic sections allowed an improved view of the three-dimensional architecture of the Rio do Peixe Basin. In this basin, the combination of the current erosion level with the geometry of the main faults highlights the existence of different half-grabens (Pombal, Sousa, Brejo das Freiras), whose sedimentary filing (apart from cenozoic deposits) defines the Rio do Peixe Group, comprising the Antenor Navarro (alluvial fans/braided channels), Sousa (shallow lacustrine/floodplain) and Rio Piranhas (alluvial fans/braided channels). Structural data integration allows characterization of a NW-extension kinematics for the rifting event, responsible for fault nucleation controlled by basement structures, particularly the location and foliation dip of the Late Neoproterozoic, Brasiliano shear zones. Based on the structural style and petrographic-diagenetic features, one can infer larger original dimensions for this basin and similar counterparts in the region, which were reduced (with exposure of the crystalline highs) by the significant erosion that occurred in late to post-rift and subsequent evolutionary stages. (author)

  15. Importance of soil-water to the Caatinga biome, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro, Everton; Metselaar, Klaas; Jong van Lier, de Quirijn; Araújo, de José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil is hydrologically characterized by recurrent droughts leading to a highly vulnerable natural water resource system. The region contains the Caatinga biome, covering an area of approximately 800000km2. To increase insight in water balance components for this sparsely

  16. Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria L C R; Galiza, Glauco J N; Dantas, Antônio F M; Oliveira, Rafael N; Iamamoto, Keila; Achkar, Samira M; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-05-01

    Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster. © 2011 The Author(s)

  17. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva Muniz

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... RAPD was efficient for the analysis of genetic diversity to identify groups and measure the genetic distance between ..... management program. We recommend ... The author(s) have not declared any conflict of interests.

  18. Fungi in coastal tableland soils of northeastern Brazil : Preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, QR; Bezerra, JL; Faleiro, RG; Bezerra, KMT; Menezes, PV; Faleiro, ASG; Ogram, AV; Al-Agely, A; Comerford, NB

    2004-01-01

    Soil compaction causes reduced agricultural production due to limited root development resulting in reduced water and nutrient access. This is particularly true of soils of the Brazilian tablelands (similar to200000 km(2)) that are characterized by a naturally occurring compact subsoil horizon. Most

  19. Genetic diversity of sweet potatoes collection from Northeastern Brazil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva Muniz

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... RAPD was efficient for the analysis of genetic diversity to identify groups and measure the .... the molecular characterization of accessions using RAPD ..... clusters of individuals using the software Structure: a simulation study.

  20. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Felipe Silva; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega

    2012-01-01

    Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna. PMID:22216053

  1. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Silva Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.

  2. Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among Brazilian adolescents. The instrument designed for the research was used considering three models with outcomes that identified the following: (a adolescent had considered suicide, (b adolescents have planned suicide, and (c adolescents have attempted suicide. Logistic Regression was used in all models with significance level of 5%. An association between being female and suicidal ideation (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.60 to 2.97, suicide planning (OR=1.80, CI 95% = 1.26–2.56, and suicide attempt (OR=2.91, CI 95% 1.79 to 4.75 was found. Violent behavior/involvement in fights was associated with thinking about suicide (OR=2.00, CI 95% = 1.43 to 2.81, suicide planning (OR=1.65, CI 95% = 1.10–2.46, and suicide attempt (OR=2.35, CI 95% = 1.49 to 3.70. For cigarette consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR=1.62, CI 95% 1.03 to 2.55, planning (OR=1.88, CI 95% = 1.15 to 3.08, and attempt (OR=2.35, CI 95% 1.37 to 4.03. For alcohol consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR=1.93, CI 95% 1.47 to 2.54, planning (OR=2.22, CI 95% 1.61 to 3.08, and attempt (OR=1.73, CI 95% 1.15 to 2.59. It was concluded that suicidal ideation was associated with female sex, involvement in fights, and illicit drug use.

  3. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B

    2008-01-01

    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  4. The semi-Arid integrated model (SIM), a regional integrated model assessing water availability, vulnerability, of ecossytems and society in NE-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, A.; Bronstert, A.; Krywkow, Jorg

    2001-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil, an example of vulnerable semi-arid regions on the earth, is characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress situations. Integrated studies involving hydrology, ecology, meteorology, climatology, pedology,

  5. Causas do declínio acelerado da desnutrição infantil no Nordeste do Brasil (1986-1996-2006 Causas de la disminución acelerada de la desnutrición infantil en Noreste de Brasil (1986-1996-2006 Causes of the accelerated decline in child undernutrition in Northeastern Brazil (1986-1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Lovadino de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a variação temporal na prevalência de desnutrição infantil na região Nordeste do Brasil, em dois períodos sucessivos, identificando os principais fatores responsáveis pela evolução observada em cada período. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados provêm de amostras probabilísticas da população de crianças menores de cinco anos estudadas por inquéritos domiciliares do programa Demographic Health Surveys realizados em 1986 (n=1.302, 1996 (n=1.108 e 2006 (n=950. A identificação dos fatores responsáveis pela variação na prevalência da desnutrição (altura para idade OBJETIVO: Describir la variación temporal en la prevalencia de desnutrición infantil en la región Noreste de Brasil, en dos períodos sucesivos, identificando los principales factores responsables por la evolución observada en cada período. MÉTODOS: Los datos analizados provienen de muestras probabilísticas de la población de niños menores de cinco años estudiados por pesquisas domiciliares del programa Demographic Health Surveys realizados en 1986 (n=1.302, 1996 (n=1.108 y 2006 (n=950. La identificación de los factores responsables por la variación en la prevalencia de la desnutrición (altura para edad OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in prevalence of child undernutrition in Northeastern Brazil in two successive time periods, identifying, in each period, the major factors responsible for these changes. METHODS: Data analyzed are from probabilistic samples of underfives from three Demographic Health Surveys carried out in 1986 (n=1,302, 1996 (n=1,108, and 2006 (n=950. Identification of factors responsible for temporal changes in child undernutrition (height-for-age below < -2 z took into account time changes in five potential determinants of child nutritional status, statistical modeling of the independent association between determinants and risk of undernutrition, and calculation of attributable fractions. RESULTS: Prevalence of child

  6. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  7. Frequency of antibodies to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burdgorferi in cattle from the northeastern region of the state of Pará, Brazil Freqüência de anticorpos para Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax e Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos do nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Guedes Junior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and trypanosomosis are relevant diseases, potentially causing morbidity in cattle, leading to economic losses. Borreliosis is import as a potential zoonosis. The objective of this study was to determine, by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the frequency of seropositive cattle to Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Anaplasma marginale, Trypanosoma vivax and Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle from the Northeastern region of Pará, Brazil. Sera samples from 246 female adult cattle from municipalities of Castanhal and São Miguel do Guamá were used. Crude antigens ELISAs were used to detect antibodies to all agents, except to A. marginale, to which an indirect ELISA with recombinant major surface 1a protein (MSP1a antigen was used. Overall frequencies of seropositive animals were: B. bigemina - 99.2%; B. bovis - 98.8%; A. marginale - 68.3%; T. vivax - 93.1% and B. burgdorferi - 54.9%. The frequencies of seropositive cattle to B. bovis and B. bigemina suggest a high rate of transmission of these organisms by tick in the studied region, which can be classified as enzootically stable to these hemoprotozoans. The low frequency of seropositive cattle to A. marginale may be attributed to a lower sensitivity of the recombinant antigen ELISA utilized or a distinct rate of inoculation of this rickettsia by ticks, as compared with Babesia sp. transmission. The high frequency of seropositive cattle to T. vivax indicates that this hemoprotozoan is prevalent in herds from the Northeastern region of Pará. The rate of animal that showed homologues antibodies to B. burgdorferi indicates the presence of the tickborne spirochaetal agent in the cattle population in the studied region.A babesiose, a anaplasmose e a tripanossomose são enfermidades relevantes, potencialmente causadoras de morbidade em bovinos, levando a perdas econômicas. A borreliose assume importância como zoonose potencial. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar

  8. Endemic Pemphigus foliaceus ("Fogo selvagem": a series from the Northeastern region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1973-1998 Pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (Fogo selvagem: casuística da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1973-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula do Valle CHIOSSI

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (EPF is a bullous autoimmune skin disease whose incidence used to be high in the State of São Paulo (SP, Brazil, during the forties, but has declined thereafter. OBJECTIVES: to report a series of EPF patients from the northeastern region of SP. METHODS: a retrospective study concerning demographic and epidemiological data of patients seen from 1973 to 1998 was conducted at the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, SP. RESULTS: bullous disease was diagnosed in 340 patients, 245 with EPF (72.1%, 9.4 cases per year, 60.4% females, and 70.2% white, 7 to 82 year-old (29.4% in their teens; 46.9% lived in the rural zone. Concerning profession, housewives predominated among women (67.6% and agricultural workers among men (40.2%. The time of disease was less than 1 year in 62.0% of cases, followed by 1 and 5 years (27%, and more than 5 years for the remaining patients (11%. 36.7% of patients were referred by the Direção Regional de Saúde (DIR XVIII of Ribeirão Preto, with the largest number of cases being from Ribeirão Preto and Batatais: 33.3% and 23.3%, respectively; 22% from DIR XIII (Franca; 13.5% from DIR VII (Araraquara; 2.9% from DIR IX (Barretos; 4.1% from other DIRs of SP, and 20.8% from other States (16.7% from Minas Gerais. Thirteen (5.3% patients reported occurrence of the disease in some relative, and 4 (1.6% in neighbors. CONCLUSIONS: the present data characterize the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo as a remaining endemic focus of EPF.FUNDAMENTOS: O pênfigo foliáceo endêmico (PFE é doença bolhosa auto-imune, em que o Estado de São Paulo (SP destacou-se por sua alta incidência na década de 1940, a partir da qual é descrito seu declínio. OBJETIVOS: relatar casuística do PFE na região nordeste de SP. MÉTODO: levantamento de prontuários de pacientes com doenças bolhosas, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de S

  9. Northeastern states sharpen biomass focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Wood energy use in the northeastern region of the USA currently replaces an estimated annual equivalent of 45--50 million barrels of oil. Including municipal wastes and recovered methane emissions for regional landfills, total biomass contribution to the energy economy is over 70 million barrels of oil equivalent annually. A reasonable consensus suggests wood alone could replace the equivalent of over 300 million barrels of oil each year on a sustainable basis over the next two decades. Beyond energy security, over 60,000 total jobs are now provided in the region by the wood energy industry. Over 375,000 total jobs could be generated by the wood energy industry, about 65,000 in the harvesting, transportation, and end-use operations of the wood energy industry. Biomass producers must be committed to sustainable development by necessity. Sound forest management practices that keep residual stand damage from wood harvesting to a minimum can create positive impacts on the region's forest. When combined with a balanced energy policy, the conditional use of wood energy can play a modest, but significant, role in reducing air emissions. Depletion of traditional energy resources creates open-quotes bubbleclose quotes benefits which will be exhausted after a generation. Sustainable development of biomass can create inexhaustible wealth for generations, and does not pose the risk of sudden ecological disruption. While the choice between policy options is not mutually exclusive, the interrelationship between energy security, economic growth and environmental quality clearly favors biomass. The environmental benefits and the economic growth impacts of biobased products produced by the northeastern states are considerable. The 11 states located in the northeastern USA should intensify their efforts to work with industry and investors to expand markets for industrial biobased products, either produced from local feedstocks or manufactured by companies operating in the region

  10. Sinais clínicos, distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso e epidemiologia da raiva em herbívoros na região Nordeste do Brasil Clinical signs, distribution of the lesions in the central nervous system and epidemiology of rabies in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Ferreira Lima

    2005-12-01

    ões histológicas e os corpúsculos de Negri foram menos freqüentes que no SNC. Esses resultados mostram que na raiva dos herbívoros os sinais clínicos e a distribuição das lesões histológicas do SNC são variáveis, e que para o correto diagnóstico da enfermidade são necessários um bom exame clínico e o estudo histológico das diferentes regiões do SNC. Sugere-se, também, que perante resultados negativos nos testes de imunofluo-rescência e inoculação em camundongos, estes devam ser repetidos com amostras de diferentes regiões do SNC. Utilizando-se dados sobre a freqüência de doenças, de 4 laboratórios de diagnóstico, foi realizada uma estimativa das mortes de bovinos causadas pela raiva, anualmente, em 3 Estados. Na Paraíba, com uma população de 918.262 bovinos, o número de mortes é estimado em 8.609 cabeças por ano. No Mato Grosso do Sul, com uma população de 23 milhões de bovinos, as perdas por raiva são estimadas em 149.500 cabeças e, no Rio Grande do Sul, com uma população de 13 milhões de bovinos, as mortes são estimadas em 13.000 a 16.250 animais por ano. Se estas estimativas forem extrapoladas para todo o Brasil, com 195 milhões de bovinos, as mortes podem ser estimadas em 842.688 cabeças por ano.Twenty four outbreaks of rabies in cattle, 4 in horses, 2 in sheep, and 2 in goats are reported in northeastern Brazil. All outbreaks occurred in the state of Paraíba, except one in horses that occurred in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. All outbreaks, except one in sheep, were probably transmitted by vampire-bats, but the transmission by foxes (Dusicyon vetulus is also possible. Clinical signs were characteristic for distribution of the lesions in the central nervous system (CNS. In cattle, signs were mainly of the paralytic form of rabies, caused by lesions on the spinal cord, brain stem and cerebellum; but some animals showed also depression, excitation and other signs due to cerebral lesions. In 3 out of 5 horses, the main

  11. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad

    2012-12-01

    álisis se basó en la antropología interpretativa y consideró las categorías: autoreferencia étnico-racial; experiencias de discriminación en los servicios; percepción sobre acceso en la atención básica; y barreras de acceso. RESULTADOS Y DISCUSIÓN: Se identificaron los siguientes aspectos: a identidad étnico-racial y salud: percepción de los usuarios de que las barreras organizacionales y de acceso se deben a un amplio contexto social que produce ciudadanos "de primera y de segunda categorías", mas que el racismo institucional; b acceso al Sistema Único de Salud Brasileño (SUS: acceso problemático, caracterizado por demora en la atención, falta de compromiso de los profesionales de salud, omisión de los gestores en el control y corrección de tales situaciones; c acceso a la atención básica: visión sobre el contexto más general del SUS y apoyo en la descripción de los entrevistados sobre el acceso a los servicios de atención básica CONCLUSIONES: Hay barreras de acceso económicas, organizacionales y culturales que se interponen entre la oferta de servicios y la atención efectiva y oportuna de las necesidades de la población estudiada.OBJECTIVE: To analyse the accessibility of primary health care for black families from a poor neighbourhood. METHODS: Ethnographic study with an interpretative anthropological approach, carried out with 18 families selected from a poor neighbourhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil, over a period of two years. Criteria for inclusion included being resident in the neighbourhood and classifying themselves as black. The analysis was based on interpretative anthropology and encompassed the following categories: ethnic and racial self-reference; experience of discrimination from public services; perception of accessibility to primary health care and barriers to accessibility. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We identified the following aspects: a ethnic and racial identity and health: the users' perception that organizational

  12. Avaliação clínica e hematológica em bezerros Nelore infectados experimentalmente com isolados de Babesia bigemina das regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Norte do Brasil Clinical and hematological evaluation of Nelore calves experimentally infected with isolates of Babesia bigemina from the Southeastern, Northeastern and Northern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes de Mendonça

    2003-06-01

    alterations caused by isolates of Babesia bigemina from southeastern, northeastern and northern Brazil in experimentally infected Nelore calves. Eighteen calves between 7 and 9 months of age, without antibodies against Babesia sp and raised free from ticks, were used. Three animals were previously inoculated with 2.0x10(9 parasitic erythrocytes (PE for each stabilate. The other 15 calves were subdivided into three groups, with five animals each, that were subinoculated with 1.0x10(10 PE of the respective isolates. The clinical and hematological alterations were evaluated by the determination of parasitaemia, haemogram, plasmatic fibrinogen, reticulocyte count, descriptive analysis of the bone marrow and erythrocytic osmotic fragility, for 30 days, totalizing seven moments of observation. The follow-up of the immunological response by the indirect fluorescent antibody test was carried out daily until the 10th day after inoculation (DAI and after that, on the 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th DAI. A mild clinical manifestation of the disease was observed. The laboratory findings revealed low levels of parasitaemia; decrease of the erythrogram values; absence of reticulocytes, initial decrease in the total count of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes with a posterior elevation of the number of these cells; hypercellularity of the erythrocytic series and decrease of the myeloid: erythroid relation which was more accentuated between the 8th and 12th DAI, and an increase of the erythrocytic osmotic fragility in the groups inoculated with the Southeast and Northeast isolates. None of the three isolates of B. bigemina gave rise to the clinical characteristic form of the disease, although they induced an humoral immune response.

  13. Physicochemical properties and mineral and protein content of honey samples from Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil Propriedades físico-químicas, minerais e teor de proteínas em amostras de méis do estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Tavares Cavalcanti Liberato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and protein and mineral content of honey samples from Ceará State, Northeastern Brazil, one of the major honey exporters in the country. Nutritional importance of the minerals detected was also analyzed. Physicochemical properties were examined according to the AOAC and CAC official methods; the protein content was determined using the Bradford method, and the minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. All analyses were performed in triplicate. The levels of macrominerals sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, and magnesium (Mg varied from 1.80-47.20, 21.30-1513.30, 14.58-304.82, and 2.48-28.33 mg/kg, respectively, and the trace elements iron (Fe, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, and chromium (Cr varied from 0.12-8.76, 0.07-1.29, 0.06-1.96, 0.07-1.85 mg/kg, 0.36 × 10-3-62.00 × 10-3 and 22.50 × 10-3-170.33 × 10-3 µg/kg, respectively. Myracrodruon urundeuva honey sample had high contents of macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Protein content of the Anacardium occidentale honey sample was the highest (1121.00 µg/g among the samples analyzed. Among the minerals detected in the honey samples, K showed the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Na, and Mg. The presence of trace elements can show environmental contamination. The honey samples studied were free of trace elements contamination, except for Mn; the Piptadenia moniliformis was the only honey sample that was in compliance with the law requirements. The variations of the chemical constituents in the honey samples are probably related to differences in the floral origin and mineral and protein contents and confirm the nutritional importance of Ceará State honey.Este trabalho avaliou propriedades físico-químicas, teores de proteína e minerais em méis do Ceará, um dos principais exportadores do País. Também foi analisada a importância nutricional com relação aos minerais detectados. As

  14. Multiplicidade de vínculos de médicos no Estado do Ceará Multiplicidad de vínculos de médicos en el Estado de Ceará, Noreste de Brasil Multiple job contracts of physicians in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Heloisa Maciel

    2010-10-01

    con los cuales los profesionales mantenían vínculos, buscando estimar los trayectos realizados por los médicos para cumplir los contratos de trabajo y su carga horaria semanal. RESULTADOS: De los 7.008 médicos vinculados al Estado, 3,751 (53,5% poseían entre dos a cuatro vínculos, y 39 (0,6% de 11 a 20 vínculos. Un profesional poseía 20 vínculos. Más de la mitad (51,9% de los médicos poseían vínculos de trabajo que, al sumarse, totalizaban una jornada semanal por encima de 40 horas y 27,0% (1.894 mantenían vínculos en más de un municipio. CONCLUSIONES: Para aumentar las ganancias con su trabajo los médicos articulan varios empleos, ejerciendo la profesión en locales diferentes en un constante ir y venir, inclusive en variados municipios, contribuyendo a la precarización de la calidad de sus vidas y, consecuentemente, el sistema de salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the multiple job contracts of physicians in the Brazilian National Health System in the State of Ceará. METHODS: Documental research was performed about the work contracts of the physicians, based on data of health professional contracts in the municipalities of Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil, in 2008. Indices were created for the quantity of contracts of each physician, as well as the municipalities where each physician maintained work contracts. The distances between the municipalities where they worked was calculated in order to estimate the total weekly hours of work. RESULTS: Of the 7,008 physicians employed by the Ceará state, 3,751 (53.5% maintain between two and four job contracts and 39 (0.6% between 11 and 20 contracts. One professional maintained 20 contracts. More than half (51.9% of the physicians had work contracts that when summed totaled more than 40 weekly working hours and 27.0% (1,894 maintained job contracts with more than one municipality. CONCLUSIONS: In order to increase their work income, physicians undertake various jobs, practicing their profession in different

  15. Fatores associados ao declínio do déficit estatural em crianças e adolescentes em Pernambuco Factores asociados a la disminución del déficit de estatura en niños y adolescentes en Pernambuco, Brasil Factors associated with the decline in stunting among children and adolescents in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Vanessa Sá Leal

    2012-04-01

    ón estudiada fue de, respectivamente, 1.853 y 1.484 niños y adolescentes de cinco a 19 años. El análisis de regresión múltiple con selección jerarquizada fue utilizado para evaluar la asociación de las variables explicativas sobre el déficit de estatura. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia del déficit de estatura presentó reducción significativa de 43% (de 16,9% en 1997 a 9,6% en 2006. Las variables socioeconómicas y la estatura materna estuvieron asociadas a esta disminución, con reducciones variando de 39% a 60% entre los estratos analizados. En el análisis de los determinantes del déficit de estatura, en el año 2006, permanecieron como significativos: la renta familiar per capita (OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evolution of stunting among children and adolescents and identify their associated factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the state health and nutrition surveys that were conducted in Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil in 1997 and 2006. The sample was probabilistic (random and stratified and was representative of urban and rural strata of the state. Questionnaires containing precoded questions relating to information on socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric variables (of the mothers, children and adolescents were used for data gathering. The population studied comprised 1853 children and 1484 adolescents between the ages of five and 19 years. Multiple regression analysis with hierarchical selection was used to evaluate associations between explanatory variables relating to stunting. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting presented a significant reduction of 43% (from 16.9% in 1997 to 9.6% in 2006. Socioeconomic variables and maternal height were associated with this decline. The reductions ranged from 39% to 60% among the strata analyzed. Analysis on determinants of stunting showed that in 2006, the following remained significant: per capita family income (< 0.25 minimum salary, possession of domestic goods (< three, greater number of

  16. Doenças do trabalho e benefícios previdenciários relacionados à saúde, Bahia, 2000 Enfermedades del trabajo y beneficios de la previsión relacionados a la salud, Bahia (Brasil, 2000 Work-related diseases and health-related compensation claims, Northeastern Brazil, 2000

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    Norma Suely Souto Souza

    2008-08-01

    por agravamientos a la salud por el Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social, en el estado de Bahia (Nordeste de Brasil, en 2000. Fueron considerados como casos todos los diagnósticos clínicos constantes de CID-10, con excepción de las causas externas y factores que influencian el contacto con los servicios de salud. La vinculación del diagnóstico con la ocupación se baso en el código CID-10 y si la especie de beneficio era "accidentaria". RESULTADOS: De los beneficios, 3,1% fueron concedidos para enfermedades de trabajo: 70% eran enfermedades del sistema osteomuscular y del tejido conjuntivo y 14,5% del sistema nervioso. En general, beneficios concedidos en una frecuencia mas grande que el doble de lo esperado fueron: para tenossinovites en la industria de transformación (Razón de Proporción-RP=2,70, síndrome del túnel del carpo en la intermediación financiera (RP=2,43 y trastornos del disco lumbar en el ramo del transporte, correo y telecomunicaciones (RP=2,17. Sin embargo, no fue establecido nexo causal para estas enfermedades, en estos ramos de actividad, en porcentual significativo de beneficios. CONCLUSÕES: Los resultados sugieren la existencia de posibles factores de riesgo ocupacionales para enfermedades en estos ramos de actividad, como también el sub-registro de la vinculación de las patologías con el trabajo, camuflando la responsabilidad de las empresas y la perspectiva de premención por la reorganización del trabajo.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of work-related diseases to sick leaves due to general and occupational health problems. METHODS: Sociodemographic, occupational and health data from 29,658 records of temporary disability benefits, granted on account of health problems by the Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (National Institute of Social Security in the state of Bahia (Northeastern Brazil, were analyzed. All constant ICD-10 clinical diagnoses were taken into consideration, except for those referring to external causes

  17. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  18. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  19. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Jucurutu Formation in the Seridó Belt, northeastern Brazil, encompasses fine-to coarse-grained amphibolite-facies marbles, locally with cross-bedding and stromatolites. Banded iron formations (BIF) at three localities in this belt comprise itabirites (actinolite- or cummingtonite-itabirite an...

  20. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  1. Fragmented becoming. A Deleuzian reading of becoming-child in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, N.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research project is based on the empirical data I gathered in the course of a year (2003-2004) of ethnographical fieldwork research conducted in the Northeastern city of Recife in the state of Pernambuco in Brazil. I worked with twenty-five children, eleven girls and fourteen boys from poor,

  2. Scyliorhinus ugoi, a new species of catshark from Brazil (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karla D A; Gadig, Otto F B; Gomes, Ulisses L

    2015-03-25

    A new species of catshark (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae), Scyliorhinus ugoi sp. nov., is described from off Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closest to the Scyliorhinus haeckelii/besnardi group and S. hesperius but differs in background coloration, head width, sexual maturity, and in cranial and body proportions.

  3. Chemical Dependency Regional Needs Assessment: Northeastern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Marylee

    The Minnesota Model of Chemical Dependency Treatment, which evolved from a combination of the grassroots Alcoholics Anonymous movement and the State Mental Health Services in the 1960s has made Minnesota an international leader in chemical dependency treatment efforts. Northeastern Minnesota has shared this reputation with the state. In spite of…

  4. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. T r o p ic a l D is e a s e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a. To r y, K h o ... research and capacity building collaboration in Southeast Asia. Eco EID is ...

  5. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrine Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil.

  6. Data bank for economic viability calculation of energy sources for a typical rural community at the Brazil Northern and Northeastern; Banco de dados para o calculo da viabilidade economica de fontes de energia para uma comunidade rural tipica da reigao Norte e Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vanni, Silvia Regina, E-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work elaborates a data bank containing information relevant relative to energy sources in Brazil with viability and sustainability, The data bank was elaborated using the computer program Excel, where all the references are linked to the articles and to the correspondent sites. This data bank was the base for the development or the Program for the Calculation of the Economic Viability of the Alternative Energies Solar, Aeolian and Biomass (PEASEB), which results were compared to the energy generated by innovator and compact reactors (IRIS)

  7. Soroprevalência e fatores de risco para a língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil Seroprevalence and risk factors for Bluetongue in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Leandro Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi determinada a prevalência de anticorpos contra o vírus da língua azul em carneiros das mesorregiões do Sertão e da Borborema, semi-árido do Estado da Paraíba, bem como foram identificados os fatores de risco associados à infecção. A amostragem foi delineada para a determinação da prevalência de propriedades positivas (focos e de animais soropositivos por mesorregião. Foi realizada uma seleção aleatória de unidades primárias, composta por 189 propriedades no Sertão e 100 propriedades na Borborema. Dentro das unidades primárias, foram amostrados todos os carneiros (unidades secundárias, resultando em 321 animais no Sertão e 185 na Borborema. Na ocasião da coleta, foi aplicado um questionário epidemiológico por propriedade. Para o diagnóstico sorológico, foi utilizada a prova de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA, com antígeno produzido na Escola de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Uma propriedade foi considerada foco quando apresentou pelo menos um animal soropositivo. Na mesorregião do Sertão, as prevalências de focos e de animais soropositivos foram de 11,6% [7,8% - 17,1%] e 8,4% [5,7% - 12,3%], respectivamente. Na mesorregião da Borborema, a prevalência de focos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 3,6%] e a prevalência de animais soropositivos foi de 0,0% [0,0% - 2,0%]. Os fatores de risco associados à língua azul foram a não realização de higiene das instalações (OR = 5,51 e a vermifugação dos animais duas a quatro vezes ao ano (OR = 4,44.The prevalence of antibodies against Bluetongue virus in rams of the Sertão and Borborema mesoregions, semi-arid of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, was determined, and risk factors for the infection were identified. The sampling was delineated for the determination of the prevalence of positive herds and seropositive animals for each mesoregion. Herds (primary units were randomly selected in the Sertão mesoregion (n = 189 and in the

  8. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  9. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 1. The future of wind power in Brazil - market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husted Rich, N

    1996-04-01

    More than 95% of total energy produced in Brazil comes from highly efficient hydroelectric power plants but, faced with a serious shortage of energy after the year 2000, the country is now considering wind energy as one of the basic alternatives for energy supply. It is suggested that biomass, wind energy and biogas may be included in a future supply policy for the north-east region of the land. The structure of, the privatisation, legislation and the tariff system within the Brazilian power sector are described in addition to the present situation regarding wind energy in the country, including current and coming projects in this field, the excellent wind conditions in Northeastern Brazil and investment possibilities. The political activities in this field of the Danish Folkecenter for Renewable Energy are noted and future developments in Brazil are discussed. It is concluded that there are good prospects for Danish windmill technology on the Brazilian market. Wind measurement programs are presently being carried out in various areas of the country, though a number of impediments to the development of wind energy in Brazil remain. (AB)

  10. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  11. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  12. Ecology and conservation of the endemic lizard Tropidurus hygomi in “restinga” habitats of the north coast of Bahia state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Vieira Martins; Eduardo José dos Reis Dias; Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    “Restingas” are herbaceous/ shrubby coastal sand-dune habitats that cover great areas of Brazil, particularly along the Bahia state coast. The restingas are disturbed and are under strong pressure, mainly in northeastern Brazil. Fragmentation of the landscape and habitat loss within natural ecosystems are the factors which are mainly responsible for reduction of species diversity by extinction events. The goal of thepresent study was elucidate whether the conservation status of restinga habit...

  13. The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayner V. Souza

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1 a "social deprivation index" and 2 principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos

  14. Insights into changes in precipitation patterns in Brazil from oxygen isotope ratios on speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F.; Mathias, V.; Stephen, B. J.; Wang, X.; Cheng, H.; Werner, M.; Edwards, R. L.; Karmann, I.; Auler, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Variations in tropical precipitation on millennial and orbital time scales can reflect a Hadley-cell-related anti- phasing between the Northern and Southern hemispheres due to the influence of insolation on the global summer monsoons. A new δ18O speleothem record from northeastern Brazil shows that insolation- driven changes in monsoon intensity are capable of producing a similar, zonally oriented anti-phasing within the same hemisphere. Comparison of our speleothem record with other precipitation-sensitive proxies from the central Andes and southeastern Brazil shows that precipitation in Northeastern Brazil has been out of phase with insolation and rainfall in the rest of tropical South America south of the equator since the Last Glacial Maximum. Northeastern Brazil experienced humid conditions when summer insolation was reduced and arid conditions when insolation was high. While previous interpretations of past climate change in NE South America have commonly invoked meridional displacements in ITCZ location as the main mechanism for changes in precipitation on millennial time scales, our results suggest that remote monsoon forcing is responsible for much of the observed precipitation changes on orbital time scales during the Holocene. These results demonstrate that orbitally driven out-of-phase relationships in precipitation are not limited to interhemispheric anti-phasing as demonstrated previously, but may well occur within the same hemisphere. Speleothem records also indicate contrasting climatic conditions around the Last Glacial Maximum in Brazil, characterized by marked dry and wet climates in the Nordeste and in southeastern Brazil, respectively. It is likely, however, that these regional differences primarily reflect more distant extratropical teleconnections from the Atlantic Ocean and high northern latitude changes during glacial conditions.

  15. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  16. Estigma e violências no trato com a loucura: narrativas de centros de atenção psicossocial, Bahia e Sergipe Estigma y violencias en el trato con la locura: narrativas de centros de atención psicosocial, Bahia y Sergipe (Noreste de Brasil Stigma and violence in dealing with madness: narratives from psychosocial care centers in Bahia and Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Nunes

    2009-08-01

    el concepto de estigma propuesto por Goffman y fueron sistematizadas cuatro tipos de violencia: interpersonal, institucional, simbólica y estructural. RESULTADOS: Usuarios y familiares relataron ejemplos de descalificaciones, reprensiones, desagrados, humillaciones, negligencia y agresiones físicas, con fines de dominación, explotación y opresión. Profesionales refirieron que personas que sufren trastornos mentales permanecen como centro de prejuicios arraigados y naturalizados en la cultura. La principal consecuencia fue el mantenimiento del aislamiento, de la vida social como forma de "tratamiento" o como actitud excluyente manifestada por reacciones discriminatorias, que se presentan como rechazo, indiferencia y agresividad verbal o física. CONCLUSIONES: Las variadas formas de expresión del estigma denotan una situación sociocultural de violencias contra los portadores de trastornos mentales. Se propone la constitución de observatorios estatales capaces de planificar y evaluar contra-acciones a las estigmatizaciones.OBJECTIVE: To analyze stigmatization processes and types of violence experienced by individuals with mental disorders. METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out, based on individual interviews with users and focus groups with family members and professionals at five psychosocial care centers in the municipalities of Itaberaba, Lauro de Freitas, Salvador, Vitória da Conquista, and Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil, in 2006-2007. The analysis categories were constructed based on the stigma concept proposed by Goffman, and four types of violence were systematized: interpersonal, institutional, symbolic and structural. RESULTS: Users and family members recounted examples of disqualification, reprimands, embarrassment, humiliation, negligence and physical aggression that had the aims of domination, exploitation and oppression. Professionals reported that people who suffer from mental disorders remain the target of prejudice that is culturally

  17. The influence of cement type and admixture on life span of reinforced concrete utility poles subjected to the high salinity environment of Northeastern Brazil, studied by corrosion potential testing A influência do tipo de cimento e adição na vida útil de postes de concreto armado submetidos ao ambiente de alta salinidade do Nordeste do Brasil, estudada pela técnica de potencial de corrosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joukoski

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures installed in coastal zones have constantly been threatened by environmental damaging elements. The chloride ion is known as one of the most aggressive of these elements, causing, among other damages, corrosion of the steel reinforcement and then degradation of the concrete matrix. The goal of this work was to determine the influence of cement type on the resistance and durability of reinforced concrete samples with 25 mm cover thickness, when submitted to aging in a 3.4% sodium chloride aqueous solution and in a high salinity marine environment. Reinforced concrete light poles were cast following the same batching procedures, and after the curing period, they were exposed to atmosphere in a corrosion station near Aracaju, Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil's coast. Two concrete mixtures were made using CPII-F 32 (filler-modified Portland cement: a mix with no admixture and a mix with addition of 8% silica fume swapping fine aggregates. Another mixture was batched with CPV-ARI RS (high-early-strength Portland cement, with sulfur resistance. All the three mixtures were designed with cement content of about 350 kg/m³. The performance of the structures was evaluated from the results of physicochemical, mechanical and electrochemical testing, after over a year of natural aging. Corrosion potentials of the reinforced concrete samples and of the cast utility poles were measured in terms of the aging time at the natural environment and under chloride ion accelerated aging at laboratory. The half-cell potential measurements showed that the best results were obtained from the mixture containing CPII-F 32 cement and silica fume, followed by the concrete made with CPV-ARI RS cement. The mixture batched with CPII-F 32 cement without admixture presented the worst durability performance.Estruturas de concreto armado instaladas em zonas costeiras têm sido constantemente ameaçadas por elementos ambientais nocivos. O íon cloreto

  18. Mesozoic dinosaurs from Brazil and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Langer, Max C

    2011-03-01

    The record of dinosaur body-fossils in the Brazilian Mesozoic is restricted to the Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul and Cretaceous of various parts of the country. This includes 21 named species, two of which were regarded as nomina dubia, and 19 consensually assigned to Dinosauria. Additional eight supraspecific taxa have been identified based on fragmentary specimens and numerous dinosaur footprints known in Brazil. In fact, most Brazilian specimens related to dinosaurs are composed of isolated teeth and vertebrae. Despite the increase of fieldwork during the last decade, there are still no dinosaur body-fossils of Jurassic age and the evidence of ornithischians in Brazil is very limited. Dinosaur faunas from this country are generally correlated with those from other parts of Gondwana throughout the Mesozoic. During the Late Triassic, there is a close correspondence to Argentina and other south-Pangaea areas. Mid-Cretaceous faunas of northeastern Brazil resemble those of coeval deposits of North Africa and Argentina. Southern hemisphere spinosaurids are restricted to Africa and Brazil, whereas abelisaurids are still unknown in the Early Cretaceous of the latter. Late Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages of south-central Brazil are endemic only to genus or, more conspicuously, to species level, sharing closely related taxa with Argentina, Madagascar, Indo-Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, continental Africa.

  19. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Rat Lungworm Disease in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Simões, Raquel; Fernandez, Monica Ammon; Júnior, Arnaldo Maldonado

    2013-01-01

    The metastrongyloid nematode genus Angiostrongylus includes 18 species, two of which are relevant from a medical standpoint, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The first was described from Costa Rica in 1971 and causes abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, including in Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis, first described in 1935 from Canton, China, is the causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The natural definitive hosts are rodents, and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Paratenic or carrier hosts include crabs, freshwater shrimp, amphibians, flatworms, and fish. Humans become infected accidentally by ingestion of intermediate or paratenic hosts and the parasite does not complete the life cycle as it does in rats. Worms in the brain cause eosinophilic meningitis. This zoonosis, widespread in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands, has now been reported from other regions. In the Americas there are records from the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, Brazil, Ecuador, and Haiti. In Brazil seven human cases have been reported since 2007 from the southeastern and northeastern regions. Epidemiological studies found infected specimens of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus as well as many species of molluscs, including the giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, from various regions of Brazil. The spread of angiostrongyliasis is currently a matter of concern in Brazil. PMID:23901376

  20. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

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    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  1. BRAZIL’S NORTHEASTERN COAST AND THE ESTATE-TOURISM: BAHIA, PERNAMBUCO, CEARÁ AND RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    Alexandre Queiroz Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Northeast region of Brazil had its tourist preponderance planned in the last decade of the twentieth century. Before that time, the regional public policies did not see tourism as a strategic and developmental activity in Brazil and also did not evaluate the impacts arising from the real estate deals proper for summer vacation. In this paper, we propose an investigation on the diffusion models and ideas about the global and local tourism and summer vocations activities in coastal areas, focusing on the coast of the Northeastern region of Brazil. The territorial arrangement promoted by the construction of tourist-estate on the coast of Bahia, Ceará, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte were the focus of the research, as they are the largest recipients of these types of properties for leisure. Regarding the Methodologly, the study was conducted in three stages: bibliographical survey, secondary data analysis, along with the right public bodies and the preparation of cartograms that enabled the understanding of logical installation of these projects in the main cities of the Northeast region. The coast designed as recreational space is a spatiality predominantly in the main cities of the Northeast region of Brazil. There are leasing investments in non-metropolitan centers, however, the metropolitan perimeters are the ones that consolidate large private estate projects regarding on the new demands facing the tourists demands.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

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    Erlane Chaves FREITAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154 were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease.

  3. Flora of the State of Paraíba, Brazil: Loranthaceae Juss.

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    Gabriella Carla Leite de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species, Psittacanthus (two species, Pusillanthus (one species and Struthanthus (six species. Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.

  4. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  5. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto; Maria Virgínia Alves Martins; Maria Antonieta da Conceição Rodrigues; Leandro Nogueira; Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut; Egberto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida) and ...

  6. Characterization and pedogenesis of mangrove soils from Ilhéus-BA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Felipe Haenel; Ker,João Carlos; Ferreira,Tiago Osório; Moreau,Ana Maria Souza dos Santos; Moreau,Maurício Santana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its importance, studies of mangrove soils are scarce, especially from a pedological perspective. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of soils in a mangrove environment in northeastern Brazil (Ilhéus, Bahia) through a morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. All soils presented a sandy texture, which is related to the parent material (Quaternary sand deposits). The tidal flooding and resulting hydromorphic conditions is responsible ...

  7. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes,Carlos Brisola; Ximenes,Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are ...

  8. Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in pa...

  9. Etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias isoladas de ovelhas com mastite na região nordeste do estado do Pará Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from sheep with mastitis in northeastern Pará, Brazil

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    Natália da Silva e Silva

    2010-12-01

    relação a Escherichia coli, 66,7% dos isolados mostraram-se resistentes à ampicilina, cefalotina, florfenicol e tetraciclina. A mastite está presente em ovelhas no estado do Pará, havendo a necessidade de estimar, em estudos futuros, as perdas econômicas causadas por essa enfermidade. O CMT apresentou resultados satisfatórios, podendo ser recomendado como teste de triagem para o diagnóstico de casos individuais de mastite subclínica em ovinos, uma vez que apresentou boa relação com o exame microbiológico. No antibiograma foi observado que a maioria dos agentes isolados apresenta-se sensível aos diferentes antimicrobianos testados, sendo os antibióticos com melhor eficiência o florfenicol e a cefoxitina.The objective of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis in sheep at northeastern Pará, and to establish the sensitivity of isolated bacteria to antibiotics. A total of 176 Santa Inês nursing sheep kept in semi-intensive system from seven properties were examined. The mammary gland was clinically examined and the milk was submitted to the Caneca Telada Test, the California Mastitis Test (CMT, bacteriological examinations and antibiograms. Out of the 352 mammary halves (176 sheep, 5.9% (21/352 had clinical mastitis and by the CMT test, 7.39% (26/352 had subclinical mastitis and 86.64% (305/352 mammary halves did not have mastitis. Most of the animals with mastitis were in the second third of the lactation period, had less kids and more lactation periods. The following bacteria were isolated from the clinical mastitis Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative (42,9%; Staphylococcus aureus (9.52%; Streptococcus spp. (4.76% and Escherichia coli (4.76%. Were observed associations of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. (4,76%; Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative nonhemolytic, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative hemolytic and Staphylococcus spp. coagulase negative non hemolytic pigment (4.76%. Already in subclinical mastitis the bacteria

  10. A new deep-sea species of Barathronus Goode & Bean from Brazil, with notes on Barathronus bicolor Goode & Bean (Ophidiiformes: Aphyonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen; Mincarone, Michael M.; Di Dario, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Barathronus (Ophidiiformes: Aphyonidae) is described from a single, mature male specimen (101 mm SL) bottom trawled on the continental slope of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil, between 1,964 and 2,045 m depth. The new species is diagnosed among congeners by the following...

  11. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  12. [Rediscovery of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the "Restinga" in the Nacional Park Lençóis Maranhenses, Barreirinhas, MA, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Márcia; Albuquerque, Patrícia

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 95 years after the original description, a nest of Melipona subnitida Ducke was rediscovered in the state of Maranhão, in a restinga ecosystem of the Barreirinhas municipality, Northeastern Brazil. The voucher specimens are deposited in the collection of the "Laboratório de Estudos sobre Abelhas" of the "Departamento de Biologia UFMA".

  13. Avaliação preliminar do emprego de arenito zeolítico da região nordeste do Brasil como material pozolânico para cimento Portland Preliminary evaluation of sandstones from northeastern Brazil with pozzolanic properties for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Picanço

    2011-12-01

    material. O arenito apresentou atividade pozolânica, sendo a estilbita responsável por este comportamento. Entretanto, a reatividade foi ligeiramente inferior ao mínimo exigido para ser empregado em escala industrial como pozolana. Estudos complementares são necessários para averiguar se o tratamento térmico entre 300 °C e 500 °C pode aumentar a atividade pozolânica do arenito devido a destruição da estrutura cristalina tanto da estilbita quanto da esmectita presente no arenito.Natural zeolites usually exhibit pozzolanic activity without any additional treatment, e.g. thermal activation. They have been used for building since the ancient Roman Empire times in the production of hydraulic cements and concretes. Nowadays, there are many discussions involving the natural zeolites pozzolanic reactivity in the incorporation of the Portland cement composition. The appropriate use of pozzolans enables the production of special cements with lower manufacturing cost and with a greater durability in comparison with the corresponding cements without addition. In Brazil, zeolite consumption comes either from the importation of foreign countries or synthetic products. No zeolite mine is available in the country and only few geological occurrences were already described in the literature without any commercial interest. In northeast Brazil, the Geological Survey (CPRM discovered zeolite-bearing sandstones related to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Parnaíba Paleozoic Basin. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possible use of such sandstones as pozzolan for using in Portland cements (CPI-S. A bulk sample of the zeolitic sandstone (AZ was collected in the field. In the laboratory, preparation included drying, milling and sieving at the following grain-size fractions, in order to remove quartz and concentrate the zeolite: 100# (AZ-1, 200# (AZ-2 and 325# (AZ-3. After mineralogical evaluation, the AZ-2 fraction was selected for further analysis and assays. The

  14. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

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    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  15. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Zickel, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restinga vegetation occurs along the entire coast of Brazil. The 187 km of coastline of the state ofPernambuco demonstrates a diversity of habitats, such as beaches, dunes, and restingas. The present study sought toelaborate a checklist of the phanerogamic species found there. The species listed were compiled from surveysundertaken between 1951 and 2007, as well as from herbaria collections in that state. A total of 477 species distributedamong 303 genera and 95 families were encountered. The families with the greatest numbers of species were Poaceae(39 species, Fabaceae (34, Cyperaceae (26, Euphorbiaceae (25, Myrtaceae (24, Rubiaceae (20, Caesalpiniaceae(17, Mimosaceae (16, Asteraceae (14, Orchidaceae (14, Bromeliaceae (9, Boraginaceae (8, Malvaceae (8,Solanaceae (8, and Annonaceae, Araceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Melastomataceae (7 each.Approximately 60 % of the species were common to other restinga areas in northeastern Brazil, and 39.3 % wererestricted to the coast of Pernambuco.

  16. Cobertura vacinal e fatores de risco associados à não-vacinação em localidade urbana do Nordeste brasileiro, 1994 Vaccination coverage and some risk factors for non-vaccination in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil, 1994

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    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A identificação da cobertura vacinal e dos fatores responsáveis pelo retardo ou pela falta de imunizações é fundamental para a adequada monitorização dos programas de vacinação e para se identificar e atingir as crianças que não são vacinadas adequadamente. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado inquérito domiciliar transversal, em amostra aleatória por conglomerados em múltiplos estágios de crianças de 12 a 59 meses de idade, no Município de São Luís, Maranhão, Brasil, em 1994. Utilizou-se questionário padronizado respondido pela mãe ou responsável pela criança. Foram visitados 50 setores censitários; em cada um foram amostrados 40 domicílios, onde foram encontradas, em média, 15 crianças. O efeito de desenho foi calculado para cada estimativa. A não-vacinação foi analisada em relação a indicadores socioeconômicos, demográficos e à morbidade referida pela regressão de Cox. RESULTADOS: A cobertura vacinal foi de 72,4% para BCG, 59,9% para 3 doses da vacina Sabin, 57% para 3 doses de vacina DPT (difteria, coqueluche e tétano e 54,7% para a vacina anti-sarampo. A baixa escolaridade materna foi o principal fator de risco para a não-vacinação após o controle dos fatores de confusão. CONCLUSÃO: As coberturas vacinais foram baixas. Uma das estratégias sugeridas para o aumento das coberturas é o incremento das atividades de educação em saúde.INTRODUCTION: The assessment of vaccination coverage and risk factors for non-vaccination is important to evaluate vaccination programs and to identify children not properly vaccinated. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in the municipality of S. Luís, Maranhão, Brazil by means of a standardized questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling was used to identify children of 12-59 months of age residing in the city in 1994. The mother or other person responsible for the children was interviewed. Fifty census clusters were visited and 40

  17. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil Hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae em restinga reflorestada no nordeste do Brasil

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    GG. Santana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.O hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto forrageador ativo Cnemidophorus ocellifer foram analisados em um habitat de restinga reflorestada, situado no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinados 75 espécimes de C. ocellifer, sendo 46 machos e 29 f

  18. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa

  19. Motor neuron diseases in the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil: a clinico-demographic analysis of 87 cases Doenças do neurônio motor no Hospital Universitário de Fortaleza (Nordeste do Brasil: análise clínico-demográfica de 87 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS M. DE CASTRO-COSTA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective (1980-1998 study, we have analyzed clinico-demographically, from the records of the University Hospital of Fortaleza (Brazil, a group of 87 patients showing signs and symptoms of motor neuron diseases (MNDs. Their diagnosis was determined clinically and laboratorially. The WFN criteria were used for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS diagnosis. The clinico-demographic analysis of the 87 cases of MNDs showed that 4 were diagnosed as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, 5 cases as ALS subsets: 2 as progressive bulbar paralysis (PBP, 2 as progressive muscular atrophy (PMA and 1 as monomelic amyotrophy (MA, and 78 cases of ALS. The latter comprised 51 males and 27 females, with a mean age of 42.02 years. They were sub-divided into 4 groups according to age: from 15 to 29 years (n= 17, 30 to 39 years (n= 18, 40 to 69 years (n= 39 and 70 to 78 years (n= 4. From the 78 ALS patients, 76 were of the classic sporadic form whilst only 2 were of the familial form. The analysis of the 87 patients with MNDs from the University Hospital of Fortaleza showed a predominance of ALS patients, with a high number of cases of juvenile and early onset adult sporadic ALS.Neste estudo retrospectivo (1980-1998, analisamos clínico-demograficamente, a partir dos prontuários do Hospital Universitário de Fortaleza (Brasil, um grupo de 87 pacientes que apresentavam sinais e sintomas de doenças do neurônio motor (DNMs. Eles foram diagnosticados clinicamente, e através de exames complementares. Para o diagnóstico da esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA, usamos os critérios da Federação Mundial de Neurologia. A análise clínico-demográfica dos 87 casos de DNMs evidenciou a existência de 4 casos de atrofia muscular espinhal (AME, 5 casos de variantes da ELA: 2 de paralisia bulbar progressiva (PBP, 2 de atrofia muscular progressiva (AMP e 1 de amiotrofia monomélica (AM, e 78 casos de ELA. Esses últimos eram constituídos de 51 homens e 27 mulheres, com

  20. Survey explores active tectonics in northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, A.; Córdoba, D.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Granja, J.L.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalán, M.; Gómez, M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; von Hillebrandt, Christa; Payero, J.

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in studying the active and complex northeastern Caribbean plate boundary to better understand subduction zone processes and for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessments [e.g., ten Brink and Lin, 2004; ten Brink et al., 2004; Grindlay et al., 2005]. To study the active tectonics of this plate boundary, the GEOPRICO-DO (Geological, Puerto Rico-Dominican) marine geophysical cruise, carried out between 28 March and 17 April 2005 (Figure 1), studied the active tectonics of this plate boundary.Initial findings from the cruise have revealed a large underwater landslide, and active faults on the seafloor (Figures 2a and 2c). These findings indicate that the islands within this region face a high risk from tsunami hazards, and that local governments should be alerted in order to develop and coordinate possible mitigation strategies.

  1. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  2. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  3. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  4. Five new species of Ytu Reichardt (Coleoptera: Myxophaga: Torridincolidae) and new records from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Brunno Henrique Lanzellotti; Ferreira, Nelson

    2018-03-29

    The genus Ytu Reichardt is the most diverse within Torridincolidae, currently with 19 species. Five new species are described herein, four of them from various localities in the southeast of Brazil (type localities in parentheses): Ytu hermes sp. nov. (Brazil, Espírito Santo, Dores do Rio Preto, Pedra Menina, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Cachoeira Sete Pilões); Ytu hypnos sp. nov. (Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, São Fidelis, Serra Bela Joana); Ytu nyx sp. nov. (Brazil, Espírito Santo, Dores do Rio Preto, Pedra Menina, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, Rio São Domingos, Cachoeira do Aurélio); Ytu thanatos sp. nov. (Brazil, Espírito Santo, Castelo, Parque Estadual do Forno Grande). The other new species, Ytu coeus sp. nov. (Brazil, Espírito Santo, Dores do Rio Preto, Pedra Menina, Parque Nacional do Caparaó, nascente do Rio São Domingos) is described from Brazilian States of Espírito Santo and Ceará, the latter being the first record of this genus in northeastern Brazil. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic characters are provided. The new species are compared to other similar species of the genus. New records of some other species of Ytu are presented.

  5. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  6. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  7. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  8. Paleoenvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Navidi Izad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Palaeonvironment of the Dalichai Formation, northeastern Semnan, is envisaged based on 69 samples studied palynologically. Diverse and well-preserved palynofloras, viz., miospores, dinoflagellate cysts, foraminiferal test linings, acritarchs, wood debris (plant tissue and Amorphous Organic Matters (AOM occur in the material examined. The presence of relatively abundant proximate dinoflagellates and ±laevigate acritarchs in the lower part of the section studied implies sedimentation in a turbulent shallow environment. However, occurrence in the upper part of the section of abundant chorate dinoflagellates as well as notable proportion of blade-shaped to equal dimensional opaque palynomacerals seem to signify marine incursion and accumulation in an open marine setting. In most of the samples examined, prevalence of transparent AOM denotes a low oxygenated environment and slow rate of accumulation. Moreover, incidence of three palynofacies types (II, IV, VI in the pertinent material also corroborates a shallow low oxygenated environment with low sedimentation rate which gradually deepened upward in the section.

  9. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae in palms of northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bar María Esther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90% Butia yatay (Mart. Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq. Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2% were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2. T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina.

  10. Enfrentamento da violência infligida pelo parceiro íntimo por mulheres em área urbana da região Nordeste do Brasil Enfrentamiento de la violencia infligida por la pareja intima por mujeres en área urbana de la región Noreste de Brasil Facing violence by intimate partner: the experience of women in an urban area of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Aquino Silva

    2012-12-01

    para dejar la casa fueron: la exacerbación de la violencia y el miedo de ser asesinada; para el retorno la esperanza de cambio en la pareja y el deseo de preservar la familia. CONCLUSIONES: Gran parte de las mujeres que sufrieron violencia por pareja íntima buscó alguna forma de ayuda. La red social primaria (familiares y amigos fue la más procurada por las mujeres para romper el ciclo violento. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de mayor divulgación de servicios de apoyo y la importancia de la ampliación y calificación de la red de servicios (policía, justicia, salud, asistencia psicosocial para que estos puedan acoger y apoyar a las mujeres, dándoles soporte efectivo para romper con la situación de VPI.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods of coping adopted by women who have been subject to physical domestic violence. METHODS: A cross-sectional study designed to investigate domestic violence was carried out on the baseline data of a cohort study of 1,120 pregnant women in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. A total of 283 women aged 18 to 49, who reported physical violence by their current or most recent partner before and/or during pregnancy and who were enrolled in the Family Health Program, were eligible for this study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, involving a structured questionnaire, conducted between July 2005 and March 2006, and descriptive analysis was carried out. Data were gathered on the women's socio-demographic characteristics, the type and scale of the partners' physical violence, the method in which they dealt with the violence, whether help was sought and from whom, whether they had abandoned home due to violence and, if so, whether they had returned. RESULTS: Of the women who had suffered domestic violence, 57.6% had talked to someone about it, 3.5% had sought help from an official service or a person in position of authority, 17.3% had talked to someone and sought help from an official service, and 21.6% had not sought any

  11. Stratigraphy of the Roraima Supergroup along the Brazil-Guyana border in the Guiana shield, Northern Amazonian Craton - results of the Brazil-Guyana Geology and Geodiversity Mapping Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Joaquim Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Geological and Geodiversity Mapping binational program along the Brazil-Guyana border zone allowed reviewing and integrating the stratigraphy and nomenclature of the Roraima Supergroup along the Pakaraima Sedimentary Block present in northeastern Brazil and western Guyana. The area mapped corresponds to a buffer zone of approximately 25 km in width on both sides of the border, of a region extending along the Maú-Ireng River between Mount Roraima (the triple-border region and Mutum Village in Brazil and Monkey Mountain in Guyana. The south border of the Roraima basin is overlain exclusively by effusive and volcaniclastic rocks of the Surumu Group of Brazil and its correlated equivalent the Burro-Burro Group of Guyana.

  12. Larval and adult density of the porcellanid crab Petrolisthes armatus (Anomura: Porcellanidae) in an Amazon estuary, northern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Danielly Brito de; Silva, Dalila Costa; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara Moretto

    2013-01-01

    Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850) is a porcellanid crab with a wide geographical distribution. In the present study we analyzed variations in the abundance of P. armatus adults and larvae over an annual cycle in the Marapanim estuary of the Amazon coastal zone, in the northeastern portion of the state of Pará, Brazil. Particularly, we focused on the presence of ovigerous females and timing of larval release, with the aim of elucidating reproductive patterns in a tropical estuarine system. T...

  13. Classification of varieties of pasteurella pestis strains isolated in the interior of the state of Pernambuco-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were made on the biochemical behavior of 100 strains of P.pestis isolated in Northeastern Brazil with regard to production of nitrous acid, reduction of nitrates to nitrltes, and aciáification of glycerol. Results showed that 98 strains can be classified as "orientalis variety", while the remaining two could not be included in any of the existing "varieties".

  14. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brisola Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  15. Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

  16. First report on the whitefly, Aleurodicus pseudugesii on the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Omena, Rose Paula Mendonça; Guzzo, Elio Cesar; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; de Mendonça, Fernando Antônio Cavalcante; de Lima, Aurino Florencio; Racca-Filho, Francisco; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is currently grown extensively throughout the intertropical zones of the world, including Brazil, where it constitutes an important source of income for growers. Although whiteflies are not normally considered coconut pests, these insects can damage crops directly by sucking the sap, which weakens the plant; indirect damage may be caused by sooty mold formation over the excreted honeydew and by the transmission of pathogens. Whiteflies have infested coconut plants in the northeastern, northern, and southeastern regions of Brazil. Infested materials were collected and the causative insect was identified as Aleurodicus pseudugesii Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). This is the first report of A. pseudugesii in Brazil as a pest of the coconut palm.

  17. Uranium concentrations in groundwater, northeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Welch, Wendy B.; Tecca, Alison E.; Eliason, Devin M.

    2018-04-18

    A study of uranium in groundwater in northeastern Washington was conducted to make a preliminary assessment of naturally occurring uranium in groundwater relying on existing information and limited reconnaissance sampling. Naturally occurring uranium is associated with granitic and metasedimentary rocks, as well as younger sedimentary deposits, that occur in this region. The occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater is poorly understood. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates uranium in Group A community water systems at a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 30 μg/L in order to reduce uranium exposure, protect from toxic kidney effects of uranium, and reduce the risk of cancer. However, most existing private wells in the study area, generally for single family use, have not been sampled for uranium. This document presents available uranium concentration data from throughout a multi-county region, identifies data gaps, and suggests further study aimed at understanding the occurrence of uranium in groundwater.The study encompasses about 13,000 square miles (mi2) in the northeastern part of Washington with a 2010 population of about 563,000. Other than the City of Spokane, most of the study area is rural with small towns interspersed throughout the region. The study area also includes three Indian Reservations with small towns and scattered population. The area has a history of uranium exploration and mining, with two inactive uranium mines on the Spokane Indian Reservation and one smaller inactive mine on the outskirts of Spokane. Historical (1977–2016) uranium in groundwater concentration data were used to describe and illustrate the general occurrence and distribution of uranium in groundwater, as well as to identify data deficiencies. Uranium concentrations were detected at greater than 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) in 60 percent of the 2,382 historical samples (from wells and springs). Uranium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to

  18. New dyrosaurid crocodylomorph and evidences for faunal turnover at the K-P transition in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Antonio; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin; Viana, Maria Somália Sales

    2008-06-22

    The discovery of a new dyrosaurid crocodylomorph from the well-dated Palaeocene deposits of northeastern Brazil sheds new light on the evolutionary history of this extinct group of marine crocodylomorphs that have survived the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-P) extinction crisis. Guarinisuchus munizi, the most complete member of this group collected in South America so far, is closely related to the African forms, and this fact suggests that dyrosaurids had crossed the Atlantic Ocean before the K-P boundary and dispersed from there to North America and other parts of South America. This discovery also suggests that on the coast of northeastern Brazil, dyrosaurids replaced the pre-existing Late Cretaceous fauna of diversified mosasaurs, a group of marine lizards, after the K-P extinction event, becoming the main predators, together with sharks, in shallow marine Palaeocene environments. More detailed stratigraphic records and detailed dating of the deposits with dyrosaurids are necessary to correlate this particular pattern found in the ancient northeastern Brazilian coast within the evolution of the group, especially in Africa.

  19. Warm Water Pathways in the Northeastern North Atlantic ACCE RAFOS Float Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furey, Heather

    2001-01-01

    ...). The RAFOS float component of ACCE, entitled "Warm Water Pathways and Intergyre Exchange in the Northeastern North Atlantic", was designed to measure the warm water currents entering the northeastern...

  20. Coexistence and mixing of magmas in the late precambrian Itaporanga batholith, State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, G.; Sial, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The Precambrian Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro Fold Belt (CSF) located in the western portion of the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba is intruded, in its northern portion, by several coarsely porphyritic potassic calc-alkalic batholiths. These batholiths were syntectonically emplaced in relation to the Brasiliano cycle (=Pan-African) and are commonly associated with potassium diorites suggesting coexistence and mixing between felsic and mafic magmas. In the Itaporanga batholith three petrographic domains were mapped. A hybrid zone characterized by intense mechanical mixing of granite to granodiorite and potassium diorite magmas is located towards the border of the batholith. A commingling zone where felsic porphyritic granite to granodiorite and potassium diorite rocks are individualized at outcrop scale is located towards the center of the batholith. Finally a felsic porphyritic facies occur in the hybrid zone. Similarity among chemical analyses of amphiboles from potassium dioritic enclaves of the Itaporanga batholith and from the potassium diorite stock east of it suggest a common source for both magmas. This hypothesis is corroborated by similar REE patterns for potassium dioritic enclaves of the Itaporanga batholith and for the potassium diorite stock. The batholith shows a well developed foliation which dips towards its core suggesting that the present level of exposure represents the root zone of a diapir, where intense interaction between felsic and mafic magmas took place. (author)

  1. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  2. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento-Soares,Luisa M.; Martins-Pinheiro,Ronaldo F.; Aranda,Arion T.; Chamon,Carine C.

    2006-01-01

    A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head wi...

  3. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  4. Epidemiological overview of HIV/AIDS in pregnant women from a state of northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claúdia Mendes da; Alves, Regina de Souza; Santos, Tâmyssa Simões dos; Bragagnollo, Gabriela Rodrigues; Tavares, Clodis Maria; Santos, Amuzza Aylla Pereira dos

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To learn the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in pregnant women. Method: Descriptive study with quantitative approach. The study population was composed of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS residing in the state of Alagoas. Data were organized into variables and analyzed according to the measures of dispersion parameter relevant to the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (X ± S). Results: Between 2007 and 2015, 773 cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in pregna...

  5. Distribution and density of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in the estuarine region of Northeastern Brazil

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    A. M. L. Rodrigues Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the density and distribution of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in beaches in the estuarine region of the semiarid in Rio Grande do Norte State, Barra and Pernambuquinho (04°56.978’S and 37°08.961’W and 04°56.792’S and 37°09.375’W, respectively. Samples were collected monthly during 37 months using five transects (300 m long and 400 m apart laid perpendicularly to the beach line toward the sea. Seven collection points, 50 m apart, were set in each transect, and shellfish and sediment samples were collected. Temperature and salinity were measured in each transect. The results showed a temperature variation of average values of 3 °C; the greatest variation (33.2 °C was observed in May of 2009. The lowest average salinity values were observed between April and June of 2009 (5, 8.7, and 7.8, respectively. This fact was due to an atypical rainfall in the region, which resulted in a large freshwater inflow into the estuary; the average salinity values were about 40 in the remaining months. The highest precipitation values were observed in April/09, April/10, and April/11; the highest precipitation occurred in April/09 (316.3 mm. The lower average densities of A. brasiliana were observed in April and May/09 when compared to the other months; the lowest value was observed in April/09 (26 ind/m2. The highest densities occurred between November/10 and July/11, with values ranging from 70 to 322 ind/m2. The highest inflow of young individuals (lengths from 2 to 5 mm was observed between April and June of 2010 and on September/10 while the highest frequency of adults (from 20 to 25 mm occurred between December of 2010 and April of 2011. Hence, the results of this study show that in the months with the greatest rainfall, salinity and the average density of A. brasiliana showed the lowest values.

  6. Skeletal dysplasia with craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism in hair sheep of northeastern Brazil.

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    Dantas, F P M; Medeiros, G X; Figueiredo, A P M; Thompson, K; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a newly described form of skeletal dysplasia affecting Brazilian hair sheep of the Cabugi breed. This breed is characterized by having a short head and in some cases the animals are smaller and more compact than sheep of similar breeds. Lambs born with craniofacial abnormalities and dwarfism that die at 2-6 months of age are frequent in this breed. In a flock of 68 ewes and three rams of the Cabugi breed, 134 lambs were born over a 4-year period. Of these, 14 (10.4%) had marked cranial abnormalities and dwarfism and died or were humanely destroyed, 43 (32%) had a normal face and 77 (57.5%) had the short face characteristic of the breed. Dwarf lambs were much smaller than normal, with short legs, a domed head with retruded muzzle and protruded mandible, sternal deformities and exophthalmic eyes situated more laterally in the face than normal. Microscopical examination of long bones of the limbs, bones of the base of the skull and vertebrae showed no lesions. Bones from four affected lambs and one control lamb were macerated for morphometric examination. Although the length of the spinal cord was similar, there was disproportionate shortening of the appendicular bones, particularly the distal segments. Thus the disease was defined as a skeletal dysplasia characterized by craniofacial deformity and disproportionate dwarfism. It is suggested that the disease is inherited as an incomplete dominant trait. The shortened face, which is a feature of the Cabugi breed, may represent the heterozygous state and the more severe, often lethal, dwarfism may occur in homozygotes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster in flocks of northeastern Brazil

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    Sandra Batista dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate contagious agalactia (CA in flocks from Pernambuco State. The study involved 225 goats and 63 ewes; 288 milk samples and 100 vaginal swabs were collected in total. The PCR assays were carried out using specific primers to Mycoplasma agalactiae and the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Among the goat’s milk samples,12.0% (27/225 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, while 5.3% (12/225 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Of the vaginal swabs taken from goats, 15.4% (12/78 were positive for Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA and 3.8% (3/78 contained the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. In the case of ewes, 4.3% (1/23 of the milk samples contained Mycoplasma agalactiae DNA, and 7.5% (3/40 were positive for the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Vaginal swabs taken from sheep´s were negative. Analysis of risk factors for mycoplasmosis, showed that goats and sheep flocks on the extensive breeding system are more likely to have mycoplasmosis than those on the intensive breeding system (odds ratio (OR 6.2; p=0.004; meat goat and sheep flocks are more likely to have infection compared to dairy flocks (OR 4.8; p=0.011; unclean animal housing increases the chances of infection (OR 5.0; p=0.031 and not performing quarantine increases the chances of mycoplasmosis (OR 4.6; p=0.042. Based on these findings we conclude that CA syndrome in the semiarid region of Pernambuco state can be associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.

  8. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrates community in a hypersaline estuary (Northeastern Brazil

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    Carlinda Railly Ferreira Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The estuarine community of benthic macroinvertebrates spatially varies in response to changes in environmental variables in these ecosystems. Understanding this variability helps our understanding the mechanisms structuring these communities. Aim Assess the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in a hypersaline estuary, and to relate to environmental variables that influence the community structure along the estuary. Methods The study was conducted at Tubarão river estuary in May 2015. We sampled two estuarine areas (upper and lower, and in each zone were sampled six points composed of two replicas, one sampled in sandy bottom and the other in muddy bottom. Samples of benthic macroinvertebrates and estuarine environmental variables were collected. Environmental drivers of the benthic macroinvertebrate community were determined by Distance-based Linear Models analysis. The contribution of individual species to the dissimilarity between the areas and substrate types were determined by analysis of the percentage of similarity. Results The composition of benthic macroinvertebrate community differed between the upper and lower areas, although it was similar between the muddy and sandy bottoms. The variation in the benthic community between areas was mainly related to the influence of salinity in the upper area. In the lower area, the variation of the macroinvertebrates was related to salinity, associated with other variables in the sandy (temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen and muddy (temperature, total dissolved solids and dissolved oxygen substrates. Taxa which contributed most to the dissimilarity between the upper and lower areas were Nereididae (17.89%, Anomalocardia brasiliana (15% and Cirratulidae (10.43%. Conclusions Salinity was the main driver of the structural aspects of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in the upper area of the estuary, although in the lower area a set of variables have structured benthic macroinvertebrates in the hypersaline estuary studied. In addition, the largest mangrove cover and less influence of the tide, may have favored the greater abundance of macroinvertebrates in the upper area.

  9. Seasonal distribution of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semiarid region, northeastern Brazil

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