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Sample records for northeast japan implication

  1. Can Trade Help Overcome Economic Crisis? Implications for Northeast Asia Creating Regional FTA between Korea, China, and Japan and Mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes have formed a triad of economic and trade systems in terms of GDP and trade volume. These are the European Union (EU, North America Free Trade Association (NAFTA, and Northeast Asia, the major actors in the global economic system and trade since 1990s. However, the global financial crisis in 2008 created a new global economic order and governance that consisted of existing global economic power such as the G7 as well as new emerging economic powers, such as G20 and BRICS. Under such rapidly changing global economic conditions, global trade has contributed to rapid economic growth in the world in the last half-century. Regarding FTAs, the European Union (EU is the frontrunner and has developed the most advanced system for regional economic integration. The EU’s single market provides several implications for Northeast Asian countries trying to build their own regional bilateral and multilateral FTAs and participate in different mega-FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. As a result, their economic interests are rather divided deeply and related to political and security issues in the context of Northeast Asia. Therefore, it is more difficult for Northeast Asian countries to economically integrate in a way that is comparable with the EU. This paper addresses a regional FTA between South Korea, China, and Japan that could be a starting point for their formal economic integration and create a reliable platform to strengthen their trade, boosting further economic growth. It also asks which of the three nations’ economic interests are served by participating in mega FTAs such as RCEP and TPP. Finally, it analyses the best scenario for participating in the multilateral FTA and mega FTAs for each nation.

  2. Reflections on the mental health consequences of nuclear power plant disasters and implications for epidemiologic research in Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    , post-trauamtic stress, other forms of anxiety, and subjective health concerns. Since most individuals seek help from non-psychiatrist medical providers for physical as well as emotional conditions, it is imperative that these providers are able to detect and manage common mental health problems that arise and will no doubt persist in the aftermath of the triple catastrophe in Northeast Japan. (author)

  3. First report of (U-Th)/He thermochronometric data across Northeast Japan Arc: implications for the long-term inelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, Shigeru; Tagami, Takahiro; Kohn, Barry P.

    2017-06-01

    (U-Th)/He thermochronometric analyses were performed across the southern part of the Northeast Japan Arc for reconstructing the long-term uplift and denudation history in the region. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages ranged from 64.3 to 1.5 Ma, while zircon (U-Th)/He ages ranged between 39.6 and 11.0 Ma. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages showed obvious contrast among the morphostructural provinces; older ages of 64.3-49.6 Ma were obtained in the Abukuma Mountains on the fore-arc side, whereas younger ages of 11.4-1.5 Ma were determined in the Ou Backbone Range (OBR) along the volcanic front and the Asahi Mountains on the back-arc side. The age contrasts are basically interpreted to reflect the differences in the uplift and the denudation histories of the provinces considering the thermal effects of magmatism and timing of the known uplift episodes. Denudation rates were calculated to be histories at the scale of an island arc, as well as continental orogens. However, careful discussion of magmatic thermal effects is required.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Groundwater flow analyses in Japan. 1. Case studies in Hokkaido and Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Maekawa, Keisuke; Koide, Kaoru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    An extensive study program has been carried out to estimate hydrogeological characteristics of deep underground in Japan. As a part of this program, groundwater flow analysis in Hokkaido and Northeast Japan were conducted. For the analyses of these area, hydrogeological models representing topography, geology, distribution of hydraulic conductivity were developed using available informations from open literature. By use of these models, steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow under a saturated/unsaturated condition was calculated by means of finite element method. The results are as follows: (1) Distribution of piezometric head corresponds with topography in the study area. (2) Piezometric head distribution is hydrostatic below E.L.-1000m in the study area. (3) Hydraulic gradient in the study area is less than 0.04 below E.L.-500m. (4) Difference of boundary conditions at the shore side of these models does not affect the results of the analyses. (author)

  5. The Relationship between Pollen Count Levels and Prevalence of Japanese Cedar Pollinosis in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Honda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that pollen count levels may correlate with the rate of sensitization for JC pollinosis, but may not affect the rate of onset among sensitized children in northeast Japan.

  6. Comparison study of genetic diversity between rice varieties from northeast China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongyu; Wang Haize; Zhang Longhai; Liu Menghong; Xu Zhengjin; Zhao Minghui; Xu Hai; Wang Jiayu; Si Yang

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 18 rice varieties from northeast China and 13 rice varieties from Japan were investigated by 20 phenotypic traits and SSR assay with 40 pairs of primers. The results showed that 82 phenotypic variation and 108 alleles were detected. With an average of 2.54 alleles on every locus the phenotypic variation and alleles in northeast China were 72 and 103, respectively, and 63 and 94 were respectively with an average of 2.32 alleles on every locus in Japanese varieties. Genetic variation among different varieties varied greatly and among different groups varied slightly. Genetic diversity of varieties in northeast China was much higher than those in Japan, and 94.7% of the alleles from Japanese varieties were included in the varieties from northeast China. The available specific alleles were already very limited in the varieties from Japan and can not meet the rice breeding requirements for northeastern China. (authors)

  7. Sr isotope geochemistry of voluminous acidic pyroclastics erupted at 1-3 Ma in Northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahase, Teruo; Tamanyu, Shiro; Togashi, Shigeko

    1989-01-01

    Sr isotope ratios are analyzed for voluminous acidic pyroclastics erupted at 1 - 3 Ma in five areas on the volcanic front of Northeast Japan. The initial values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.7040 to 0.7055. There is no significant difference in ratios between 1 - 3 Ma acidic pyroclastics and 0 - 1 Ma andesitic volcanics in each area in spite of differences in age and in mean SiO 2 content. On the other hand, the ratios in both of 1 - 3 Ma and 0 - 1 Ma volcanics vary along arc in the same manner. The changes of Sr and Rb contents in each area are consistent with systematic changes by fractional crystallization. The low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and chemistry suggest that 1 - 3 Ma acidic pyroclastics of Northeast Japan formed by a high degree of fractional crystallization from basic magma which is common in genesis with young andesitic volcanism. The mechanisms of the formation of the basic magma and the character of mantle source in each area have not changed for the past 3 Ma. Degrees of fractional crystallization changed with changes of the tectonic condition of shallow magma chamber from a weak horizontal compression stress field to a strong one. (author)

  8. Geologic structure and volcanic history of the Yanaizu-Nishiyama (Okuaizu) geothermal field, Northeast Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizugaki, Keiko [Geological Survey of Japan, Geothermal Research Dept., Higashi Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The Yanaizu-Nishiyama geothermal field, also known as Okuaizu, supports a 65 MWe geothermal power station. It is located in the western part of Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. This field is characterised by rhyolitic volcanism of about 0.3-0.2 Ma that formed Sunagohara volcano. Drillcore geology indicates that volcanism began with a caldera-forming eruption in the center of this field, creating a 2-km-diameter funnel-shaped caldera. Subsequently, a fault-bounded block including this caldera subsided to form a 5-km-wide lake that accumulated lake sediments. Post-caldera volcanism formed lava domes and intrusions within the lake, and deposited ash-flow tuffs in and around the lake. The hydrothermal system of this field is strongly controlled by subvertical faults that have no relation to the volcanism. The principal production zone occurs at a depth of 1.0-2.6 km within fractured Neogene formations along two northwest-trending faults to the southeast of the caldera. These faults also formed fracture zones in the lake sediments, but there was no apparent offset of the sediments. Stratigraphic studies suggest that post-caldera activities of Sunagohara volcano have migrated southeastward to the present high-temperature zone. The source magma of Sunagohara volcano may contribute to the thermal potential of this field. (Author)

  9. Japan's energy future: implications for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.

    1999-01-01

    In April this year, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources published a report outlining the dilemmas facing Japan's energy industry in the post-Kyoto environment with particular reference to the effect it would have on Australia's fuel exports. The following article is based on information in that report. In summary, the extent to which the Japanese government's current climate change response policy (the long term energy forecast) is realised will depend on a complex interaction of competing considerations: 1. whether, in the event of US non ratification, the government maintains its Kyoto commitment or opts for a partial step back from its 8% commitment (and the extent of that draw back); 2. in the event that it does maintain its Kyoto commitment: a) the extent to which it takes advantage of the flexible mechanism provisions to ease the abatement burden on the energy system; b) the level of success in securing additional nuclear power stations and higher load ratios from nuclear power; c) the degree to which renewable and recycling energy sources can be brought on line; d) the extent to which the Japanese people are willing to meet the costs of switching to new technology and changing lifestyles to conserve energy; e) the timing of new initiatives such as emissions trading; the extent to which Japanese industry is able to achieve very strict energy conservation targets; f) the extent to which Japan's economic recovery leads to increased electricity demand as well as g) the extent to which electricity deregulation reduces prices and promotes increased consumption

  10. Applying the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation model to the March 2011 north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Estrada, Mario Arturo; Yap, Su Fei; Park, Donghyun

    2014-07-01

    Natural hazards have a potentially large impact on economic growth, but measuring their economic impact is subject to a great deal of uncertainty. The central objective of this paper is to demonstrate a model--the natural disasters vulnerability evaluation (NDVE) model--that can be used to evaluate the impact of natural hazards on gross national product growth. The model is based on five basic indicators-natural hazards growth rates (αi), the national natural hazards vulnerability rate (ΩT), the natural disaster devastation magnitude rate (Π), the economic desgrowth rate (i.e. shrinkage of the economy) (δ), and the NHV surface. In addition, we apply the NDVE model to the north-east Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 to evaluate its impact on the Japanese economy. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. Seismicity and state of stress near the Japan Trench axis off Miyagi, northeast Japan, after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; No, T.; Fujie, G.; Hino, R.; Shinohara, M.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake ruptured roughly 200 km wide and 500 km long megathrust along the Japan Trench. The rupture propagated to the trench axis with a maximum slip about 50 m near the trench axis. As a consequence of this large near-trench slip, earthquakes have been activated near the axis of the Japan Trench off Miyagi, northeast Japan. We have conducted ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) experiments in the Japan Trench axis area, surrounding area of the IODP JFAST drilling site, since the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Although conventionally used OBS cannot be deployed at seafloor deeper than 6000 m water depth, we used newly developed ultra-deep OBS using ceramic sphere, which can be deployed at a depth of 9000 m, for the observations in the trench axis. The ultra-deep OBS has almost equivalent dimensions and weight with the conventionally used OBS, thus we can handle it in the same manner with the conventionally OBS without any special operation. As a result of a series of the OBS observations, we obtained accurate hypocenter locations and focal mechanisms in both seaward and landward of the trench axis. Earthquakes near the trench axis area were located within the overriding and incoming/subducting plates with very few on the plate interface below the inner trench slope landward of the trench axis. Most of the earthquakes both in the overriding and incoming/subducting plates having normal or strike-slip faulting focal mechanisms with T-axis normal to the trench axis. This indicates that tensional stress is dominant in the trench axis area. However, most seaward part of the seismicity within the overriding plate is characterized by a localized cluster of trench-normal compressional earthquakes, which may relate to spatial variation of the frictional behavior of the shallowest part of the megathrust. On the other hand, trench-normal extensional earthquakes in the incoming/subducting Pacific plate were located at depths shallower than about

  12. Hemoglobin E in Northeast India: A review on its origin, distribution, migration and health implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Mithun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of the studies on hemoglobin E in Northeast India has been carried out to understand the magnitude of research undertaken on this aspect during the last seven decades. Owing to the high prevalence of hemoglobin E in this part of India different authors have studied this hemoglobin from different perspectives and found conflicting results. However a systematic review of such studies is lacking from a holistic point of view. Most of the epidemiological, in vitro as well as in vivo studies show signatures of selection with this hemoglobin locus. However, how this polymorphism is maintained at different rates at different geographical region is still a matter of contention. This review will fill the gap from all perspectives starting from the frequency distribution of hemoglobin E and its spread in different parts of Northeast India, its relationship with malaria hypothesis, the population migration, population affinity and most importantly the health implication arising out of it. A probable origin of hemoglobin E among an Austroasiatic population of Northeast India has been postulated with the help of advance molecular anthropological knowledge like the deep rooted markers of mt DNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes.

  13. India-Japan Strategic Cooperation and Implications for U.S. Strategy in the Indo-Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    operationalized with the help of Japanese ODA have changed the way of living and urban landscape of Indian cities . Infrastructure development has led...the region . From late 2014, Japan has placed special emphasis on the development of India’s northeast. Japan has pledged about US$854 million in...2016.3 <Andhra Pradesh> (P*) The Project for Future Researchers at IITH to Enhance Network Development with Scholarship of Japan/2012.1-2020.3 (L

  14. Radiocesium distribution on sea sediment and in benthic organisms in the north-east Japan coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shiduho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawaward, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648 (Japan); Sawada, Hideki [National Resarch Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Fisheries Research Agency, 7620-7, Hasaki, Kamisu-shi, Ibaraki, 314-0408 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials, especially radiocesium, were discharged into the western North Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Although radiocesium concentrations in sea water had quickly diminished via water mixing processes, significant amount still existed on sea floors near Fukushima Prefecture. To assess present distributions and/or spatio-temporal variations of sea sediment radiocesium and its potential affection to benthic ecosystems, we had conducted 5'x5' 2-D observation of sea sediment radiocesium concentrations repeatedly from Feb. 2012 to Jul. 2013. Off Fukushima Prefecture, the higher concentration area of radioactive cesium was often observed in the south area from the FDNPP and a north-south high value band was tended to be along the isobaths around 100 m where the concentration values up to thousands Bq/kg-dry order were observed. The concentrations generally decreased eastward from the high concentration band. At many surveyed positions, the vertical profiles of the radiocesium concentrations in sea sediment showed an exponentially decreasing in deeper layer. The influence of the FDNPP was suggested to generally reach up to 10 cm depth from sediment-surface. A negative correlation was found between the radiocesium concentration and median grain size of the sediment, suggesting that the adsorption capability of sediment for cesium associated with grain size possibly has a large contribution to the formation process of the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration. In contrast to the land sediment, Chemical reaching experiment results showed that the radiocesium concentration in the organic component of bottom sediment has higher value than that of bulk sediment, suggesting that non-exchangeable adsorption cite of mineral component of marine sediments had already occupied by stable cesium (~2 nM in

  15. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  16. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  17. Origin of three Red-crowned Cranes Grus japonensis found in northeast Honshu and west Hokkaido, Japan, from 2008 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Shiraishi, Junya; Shiomi, Akira; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Matsumoto, Fumio; Teraoka, Hiroki; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis is an endangered species that has two separate breeding populations, one in the Amur River basin and the other in north and east Hokkaido, Japan. So far, only two (Gj1 and Gj2) and seven (Gj3-Gj9) haplotypes in D-loop of mtDNA were identified in Japan and in the continent, respectively. We obtained feathers from three cranes found in northeast Honshu. The crane in Akita in 2008, which also arrived at west Hokkaido, had a novel haplotype (Gj10). Another crane in Akita in 2009 showed a heteroplasmy (Gj7 and a novel type, Gj12). The third crane in Miyagi in 2010 also showed another type, Gj11. These results suggest that three Red-crowned Cranes appeared in Honshu and west Hokkaido were from the continent.

  18. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization : implications for Northeast Asian regional security co-operation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies opportunities for co-operation on regional development and security in the North Pacific region. The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) was created in 1993 during bilateral negotiations between the United States and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (US-DPRK) over North Korea's alleged nuclear weapons program. The negotiations resulted in an agreement to freeze North Korea's known nuclear weapons program in return for the construction of two proliferation-resistant 100 MWe light water reactors (LWR) in North Korea, and the provision of 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oil per year until the completion of the LWR construction as compensation for lost energy production capacity resulting from the shutting down of North Korea's nuclear reactors. The author described the activities of KEDO and examined its internal dynamics. The unique circumstances that produced the Agreed Framework and KEDO in response to a major international crisis of the nuclear program in the DPRK were also highlighted along with the US-DPRK bilateral agreement and the multilateral institution involving the United States, South Korea, Japan and the European Union. Financial support from Australia and Canada was discussed along with the mechanism for engaging North Korea in regularized interaction and technical cooperation. It was concluded that KEDO's record of successes and failures is mixed. The energy security issue has been identified as an area that could result in conflict among Northeast Asian countries which are increasingly dependent on oil supplies from the Middle East. In response, numerous multilateral financing mechanisms have been developed to promote joint business opportunities that exploit natural gas resources in the Russian Far East to address Japanese, Korean and Chinese energy needs. 35 refs

  19. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  20. Minamata as Negative Heritage in Modern Japan: Implications for Fukushima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoyama, Mami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the industrial pollution that led to mercury poisoning around Minamata Bay in Kuma-moto Prefecture, Japan from the 1950s. It is argued that the social and political ‘lessons’ of Minamata constitute a type of ‘negative heritage’ that presents a microcosm of many of the problems associated with modernity in Japan. Similarities between Minamata and the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident are discussed and some reasons why the negative heritage of Minamata was ignored at Fukushima are briefly considered.

  1. Implications of Japan's NPPs overseas expansion policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. E.; Yun, S. W. [Nuclear Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi contributing to nuclear power's loss of acceptability in most developed countries however new nuclear market has been growing especially in developing countries. According to IAEA, it is estimated that the construction of 121 to 743 nuclear power plants (NPPs) by 2050. Japanese government reviewed national nuclear export strategy after Korea KEPCO consortium ordered for construction of the UAE Project in 2009 and Russia won a contract of the Vietnam 1st Nuclear Power Plant Project in 2010. Japan figured out that reasons of failed at UAE project were price competitiveness and lack of top-level's attention. Also Russia offered to Vietnam military cooperation which was diagnosed as a failure to Japan. In these circumstances Fukushima accident influenced attitudes towards and acceptance of nuclear power immediately compared to before the accident. Nevertheless, Japanese government decided to keep focusing on nuclear export.

  2. Changing Dynamics in Northeast Asia: Implications for the U.S. Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    ...) in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Its aim has been to clearly demonstrate United States commitment and resolve against another North Korean invasion thereby enabling the defense of the ROK and providing stability throughout the Northeast Asia Region...

  3. Living coccolithophores during the northeast monsoon from the Equatorial Indian Ocean: Implications on hydrography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Mergulhao, L.P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Shenoy, D.M.

    suggested a prevalence of oligotrophic conditions or lack of supply of nutrients into the upper mixed layer (approx. 50 m thick) during the northeast monsoon. However, the relatively higher abundance of Florisphaera profunda at 4 degrees S indicated...

  4. Novel Solution for Low-Lying Land Areas Safe from Natural Hazards—Toward Reconstruction of Lost Coastal Areas in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Nakajima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The imminent fear of water-related hazards such as flooding hangs over low-lying areas, in particular now because climate changes have led to increased hazards, like storm surges, that could result in serious harm. This paper aims to provide a novel solution—namely “the floating platform”—that can transform dangerous low-lying areas into those safeguarded against potential hazards. Additionally, by utilizing this solution as a secure base for society to build atop this new artificial reservoir, we offer a better future role for such areas. Meanwhile, we propose adoption of our concept soon at two low-lying areas in northeast Japan hard-hit by the huge 11 March 2011 tsunami: Sendai’s Arahama coastal district and the still-devastated residential harbor area of Kesennuma, both cities in need of a fresh perspective.

  5. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, T.

    1975-01-01

    A report is given on the basic research and development in food irradiation in Japan. Two new irradiation facilities are extensively described. Basic research is performed in radiation chemistry of fruits, potatoes, fish products, meat products and model systems. Microbiological research is concerned with Clostridium botulinum and radicidation and radurization studies, as well as effects of combination treatment on Micrococcus radiodurans. Radiation treatment of grain, frutis, vegetables, potatoes, fish, meat and meat products and other commodities is performed. Wholesomeness studies are dealing with the nutritional value and animal feeding studies are carried out with irradiated potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, and sausages. Two short chapters are concerned with legislation and marketing. (MG) [de

  6. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttner, Kevin; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    1987-01-01

    The Japanese nuclear power programme began with reactors imported from the United States. A natural uranium heavy water reactor using domestic materials was started in 1958. Subsequent progress was with light water reactors imported from the United States. Domestic reactor development was of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor. By March 1986 there were 32 commercial power plants in operation which produced approximately 23% of the electricity consumed in Japan. Ten more are under construction and six more are planned. Their location and comparative generating cost are tabulated. Energy demand and targets for nuclear power generation are discussed. The FBR advanced thermal reactor and high temperature reactor programmes are summarized. The Japanese nuclear fuel cycle - uranium prospecting, enrichment, reprocessing, the development of mixed oxide fuels, thermal recycling and radioactive waste management is also discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Assessing the edible city: Environmental implications of urban agriculture in the Northeast United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    signicant action in research, design and practice. In the Northeast United States, where per capita diets are amongst the most environmentally intensive globally, there is a growing interest in local food production as a way to reduce the ecological burdens of food demand. Urban farms and pro-urban...... literature, leaving a number of lingering questions surrounding urban agriculture's environmental performance. In a Northern context, it remains to be seen whether the benets of reducing distance from farm to fork are outweighed by the energy demanded by yearround growing systems. Even if urban agriculture...... does provide leaner resource intensities at the farm scale, do these add up to meaningful shifts in a city's environmental footprint at the urban scale? The aim of this project was to begin removing these uncertainties using the Northeast United States as a case study, since cities within that region...

  8. Medical pluralism among indigenous peoples in northeast India - implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Sandra; Nongrum, Melari; Webb, Emily L; Porter, John D H; Kharkongor, Glenn C

    2015-07-01

    The government of India is promoting and increasing investment in the traditional medicine systems of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the northeast region of India. But there are few empirical data that support this policy decision. This study estimates the awareness and use of the different medical systems in rural Meghalaya, a state in north-east India with a predominantly ethnic tribal population. We conducted a cross-sectional multistage random sample household survey across all districts of Meghalaya. To enable appropriate estimates for the whole of rural Meghalaya, the data were weighted to allow for the probability of selection of households at each stage of the sampling process. Both local tribal medicine and biomedicine were widely accepted and used, but the majority (68.7%, 95% CI: 51.9-81.7) had not heard of AYUSH and even fewer had used it. Tribal medicine was used (79.1%, 95% CI 66.3-88.0), thought to be effective (87.5%, 95% CI: 74.2-94.1) and given in a variety of disorders, including both minor and major diseases. In the 3 months prior to the survey, 46.2% (95% CI: 30.5-62.8) had used tribal medicine. Only 10.5% (95% CI: 6.1-17.6) reported ever using any of the AYUSH systems. Our comparative estimates of the awareness and use of tribal medicine, different systems of AYUSH and of biomedicine among indigenous populations of India question the basis on which AYUSH is promoted in the northeast region of India and in the state of Meghalaya in particular. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Holocene climate and fjord glaciations in Northeast Greenland: implications for IRD deposition in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2004-01-01

    been released by intensive sub-glacial melting during the long stay of the ice-islands in coastal waters. The Holocene glacial geological record from Northeast Greenland is compared to the record of ice rafted debris (IRD) from North Atlantic deep-sea sediment cores. The comparison shows that transport...... by icebergs in the form of basal debris is unlikely to be the dominant transport mechanism of IRD to deposition sites in the North Atlantic during the Holocene. The ice rafted debris is more likely to be carried at the surface of sea- (or glacier) ice. This supports the result of previous studies by other...... workers that changes of atmospheric and ocean-surface circulation and temperature are the likely causes of Holocene cycles in IRD concentration in North Atlantic deep-sea sediments....

  10. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  11. Nursing Leadership in a Rapidly Aging Society: Implications of “The Future of Nursing” Report in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harue Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent US Institute of Medicine (IOM report about the future of nursing highlights the areas where nurses can serve, contribute, and move forward to improve health care in the United States. Japanese nursing scholars examined the IOM report for its implications in the Japanese context and explored the future of nursing in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to provide support for the premise that the report’s recommendations could have implications for the future of nursing outside of the United States, especially in Japan. Particular areas and activities by nurses in Japan will be presented as examples of nurses taking leadership in designing care for the rapidly aging society of Japan.

  12. Contourite drift off Madeira Island (Northeast Atlantic) and implications to Cenozoic bottom-current circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Cristina; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Madureira, Pedro; Quartau, Rui; Magalhães, Vitor; Carrara, Gabriela; Santos de Campos, Aldino; Brandão, Filipe; Tomás Vázquez, Juan; Somoza, Luis

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades several works have been carried out on the morphosedimentary processes driven by bottom-currents in several continental margins and abyssal plains worldwide. However these processes still remain poorly understood on deep-water settings and particularly around oceanic islands. This study is focused on the offshore of Madeira Island (Portugal), which is located in the Northeast Atlantic at about 700 km west of NW Africa. The interpretation of a newly acquired dataset, composed of multibeam bathymetry, Parasound echosounder profiles and multichannel seismic reflection profiles, allowed to identify a giant (about 385 km long and over than 175 km wide) plastered contourite drift, called the "Madeira Drift", developing along the lower slope of the Madeira plateau. It formed on top of a major erosional unconformity that truncates the underlying pelagic deposits, which drape over faulted blocks of Cretaceous oceanic crust. The Madeira Drift is composed of three main regional seismic units showing a predominant aggradational stacking pattern, without evidence of major lateral migration thought time. Its internal configuration indicates that it was build-up by a northwards flowing deep bottom current. These characteristics suggests that an almost persistent and stable water mass has been responsible for its edification trough time. While the precise age of this contourite drift is undetermined, some chronostratigraphic constraints can be determined based upon published works regarding seafloor magnetic anomalies (e.g. Bird et al., 2007), DSDP Site 136drilling data (Hayes et al., 1978). Attending to this, we propose that the possible onset of Madeira Drift must have occurred after Late Cretaceous, within the tertiary period, and quite probably in the Late Eocene / Eocene-Oligocene transition. Based on them is commonly accepted that an enhanced proto-Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) started to circulate at that time we considered this water mass as the

  13. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  14. Loess deposits since early Pleistocene in northeast China and implications for desert evolution in east China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Zhang, Xujiao; Tian, Mingzhong; Liu, Ru; He, Zexin; Qi, Lin; Qiao, Yansong

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits and deserts are regarded as coupled geological systems and loess deposits on the periphery of deserts can often be used to reconstruct desert evolution. Previous studies of desert evolution in Asia are mainly concentrated in northwest China and the China Loess Plateau, and little is known about long-term desert evolution in east China. In this study, we selected the Sishijiazi loess section in the Chifeng area in northeast China to study the long-term evolution of the desert in east China. A high-resolution magnetostratigraphy combined with optically stimulated luminescence dating indicated that the age of the section base is approximately 1.02 Ma. The Brunhes-Matuyama boundary is at the depth of 39.8 m in loess unit L8, and the upper boundary of the Jaramillo Subchron is at the depth of 60.8 m in paleosol S10. The results of grain-size analysis indicate a coarsening grain-size trend in the past 1.0 Ma. In addition, based on grain-size variations, the desert evolution in east China since ∼1.0 Ma can be divided into three stages: stability from 1.0 to 0.8 Ma, desert recession from 0.8 to 0.5 Ma, and gradual expansion since 0.5 Ma. Our results further indicate that the evolution of desert in east China was mainly controlled by changes in global ice volume, and that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau may have had an additional effect.

  15. Strontium isotopic ratios of Tertiary volcanic rocks of northeastern Honshu, Japan: implication for the spreading of the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Hajime; Konda, Tadashi.

    1986-01-01

    Strontium isotopic ratios of sixty-seven Tertiary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, Japan, were determined for the purpose of examining the genesis among the volcanic rocks. Two distince suites of volcanic rocks occur in the northeastern Honshu; the rocks older than 16 Ma (Monzen-Daijima Stege) of predominantly intermediate composition and the rocks younger than 16 Ma (Nishikurosawa-Funakawa Stege) with bimodal suite of mafic and felsic composition. Initial values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Teriary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, lie in the range from 0.7033 to 0.7068. High ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios are observed for the rocks older than 16 Ma from the Japan Sea side (H zone). It is noteworthy that the rocks younger than 16 Ma show significantly lower ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios in the Dewa Hill, Japan Sea coast and North Akita areas in the northeastern Honshu (L zone). The rocks younger than 16 Ma from the L zone can also be interpreted as having been originated as a mantle-diapir associated with the spreading of the Japan Sea basin. If the basaltic magma was formed from the diapir, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio would be close to the range from 0.7033 to 0.7037 as the low-Sr isotopic ratio zone (L zone) in the northeastern Honshu, Japan. (author)

  16. Institutional reforms of nuclear emergency preparedness in Japan and its challenges. Case studies on stakeholder involvement in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness in France and its implications for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the experiences with the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan is now making a comprehensive review of nuclear emergency preparedness. The Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan has changed drastically its basic concept of nuclear emergency arrangements from their dependence on the prediction methods to advance planning-oriented arrangements. In order to implement such changes in an effective enough manner, this report examines how to improve stakeholder involvement focusing on the French cases, where the Local Information Commissions (CLI) plays a critical role, and thereby derives concrete lessons for Japan. Case studies on CLI's involvement in French nuclear emergency preparedness revealed the following implications for Japan; 1. Improving continuously the disaster prevention plans of local governments and of nuclear utilities thorough recursive cycles of disaster-preparedness drill and its evaluation for the benefits of local inhabitants, 2. Setting appropriate ranges wherein local stakeholders involve constantly in establishing nuclear emergency preparedness without alienating completely other stakeholders, 3. Utilizing the prediction systems not as a means to support decision-making in emergency situations but as a tool for facilitating stakeholder involvement in the phase of advance planning, and 4. Integrating nuclear emergency preparedness into other disaster preventions for reducing complex and unrecognized risks. (author)

  17. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    concentrations and deposition predictions with the predictions of two continental-scale air quality models, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and A Unified Regional Air-quality Modeling System (AURAMS) that utilize complete inventories of emissions and chemical budgets. The results of this comparison indicated that the predictive relationship provides an accurate representation of SO2 concentrations and S deposition for the region that is generally consistent with these models, and thus provides confidence that our approach could be used to develop accurate watershed S budgets for these 15 sites. Most watersheds showed large net losses of SO42- on an annual basis, and the watershed mass balances were grouped into five categories based on the relative value of mean annual net losses or net gains. The net annual fluxes of SO42- showed a strong relationship with hydrology; the largest net annual negative fluxes were associated with years of greatest precipitation amount and highest discharge. The important role of catchment hydrology on S budgets suggests implications for future predicted climate change as it affects patterns of precipitation and drought. The sensitivity of S budgets is likely to be greatest in watersheds with the greatest wetland area, which are particularly sensitive to drying and wetting cycles. A small number of the watersheds in this analysis were shown to have substantial S sources from mineral weathering, but most showed evidence of an internal source of SO42-, which is likely from the mineralization of organic S stored from decades of increased S deposition. Mobilization of this internal S appears to contribute about 1-6 kg S ha-1 year-1 to stream fluxes at these sites and is affecting the rate and extent of recovery from acidification as S deposition rates have declined in recent years. This internal S source should be considered when developing critical deposition loads that will promote ecosystem recovery from acidification and the depl

  18. Northeast Asia regional energy infrastructure proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Gulidov, Ruslan; Kalashnikov, Victor; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Economic growth in the countries of Northeast Asia has spurred a massive increase in the need for energy, especially oil, gas, coal, and electricity. Although the region, taken as a whole, possesses financial, technical, labor, and natural resources sufficient to address much of the region's needs now and into the future, no one country has all of those attributes. As a result, over the past two decades, there has been significant interest in regional proposals that would allow sharing of resources, including infrastructure to develop and transport energy resources from the Russian Far East to South Korea, China, and Japan, and cooperation on energy-efficiency, renewable energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle as well. In this article we review some of these proposals, identify some of the factors that could contribute to the success or failure of infrastructure proposals, and explore some of the implications and ramifications of energy cooperation activities for energy security in the region.

  19. Perceptions of Socio-Ecological Changes and Their Implications on Changes in Farming Practises and Agricultural Land Uses in the Savannahs of Northeast Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kojo Boateng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the perceptions of local farming households in the savannahs of northeast Ghana about the patterns of ecological and social changes happening around them over the years. It then unpacks how those perceptions are influencing farming practices and agricultural land use changes. Theoretical and empirical understandings of the value of local resource users’ perceptual judgements about changes in their socio-ecological environment and how they respond to those changes have far-reaching implications for design of agricultural development and sustainable land management policies. Consideration of local perceptions offers more informed basis to design and implement agricultural development policies in ways that encourage active local participation, sustainable livelihoods development, and responsiveness to changing conditions. This departs from current conventional implementation systems, which are usually top-down and based on technical and political aspects of agricultural land management, but do not necessarily comprehend processes influencing the agency of local communities in shaping various agricultural land use outcomes.

  1. Earthquake warning system for Japan Railways’ bullet train; implications for disaster prevention in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tucker, B. E.

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the level of public awareness of the dangers of earthquakes is high. The 1923 Kanto earthquake killed about 120,000 people out of a total Japanese population of about 50 million; an equivalent disaster in the U.S would involve 600,000 deaths.

  2. Autosomal and uniparental portraits of the native populations of Sakha (Yakutia): implications for the peopling of Northeast Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Sardana A; Reidla, Maere; Metspalu, Ene; Metspalu, Mait; Rootsi, Siiri; Tambets, Kristiina; Trofimova, Natalya; Zhadanov, Sergey I; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Olivieri, Anna; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Osipova, Ludmila P; Platonov, Fedor A; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Torroni, Antonio; Villems, Richard

    2013-06-19

    Sakha--an area connecting South and Northeast Siberia--is significant for understanding the history of peopling of Northeast Eurasia and the Americas. Previous studies have shown a genetic contiguity between Siberia and East Asia and the key role of South Siberia in the colonization of Siberia. We report the results of a high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of 701 mtDNAs and 318 Y chromosomes from five native populations of Sakha (Yakuts, Evenks, Evens, Yukaghirs and Dolgans) and of the analysis of more than 500,000 autosomal SNPs of 758 individuals from 55 populations, including 40 previously unpublished samples from Siberia. Phylogenetically terminal clades of East Asian mtDNA haplogroups C and D and Y-chromosome haplogroups N1c, N1b and C3, constituting the core of the gene pool of the native populations from Sakha, connect Sakha and South Siberia. Analysis of autosomal SNP data confirms the genetic continuity between Sakha and South Siberia. Maternal lineages D5a2a2, C4a1c, C4a2, C5b1b and the Yakut-specific STR sub-clade of Y-chromosome haplogroup N1c can be linked to a migration of Yakut ancestors, while the paternal lineage C3c was most likely carried to Sakha by the expansion of the Tungusic people. MtDNA haplogroups Z1a1b and Z1a3, present in Yukaghirs, Evens and Dolgans, show traces of different and probably more ancient migration(s). Analysis of both haploid loci and autosomal SNP data revealed only minor genetic components shared between Sakha and the extreme Northeast Siberia. Although the major part of West Eurasian maternal and paternal lineages in Sakha could originate from recent admixture with East Europeans, mtDNA haplogroups H8, H20a and HV1a1a, as well as Y-chromosome haplogroup J, more probably reflect an ancient gene flow from West Eurasia through Central Asia and South Siberia. Our high-resolution phylogenetic dissection of mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups as well as analysis of autosomal SNP data suggests that Sakha was colonized by

  3. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  4. Development, operational experience and implications for future design of FBRS in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, S.; Hori, M.

    1990-01-01

    Joyo, the 100 MW t experimental reactor, has been successfully operated since 1977, and Monju, the 280 MW e prototype FBR, is under construction, with the first criticality planned for 1991. To promote FBR research and development efficiently - including the demonstration FBR (DFBR) programme - a steering committee for R and D was organized in 1986 by the Japan Atomic Power Company, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. A design study of the DFBR is now underway to define its basic specifications by 1990. R and D for Monju, DFBR and future commercial FBRs has been done (1) to improve key technologies developed through the Joyo and Monju programmes; (2) to develop innovative technologies to make FBRs commercial; (3) to promote FBR development in conjunction with the development of the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  5. The Effects of the Demographic Transition on Economic Growth : Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundman, Marie-Lor

    2011-01-01

    Demographic transition implies severe challenges for high income nations, for instance Japan, as the population decreases due to declines in birth rates as well as the higher rate of elderly population. More women are entering the labor market which affects birth rates. In addition, technological progress has improved health care and standard of living, bringing up life expectancies. However, the elderly population is increasing, elevating the dependency ratio which dampens the economic growt...

  6. 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Japan's Nuclear Disaster - Implications for Indian Ocean Rim countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Nuclear disaster in Japan after the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 has elicited global response to have a relook at the safety aspects of the nuclear power plants from all angles including natural hazards like earthquakes and tsunami. Several countries have gone into safety audits of their nuclear programs in view of the experience in Japan. Tectonically speaking, countries located close to subduction zones or in direct line of impact of the subduction zones are the most vulnerable to earthquake or tsunami hazard, as these regions are the locale of great tsunamigenic earthquakes. The Japan disaster has also cautioned to the possibility of great impact to the critical structures along the coasts due to other ocean processes caused by ocean-atmosphere interactions and also due to global warming and sea level rise phenomena in future. This is particular true for island countries. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan will be remembered more because of its nuclear tragedy and tsunami rather than the earthquake itself. The disaster happened as a direct impact of a tsunami generated by the earthquake 130 km off the coast of Sendai in the Honshu region of Japan. The depth of the earthquake was about 25 km below the ocean floor and it occurred on a thrust fault causing a displacement of more than 20 meters. At few places, water is reported to have inundated areas up to 8-10 km inland. The height of the tsunami varied between 10 and 3 meters along the coast. Generally, during an earthquake damage to buildings or other structures occur due to strong shaking which is expressed in the form of ground accelerations 'g'. Although, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGA) consistently exceeded 2g at several places from Sendai down south, structures at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant did not collapse due to the earthquake. In the Indian Ocean Rim countries, Indian, Pakistan and South Africa are the three countries where Nuclear power plants are operational, few of them

  7. Asian-Pacific leadership: Implications for foreign economic policy of Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, the Western Pacific hemisphere ranging from Japan and the PR China to Australia and New Zealand has remained the growth pole of the world economy. Real per capita incomes of East and Southeast Asian developing economies grew even faster in this decade than in the 1970s [World Bank, 1990: Table 1.3] despite major disturbances in their global environment such as the world-wide recession in the early 1980s, increasing protectionism in the EC and the US, large exchange rate fluctuat...

  8. Population‐Based Incidence of Sudden Cardiac and Unexpected Death Before and After the 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami in Iwate, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Masanobu; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Nakajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Mikio; Naganuma, Yujiro; Omama, Shinichi; Komatsu, Takashi; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal impact of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of sudden cardiac and unexpected death (SCUD). Methods and Results We surveyed the impact of the disaster on the incidence and clinical characteristics of SCUD in Iwate. To perform complete identification of SCUD for 8 weeks before and 40 weeks after the disaster, medical records and death certificates relevant to SCUD were surveyed in the study area. Compared with the previous year's rate, the incidence (per 10 000 person‐year) of SCUD for the initial 4 weeks after the disaster (acute phase) was double (33.5 vs 18.9), and thereafter the rate returned to the previous level. Significant relationships were found between weekly numbers of SCUD and seismic activity (intensity, r=0.43; P<0.005: frequency, r=0.46; P<0.002). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of SCUD in the acute phase was significantly increased compared with that of previous years (1.71, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.16). Increased SIRs were predominantly found in female subjects (1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.37), the elderly (1.73, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), and residents living in the tsunami‐stricken area (1.83, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.46). In addition, SIRs for weekdays (1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.24) and nights‐mornings (2.09, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.86) were amplified. Conclusions The present results suggest that the magnitude of a disaster, related stress, and population aging may cause a temporary increase in the incidence of SCUD with amplification of ordinary weekly and circadian variations. PMID:24811614

  9. Population-based incidence of sudden cardiac and unexpected death before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Iwate, northeast Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Masanobu; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Nakajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Kawakami, Mikio; Naganuma, Yujiro; Omama, Shinichi; Komatsu, Takashi; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal impact of the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami on the incidence of sudden cardiac and unexpected death (SCUD). We surveyed the impact of the disaster on the incidence and clinical characteristics of SCUD in Iwate. To perform complete identification of SCUD for 8 weeks before and 40 weeks after the disaster, medical records and death certificates relevant to SCUD were surveyed in the study area. Compared with the previous year's rate, the incidence (per 10 000 person-year) of SCUD for the initial 4 weeks after the disaster (acute phase) was double (33.5 vs 18.9), and thereafter the rate returned to the previous level. Significant relationships were found between weekly numbers of SCUD and seismic activity (intensity, r=0.43; P<0.005: frequency, r=0.46; P<0.002). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of SCUD in the acute phase was significantly increased compared with that of previous years (1.71, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.16). Increased SIRs were predominantly found in female subjects (1.73, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.37), the elderly (1.73, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), and residents living in the tsunami-stricken area (1.83, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.46). In addition, SIRs for weekdays (1.71, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.24) and nights-mornings (2.09, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.86) were amplified. The present results suggest that the magnitude of a disaster, related stress, and population aging may cause a temporary increase in the incidence of SCUD with amplification of ordinary weekly and circadian variations.

  10. Holocene deltaic succession recording millennium-scale subsidence trend near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: An example from the Tsugaruishi plain, northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y.; Sugai, T.; Matsushima, Y.; Toda, S.

    2017-12-01

    For clarification of megathrust earthquake cycle with recurrence interval of several hundreds to about a thousand years, crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103-104 years can be basic and important data. Well-dated Holocene sedimentary succession provides useful information for estimation of crustal movement trend on a timescale of 103 - 104 years. Here we collected three sediment cores, TGI1, TGI2, and TGI3, from the Tsugaruishi delta plain on the central Sanriku coast, which is near the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and where discrepancies in crustal movement have been reported between uplift on a timescale of 105 years inferred from marine terrace versus subsidence on a timescale of 101-102 years from geodetic measurement. We recognized a Holocene deltaic succession in all three cores; basal gravel of alluvium, floodplain sand and mud, inner bay mud, prodelta delta front sand and mud, and fluvial sand and gravel, from lower to upper. In core TGI3, from the farthest inland site, the intertidal sediment facies, deposited from 7500 to 7000 cal BP, and the overlying 6-m-thick delta to floodplain facies, deposited from 7000 to 5000 cal BP, are both below the present sea level. Because a sea-level highstand due to hydroisostatic uplift around Japan occurred in the mid-Holocene, we inferred that the Tsugaruishi plain subsided during the Holocene, and the estimated subsidence rate, 1.1-1.9 mm/yr at maximum, is consistent with the recently reported subsidence rate along the southern Sanriku coast. The results of this study confirm that the central to southern Sanriku coast is subsiding, in contrast to an interpretation based on the study of marine terraces that this part of the coast is uplifting. The Holocene deltaic succession presented here will be useful for constructing an earthquake cycle model related to plate subduction.

  11. Siphunculina quinquangula (Loew) (Diptera, Chloropidae) new to Japan: Emergence from the remains stage of pig carcass, with the implications for forensic entomology

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Mitsuhiro; Oikawa, Shohei; Kanmiya, Kenkichi

    2013-01-01

    A chloropid species, Siphunculina quinquangula (Loew, 1873) is recorded for the first time from Japan. Adult flies were collected in emergence traps covered on the remains stage of an exposed pig carcass. The implications are given for S. quinquangula (Loew) in estimating postmortem periods for forensic entomology. A key to the known Japanese species of the Siphunculina is also provided

  12. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  13. Management Proposals of the Sabinas Reynosa Aquifer in Northeast Mexico, and Implications in the Development of Main Towns in Chihuahua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, E. E.

    2008-12-01

    The Sabinas Reynosa water table aquifer is located in northeast Mexico in the state of Chihuahua, where this hydrologic unit is controlled by Laramide structures. The hydrostratigraphy consists of three units. At the base is a slightly compacted conglomerate HU1. The middle unit HU2 consists of clay materials packed with a carbonate cement. The upper unit is constituted by a sandy caliche with a calcareous matrix with secondary porosity, which allows it to store and transmit large volumes of water. The three units are of Paleogene age. Recently, the towns near the Sabinas Reynosa aquifer have presented supply problems, thus, this project will determine the hydrologic characterization using the groundwater budget method in order to establish the volume of water that the aquifer will yield per unit of time. The first phase consisted of defining the balance equation, by establishing the terms involved in the budget and calculating their respective values. Two different factors were defined: the inflows and outflows. In the first case, underground inflow with 225.68 Mm3 in the last five years, recharge by irrigation with 32.08 Mm3 and anthropogenic recharge with 270.50 Mm3 were considered. In the second case, the factors include underground outflow with 359.55 Mm3, pumping with 561.43 Mm3 and evapotranspiration from the water table with 130.61 Mm3. Although this last variable was calculated on a preliminary basis, a more accurate estimate requires additional studies (in process), with the aim of obtaining a more representative value. In this work is considered that evapotranspiration takes a decisive role in the analysis of the budget and hence, in the decisions that have to be taken for the proper management of the hydrological system.

  14. Tectonic implications of a paleomagnetic direction obtained from a Miocene dike swarm in central Honshu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, H.; Sugisaki, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Central Honshu of Japan is an ideal field for the study of crustal deformation related to arc-arc collision. In this study we obtained rock magnetic and paleomagnetic results from early Miocene igneous rocks in central Honshu in order to examine rotational deformation caused by the collision of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc with central Honshu. In Takane of the Hida region, gabbro intrusions and older sedimentary rocks are intruded by numerous andesitic dikes that comprise a parallel dike swarm. The dikes formed under two different normal-faulting paleostress conditions, which were suggested using a method of clustering dike orientations. Cross-cutting relationships indicate that the two paleostress conditions existed during the same period. More than 240 oriented cores were taken at 38 sites in two localities for magnetic study. The andesites and gabbros generally have magnetite, and some andesites also contain pyrrhotite. The magnetite records easterly deflected remanent magnetization directions of dual polarities that pass the reversals test. Positive baked contact tests at two sites demonstrate that the easterly deflected direction is a thermoremanent magnetization acquired at the time of intrusion. The overall in situ (i.e., in geographic coordinates) mean direction for andesitic dikes is judged to be highly reliable, although there are two possible scenarios for explaining the easterly deflection: (1) clockwise rotation and (2) tilting to the northwest. We prefer the former scenario and conclude that 45° clockwise rotation occurred in Takane with respect to the North China Block of the Asian continent. This rotation must represent the clockwise rotation of entire Southwest Japan during the opening period of the Japan Sea. Very little difference is observed between the amount of the easterly deflection in Takane and those in the Tokai and Hokuriku regions, indicating no significant relative rotation. Thus, the crust beneath Takane has not suffered rotation

  15. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  16. Occurrence of selected pharmaceuticals at drinking water purification plants in Japan and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simazaki, Dai; Kubota, Reiji; Suzuki, Toshinari; Akiba, Michihiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-06-01

    The present study was performed to determine the occurrence of 64 pharmaceuticals and metabolites in source water and finished water at 6 drinking water purification plants and 2 industrial water purification plants across Japan. The analytical methods employed were sample concentration using solid-phase extraction cartridges and instrumental analysis by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS), or trimethylsilyl derivatization followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty-seven of the 64 target substances were detected in the source water samples. The maximum concentrations in the source water were mostly below 50 ng/L except for 13 substances. In particular, residual concentrations of iopamidol (contrast agent) exceeded 1000 ng/L at most facilities. Most of the residual pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the source water samples were removed in the course of conventional and/or advanced drinking water treatments, except for 7 pharmaceuticals and 1 metabolite, i.e., amantadine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, epinastine, fenofibrate, ibuprofen, iopamidol, and oseltamivir acid. The removal ratios of the advanced water treatment processes including ozonation and granular activated carbon filtration were typically much higher than those of the conventional treatment processes. The margins of exposure estimated by the ratio of daily minimum therapeutic dose to daily intake via drinking water were substantial, and therefore the pharmacological and physiological impacts of ingesting those residual substances via drinking water would be negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drifting algae and fish: Implications of tropical Sargassum invasion due to ocean warming in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Aono, Mikina; Ogawa, Naoto; Tanaka, Koichiro; Imoto, Zenji; Nakamura, Yohei

    2014-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the invasion and extinction of habitat-forming seaweed species alters coastal community structure and ecological services, but their effects on the pelagic environment have been largely ignored. Thus, we examined the seasonal occurrence patterns of indigenous temperate and invasive tropical drifting algae and associated fish species every month for 2 years (2009-2011) in western Japan (Tosa Bay), where a rapid shift from temperate to tropical Sargassum species has been occurring in the coastal area since the late 1980s due to rising seawater temperatures. Of the 19 Sargassum species (31.6%) in drifting algae, we found that six were tropical species, whereas a study in the early 1980s found only one tropical species among 12 species (8.3%), thereby suggesting an increase in the proportion of tropical Sargassum species in drifting algae during the last 30 years. Drifting temperate algae were abundantly present from late winter to summer, whereas tropical algal clumps occurred primarily during summer. In the warm season, fish assemblages did not differ significantly between drifting temperate and tropical algae, suggesting the low host-algal specificity of most fishes. We also found that yellowtail juveniles frequently aggregated with drifting temperate algae from late winter to spring when drifting tropical algae were unavailable. Local fishermen collect these juveniles for use as aquaculture seed stock; therefore, the occurrence of drifting temperate algae in early spring is important for local fisheries. These results suggest that the further extinction of temperate Sargassum spp. may have negative impacts on the pelagic ecosystem and associated regional fisheries.

  18. Social capital and health: implication for health promotion by lay citizens in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Keiko; Iwakuma, Miho; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-12-01

    A non-profit organization was formed in 2009 by lay citizens of Nagahama, Japan in response to a community-based genome-epidemiologic study, the 'Nagahama Zero(0)-ji Prevention Cohort Project (N0PCP)'. This organization aims to promote health by taking advantage of citizens' social networks. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion affirms the importance of creating supportive environments and coordinating social relationships. Supportive environments (infrastructure) and social relationships (resources) work together as aspects of social capital. This study sought to examine the association between self-rated health and social capital, at both individual and neighborhood levels, and to discuss suitable health promotion strategies for local circumstances.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011, using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Social capital indicators included aspects of support in the environment (social support, neighborhood connectedness, informal social controls, neighborhood trust, general trust, and attachment to place) and social relationships (number of activities; participation in neighborhood activities; participation in recreational activities; and social leverage regarding physical health, mental health, and acquisition of health information). Neighborhood-level social capital was calculated as the percentage of individuals in a neighborhood in the 'high social capital' category. At the individual level, participation in recreational activities, high general trust, and discussion regarding mental health problems with family members were associated with self-rated health positively, whereas discussion of mental health problems with acquaintances had a negative correlation. At the neighborhood level, a highly supportive environment did not contribute to good health, whereas aggregated attachment to place had a positive correlation. There were no significant inter-regional health differences.The results of this study suggest that

  19. Economic implications of Japan's aging population: a macro-economic demographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, N

    1982-01-01

    This paper utilizes a macroeconomic demographic model to analyze the probable impact of population aging on various public programs in Japan. Rapid fertility decline aided by mortality decline has caused the proportion of the Japanese population aged 65 and over to increase from 4.9% in 1950 to 9.0% in 1980. A population projection based on the 1975 population census assumes a recovery of fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.9 in 1976 to 2.16 in 1980 and a gradual decline to 2.1 by 1987, while an alternative projection assumes a continuing fertility decline to a TFR of 1.65 in 2025. According to these assumptions, in 2025 18.12% to 21.29% of the total population would be aged 65 or over and 38.66% to 43.80% of the working age population would be aged 45-64. A macroeconomic neoclassical growth model with some Keynesian features was formulated to evaluate the future impact of population aging on social security programs. Population changes are transmitted to economic variables in the model through the supply of labor, level of savings, public health care plans, and old-age pension schemes. The simulation experiments included the 2 population projections and 2 alternative production functions, 1 with the quality of labor incorporated and 1 without. The results indicated that, regardless of the population projection and production function used, the growth of the economy is likely to slow to 1 or 0% in the beginning of the next century due to decreased growth of the labor force and a change in its quality due to age-compositional variations. Public health insurance schemes and pension plans will require increasing financial resources as a result of accelerated population aging; depending on the choice of benefit levels, the proportion of national income allocated to them is expected to range from 14%-40% in the year 2010. Per capita gross national product will continue to grow despite decreased economic growth, but savings might be adversely affected if the

  20. Role of National Academies in radioactive waste disposal projects. Implications from the comparison of the science council of Japan with the U.S. National Academies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yuji; Tanaka, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    We made a descriptive inference about the role of the U.S. National Academies in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects on the basis of literature-based information and compared the U.S. National Academies with the Science Council of Japan to determine their implications on the progress of social acceptability of radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. The descriptive inference was made as follows. We described the organizational characteristics of the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. federal governments related to the projects. We outlined the related bills and demonstrated chronologically the activities related to the projects by the U.S. National Academies and the U.S. Government. As a consequence, we identified some specific roles that the U.S. National Academies played in the U.S. radioactive waste disposal projects. The U.S. National Academies have acted not only as a scientific and engineering adviser for the governments but also as an anchor for some political decision making or judicial actions. Furthermore, we analyzed the credibility of the Science Council of Japan and the U.S. National Academies from the viewpoint that a reliable third party must exhibit fairness, expertise and continuity. From the results of the comparison, it was found that the Science Council of Japan has the possibility to become a reliable third party that can help the radioactive waste disposal projects in Japan. (author)

  1. The spatial variation of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Toki granite, Central Japan. Implications for the intrusion and cooling processes of a granitic pluton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Hama, Katsuhiro; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The spatial variation in initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (SrI) in the Toki granite, Central Japan, shows heterogeneity ranging from 0.708942 to 0.710069, which provides information on the intrusion and cooling processes of plutons. The Toki granite has three mineralogy-based rock facies: muscovite-biotite granite (MBG), hornblende-biotite granite (HBG) and biotite granite (BG). Large SrI values were found to be distributed at the western margin (west MBG) and the lithologically central region (central BG), while small SrI values were found at the northeast margin (northeast MBG). Regions with high and low Sr concentrations were also found in the Toki granite. In the Sr-rich samples, SrI (0.708942-0.709789) increases with 100/Sr (0.7-1.5). This geochemical trend extends towards the country sedimentary rocks of the Mino Terrane, which can be interpreted to result from assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) between the original granitic magma and the Mino sedimentary rocks. The SrI values in the Sr-rich regions show a correlation with the Alumina Saturation Index (ASI). In particular, the west MBG, with large SrI values, is classified as a peraluminous granitoid with large ASI, suggesting that the western margin of the pluton was strongly affected by assimilation during the intrusion process. The Sr-poor samples are present both in the central BG, with large SrI values, and in the northeast MBG, with small SrI values. The Sr-poor samples have small ASI and large differentiation indices, indicating that the central BG and the northeast MBG were generated either by different AFC process with different amounts of contaminants or by the intrusion and fractionation of different source magma with different SrI values. Overall, the geochemical spatial variations found in the Toki granite can be explained by various degrees of assimilation and fractional crystallization in the magma chamber and/or multi-stage intrusions with different degrees of crystallization of

  2. Internationalisation of Higher Education in the Era of Globalisation: What Have Been Its Implications in China and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the internationalisation of higher education in the era of globalisation in China and Japan. It presents the following issues: the relationship between internationalisation and globalisation; major characteristics of the internationalisation of higher education; a comparison between China and Japan; and the results of…

  3. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  4. Denan Depression controlled by northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust Zone in northeastern Qaidam basin: Implications for growth of northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiangjiang; Guo, Zhaojie; Zhang, Qiquan; Cheng, Xiang; Du, Wei; Wang, Zhendong; Bian, Qing

    2017-10-01

    The Denan Depression is a unique depression in the northeastern Qaidam basin, with a maximum Cenozoic sedimentary thickness of 5 km. Detailed field work, interpretation of seismic profiles and analyzation of well data were conducted to define the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the northeastern Qaidam basin. All geological evidences indicate that the Denan Depression is controlled by the northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust at its southern boundary. The Denan Depression grew in concert with the development of the northeast-directed Olongbulak Thrust at least since it began to accept the Xiaganchaigou Formation, supporting the early Cenozoic growth of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Surface and subsurface data both point to enhanced tectonic activity since the Quaternary in the northeastern Qaidam basin, leading to a more individual Denan Depression relative to the main Qaidam basin. The northern boundary of the Denan Depression is a passive boundary, and no foreland developed at the northern slope of the Denan Depression.

  5. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  6. The Impact of China’s WTO Accession on China-Japan-Korea Trade Relation, and its Policy Implications for Regional Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyo Cheong

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increased possibility of China's accession to the WTO due to the settlement of negotiations with the U.S. and EU, the world is interested in opening China’s domestic market and taking advantage of the opportunities. Existing papers about China’s entry into the WTO generally analyze the impact on China and the world economy based on his/her assumption of a hypothetical tariff reduction scenario. However, this paper systematically analyzes by sector and region the tariff reduction structures of 5,685 tariff lines that China will actually reduce up until 2005. Based on this, the author employs a computational general equilibrium model in order to estimate the impact of China's trade liberalization on the economies of Northeast Asia and the world economy. According to the results, China's trade liberalization will bring the greatest benefit to China itself and substantial export expansion for Korea and Japan. This paper also states that if these three countries promote economic cooperation using China's accession to the WTO as momentum, it will be necessary to think economic cooperation in the fiber and clothing industries, which are quite effectively promoting intra-regional trade and absorbing workers left unemployed by structural adjustments in China.

  7. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background γ-spectrometry was used to determine the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = 1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio. These measured variations in 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan

  8. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  9. National healthcare spending in the U.S. and Japan: national economic policy and implications for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, James R

    2005-01-01

    Growth of national healthcare spending is a problem confronting national governments of all industrially advanced countries. Healthcare spending in the U.S. reached 13.9% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2003, compared to only 8% in Japan. In the U.S., health insurance is voluntary, with 15% of the population uninsured. In Japan, health insurance is mandatory and virtually universal, with growth in national health costs about half the rate of growth in the U.S. U.S. healthcare costs are projected to reach 18.4% of GDP 2013. The predicted growth in health care costs is expected to cause strain on the federal budget and a growing inability of employers and employees to pay for private insurance. Different national policies are the reason for different national health care costs in the U.S. and Japan. The U.S. has higher healthcare prices for salaries, equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals as compared to Japan. Higher prices, higher service intensity and volume during hospitalization create higher total cost in the U.S. Price controls in Japan kept medical inflation low at 0.46%/yr from 1980-2000. Market-pricing mechanisms in the U.S. have proven ineffective in controlling national healthcare costs, while Japan's national fee and price control policies have kept national costs among the lowest within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. To guide insurance coverage policy, neurosurgery and other highly technical specialties should better define the comparative health benefit of high price technical services by prospective outcome studies.

  10. China’s Gender Imbalance and Its Implications on China-Japan and China-Taiwan Security Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ties. Both sides agreed to allow 270 direct flights per week across the strait to enhance tourism and commerce by eliminating intermediate points...inaction against Japan or Taiwan would doom China to widespread social unrest and possible regime collapse. On the other hand, choosing military

  11. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  12. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  13. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  14. Petrography and geochemistry characteristics of the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation from the Laoheishan Basin, Northeast China: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu; Liu, Zhaojun; Meng, Qingtao; Wang, Yimeng; Zheng, Guodong; Xu, Yinbo

    2017-06-01

    The petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from the lower Cretaceous Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin, northeast (NE) China are studied to determine the weathering intensity, provenance and tectonic setting of the source region. Petrographic data indicate the average quartz-feldspar-lithic fragments (QFL) of the sandstone is Q = 63 %, F = 22 %, and L = 15 %. Lithic fragments mainly contain volcanic clasts that derived from surrounding basement. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data reveal abundant clay and detrital minerals (e.g. quartz), as well as minor calcite in the fine-grained sediments. The Hf contents and element concentration ratios such as Al2O3/TiO2, Co/Th, La/Sc, and La/Th are comparable to sediments derived from felsic and intermediate igneous rocks. The strong genetic relationship with the igneous rocks from the northwest and northeast areas provides evidence that the sediments of the Muling Formation (K1ml) in the Laoheishan basin have been derived from this area. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) and index of chemical variability (ICV) reveal an intensive weathering in the source region of the sediments. The multidimensional tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the source rocks of K1ml are mainly derived from the collision system. However, they may also comprise sediments derived from the continental rift system. The results are consistent with the geology of the study area.

  15. The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Tingju

    2018-06-01

    The water-food-energy-GHG nexus under climate change has been gaining increasing attention from both the research and policy communities, especially over the past several years. However, most existing nexus studies are qualitative and explorative in nature. So far, very few studies provide integrated analysis of this nexus across all the four sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine this nexus by assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production through the change in water availability, evaluating the adjustment responses and resulting energy consumption and GHG emission, with the Northeast China as a case study. Based on our simulation results, by 2030, climate change is projected to increase water supply and demand gap for irrigation in Northeast China. Due to the increase in water scarcity, irrigated areas will decrease, and the cropping pattern will be adjusted by increasing maize sown areas and decreasing rice sown areas. As a result, the total output of crops and profits will clearly be reduced. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emission from irrigation will be reduced. This study suggests that climate change impact assessment fully consider the nexus among water, food, energy and GHG; however, more studies need to be conducted in the future.

  16. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  17. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  18. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Protection of confidential information and countermeasures against insider threat in nuclear industry. Some practices in U.S. nuclear industry and their implication for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, after law amendment of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors was implemented aiming for reinforcement of physical protection in 2005, there still remain a number of practical issues of how the nuclear administration applies the regulations in detail and how nuclear undertakers cope with the regulations. This report looks at how protection of confidential information and countermeasures against insider threat are regulated and handled in the United States civil nuclear energy industry, and extracts its implications for Japanese regulations and practical business affairs. This report points our four characteristics of protection of confidential information and countermeasures against insider threat in the United States commercial power industry: (1) regulatory contents are prescribed in detail within a specific scope, (2) private bureaucracy such as NEI provides support of compliance programs of nuclear undertakers, (3) strict protection and management system about Safeguards Information (SGI) has been developed in both sides of regulations and compliance programs, and (4) employee private information of a broad content including sensitive data such as financial status or the criminal record is acquired and used at the aim of security clearance by nuclear undertakers. These characteristics, especially point (2) serve as a reference in regulation enforcement in Japan while careful attentions should be paid in harmonizing with existing legislation. (author)

  20. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210 Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g -1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-model analysis of terrestrial carbon cycles in Japan: limitations and implications of model calibration using eddy flux observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ichii

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial biosphere models show large differences when simulating carbon and water cycles, and reducing these differences is a priority for developing more accurate estimates of the condition of terrestrial ecosystems and future climate change. To reduce uncertainties and improve the understanding of their carbon budgets, we investigated the utility of the eddy flux datasets to improve model simulations and reduce variabilities among multi-model outputs of terrestrial biosphere models in Japan. Using 9 terrestrial biosphere models (Support Vector Machine – based regressions, TOPS, CASA, VISIT, Biome-BGC, DAYCENT, SEIB, LPJ, and TRIFFID, we conducted two simulations: (1 point simulations at four eddy flux sites in Japan and (2 spatial simulations for Japan with a default model (based on original settings and a modified model (based on model parameter tuning using eddy flux data. Generally, models using default model settings showed large deviations in model outputs from observation with large model-by-model variability. However, after we calibrated the model parameters using eddy flux data (GPP, RE and NEP, most models successfully simulated seasonal variations in the carbon cycle, with less variability among models. We also found that interannual variations in the carbon cycle are mostly consistent among models and observations. Spatial analysis also showed a large reduction in the variability among model outputs. This study demonstrated that careful validation and calibration of models with available eddy flux data reduced model-by-model differences. Yet, site history, analysis of model structure changes, and more objective procedure of model calibration should be included in the further analysis.

  2. Multi-model analysis of terrestrial carbon cycles in Japan: limitations and implications of model calibration using eddy flux observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kato, T.; Ito, A.; Hajima, T.; Ueyama, M.; Sasai, T.; Hirata, R.; Saigusa, N.; Ohtani, Y.; Takagi, K.

    2010-07-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models show large differences when simulating carbon and water cycles, and reducing these differences is a priority for developing more accurate estimates of the condition of terrestrial ecosystems and future climate change. To reduce uncertainties and improve the understanding of their carbon budgets, we investigated the utility of the eddy flux datasets to improve model simulations and reduce variabilities among multi-model outputs of terrestrial biosphere models in Japan. Using 9 terrestrial biosphere models (Support Vector Machine - based regressions, TOPS, CASA, VISIT, Biome-BGC, DAYCENT, SEIB, LPJ, and TRIFFID), we conducted two simulations: (1) point simulations at four eddy flux sites in Japan and (2) spatial simulations for Japan with a default model (based on original settings) and a modified model (based on model parameter tuning using eddy flux data). Generally, models using default model settings showed large deviations in model outputs from observation with large model-by-model variability. However, after we calibrated the model parameters using eddy flux data (GPP, RE and NEP), most models successfully simulated seasonal variations in the carbon cycle, with less variability among models. We also found that interannual variations in the carbon cycle are mostly consistent among models and observations. Spatial analysis also showed a large reduction in the variability among model outputs. This study demonstrated that careful validation and calibration of models with available eddy flux data reduced model-by-model differences. Yet, site history, analysis of model structure changes, and more objective procedure of model calibration should be included in the further analysis.

  3. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion: implications to sediment-related disasters in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindrabe, Bam H N; He, Bin; Inoue, Shoji; Ezaki, Tsugio; Shaw, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    The role of forest stand density in controlling soil erosion was investigated in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. The main objective was to compare soil erosion under different forest conditions including forest type, species composition, and stand density as influenced by thinning operations. Relative yield index (Ry) was used as an indicator of stand density to reflect the degree of management operations in the watershed. Eleven treatments were established based on the above forest conditions. Soil loss was collected in each of the 11 treatments after each rainfall event for a period of 1 year. The paper presents summary data on soil loss as affected by forest conditions and rainfall patterns. Findings showed that an appropriate forest management operation, which can be insured by stand density control, is needed to reduce soil loss. The present study plays an important role in clarifying technical processes related to soil erosion, while it helps linking these elements to current Japanese forestry issues and bringing new inputs to reducing sediment-related disasters in Japan.

  5. Widespread seismicity excitation following the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake and its implications for seismic hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.; Lin, J.

    2011-12-01

    The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-chiho Taiheiyo-oki earthquake (Tohoku earthquake) was followed by massive offshore aftershocks including 6 M≧7 and 94 M≧6 shocks during the 4.5 months (until July 26). It is also unprecedented that a broad increase in seismicity was observed over inland Japan at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust. Such an increase was not seen for the 2004 M=9.1 Sumatra or 2010 M=8.8 Chile earthquakes, but they lacked the seismic networks necessary to detect such small events. Here we explore the possibility that the rate changes are the product of static Coulomb stress transfer to small faults. We use the nodal planes of M≧3.5 earthquakes as proxies for such small active faults, and find that of fifteen regions averaging ˜80 by 80 km in size, 11 show a positive association between calculated stress changes and the observed seismicity rate change, 3 show a negative correlation, and for one the changes are too small to assess. This work demonstrates that seismicity can turn on in the nominal stress shadow of a mainshock as long as small geometrically diverse active faults exist there, which is likely quite common in areas having complex geologic background like Tohoku. In Central Japan, however, there are several regions where the usual tectonic stress has been enhanced by the Tohoku earthquake, and the moderate and large faults have been brought closer to failure, producing M˜5 to 6 shocks, including Nagano, near Mt. Fuji, Tokyo metropolitan area and its offshore. We confirmed that at least 5 of the seven large, exotic, or remote aftershocks were brought ≧0.3 bars closer to failure. Validated by such correlations, we evaluate the effects of the Tohoku event on the other subduction zones nearby and major active faults inland. The majorities of thrust faults inland Tohoku are brought farther from failure by the M9 event. However, we found that the large sections of the Japan trench megathrust, the outer

  6. [Toxin profiles in fish implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in Amami and Kakeroma Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Kentaro; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuda, Seiko; Sakugawa, Satsuki; Matsuo, Toshiaki; Yasumoto, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan in 2008 were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. Ciguatoxin-1B (CTX1B), 54-deoxyCTX1B, and 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B were detected in Variola louti and Lutjanus monostigma. The toxin profile distinctly differed from that of a CFP-related fish from Miyazaki, which mainly contained ciguatoxin-3C type toxins. Toxin profiles were species-specific, as observed in fish from Okinawa. The LC-MS/MS and mouse bioassay (MBA) methods produced comparable data, though 54-deoxyCTX1B was not taken into consideration owing to the lack of toxicity data. To improve assessment, toxicity data for this compound are needed. A reef fish caught on the same occasion and judged nontoxic by MBA (<0.025 MU/g) was found to contain low levels of CTX, indicating a potential risk for CFP.

  7. Radial and Azimuthal Anisotropy Tomography of the NE Japan Subduction Zone: Implications for the Pacific Slab and Mantle Wedge Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishise, Motoko; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Morishige, Manabu; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-01

    We investigate slab and mantle structure of the NE Japan subduction zone from P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropy using travel time tomography. Trench normal E-W-trending azimuthal anisotropy (AA) and radial anisotropy (RA) with VPV > VPH are found in the mantle wedge, which supports the existence of small-scale convection in the mantle wedge with flow-induced LPO of mantle minerals. In the subducting Pacific slab, trench parallel N-S-trending AA and RA with VPH > VPV are obtained. Considering the effect of dip of the subducting slab on apparent anisotropy, we suggest that both characteristics can be explained by the presence of laminar structure, in addition to AA frozen-in in the subducting plate prior to subduction.

  8. Seismic b-values and its correlation with seismic moment and Bouguer gravity anomaly over Indo-Burma ranges of northeast India: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Mahanta, Rinku; Borgohain, Jayanta Madhab

    2018-03-01

    b-value is one of the most significant seismic parameters for describing the seismicity of a given region at a definite time window. In this study, high-resolution map of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, seismic moment-release, Bouguer gravity anomaly and fault-plane solutions containing faulting styles are analyzed in the Indo-Burma ranges of northeast India using the unified and homogeneous part of the seismicity record in the region (January 1964-December 2016). The study region is subdivided into few square grids of geographical window size 1° × 1° and b-values are calculated in each square grid. Our goal is to explore the spatial correlations and anomalous patterns between the b-value and parameters like seismic moment release, Bouguer gravity anomaly and faulting styles that can help us to better understand the seismotectonics and the state of present-day crustal stress within the Indo-Burma region. Most of the areas show an inverse correlation between b-value and seismic moment release as well as convergence rates. While estimating the b-value as a function of depth, a sudden increase of b-value at a depth of 50-60 km was found out and the receiver function modeling confirms that this depth corresponds to the crust-mantle transition beneath the study region. The region is also associated with negative Bouguer gravity anomalies and an inverse relation is found between Gravity anomaly and b-value. Comparing b-values with different faulting styles, reveal that the areas containing low b-values show thrust mechanism, while the areas associated with intermediate b-values show strike-slip mechanism. Those areas, where the events show thrust mechanism but containing a strike-slip component has the highest b-value.

  9. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Michael A.; Cho, Hyunje G.; Landrigan, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. (author)

  10. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  11. Numerical modeling of porosity waves in the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan: implications for aseismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic and hydrologic observations of the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan, show that overpressures at depths greater than ˜2 km beneath the seafloor could have increased to near lithostatic values due to sediment compaction and diagenesis, clay dehydration, and shearing. The resultant high overpressures are hypothesized then to have migrated in rapid surges or pulses called `porosity waves' up the dip of the décollement. Such high velocities—much higher than expected Darcy fluxes—are possible for porosity waves if the porous media through which the waves travel are deformable enough for porosity and permeability to increase strongly with increasing fluid pressure. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that porosity waves can travel at rates (kilometers per day) fast enough to cause aseismic slip in the Nankai décollement. The hypothesis was tested using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the fluid mass conservation equation for elastic porous media. Results show that porosity waves generated at depths of ˜2 km from overpressures in excess of lithostatic pressure can propagate at rates sufficient to account for aseismic slip along the décollement over a wide range of hydrogeological conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed porosity wave velocity to be strongly dependent on specific storage, fluid viscosity, and the permeability-depth gradient. Overpressure slightly less than lithostatic pressure could also produce porosity waves capable of traveling at velocities sufficient to cause aseismic slip, provided that hydrogeologic properties of the décollement are near the limits of their geologically reasonable ranges.

  12. Timing of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy and the implications of current policy on early uptake in north-east Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambo Pili

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp is efficacious in reducing the adverse outcomes associated with pregnancy-associated malaria, however uptake of the recommended two doses is low in Tanzania, and little is known of the timepoint during pregnancy at which it is delivered. This study investigated the timing of delivery of IPTp to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC, and the potential determinants of timely uptake. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with staff and pregnant women at antenatal clinics in northeast Tanzania, and antenatal consultations were observed. Facility-based and individual factors were analysed for any correlation with timing of IPTp uptake. Results Almost half the women interviewed first attended ANC during or before the fourth month of gestation, however 86% of these early attendees did not receive IPTp on their first visit. The timing of IPTp delivery complied closely with the national guidelines which stipulate giving the first dose at 20–24 weeks gestation. Uptake of at least one dose of IPTp among women who had reached this gestation age was 67%, although this varied considerably between clinics. At one facility, IPTp was not delivered because SP was out of stock. Conclusion Early uptake of IPTp was found to be hampered by factors external to health worker performance or women's individual preferences. These include insufficient drug stocks and an apparent lack of information to health workers on the reasoning for continued use of SP for IPTp when it has been replaced as a first-line treatment. In addition, an unexpectedly high proportion of women attend antenatal clinics before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While current policy denies the use of IPTp at this time, there is emerging, but incomplete, evidence that malaria in early pregnancy may contribute considerably to the burden of pregnancy-related malaria. Current policy may thus result in a missed opportunity for maximising

  13. A Late Mesozoic short-lived shift from fluid-dominated to sediment-dominated mantle metasomatism in the northeast South China Block and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fa-Bin; Jin, Chong; Jia, Bao-Jian; Liu, Rong; He, Xiaobo; Gao, Zhong; Tao, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Li-Qi

    2018-06-01

    Early Cretaceous northwest (NW)-trending dolerite and amphibole lamprophyre dykes exposed in NW Zhejiang Province provide a number of new insights into the nature of the subcontinental mantle on the northeast (NE) South China Block (SCB). These dykes have a high Al2O3 (14.04-17.89 wt%) and K2O (0.66-2.69 wt%) contents but relatively low Na2O (2.48-4.61 wt%) and TiO2 (1.33-2.79 wt%) makeup alongside moderate K2O/Na2O ratios between 0.26 and 1.04. These amphibole lamprophyre dykes also have higher MgO, Cr, and Ni contents than those of comparable dolerites that have SiO2 content ranging from 46.32 to 49.87 wt%. The most striking feature of these intrusions is that they contain higher contents of Rb, Th, U, Nb, Ta, and LREE compared to their dolerite counterparts, although both amphibole lamprophyres and dolerites do exhibit similar geochemical patterns that are indicative of subduction-related origins. These features imply that an ambient peridotitic mantle that acted as the source for the amphibole lamprophyre magma source may have reacted with silicate-rich melts leading to olivine consumption while maintaining orthopyroxene. The geochemical composition of these dolerites are likely influenced to a variable extent by the fractionation of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxides, and apatite, while their amphibole lamprophyre counterparts have been modified to a minor degree by amphibole fractionation. Measured Sr-Nd isotopic compositions suggest relatively constant Nd isotopic compositions (-0.36 to +1.52) with more variable Sr isotopic compositions (0.7071 to 0.7306). We hence propose that both the dolerite and amphibole lamprophyre dykes in this region are the products of mantle source metasomatism by the subducted Paleo-Pacific slab. The dolerite dykes are mainly associated with slab-derived fluids, while the lamprophyre dykes are related to both slab-derived fluids and sediment melts. Evidence in support of metasomatism comprising distinct two

  14. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Sun, Keping; Park, Yung Chul; Feng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum , is an important model organism for studies on chiropteran phylogeographic patterns. Previous studies revealed the population history of R. ferrumequinum from Europe and most Asian regions, yet there continue to be arguments about their evolutionary process in Northeast Asia. In this study, we obtained mitochondrial DNA cyt b and D-loop data of R. ferrumequinum from Northeast China, South Korea and Japan to clarify their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary process. Our results indicate a highly supported monophyletic group of Northeast Asian greater horseshoe bats, in which Japanese populations formed a single clade and clustered into the mixed branches of Northeast Chinese and South Korean populations. We infer that R. ferrumequinum in Northeast Asia originated in Northeast China and South Korea during a cold glacial period, while some ancestors likely arrived in Japan by flying or land bridge and subsequently adapted to the local environment. Consequently, during the warm Eemian interglaciation, the Korea Strait, between Japan and South Korea, became a geographical barrier to Japanese and inland populations, while the Changbai Mountains, between China and North Korea, did not play a significant role as a barrier between Northeast China and South Korea populations.

  15. Petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous lamprophyre dike from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan: Implications for the generation of high-Nb basalt magmas in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mariko; Nakashima, Kazuo; Kamei, Atsushi; Yagi, Koshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    We studied a 107 Ma vogesite (a kind of lamprophyre with alkali-feldspar > plagioclase, and hornblende ± clinopyroxene ± biotite) dike in the Kinki district of the Tamba Belt, Kyoto Prefecture, SW Japan, using petrography, mineralogy, K-Ar ages, and geochemistry to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic implications. The dike has the very specific geochemical characteristics of a primitive high-Mg basalt, with 48-50 wt.% SiO2 (anhydrous basis), high values of Mg# (67.3-72.4), and high Cr ( 431 ppm), Ni ( 371 ppm), and Co ( 52 ppm) contents. The vogesite is alkaline and ne-normative with high concentrations of large ion lithophile elements (LILEs: Sr = 1270-2200 ppm, Ba = 3910-26,900 ppm), light rare earth elements (LREEs) [(La/Yb)n = 58-62), and high field strength elements (HFSEs: TiO2 = 1.5-1.8 wt.%, Nb = 24-33 ppm, Zr = 171-251 ppm), and the vogesite can be classified as a high-Nb basalt (HNB). The vogesite was formed by the lowest degree of melting of metasomatized mantle in the garnet stability field, and it may also have been formed at higher melting pressures than other Kyoto lamprophyres. The low degree of melting is the primary reason for the high-Nb content of the vogesite, not mantle metasomatism, and a higher degree of melting would have changed the primary magma composition from a HNB to a Nb-enriched basalt (NEB). The vogesite magma was contaminated at an early stage of its development by melts derived from sediments drawn down a subduction zone, as indicated by some geochemical indices and the initial Nd isotope ratios. The vogesite exhibits positive correlations between εSr(107 Ma) values (5.4-50.9) and its high Ba and Sr concentrations, and it has a limited range of εNd(107 Ma) values (+ 0.97 to + 2.4). The fact that the vogesite contains centimeter-sized xenoliths of chert, which are composed of polycrystalline quartz, calcite, barite, pyrite, and magnetite, indicates that the barium contamination took place during the ascent of the

  16. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  18. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  19. Utilization of the biomass in Japan: state of the researches and involvement of the enterprises; Utilisation de la biomasse au Japon: etat des recherches et implication des entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabet, A.

    2003-09-01

    Following the Kyoto demands the budgets allocated to the renewable energies researches are more and more important. Among these energies the biomass is very popular in Japan because it does not increase the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere. Since the years 1990 the Japan implemented three ministries to promote the biomass energy in the country. This document presents the biomass situation in the world and more specially in the Japan and the researches programs with the NEDO, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). (A.L.B.)

  20. Modelling the impact of prescribed global warming on runoff from headwater catchments of the Irrawaddy River and their implications for the water level regime of Loktak Lake, northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to have major implications for wetland ecosystems, which will include altered water level regimes due to modifications in local and catchment hydrology. However, substantial uncertainty exists in the precise impacts of climate change on wetlands due in part to uncertainty in GCM projections. This paper explores the impacts of climate change upon river discharge within three sub-catchments of Loktak Lake, an internationally important wetland in northeast India. This is achieved by running pattern-scaled GCM output through distributed hydrological models (developed using MIKE SHE of each sub-catchment. The impacts of climate change upon water levels within Loktak Lake are subsequently investigated using a water balance model. Two groups of climate change scenarios are investigated. Group 1 uses results from seven different GCMs for an increase in global mean temperature of 2 °C, the purported threshold of ''dangerous'' climate change, whilst Group 2 is based on results from the HadCM3 GCM for increases in global mean temperature between 1 °C and 6 °C. Results from the Group 1 scenarios show varying responses between the three sub-catchments. The majority of scenario-sub-catchment combinations (13 out of 21 indicate increases in discharge which vary from <1% to 42% although, in some cases, discharge decreases by as much as 20%. Six of the GCMs suggest overall increases in river flow to Loktak Lake (2–27% whilst the other results in a modest (6% decline. In contrast, the Group 2 scenarios lead to an almost linear increase in total river flow to Loktak Lake with increasing temperature (up to 27% for 6 °C, although two sub-catchments experience reductions in mean discharge for the smallest temperature increases. In all but one Group 1 scenario, and all the Group 2 scenarios, Loktak Lake water levels are higher, regularly reaching the top of a downstream hydropower barrage that impounds the lake and necessitating the

  1. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yong-Sup

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempted to find out ways to facilitate bilateral and regional arms control regarding nuclear issues in Northeast Asia. This is done in order to reduce uncertainties regarding nuclear policy and capabilities of those countries, and thus to enhance transparency and confidence in the region. In order to bring them into the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation process in an effective way, we revisited the issues that contributed to the acceleration of the arms race. The review provided insights into the future course of China, the two Koreas and Japan regarding their nuclear policy and capabilities. The findings of this study indicate a general likelihood of resistance to outside request for arms control and disarmament in the countries in Northeast Asia. Besides their continuation with the conventional arms race, countries in Northeast Asia are reluctant to go ahead with the programmes to enhance transparency, build confidence in the region, and to forgo intentions to go nuclear. China is slowly but steadily increasing its nuclear arsenals. Its nuclear arms control policy is not well integrated with nuclear policy and strategy, and it is subject to the overarching goal of nuclear policy and strategy to advance China's status and national security interests in the international community. Thus, it will be very difficult for other countries to bring China to the arms control process for the time being. North Korea has intended to develop nuclear weapons in order to hedge against uncertainties. This poses a threat to the NPT regime and the peace and security of Northeast Asia. Clearly, North Korea has shown its reluctance to disclose the entirety of its nuclear programme under the IAEA inspections. Although South Korea has taken a bold initiative to forgo uranium enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, it has still not fully paid off. Japan adds the problem of plutonium surplus to the uncertain security environments surrounding Northeast Asia

  2. Cenozoic lithospheric deformation in Northeast Asia and the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Moresi, Louis; Zhao, Dapeng; Sandiford, Dan; Whittaker, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Northeast Asia underwent widespread rifting and magmatic events during the Cenozoic. The geodynamic origins of these tectonic events are often linked to Pacific plate subduction beneath Northeast Asia. However, the Japan Sea did not open until the late Oligocene, tens of millions of years after Pacific Plate subduction initiation in the Paleocene. Moreover, it is still not clear why the Baikal Rift Zone extension rate increased significantly after the late Miocene, while the Japan Sea opening ceased at the same time. Geodynamic models suggest these enigmatic events are related to the rapidly-aging Pacific Plate at the trench after Izanagi-Pacific spreading ridge subduction. Subduction of the young Pacific Plate delayed the Japan Sea opening during the Eocene while advection of the old Pacific Plate towards the trench increases seafloor age rapidly, allowing the Japan Sea to open after the early Miocene. The Japan Sea opening promotes fast trench retreat and slab stagnation, with subduction-induced wedge zone convection gradually increasing its extent during this process. The active rifting center associated with wedge zone convection upwelling also shifts inland-ward during slab stagnation, preventing further Japan Sea spreading while promoting the Baikal Rift Zone extension. Our geodynamic model provides a good explanation for the temporal-spatial patterns of the Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic events in Northeast Asia.

  3. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  4. Differences in the reproductive biology and diapause of two congeneric species of egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) from northeast Asia: implications for biological control of the invasive emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) constitute a cryptic species complex of egg parasitoids attacking the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis (Coleotpera: Buprestidae) in their native range of northeast Asia. While O. primorskyensis is c...

  5. The Contribution of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Practices to Forest Management: The Case of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the potential applicability of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia, including China, Japan, and South Korea. In ancient Northeast Asia, forest policies and practices were based on Fengshui (an old Chinese concept regarding the flow of vital forces, with which forests were managed under community forestry. However, these traditional systems diminished in the twentieth century owing to the decline of traditional livelihood systems and extreme deforestation. Recently, legacies from traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry have been revisited and incorporated into forest policies, laws, and management practices because of growing needs for sustainable forest use in China, Japan, and Korea. This reevaluation of traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry has provided empirical data to help improve forestry systems. Although traditional ecological knowledge and community forestry in Northeast Asia have been scarcely theorized, they play a significant role in modifying forest management practices in the face of socioeconomic changes.

  6. A new approach towards the enhancement of northeast Asian economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jae Lee

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the formation of the Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation Council (NAECC to discuss comprehensive economic cooperation and major economic issues between Korea, Japan and China. In order to meet the challenge of risign regionalism and to prevent another Asian economic crisis, it is imperative for the central governments of the region to involve themselves more actively in Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation. Given the diversity of Northeast Asian countries, it seems to be more realistic to vegin with the central governments of the three major countries in terms of economic size. However, even amongst these three countries, the prospects for reaching a regional trade agreement such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, let alone a more advanced economic integration type like the EU, are quite dim in the foreseeable future. Thus, Korea, Japan and China must try to get as many benefits of economic integration as possible through a non-traditional approach.

  7. 1946: The Transition of the Kuomintang Government’s Policies towards Korean Immigrants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China, which witnessed many controversial incidents, was the arena of Korea, China and Japan in the modern history. Meanwhile, Korean immigrants in Northeast China were the target to be won over by various political powers during the twentieth century. When the World War Ⅱended, nearly five-sixths of Korean immigrants lived in the liberated areas (the Communist Party of China- controlled areas. Some young Korean immigrants were mobilized by the CPC to join the Chinese civil war. To strengthen its reign and gain support, KMT government changed the policies of settling Korean on June 10th of 1946 and established the Northeast Korean Immigrants Department to address the problems in the fields of education, welfare and repatriation in 1947.This paper, with careful analysis of the historical documents, aims to build the ground for future research on the Korean immigrants in Northeast China.

  8. The technical potential for proliferation in Northeast Asian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joeck, N.; Kramer, R.

    1995-01-01

    This is a review of the technical capabilities of the states in Northeast Asia - principally Japan, South Korea, and North Korea - to develop nuclear weapons. At the outset, however, it should be emphasised that nuclear proliferation is primarily a political and security problem, rather than a technical challenge. The technical challenge is substantial, but if one looks at states with the technical capacity to develop nuclear weapons, it might be surprising to find that most of them have chosen not to do so. Even with access to fissile material and the technical and scientific infrastructure necessary to produce nuclear weapons, such states as Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, Argentina, Brazil, Japan and many others, have not done so. All three non-nuclear weapon states in Northeast Asia have the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons. Japan and South Korea have intrusive safeguards and inspection arrangements on their nuclear programs, which allow their neighbours and the rest of the world to verify that they have not changed that status, and that they are living up to their NPT commitments. Despite its original commitment to the NPT, North Korea has yet to establish similar arrangements. It is ironic that the country with the smallest and technically least sophisticated nuclear program is the one creating the greatest concern about nuclear proliferation in the region. This irony illustrates the point made in the introduction, however. Nuclear proliferation is more a function of political decision-making than of technical capability

  9. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  10. Potential problems in introduction of personnel reliability certification systems into Japan's nuclear industry. Implications from the German and the U.S. laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, while the interest in nuclear terrorism has increased which led law revision aiming for reinforcing physical protection in 2005, there is a growing concern in an insider threat in the nuclear industry. To cope with this threat, 'personnel reliability certification systems' are introduced in the United States and other nuclear industrized countries as an effective measure. The report examines current personnel reliability certification systems in Germany and the United States, and identifies common characteristics as well as key differences between two legal systems and regulations, and thereby attempts to identify the potential problems that the Japanese nuclear industry would face if such institutions as seen in Germany and the United States would be introduced in Japan, and suggests some measures to overcome these problems. The author suggests the following measures as practically useful essential in introducing similar systems in Japan: (1) introduction of comprehensive regulation (not industry specific) on personnel reliability certification systems, (2) clarification of conditions of prior consents by the employees, and (3) privacy protection procedures of the employees and information management. (author)

  11. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  12. Analysis of gravity anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and its implications for the crustal structure of rift-dominated back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Sang-Mook

    2018-01-01

    The Ulleung Basin (UB), one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental-rifting end-member of back-arc basin system, but is much less understood compared to the nearby Yamato Basin (YB) and Japan Basin (JB). This study examines the gravity anomalies of the UB since the variation in crustal thickness can provide important insights on the mode of extension during basin opening. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth (from the sea surface) varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the edges. However, within the central part of the basin, the crustal thickness (not including sediment) is more or less the same (10-12 km), by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous suggestions. Our finding of anomalous but uniformly thick crust is consistent with the recent seismic results from the YB (14 km on average). A mantle residual gravity anomaly high (∼20 mGal) exists in the northeastern part of the UB. This feature is interpreted as the location of maximum extension (slightly thinner crust by ∼1 km). Together with another moderate gravity high to the southwest, the two anomalies form a NNE-SSW line, which corresponds to the direction of the major tectonic structures of the Korean Peninsula. We argue that the a massive magmatic emplacement took place extensively in the lower crust of the UB during the opening, significantly increasing its overall thickness to almost twice as that of the JB where a mid-ocean-ridge style seafloor spreading occurred. Two important post-opening processes took place after the formation of uniformly thick crust: post-rift volcanic intrusions in the north, especially in its northeast sections but had little effect on the residual gravity anomaly itself, and the deflection of crust in response to differential sediment loading towards the south, producing the median high in the basement in response to the flexural bending. We also conducted a simple test to

  13. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  14. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  15. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  16. High frequency of the recurrent c.1310_1313delAAGA BRCA2 mutation in the North-East of Morocco and implication for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarabi, Fatima-Zahra; Ratbi, Ilham; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Mezzouar, Loubna; Doubaj, Yassamine; Bouguenouch, Laila; Ouldim, Karim; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-02

    To date, a limited number of BRCA1/2 germline mutations have been reported in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in the Moroccan population. Less than 20 different mutations of these two genes have been identified in Moroccan patients, and recently we reported a further BRCA2 mutation (c.1310_1313delAAGA; p.Lys437IlefsX22) in three unrelated patients, all from the North-East of the country. We aimed in this study to evaluate the frequency and geographic distribution of this BRCA2 frameshift mutation, in order to access its use as the first-line BRCA genetic testing strategy for Moroccan patients. We enrolled in this study 122 patients from different regions of Morocco, with suggestive inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers. All subjects gave written informed consent to BRCA1/2 genetic testing. According to available resources of our lab and enrolled families, 51 patients were analyzed by the conventional individual exon-by-exon Sanger sequencing, 23 patients were able to benefit from a BRCA next generation sequencing and a target screening for exon 10 of BRCA2 gene was performed in 48 patients. Overall, and among the 122 patients analyzed for at least the exon 10 of the BRCA2 gene, the c.1310_1313delAAGA frameshift mutation was found in 14 patients. Genealogic investigation revealed that all carriers of this mutation shared the same geographic origin and were descendants of the North-East of Morocco. In this study, we highlighted that c.1310_1313delAAGA mutation of BRCA2 gene is recurrent with high frequency in patients from the North-East region of Morocco. Therefore, we propose to use, in public health strategies, the detection of this mutation as the first-line screening tests in patients with breast and ovarian cancer originated from this region.

  17. Spatial variation in low-level 134Cs in the coastal sediments off central Honshu in the Sea of Japan. Implications for delivery, migration, and redistribution patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mutsuo; Uemura, H.; Kofuji, H.; Shirotani, Y.; Nagao, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Takata, H.; Kudo, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 and 2015, we examined the spatial distribution of cesium-134 (half-life: 2.06 years) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in marine sediments within coastal-basin areas (water depths of 40-520 m) off central Honshu Island (the main island of Japan) in the Sea of Japan. The 134 Cs concentrations in both the surface sediment (0-1 cm depth) and whole-core inventory exhibited wide variations, and were highest at the site closest to the Agano River Estuary area (6.7 Bq/kg-dry and 886 Bq/m 2 , respectively). This indicates that 134 Cs in coastal areas was delivered by riverine suspended solids (SS). Given the spatial variation in 134 Cs concentrations, we believe that 134 Cs partially migrated northeastward within ∼50 km along Honshu Island (at water depths shallower than ∼140 m), and southwestward, including the Sado Basin area. This is predominantly attributable to the transport of SS by bottom currents and unsteady downward delivery onto the steep slopes of the basin. The total amount of 134 Cs in the study area in 2014 was estimated at approximately 0.6 TBq (decay-corrected to March 11, 2011, date of FDNPP accident). (author)

  18. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  19. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  20. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of

  1. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Porter; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  2. Different nature of glacial CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS 12 in the East Sea/Japan Sea and its paleoceanographic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Boo-Keun; Tada, Ryuji; Itaki, Takuya

    2014-05-01

    Two piston cores (PC-05 and PC-08) were collected on the Yamato Rise in the East Sea/Japan Sea during the KR07-12 cruise. A composite core was achieved with the successful replacement of almost half of the upper part of core PC-05 by the entirety of core PC-08 based on the co-equivalence of L* values and the dark layers, because an interval (170 cm to 410 cm) of core PC-05 was considerably disturbed due to fluidization during the core execution. Chronostratigraphy of the composite core was constructed by the direct comparison of L* values to the well-dated core MD01-2407 that was obtained in the Oki Ridge. The lower-bottom of the composite core reached back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 14, based on the age estimate by LR04 stacks. Downcore opal variation of the composite core exhibited the distinct orbital-scale cyclic changes; high during the interglacial and low during the glacial periods. However, downcore CaCO3 variation showed no corresponding orbital-scale cyclic change between glacial and interglacial periods. Some intervals of both periods were high in CaCO3 content. Frequent and large fluctuations in CaCO3 content seemed to be more related to the presence of dark layers containing thin lamination (TL) within the glacial and interglacial intervals. It is worthy to note that MIS 2 and MIS 12 are characterized by distinctly high CaCO3 content, showing up to 18% and 73%, respectively, among the glacial periods. Furthermore, in terms of lithology, MIS 2 was characterized by a thick dark layer (low L* values) with TL, whereas MIS 12 preserved the distinctly light layer (high L* values) with parallel laminations. Another remarkable dissimilarity between MIS 2 and MIS 12 was the nature of their CaCO3 constituent; the CaCO3 constituent of MIS 2 consisted of mostly planktonic foraminifera, whereas that of MIS 12 was mostly dump of coccolithophorids, regardless the presence of planktonic foraminifera. The distinctness of the CaCO3 constituents between MIS 2 and MIS

  3. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implications for reconstruction of the relationship between nuclear industry and siting areas in Japan. Lessons learnt from the cases of Site Stakeholder Groups in United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the Japanese nuclear community began to recognize the need for establishing local stakeholder meetings in nuclear siting areas for information sharing and communication in reference to the experiences in European countries. This report shows the patterns of institutional design and the management style of stakeholder meetings in UK based on the interview survey, including SSGs (Site Stakeholder Groups) around the NDA (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) sites and LCLCs (Local Community Liaison Councils) around the nuclear power stations in operation. SSGs have developed a local-oriented management style under the leadership of independent chairs elected from local stakeholders, in contrast to LCLCs where the operator of nuclear energy facilities has the initiative of management. SSGs play critical roles in improving quality of decision-making and enhancing its legitimacy through providing forums for local stakeholder engagement in the process of NDA's consultations and BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) implementation. Based on these insights from UK's cases, the author suggests the following remedies for the relationship between the nuclear industry and siting areas in Japan: (1) introducing evaluation systems of stakeholder engagement linked to the insurance rates of nuclear energy liability, and (2) modifying the nuclear safety agreements into risk management principles. (author)

  5. Seasonal variation of 228Ra/226Ra ratio in seaweed: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Kofuji, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    To examine water circulation patterns of coastal water, 72 seaweed (Sargasso) samples and 27 coastal water samples were collected from coastal areas of the Noto Peninsula, Japan, during the period from December 1998 to June 2002. The 228 Ra and 226 Ra activities of those samples were measured by low-background γ-ray spectrometry. There was a wide range of activities of 228 Ra (0.5-2 Bq/kg-fresh) and 226 Ra (0.5-1.2 Bq/kg-fresh) in the Sargasso samples. The 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio of Sargasso samples exhibited seasonal variation with minimum values in June ( 228 Ra/ 226 Ra = ∼1) and maximum values in December (1.5-2.5), which was mainly governed by changes in 228 Ra activity. It is also notable that the seasonal variation of the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of Sargasso is in approximate agreement with that of the ambient coastal water. Sargasso samples appear to have retained the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra ratio of the ambient coastal waters, and the temporal variations in that ratio provide insight into seasonal changes in water circulation in the Noto Peninsula coastal area

  6. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  7. Composite Phymatoderma from Neogene deep-marine deposits in Japan: Implications for Phanerozoic benthic interactions between burrows and the trace-makers of Chondrites and Phycosiphon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Izumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among composite trace fossils, one of the most common structures throughout the Phanerozoic are structures (e.g., dwelling trace, feeding trace reworked by Chondrites and/or Phycosiphon. However, differences in the nature of the reworking behaviors of these two ichnogenera remain unknown. Thus, in this study, composite Phymatoderma specimens from the Neogene deep-marine Shiramazu Formation in Japan, particularly those reworked by Chondrites and Phycosiphon, were analyzed to reveal the specific conditions that might control the activities of these trace-makers. Phymatoderma reworked by Phycosiphon is significantly larger than non-reworked Phymatoderma, whereas Phymatoderma reworked by Chondrites shows no significant difference in burrow diameter compared with non-reworked Phymatoderma. The recognized size selectivity (i.e., preference for larger burrows by the Phycosiphon trace-maker can be explained by considering the different feeding strategies of these two ichnogenera; namely deposit-feeding Phycosiphon-makers, which must have processed a significant mass of sediment to obtain sufficient organic matter, whereas chemosymbiotic Chondrites-producers did not require a lot of sediment to obtain nutrients. In order to test these interpretations, a dataset of Phanerozoic trace fossils reworked by Chondrites/Phycosiphon were compiled. Consequently, the Phycosiphon-producers’ preference toward relatively larger burrows was recognized, quantitatively supporting the results of this study. The compilation also indicates that the burrow size might have become one of the important limiting factors for the Phycosiphon-producers that tried to rework the sediments within previous subsurface burrows, at least for 80 million years.

  8. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and geochronology of Neogene trench-slope cover sediments in the south Boso Peninsula, central Japan: Implications for the development of a shallow accretionary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyonobu, Shun; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Saito, Saneatsu

    2017-07-01

    The geological structure and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Middle to Late Miocene trench-slope succession in the southern Boso Peninsula, central Japan, were examined to obtain chronological constraints on the accretion and formation of the trench-slope architecture. As a result, trench-slope cover sediments (Kinone and Amatsu Formations) are clearly distinguishable from the Early Miocene Hota accretionary complex (Hota Group). The Hota accretionary complex was deposited below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and was affected by intense shearing, forming an east-west trending and south-verging fold and thrust belt. In contrast, the trench-slope cover sediments basically have a homoclinal dip, except at the northern rim where they are bounded by fault contact. They contain many species of calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, which are indicative of their depositional environment above the CCD, and they show shallowing-upward sedimentary structures. Biostratigraphy revealed that the depositional age of the trench-slope sediments is ca. 15-5.5 Ma, suggesting that there is an approximately 2 myr hiatus beween the Miura Group and the underlying accretionary prism. Based on these results, the age of accretion of the Hota Group is inferred to be between ca. 17-15 Ma, and the group is covered by trench-slope sediments overlain on it after ca. 15 Ma. The timing of accretion and the age of the trench-slope basin tend to be younger southward of the Boso Peninsula. The accretionary system of the Boso Peninsula apparently developed in two stages, in the Middle Miocene and in the Late Miocene to Pliocene.

  9. Genetic divergence in nuclear genomes between populations of Fagus crenata along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Genetic diversity and structure in Fagus crenata were studied by analyzing 14 nuclear microsatellite loci in 23 populations distributed throughout the species' range. Although population differentiation was very low (F (ST) = 0.027; R (ST) = 0.041), both neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses provided clear evidence of genetic divergence between populations along the Japan Sea (Japan Sea lineage) and Pacific (Pacific lineage) sides of Japan, indicating that physical barriers to migration and gene flow, notably the mountain ranges separating the populations along the Japan Sea and Pacific sides, have promoted genetic divergence between these populations. The two lineages of the nuclear genome are generally consistent with those of the chloroplast genome detected in a previous study, with several discrepancies between the two genomes. Within-population genetic diversity was generally very high (average H (E) = 0.839), but decreased in a clinal fashion from southwest to northeast, largely among populations of the Japan Sea lineage. This geographical gradient may have resulted from the late-glacial and postglacial recolonization to the northeast, which led to a loss of within-population genetic diversity due to cumulative founder effects.

  10. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  11. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  12. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  13. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  14. Transdisciplinar study of the EE1 pit of the Cova Colomera (Prepyrenean Lleida: domestic practices and palaeoenvironmental implications in the early Bronze Age of the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oms, F. Xavier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transdisciplinary study of the EE1 pit of the Cova Colomera has provided a group of data that can bring some important information about the domestic and economical practices developed in the cave and also about the paleoenvironmental characteristics of this area of the Northeast of the peninsula during the third to second millennia cal. BC. The data show that this cave was used by small groups of people with a mixed farming economy, who also had recourse to mobile activities to complete their diet. Moreover, some structures dug in the floor of the cavity were dug by these groups and went out of use during their short stays in the Cova Colomera. The functionality of these structures is discussed in this article. They could have used them to store surpluses and later to contain refuse or to remove the domestic waste.

    El estudio transdisciplinar de la fosa EE1 de la Cova Colomera ha proporcionado un conjunto de datos que aportan importante información sobre las prácticas domésticas y económicas desarrolladas en ella, y sobre las características paleoambientales de esta zona del noreste peninsular en el tránsito III-II milenio cal. AC. Los resultados apuntan a que esta cueva fue ocupada por grupos reducidos, con una economía mixta agropecuaria, que recurrían también a actividades cinegéticas para completar su dieta. En sus cortas estancias en la Cova Colomera, crearon y amortizaron estructuras excavadas en el suelo de la cavidad, como la fosa EE1, bien para almacenar excedentes y después desechar basura, o bien para eliminar residuos de origen doméstico.

  15. Development of Northeast Asia Nuclear Power Plant Accident Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Po, Li-Chi Cliff

    2017-06-15

    A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. To quickly assess potential doses to the public in Korea, NANAS includes specific reactor data from the nuclear power plants in China, Japan and Taiwan. The completed simulator is demonstrated using data for a hypothetical release. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. North-East Asia: a risk of nuclear proliferation; Un risque de proliferation nucleaire en Asie du Nord-Est?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courmont, B. [Centre d' Etudes Transatlantiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-04-15

    North-East Asia is distinguished by being potentially one of the world's most nuclearised regions. It includes two nuclear powers recognised by the Non-Proliferation Treaty (Russia and China), a proliferating state (North Korea) and three countries that could very quickly complete nuclear programmes (Japan, South Korea and Taiwan). Now that the question of nuclear proliferation has again surfaced on the international strategic scene, and that North Korea's test of October 2006 has introduced a new security paradigm into the region, how real is the risk of nuclear proliferation in North-East Asia? (author)

  17. Maritimes and northeast pipeline update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts made by Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines to bring the benefits of natural gas to the Maritime's economy was discussed. Some background on the developments that have brought the company to where they are today and an update on all their activities were presented. These activities and operations are expected to impact and affect the region's economy in a positive way. Particular attention was paid to the company's policy on laterals and the positive effects of that policy on the development of natural gas service and future natural gas distribution business in the Maritimes

  18. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  19. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  20. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  1. Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.; Kaplan, E.

    1993-11-01

    Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93

  2. The energy sector in Northeast Asia : new projects, delivery systems and prospects for co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the needs and opportunities for energy co-operation in Northeast Asia, with particular reference to development of resources in eastern Russia, Siberia and the Far East to supply energy to consumers in Northeast Asia. Given the high projected demand for energy resources, Japan, South Korea and China are compelled to consider diversifying their energy supplies and developing new links with eastern Russia. The environmental degradation caused by coal burning in China is another incentive for looking for sources of natural gas in Eurasia. Russia and Japan are concentrating on the Sakhalin oil and gas projects. China and Russia have agreed to work closely in the energy sector, focusing on a pipeline from the natural gas field near Irkutsk. The challenges lies in developing a co-ordinated approach to energy resource development and use, by modifying energy policies and long-term supply outlooks. Another challenge lies in the fact that private investors and intergovernmental co-operation are required to build an expensive cross-border infrastructure to transport natural gas, electricity and oil. Co-operation is also required to improve energy efficiency, modernize existing facilities and promote cleaner sources of energy, energy conservation and environmental protection. This report examined forecasted energy demand and imports in Northeast Asia and identified opportunities for co-operation. refs., tabs

  3. Liquid natural gas. Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kooij, E.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the technical know-how and expertise in Japan with respect to the supply, transport, storage and use of LNG. First the overall energy supply in Japan is outlined. Next, the reasons for the use of LNG as an energy source in Japan are discussed. As an example of a typical LNG-installation in Japan the construction of the Himeji Terminal of Osaka Gas Company is described. Finally, attention is paid to the world's largest and modern below-surface LNG-tanks (capacity of 200,000 m 3 ), installed at the Negishi Terminal of Tokyo Gas Company

  4. IRBA SERIES : Accounting In Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Kiyomitsu

    1994-01-01

    Preface / Legal and Conceptual Framework of Accounting in Japan / Setting Accounting Standards in Japan - The American Influence and The Present Status / Accounting Education and Profession in Japan / The International Harmonization of Accounting Standards / The Accounting Standard Setting in Japan and Its Responses to International Accounting Standards / Selected Bibliography for Accounting in Japan

  5. Northeast market view : Millennium Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentzien, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for growth in the U.S. northeast natural gas markets was discussed. In presenting a forecast for natural gas consumption, the growth in demand was attributed primarily to the planned conversion of coal and oil-fired electric generation plants to gas-fired ones, combined with nuclear plant shutdowns, and more stringent environmental policies. An overview of the development of the Millennium Pipeline bringing natural gas from the Alberta border all the way to New York City was also provided, with an update on the current status of the project. Assuming no unreasonable delays in the present schedule, the line should be in service sometime in the year 2000. figs

  6. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  7. Japan and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    About 20 million metric tonnes of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are consumed each year in Japan, of which 14,5 million metric tonnes are imported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. This paper presents LPG industry in Japan and gives informations on the present status: supply and demand, imports, market, distribution

  8. L-Band RFI in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldo, Yan; de Matthaeis, Paolo; Le Vine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, three instruments have been launched into orbit with the aim of producing global maps of sea surface salinity and soil moisture using the 1400-1427 MHz band: SMOS, Aquarius and SMAP. Although this frequency band is allocated to passive measurements only, RFI (Radio-Frequency Interference) is present in the data of all three missions. On a global scale, the three sensors have observed approximately the same distribution of RFI. Japan is an important exception that has implications for the design of RFI detection algorithms. RFI in Japan is caused by a large number of emitters belonging to the same system (TV receivers) and for this reason some traditional RFI detection strategies detect little to no RFI over Japan. The study of this case has led to an improvement of the approach to detect RFI in Aquarius data.

  9. Localization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in surface soil of Asia’s oldest oil and gas drilling site in Assam, north-east India: Implications for the bio-economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemen Sarma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental influx of hazardous contaminants viz PAHs and HMs occurs due to oil and gas drilling, and processing of petroleum products in industrial facilities and refineries. This problem plagues crude oil drilling sites as PAHs are an essential component of and HMs coexist with crude oil. We analyzed the spatial distribution of 16 PAHs and 8 HMs in 10 contaminated sites of Assam, a state in India. These included Digboi, where crude oil was drilled in 1867 and the first oil well in Asia that was drilled. The Ʃ16 PAHs in soil were detected with a minimum of 13.48 and a maximum of 86.3 mgkg−1 and Ʃ 8 heavy metal concentrations in the soil ranged between 69.51 and 336.06 mgkg−1. A negative correlation was detected between the relative concentrations of PAHs and HMs. The results confirmed that the non-biodegradable nature of HMs made them stay in the soil for longer periods of time. In our study, we found that the levels of lead, copper, nickel, and chromium (total in soil were 73.62, 11.86, 58.97 and 158.66 mgkg−1. The recovery percentage for PAHs and HMs were in the range of 67–97% and 90–95% respectively. Spatial distribution indices for Phenanthrene/Anthracene, Naphthalene/Acenapthhylene, Chyrsene/Benzo (g, h, i perylene and Fluranthene/Pyrene calculated for soil samples indicated that the spatial distribution of PAHs in soil is uneven which might be due to variations in contaminates disseminated in soil. Such regionalized concentration has serious implications on the bio-economy both in terms of health and economy, especially since the proximity of crude oil sites to paddy fields and/or tea plantations uniquely marks the landscape of upper Assam.

  10. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    view of the Soviet Union’s increased presence in Asia and the Pacific region.(9) A 19b2 analysis of threats to Malaysian stability by a Malaysian ...Defense Debate in the Diet is like a Junior High School Debate]. Shokun May 84. -- Wideranging discussion of global geopolitical situation by two

  11. Extreme Weather Years Drive Episodic Acidification and Brownification in Lakes in the Northeast US: Implications for Long-term Shifts in Dissolved Organic Carbon, Water Clarity, and Thermal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, K.; Saros, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Interannual climate variability is expected to increase over the next century, but the extent to which hydroclimatic variability influences biogeochemical processes is unclear. To determine the effects of extreme weather on surface water chemistry, a 30-year record of surface water geochemistry for 84 lakes in the northeastern U.S. was combined with landscape data and watershed-specific weather data. With these data, responses in sulfate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were characterized during extreme wet and extreme dry conditions. Episodic acidification during drought and episodic brownification (increased DOC) during wet years were detected broadly across the northeastern U.S. Episodic chemical response was linearly related to wetland coverage in lake watersheds only during extreme wet years. The results of a redundancy analysis suggest that topographic features also need to be considered and that the interplay between wetlands and their degree of connectivity to surface waters could be driving episodic acidification in this region. A subset of lakes located in Acadia National Park, Maine U.S.A. were studied to better understand the implications of regional increases of DOC in lakes. Water transparency declined across six study sites since 1995 as DOC increased. As clarity declined, some lakes experienced reduced epilimnion thickness. The degree to which transparency changed across the lakes was dependent on DOC concentration, with a larger decline in transparency occurring in clear water lakes than brown water lakes. The results presented here help to clarify the variability observed in long-term recovery from acidification and regional increases in DOC. Specifically, an increased frequency of extreme wet years may be contributing to a recent acceleration in the recovery of lake ecosystems from acidification; however, increased frequency of wet years may also lead to reduced water clarity and altered physical lake habitat. Clarifying the

  12. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater

  13. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  14. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  15. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  16. Northeast Economic Add-On Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  17. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  18. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  19. Microelectronics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this JTEC study is to evaluate Japan's electronic manufacturing and packaging capabilities within the context of global economic competition. To carry out this study, the JTEC panel evaluated the framework of the Japanese consumer electronics industry and various technological and organizational factors that are likely to determine who will win and lose in the marketplace. This study begins with a brief overview of the electronics industry, especially as it operates in Japan today. Succeeding chapters examine the electronics infrastructure in Japan and take an in-depth look at the central issues of product development in order to identify those parameters that will determine future directions for electronic packaging technologies.

  20. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  1. China's Political-Economic Approach toward FTAs with East Asian Nations and Its Implications for Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-jun Cho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a political-economic perspective, this article examines on the background and objectives of China's approach toward FTAs with East Asian nations. It appears that China's strategy to regional economic integration recently has transformed from a passive direction to active initiative, pushing forward its winning strategies - economic liberalization and its resolve to become a regional leader - while spearheading projects to create a regional free trade zone. China has a tendency to take a serious view on the significance of non-economic factors or international politics and security in regard to pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries. Behind China's ASEAN+1 plan, the implication of security is deeply rooted; and through its pursuit of economic integration within the region, China seems to be seeking change in the regional security order. China has also been bringing security discussions into the mechanism of regional economic cooperation among Korea, China and Japan. China also appears to have a few types of ideological mentality when pursuing FTAs. It seems that China's "great-power mentality"(daguo xintai is somewhat robust. This mentality is prone to be extended to hegemonic contention within the region. If China combines the "great-power mentality" with nationalism in the process of pursuing FTAs with neighboring countries, then this might entail exclusive regionalism. Both Japan and China are basically in rivalry over regional hegemony, and competing for leadership in intra-regional FTA initiatives. In pursuing FTAs with South Korea, China and Japan seem to have quite a contradictory approach. Japan, which wants to control the rise of China, seems to be ruling out the China-Japan-Korea FTA plan and actively pursuing a Japan-Korea FTA. On the contrary, Beijing is expected to actively propose to pursue China-Korea FTA in order to hold back rapid progress in Japan-Korea FTA negotiations, which have already commenced. On the

  2. Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  3. In Defense of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    potential addition of F-35B STOVL aircraft to their Izumo class helicopter destroyers is a good example. Japan’s conduct during World War II remain locked ...antiwar and antinuclear identity . But after sixty years, Japan’s neighbors still see bayoneted babies. Relations between Japan and its former victims...and the world order Robert Cooper defines Japan as the lone post-modern country surrounded by states firmly locked into an earlier age and that if

  4. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  5. Industrial lasers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Norio

    1991-03-01

    I am to report on some aspects of industrial lasers in Japan. Mostly centering on the market. In Japan, the history of laser developnent is rather profound. And long. Ever since the first invention of the laser in this country in 1960. This is partly because of the fact that in Japan the spectroscopic studies of the ruby was very popular in the late 1950's. Ever since niost of the work has been done in the research laboratories of the industry, not in the universities or not in the governmental laboratories. And since that time our first activity was mainly centering on the basic research, but after that time we have the evolution of the technology. One of the features in Japan is that the activity of developement and research of laser technology from the very basic phase up to the present commercialization has been done by the same group of people, including ine. We had a national project which ended about six years ago which was sponsored by MITI. MITI is Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. And because of this national project, the effect of this project had a very enlightening effect in Japan. And after that our Japanese laser market became very flourishing.

  6. Devonian through early Carboniferous (Mississippian) metallogenesis and tectonics of northeast Asia, Chapter 6 in Metallogenesis and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarch, Gombosuren; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2010-01-01

    The major purposes of this chapter are to provide (1) an overview of the regional geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia for readers who are unfamiliar with the region, (2) a general scientific introduction to the succeeding chapters of this volume, and (3) an overview of the methodology of metallogenic and tectonic analysis used in this study. We also describe how a high-quality metallogenic and tectonic analysis, including construction of an associated metallogenic-tectonic model will greatly benefit other mineral resource studies, including synthesis of mineral-deposit models; improve prediction of undiscovered mineral deposit as part of a quantitative mineral-resource-assessment studies; assist land-use and mineral-exploration planning; improve interpretations of the origins of host rocks, mineral deposits, and metallogenic belts, and suggest new research. Research on the metallogenesis and tectonics of such major regions as Northeast Asia (eastern Russia, Mongolia, northern China, South Korea, and Japan) and the Circum-North Pacific (the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera) requires a complex methodology including (1) definitions of key terms, (2) compilation of a regional geologic base map that can be interpreted according to modern tectonic concepts and definitions, (3) compilation of a mineral-deposit database that enables a determination of mineral-deposit models and clarification of the relations of deposits to host rocks and tectonic origins, (4) synthesis of a series of mineral-deposit models that characterize the known mineral deposits and inferred undiscovered deposits in the region, (5) compilation of a series of metallogenic-belt belts constructed on the regional geologic base map, and (6) construction of a unified metallogenic and tectonic model. The summary of regional geology and metallogenesis presented here is based on publications of the major international collaborative studies of the metallogenesis and

  7. Lessons Learned from Data Management Activities after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kitamoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes our effort towards managing the multi-disciplinary disaster-related data from the Great East Japan Earthquake, which happened on March 11, 2011 off the coast of Northeast Japan. This earthquake caused the largest tsunami in the recorded history of Japan, killed many people along the coast, and caused a nuclear disaster in Fukushima, which continues to affect a large area of Japan. Just after the earthquake, we started crisis response data management activities to provide useful information for supporting disaster response and recovery. This paper introduces the various types of datasets we made from the viewpoint of data management processing and draws lessons from our post-disaster activities.

  8. Jeju Naval Base: Strategic Implications for Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of which stays within 6 miles of shore. Ship types include container, 400-500 dry weight metric ton liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG ) and tanker. Major...little indigenous energy production, is the world’s fifth-largest crude buyer and the second-largest importer of liquefied natural gas .9 The Chinese...economy relies on oil, natural gas , and other raw materials imported by sea.10 Petroleum imports into Dalian, coal and petroleum into Qinhuangdao, oil

  9. Volcanic Characteristics of Kueishantao in Northeast Taiwan and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kueishantao (KST is a small offshore volcanic island located at the southernmost part of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we conducted a detailed mapping incorporating the new high resolution LiDAR DTM laser scanning device to accurately construct a volcanic sequence. A new 1/5000 geological map was established. One primary volcanic cone, composed of layers of both lava flows and pyroclastic rocks constituted the major edifice of KST. The other minor volcanic cone, which consists of volcanic lapillis and blocks, is seated to the east of the main cone. The escarped and nearly straight coast in the southern part of the KST indicates that the volcano suffered a large post-volcanic edifice collapse erasing nearly one half of the volume of both volcanic cones. The increase in the abundance of the xenoliths of sedimentary rocks from the lower to the upper part of the volcanic sequence indicates that the formation of volcanic rocks of the KST involved an intensification of crustal contamination. The possibility of volcanic eruption can not be excluded in the future based on the present thermolu¬minescene age data of 7 ka. The associated eruptive ash fall and tsunami induced by the further collapse of the KST volcanic edifice might have great influence to the adjacent inland. Thus, long-term monitoring of volcanic activities around KST should be required for future hazard assessments.

  10. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  11. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Proposed Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 16 to the Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

  12. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  13. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  14. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  15. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... 5] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of a Northeast Corridor Safety... Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the [[Page 73735

  16. 78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    .... 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC) Meeting. [[Page 23816

  17. Japan's nuclear juggernaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richner, S.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of nuclear energy in Japan is presented. Nuclear energy provides 17% of Japan's electricity but could provide much more. 25 more reactors (to add to the existing 27) are planned by 1995. The cooperation between Japanese government and industry and the economic assistance in building new plants means that these are not likely to be cancelled. Public acceptance of new plants has often been obtained by large cash employment inducements. Now, however, there is growing disillusionment when short-term well paid employment building the reactors is followed by unemployment when the reactor is in operation. Also there is a growing opposition to the storage of the nuclear waste. To maintain the growth of its nuclear industry Japan needs to export to provide a steady flow of big orders. (U.K.)

  18. Japan's advanced medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  19. Temporal changes in morality attributed to heat extremes for 57 cities in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whanhee; Choi, Hayon Michelle; Kim, Dahye; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have reported that heat-related mortality decreased by adaptation during decades. However, since the frequency of extreme heat events is increasing, it is difficult to conclude with certainty that the heat mortality burden is decreasing. To examine temporal changes in mortality attributed to heat extremes in Northeast Asia, we collected temperature and mortality data covering the years 1972-2012 from 57 cities of 3 countries (Taiwan, Korea, and Japan) in Northeast Asia. Poisson regression curves were fitted to the data from each city. The temporal changes in heat-mortality association were estimated with a time-varying distributed lag non-linear model. Heat extremes were defined as temperatures greater than the 97.5th percentiles of city-specific average temperatures. Attributable deaths were calculated considering temporal variations in exposure and relative risk. The estimates were then pooled through meta-analysis. The results show that the mortality risk on extreme heat days declined during the study period in all countries. However, as summer temperatures in Japan have shown more heat extremes over time, the mortality risk attributed to heat increased during 2003-2012 (0.32%) compared with 1972-1981 (0.19%). Thus, to assess the total health burden due to heat extremes related to climate change, public health strategies should focus on the temporal variation in heat-mortality association as well as changes in the distribution of heat extremes overtime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. China-Japan-Korea (CJK)'s FTA Strategy towards ASEAN Countries: A Game Theoretical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fithra Faisal Hastiadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the FTA strategies of China, Japan and Korea (CJK) toward ASEAN countries using a three-player game. It explores the implications of China, Japan, and/or Korea participating in an FTA with ASEAN and the corresponding rewards in a payoff matrix. The Nash equilibrium occurs when China, Korea and Japan all choose to participate in an FTA with ASEAN. Dominant strategies and response functions for each country are analyzed using Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and Vector Auto ...

  1. The internationalization of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    There are growing tensions and frictions between the U.S. and Japan. Among them are science and technology issues that relate to the development of superconductor technology, as well as economic, trade and agricultural issues. The structure of this friction is very complex. There are many interconnected issues that cannot be resolved one by one. This article focuses on the relationship between the U.S. and Japan. Some of the complexities behind the issues are discussed by defining different notions of internationalization and by presenting the positive and negative aspects of the Japanese approach that affects the future cooperation and competition between our nations in the area of superconductivity

  2. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  3. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety... NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  5. Eurasian continental background and regionally polluted levels of ozone and CO observed in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochanart, Pakpong; Kato, Shungo; Katsuno, Takao; Akimoto, Hajime

    The roles of Eurasian/Siberian continental air masses transport and the impact of large-scale East Asian anthropogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide levels in northeast Asia were investigated. Seasonal behaviors of O 3 and CO mixing ratios in background continental (BC) air masses and regionally polluted continental (RPC) air masses were identified using trajectory analyses of Eurasian continental air masses and multi-year O 3 and CO data observed at Happo, a mountain site in Japan. RPC air masses show significantly higher O 3 and CO mixing ratios (annual average of 53.9±6.0 and 200±41 ppb, respectively) than BC air masses (44.4±3.6 and 167±17 ppb, respectively). Large scale anthropogenic emissions in East Asia are suggested to contribute about 10 ppb of photochemical O 3 and 32 ppb of CO at Happo. A comparative study of O 3 and CO observed at other sites, i.e., Oki Islands and Mondy in northeast Asia, showed similarities suggesting that O 3 mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo could be representative for remote northeast Asia. However, CO mixing ratios in BC air masses at Happo are higher than the background level in Siberia. The overestimate is probably related to an increase in the CO baseline gradient between Siberia and the East Asia Pacific rim, and perturbations by sub-grid scale pollution transport and regional-scale boreal forest fires in Siberia when the background continental air masses are transported to Japan.

  6. Vertical distribution of 239+240Pu-concentration and 240Pu/239Pu isotope ratio in sediment cores. Implications for the sources of plutonium in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Jian, Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The main sources in the environmental plutonium is due to nuclear explosions held during 1945 - 1980. The global fallout of plutonium is estimated to amount to 10.9 PBq, of which 6.6 PBq entering into the ocean. The Japan Sea is reported to be concentrated in plutonium in excess according to previous measurements. The present report aims to clarify the origin and transport path of plutonium in Japan Sea by measuring 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio in sedimenta cores with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) which depends on the types of the nuclear reactor, nuclear fuels, reacting time, or the types of nuclear weapons concerned. As an example the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio from the nuclear explosions in early 1960's is known to be 0.18, while that of 0.34-0.36 Bikini experiments in the Marshall Islands in early 1950's. After a detailed examination, the present authors propose that the plutonium from the explosion sites around the Marshall Islands was carried with an oceanic current to be deposited in the bed of the East-China Sea, from which a part of the plutonium was transported with the Black Stream to enter Japan Sea. (S. Ohno)

  7. The great East Japan earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-06-15

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this

  8. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.

    2011-01-01

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  9. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  10. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  11. Dutch surgery in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, Thomas M.; Nimura, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    An isolation policy was adopted in feudal Japan from 1639 to 1853 owing to the fear of foreign influence. During those 200 years of isolation, all foreigners were withheld from the country with the exception of the Dutch, who were permitted to establish a trading post on a small island in the Bay of

  12. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  13. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  14. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  15. Japan's plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Japan's plutonium economy is based on the most efficient use of nuclear energy, as envisioned under the Atoms for Peace program of the 1950s and 1960s. The nuclear pioneers assumed that all nations would want to take full advantage of atomic energy, recycling waste into new fuel to derive as much energy as possible from this resource

  16. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy situation in Japan and Japan's strategy for stable supply of energy are discussed. Benefits of nuclear power in comparison with other energy sources is considered. History of nuclear power development in Japan, modern status and future trends are described. 6 figs

  17. Characteristic mutations found in the ML0411 gene of Mycobacterium leprae isolated in Northeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, M; Nakata, N; Matsuoka, M; Sekizuka, T; Kuroda, M; Makino, M

    2013-10-01

    Genome analysis of Mycobacterium leprae strain Kyoto-2 in this study revealed characteristic nucleotide substitutions in gene ML0411, compared to the reference genome M. leprae strain TN. The ML0411 gene of Kyoto-2 had six SNPs compared to that of TN. All SNPs in ML0411 were non-synonymous mutations that result in amino acid replacements. In addition, a seventh SNP was found 41 bp upstream of the start codon in the regulatory region. The seven SNP sites in the ML0411 region were investigated by sequencing in 36 M. leprae isolates from the Leprosy Research Center in Japan. The SNP pattern in 14 of the 36 isolates showed similarity to that of Kyoto-2. Determination of the standard SNP types within the 36 stocked isolates revealed that almost all of the Japanese strains belonged to SNP type III, with nucleotide substitutions at position 14676, 164275, and 2935685 of the M. leprae TN genome. The geographical distribution pattern of east Asian M. leprae isolates by discrimination of ML0411 SNPs was investigated and interestingly turned out to be similar to that of tandem repeat numbers of GACATC in the rpoT gene (3 copies or 4 copies), which has been established as a tool for M. leprae genotyping. All seven Korean M. leprae isolates examined in this study, as well as those derived from Honshu Island of Japan, showed 4 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat plus the ML0411 SNPs observed in M. leprae Kyoto-2. They are termed Northeast Asian (NA) strain of M. leprae. On the other hand, many of isolates derived from the Okinawa Islands of Japan and from the Philippines showed 3 copies of the 6-base tandem repeat in addition to the M. leprae TN ML0411 type of SNPs. These results demonstrate the existence of M. leprae strains in Northeast Asian region having characteristic SNP patterns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic Integration and National Identity in Northeast Asia: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pape

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian Paradox” in the Northeast of the continent appears to be particularly evident if seen through European eyes. While one of the tightest networks of intra-regional trade binds the economies of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, their political leaders hardly ever connect with each other in substantive exchanges. Cold images of frozen faces and of an “icy lady” seem to contrast with the warm embraces that businesspeople enjoy after successful deals over borders. However, is this the view only in the eyes of the European beholder, who is used to the myriad of regular institutionalised meetings at all political and bureaucratic levels of the EU? Northeast Asia comprises two of the three biggest national economies in the world and on the basis of its interdependence flourishes economically – with the exception of Japan – with GDP growth-rates above OECD average. At the same time, in view of unresolved historical legacies their leading politicians still feel forced to keep frozen faces because of voters’ gazes of self-instilled nationalisms back home. Homogeneous cultures of Confucianism and shame rather than guilt, notably on the islands and the peninsula, maintain a very high level of national identity, in spite of a growing awareness of economic interdependence and globalisation that even conservative schoolbooks and dominant mainstream media cannot refute anymore. Nevertheless, fledgeling attempts to facilitate the flow of goods and services across national borders through bilateral and plurilateral free trade agreements seem to advance, albeit only slowly. China, Japan and South Korea have managed to institutionalise at the level of rotating ambassadors at the tri-lateral secretariat in Seoul some forms of cooperation. “Hot-lines” of emergency communications have been installed at the highest level to fend off sudden misunderstandings related to still looming territorial disputes. This paper will explore the above issues

  19. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The supply of freshwater to fjord systems in Greenland is increasing as a result of climate change-induced acceleration in ice sheet melt. However, insight into the marine implications of the melt water is impaired by lack of observations demonstrating the fate of freshwater along the Greenland...... coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... observational evidence of a significant freshening on decadal scale of the waters surrounding the ice sheet and comes from a region where ice sheet melt has been less significant. It implies that ice sheet dynamics in Northeast Greenland could be of key importance as freshwater is retained in southward flowing...

  20. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  1. Future accelerators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toge, Nobu

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on the present status of future accelerator projects at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Japan. The KEK laboratory has been successfully operating the TRISTAN accelerator complex since 1986. It consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linac, an 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR) and a 29 GeV Main Ring (MR). Concurrently with this operation, in response to recommendations by the Japanese High Energy Physics Committee, survey studies have been continued on new accelerator facilities at KEK. They have two major future projects, namely, the asymmetric e + e - B-factory based on TRISTAN (TRISTAN-II) and the Japan Linear Collider (JLC). The purpose of this paper is to outline those research activities and to present an update on their status

  2. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  3. Japan Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  4. Japan Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-11-15

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation.

  5. Nuclear situation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analysis takes stock on the nuclear situation in Japan. It discusses the ambitious equipment program in collaboration with the France, the destabilization of the japanese nuclear industry following the accidents and the energy policy evolutions. It presents the projects of the japanese nuclear industry: the Monju reactor restart, the Pluthermal project, the reprocessing power plant of Rokkasho Mura, the new reactors, the russian weapons dismantling, the ITER site selection and the buy out of Westinghouse by Toshiba. (A.L.B.)

  6. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  9. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, no. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kiriko; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Kasida, Yoshihiko.

    1981-03-01

    This report was drawn up by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. In order to measure tritium levels and consequently to assess the significance of the tritium in the environmental water around nuclear facilities regarding public health, the tritium surveillance program began in 1967 locally in Tsuruga and Mihama districts. Now, it has been expanded to 12 nuclear power stations and 5 nuclear facilities. In this report, the data from 1977 to 1980 are presented. Though the frequency of sampling was limited to once or twice a year in most cases, the time and point of measurement were fixed in each station in order to know the annual variation of tritium levels. The water samples were land water such as rivers, reservoirs and ponds and wells, sea water for secondary cooling system, and tap water around nuclear facilities, and land water, sea water and tap water in the places remote from nuclear facilities as the criteria. The samples with less than 100 pCi/l of tritium were electrolytically enriched, and counted with liquid scintillation counters. The results in respective facilities are reported. The tritium concentration in rivers, streams and reservoirs decreased exponentially from 400 pCi/l in 1971 to 100 pCi/l in 1980 with the half life of about 5 years in northeast Japan. Sea water was not affected by the effluent from nuclear facilities, and the tritium concentration in tap water was almost same as rivers. (Kako, I.)

  10. Japan in the 21st Century Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1853, Japan was forced to come out of its feudal isolation and become a part of the worldwide business network. Its opening up did not mean surrendering to external powers, but rather becoming immersed in an imperialist struggle, from which it would come out defeated in 1945. Nevertheless, Japan’s prostration was temporary, given that in the post-war period it became an unconditional ally of the same super power that had blocked its military aspirations with two atomic bombs. The strategic agreement with the USA remained intact even after the Cold War had ended. Moreover, the verbal struggle and show of frce in the Senkaku / Diaoyutai Islands, in 2012, facilitated a return to power which was more akin to the dictates of Washington and its security plan in the Pacific political wing. Today, the confrontation in Northeast Asia presents the Korean-American-Japanese block, on one side, and the Sino-Russian-North Korean, on the other, on a fork which must be seen as a new bipolar scheme which will guarantee the regional strategic equilibrium. However, progressive changes are expected in the balance of power in both the Asian sector and the rest of the world, due to the impact of growing Chinese economic, political and military power on geopolitical agreements, including the Japanese-American one.

  11. Dynamic axes of informed consent in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specker Sullivan, Laura

    2017-02-01

    Scholarship in cross-cultural bioethics routinely frames Japanese informed consent in contrast to informed consent in North America. This contrastive analysis foregrounds cancer diagnosis disclosure and physician paternalism as unique aspects of Japanese informed consent that deviate from American practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 Japanese medical professionals obtained during fieldwork in Japan from 2013 to 15, this article complicates the informed consent discourse beyond East-West comparisons premised on Anglo-American ethical frameworks. It expands professional perspectives to include nurses, medical social workers, clinical psychologists, and ethicists and it addresses informed consent for a broad range of conditions in addition to cancer. The results suggest that division of affective labor is an under-theorized dimension of informed consent that is perceived as at odds with principled demands for universal informed consent. These practical tensions are conceptualized as cultural differences, with Japan identified in terms of omakase as practical and supportive and the United States identified in terms of jiko kettei as principled and self-determining. These results have implications for the methodology of cross-cultural bioethics as well as for theories and practices of informed consent in both Japan and the United States. I conclude that responsible cross-cultural work in bioethics must begin from the ground up, incorporating all relevant stakeholder perspectives, attitudes, and experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Holocene Tsunami Deposits From Large Tsunamis Along the Kuril Subduction Zone, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayama, F.; Furukawa, R.; Satake, K.; Soeda, Y.; Shigeno, K.

    2003-12-01

    Holocene tsunami deposits in eastern Hokkaido between Nemuro and Tokachi show that the Kuril subduction zone repeatedly produced earthquakes and tsunamis larger than those recorded in this region since AD 1804 (Nanayama et al., Nature, 424, 660-663, 2003). Twenty-two postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 9500 years are preserved on lake bottom near Kushiro City, and about ten postulated tsunami sand layers from the past 3000 years are preserved in peat layers on the coastal marsh of Kiritappu. We dated these ten tsunami deposits (named Ts1 to Ts10 from shallower to deeper) in peat layers by radiocarbon and tephrochronology, correlated them with historical earthquakes and tsunamis, and surveyed their spatial distribution to estimate the tsunamisO inland inundation limits. Ts10 and Ts9 are under regional tephra Ta-c2 (ca. 2.5 ka) and represent prehistorical events. Ts8 to Ts5 are between two regional tephra layers Ta-c2 and B-Tm (ca. 9th century). In particular, Ts5 is found just below B-Tm, so it is dated 9th century (Heian era). Ts4 is dated ca 13th century (Kamakura era), while Ts3, found just below Us-b and Ta-b (AD 1667-1663), is dated 17th century (Edo era). Ts2 is dated 19th century (Edo era) and may correspond to the AD 1843 Tempo Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.0) recorded in a historical document Nikkanki of Kokutai-ji temple at Akkeshi. Ts1 is inferred 20th century and may correspond to the tsunami from the AD 1960 Chilean earthquake (M 9.5) or the AD 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mt 8.2). Our detailed surveys indicate that Ts3 and Ts4 can be traced more than 3 km from the present coast line in Kirittapu marsh, much longer than the limits (< 1 km) of recent deposits Ts1 and Ts2 or documented inundation of the 19th and 20th century tsunamis. The recurrence intervals of great tsunami inundation are about 400 to 500 years, longer than that of typical interplate earthquakes along the Kuril subduction zone. The longer interval and the apparent large tsunami inundation indicate unusual origin of these tsunamis.

  13. Chronic sinusitis and woodworking as risk factors for cancer of the maxillary sinus in northeast Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Hozawa, J; Saito, H; Murai, K; Hirata, H; Takasaka, T; Togawa, K; Konno, A; Kimura, Y; Kikuchi, A

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1983 to 1985, 66 patients presented to six Japanese university hospitals with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. Using self-administered questionnaires, a case-control study was conducted to examine history of nasal diseases, occupational exposures, and other possible risk factors for this disease. For each patient, two controls were selected from the general population, matched to the patient by sex, age (+/- 5 years), and district of residence. A history of chronic sinusitis was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p = 0.05). A high relative risk was also observed in males with an occupational history of woodworking or joinery, particularly when these jobs involved sanding or lathing practices (RR = 7.5, p = 0.02). No association between cigarette smoking and maxillary sinus cancer was observed in this study and no evidence was found that indoor air pollution in the home is involved in cancer development.

  14. Neotectonics of central Japan and Izu-Bonin arc. Chuo Nippon no neotectonics to Izu Ogasawara ko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, A. (Toyama Univ., Toyama (Japan). College of Liberal Arts)

    1991-08-25

    Central Japan is the boundary region among the Northeast Japan arc (NEJ), which was parted from the Honshu arc accompanying the basin in the Japan sea area and the bending of Japan Islands, the Southwest Japan arc (SWJ) and the end of the Izu-Bonin arc (IOA), and involves the specific volcanic activity. In this report, the geohistory of the Late Cainozoic era in the central Japan was re-arranged and the neotectonics of the central Japan was tried to reorganize. Especially from a viewpoint that the central Japan is a juncture between the north end of the volcanic arc IOA (Fuji, Norikura and Hakusan volcanic belts) and the southwest end of the volcanic arc NEJ (Nasu and Chokai volcanic belts), the relation between the volcanic activity and tectonics from the Pliocene to Pleistocene has been mainly handled in the Hida region east of the Hakusan and in the northern Fossa Magna region. In addition to it, the tectonics was pointed out to be an indication of mechanical jointing state with IOA. Then the results of IOA drilling according to ODP, Leg 129 were referred as well, in order to compare with the transition of more typical volcanic activity in IOA. 61 refs., 4 figs.

  15. The graying of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L G

    1989-07-01

    Japan's rapidly aging population has become a top policy issue, especially as the increasing costs of pensions and medical care are debated. With the highest life expectancy on earth, the Japanese potentially face long periods of retirement, as well as the possibility of long periods of disability. Although family support of the elderly is thought to have been strong traditionally, the recent decline in co-residence with children is 1 indication that the way support is given may be changing. This issue is of particular concern to the government, which wants to avoid any greater responsibility for the elderly than is necessary given the dramatic population aging yet to come. The government is also encouraging employers to provide more employment opportunities for the elderly at the same time that it is trying to raise the eligibility age for the receipt of public pensions. There is resistance on the part of employers, however, because wages and retirement allowances in Japan are positively related to length of employment. Furthermore, it is not clear whether elderly Japanese of the future will be as willing to work, if they learn to enjoy increased leisure early in their careers. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that population aging will lead to Japan's economic decline. Although the savings rate may decline somewhat, restructuring of the economy and continued overseas investment should keep the economy growing in the long run. Important in both the care of the frail elderly and the continued growth of the economy will be the roles played by middle-aged Japanese women.

  16. Skiing research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K

    1981-01-01

    Skiing and skiing techniques were introduced by the Austrians to Japanese soldiers in 1911. After that, skiing spread beyond the original purpose and recently produced the ski sciences. From a sports biomechanical aspect, the development of the study of ski jumping, alpine skiing, and the basic movement in skiing is introduced in this paper. One of the characteristic points of these studies in Japan was that the ski sciences were supported not only by biomechanists and physiologists, but also basically by physicists and engineers. The fundamental research and studies from divergent fields are supporting each other and being integrated into ski science.

  17. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  18. Nyheder i Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Kan man stole på, hvad folk siger, når man ikke ved, hvem de er? Forholdet mellem kildeanonymitet og troværdighed er forskelligt i mediesystemer rundt om i verden. Troværdighed er ingen universel størrelse, men en retorisk effekt der opstår på baggrund af faktorer som er kulturelt og systemisk in...... indlejret. I Japan har seriøse nyhedsmedier et specielt forhold til udsagn fra anonyme kilder, og udstrakt brug af uidentificerede informanter står ikke i modsætning til journalistisk kvalitet og pålidelighed....

  19. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  20. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preferences. The challenges for India are the institutional barriers, in particular, Japanese business practices...... that act as significant barriers to the entry of foreign skilled professionals. The paper brings out the source and pattern of foreign professionals and students in Japan as a proxy for talent. Though India’s presence in Japan is currently limited, its share of technical professionals to the total number....... For Japan, it means access to technical professionals and managed interfacing with the global economy....

  1. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  2. Food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1995-01-01

    The basic research on food irradiation in Japan was begun around 1955 by universities and national laboratories. In 1967, food irradiation was designated to the specific general research on atomic energy, and the national project on large scale was continued until 1983. As the result, the treatment of germination prevention for potatoes was approved by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1972. The Co-60 gamma ray irradiation facility of Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative is famous as the facility that succeeded in the practical use of food irradiation for the first time in the world. But the practical use of food irradiation stagnates and the research activities were reduced in Japan due to the circumstances thereafter. The effect of radiation to foods and living things is explained. The features of the radiation treatment of foods are small temperature rise, large transmissivity, no residue, the small loss of nutrition and large quantity, continuous treatment. The safety of irradiated foods is explained. The subjects for hereafter are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Food Irradiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-09-15

    Since 1967 research activities on food irradiation in Japan have been carried out under the National Food Irradiation Programme by the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission. The programme has been concentrated on the technological and economical feasibility and wholesomeness testings of seven irradiated food items of economic importance to the country, i.e. potatoes, onions, wheat, rice, 'kamaboko' (fish-paste products), 'Vienna' sausages and mandarin oranges. By now most studies, including wholesomeness testings of these irradiated food items, have been completed. In Japan, all foods or food additives for sale are regulated by the Food Sanitation Law enforced in 1947. Based on studies made by the national programme, irradiated potatoes were given 'unconditional acceptance' for human consumption in 1972. At present, irradiated potatoes are the only food item which has so far been approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Unless the Minister of Health and Welfare has declared that items are not harmful to human health on obtaining comments from the Food Sanitation Investigation Council, no irradiated food can be processed or sold. In addition, the import of irradiated foodstuffs other than potatoes from foreign countries is prohibited by law.

  4. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Aggarwal, S. G.; Okuzawa, K.; Kawamura, K.

    2010-07-01

    To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region) on 8-9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region) on 9-10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region) on 10-11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42-, NH4+ and K+) were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1) whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl- peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm). Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3- showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m-3) were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m-3) and ocean (142 ng m-3), whereas SO42- concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m-3) followed by marine- (2950 ng m-3) and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m-3) aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m-3) and OC (4360 ng m-3) were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as levoglucosan are abundant. This paper presents a case study of long-range transported aerosols illustrating that biomass burning episodes in the Siberian region have a significant influence on the chemical composition of carbonaceous aerosols in the western North Pacific rim.

  5. Investigation on the pearl roundel patterns of religious implication on the fabric collected in Japan during Tang dynasty%日本藏唐代时期丝路宗教联珠纹织物纹样考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程雅娟

    2018-01-01

    A lot of relics left after the fabrics with pearl roundel patterns were exported to Japan arouse little public interest. These special religious fabrics with pearl roundel pattern are of great significance to the study on the silk trade and religious exchanges between Europe and Asia. This paper compared the existing fabrics with pearl roundel pattern in Japan with the fabrics with pearl roundel pattern unearthed in the Central Plains and Central Asia, and carried out classification analysis in the context of silk trade exchanges and religious communication between Europe and Asia by the methods of literature and history,archaeology and iconology. The conclusions will fill in the gaps in the study on fabrics with religious pearl roundel pattern in China. The study showed that the silk customization trade in the Sui and Tang dynasties were very specialized and segmented and began to be subdivided according to different religions. The creators of these fabrics were likely to be Sogdians believing in Zoroastrianism in Centra Asia or Sogdians living in the Central Plains.%丝路联珠纹织物东渡入日后留下了大量遗珍,却甚少引起学术关注,这些特殊的宗教联珠纹织物对研究欧亚丝绸贸易与宗教交流具有重要意义.文章将针对日本现存的联珠纹织物纹样与中原、中亚地区出土品进行对比,采用文史、考古学、图像学相关方法,并放置于欧亚大陆丝路贸易交往与宗教传播的背景下进行分类分析,结论将填补国内对于宗教类联珠纹织物的研究空白.研究表明,隋唐时期丝绸订制贸易已非常专业化与细分化,开始针对不同宗教教徒进行纹饰细分,织造者极有可能为信仰琐罗亚斯德教的中亚粟特人或生活在中原的粟特人.

  6. Evidence of local and regional freshening of Northeast Greenland coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejr, Mikael K.; Stedmon, Colin A; Bendtsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    coast and providing evaluation basis for ocean models. Here we present 13 years of summer measurements along a 120 km transect in Young Sound, Northeast Greenland and show that sub-surface coastal waters are decreasing in salinity with an average rate of 0.12 ± 0.05 per year. This is the first...... coastal currents thus reducing density of water masses influencing major deep water formation areas in the Subarctic Atlantic Ocean. Ultimately, the observed freshening could have implications for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation....

  7. Nutrition surveys in Burma and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, George E

    2005-05-01

    Participation of the author in the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense sponsored nutrition surveys of Burma and northeast Brazil is described. These surveys not only collected important data on nutritional status but also guided the subsequent research interests of the author. The Brazil survey results contributed to the creation of legislation that mandated the addition of water-dispersible vitamin A to skimmed-milk powder products. This additive has greatly diminished the likelihood of vitamin A deficiency syndrome occurring in children after famine relief efforts.

  8. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  9. 78 FR 16220 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2013 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., provide allocations of Northeast (NE) multispecies to these sectors, and grant regulatory exemptions. We...

  10. 78 FR 25591 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2013 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... year (FY) 2013, providing allocations of Northeast (NE) multispecies to these sectors, and granting 23...

  11. Development on Dose Assessment Model of Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Suk Hoon; Lee, Seung Hee; Yoon, Tae Bin [FNC Techology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to support the emergency response system, the simulator for overseas nuclear accident is under development including source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment. The simulator is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator). For the source-term estimation, design characteristics of each reactor type should be reflected into the model. Since there are a lot of reactor types in neighboring countries, the representative reactors of China, Japan and Taiwan have been selected and the source-term estimation models for each reactor have been developed, respectively. For the atmospheric dispersion modeling, Lagrangian particle model will be integrated into the simulator for the long range dispersion modeling in Northeast Asia region. In this study, the dose assessment model has been developed considering external and internal exposure. The dose assessment model has been developed as a part of the overseas nuclear accidents simulator which is named NANAS. It addresses external and internal pathways including cloudshine, groundshine and inhalation. Also, it uses the output of atmospheric dispersion model (i.e. the average concentrations of radionuclides in air and ground) and various coefficients (e.g. dose conversion factor and breathing rate) as an input. Effective dose and thyroid dose for each grid in the Korean Peninsula region are printed out as a format of map projection and chart. Verification and validation on the dose assessment model will be conducted in further study by benchmarking with the measured data of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident.

  12. Scientists Examine Challenges and Lessons From Japan's Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    A week after the magnitude 9.0 great Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tragic and damaging tsunami of 11 March struck Japan, the ramifications continued, with a series of major aftershocks (as Eos went to press, there had been about 4 dozen with magnitudes greater than 6); the grim search for missing people—the death toll was expected to approximate 10,000; the urgent assistance needed for the more than 400,000 homeless and the 1 million people without water; and the frantic efforts to avert an environmental catastrophe at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, about 225 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, where radiation was leaking. The earthquake offshore of Honshu in northeastern Japan (see Figure 1) was a plate boundary rupture along the Japan Trench subduction zone, with the source area of the earthquake estimated at 400-500 kilometers long with a maximum slip of 20 meters, determined through various means including Global Positioning System (GPS) and seismographic data, according to Kenji Satake, professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo. In some places the tsunami may have topped 7 meters—the maximum instrumental measurement at many coastal tide gauges—and some parts of the coastline may have been inundated more than 5 kilometers inland, Satake indicated. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) noted that eyewitnesses reported that the highest tsunami waves were 13 meters high. Satake also noted that continuous GPS stations indicate that the coast near Sendai—which is 130 kilometers west of the earthquake and is the largest city in the Tohoku region of Honshu—moved more than 4 meters horizontally and subsided about 0.8 meter.

  13. Barbarian medicine in feudal Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodstad, Harald; Hariz, Marwan I; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Ohye, Chihiro

    2002-10-01

    THE FIRST EUROPEANS to discover Japan were Portuguese traders who arrived in 1542. Fifteen years later, the Portuguese Jesuit priest and surgeon Luis De Almeida (1525-1583) founded the first Western hospital in Japan, for the care of lepers, syphilitics, and orphans. Because the hospital had a negative influence on the spread of Christianity, the Jesuits closed it in 1586. During the Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868), when Japan was secluded from the rest of the world, the only foreign physicians allowed to enter Japan were those employed by the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki. Only four of those physicians left behind seeds for the foundation of Western medicine in Japan, namely Caspar Schambergen, who founded a Japanese school of surgery in 1650; Engelbert Kämpfer, who visited Japan in 1691 to 1692; Carl Peter Thunberg, who botanically explored Japan in 1775 to 1776; and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold, who practiced medicine in Nagasaki in 1823 to 1829 and 1859 to 1861. On the whole, Western medicine and surgery never established a real foothold in Japan until the fall of the shogunate and the restoration of the emperor in 1868.

  14. Recent developments: Japan and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear industry in Japan and Australia are briefly reviewed. Topics discussed include: the world energy situation; and nuclear power generation trends and completion the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Recent events that suggest possible policy changes in Australia are briefly discussed

  15. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  16. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  17. Generic antibiotics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira

    2012-08-01

    Generic drugs have been used extensively in many developed countries, although their use in Japan has been limited. Generic drugs reduce drug expenses and thereby national medical expenditure. Because generic drugs provide advantages for both public administration and consumers, it is expected that they will be more widely used in the future. However, the diffusion rate of generic drugs in Japan is quite low compared with that of other developed countries. An investigation on generic drugs conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan revealed that 17.2 % of doctors and 37.2 % of patients had not used generic drugs. The major reasons for this low use rate included distrust of off-patent products and lower drug price margin compared with the brand name drug. The generic drugs available in the market include external drugs such as wet packs, antihypertensive agents, analgesics, anticancer drugs, and antibiotics. Among them, antibiotics are frequently used in cases of acute infectious diseases. When the treatment of these infections is delayed, the infection might be aggravated rapidly. The pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics (PK-PD) theory has been adopted in recent chemotherapy, and in many cases, the most appropriate dosage and administration of antibiotics are determined for individual patients considering renal function; high-dosage antibiotics are used preferably for a short duration. Therefore, a highly detailed antimicrobial agent is necessary. However, some of the generic antibiotics have less antibacterial potency or solubility than the brand name products. We showed that the potency of the generic products of vancomycin and teicoplanin is lower than that of the branded drugs by 14.6 % and 17.3 %, respectively. Furthermore, we confirmed that a generic meropenem drug for injection required about 82 s to solubilize in saline, whereas the brand product required only about 21 s. It was thought that the cause may be the difference in size of bulk

  18. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  19. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  20. Japan and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.S.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    In many areas, the word most often used to describe Japanese policy is open-quotes enigma.close quotes In some ways, Japan's record on environmental policy also has elements of mystery and contradiction. On the one hand, Japan's history and culture often are associated with a reverence for nature. Indeed, Japan does lead the world in certain environmental areas, such as reduction of conventional air pollutants and compensation of air pollution victims. On the other hand, Japan has been widely criticized for its poor record in preserving its domestic environment, contribution to tropical deforestation, and unwillingness to protect endangered species. Today, the international community clamors for Japan to take its share of responsibility, as an economic superpower, for the global environment. To secure its place in world affairs, Japan slowly has begun to respond to this pressure on issues ranging from ivory importation to reduction of CFC emissions. There is some hope that the government's particular willingness to address global warming may be a sign of significant changes to come in Japanese environmental policy. However, international pressure remains on the many environmental issues Japan has yet to resolve, including tropical deforestation and financing of Third World development projects that harm the environment. Japan's environmental policy is most effective when government and industry cooperate to find technical solutions to environmental problems. Although in recent years Japan's energy consumption has risen sharply, the Japanese have developed numerous technologies to reduce pollution and increase economic growth by improving energy efficiency. It is in these technologies that Japan has made the greatest strides and has the most to offer the global environment

  1. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  2. Will Japan Rearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    Faculty Accepte d th is _________ day of~~~U)~4 l977~c~y.11 -~~~~~~~~~~~~D i rector , Master of Militar y Art Science . The opinions and...j~ s’ri : ‘~~~~ ~ IC . _ __~~~~~~ i 1~~~~~n Unhi ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 150 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L~ MASTER OF MILITARY ART ... SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Joseph Bertrand Berger, Jr. Major, Air Defense Artillery T it le of Thes i s W i l l Japan Rearm

  3. Typhoon Chataan off Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Slowly winding its way down, Typhoon Chataan had dropped to tropical storm status by Thursday, July 11, 2002, when this image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was captured. In the image, the storm is located off the east coast of central Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The storm is much less organized than it was in the previous day's image. Through a gap in the clouds to the southwest of the storm's eye, Tokyo can be seen as a grayish cluster of pixels surrounding a small bay or inlet that protrudes into the island of Honshu. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory; data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  4. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  5. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  6. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  7. SCWR Concepts in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    Two SCWR concepts are being developed in Japan, one corresponding to the thermal spectrum reactor and the other to the fast spectrum reactor. Yamada et al. described the thermal-spectrum reactor concept referred to as the Japan SCWR (or JSCWR). This concept was developed under the financial support of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). The basic philosophy of the JSCWR development is to utilize proven light water reactor and supercritical fossil-fired power plant technologies as much as possible to minimize the R&D cost, time and risks. Therefore, the JSCWR is designed as a thermal neutron spectrum reactor using light water as moderator and reactor coolant. The JSCWR plant consists of a pressure-vessel type, once-through reactor and a direct Rankine cycle system. Reactor coolant fed through inlet nozzles is heated up in the core and flows through outlet nozzles with no recirculation in the vessel. Other options to the JSCWR core design are being investigated at the University of Tokyo. The electric output of the JSCWR is assumed to range from 600 MWe to 1700 MWe class to fulfill user’s requirements as much as possible. In this section, the reference value is selected to 1725 MWe, which corresponds to a reactor thermal output of 4039 MWth. Nakatsuka et al. described the core design for the fast-spectrum reactor, which is based on a similar plant system compared to that of the thermal-spectrum reactor. The fast-spectrum reactor, however, would produce higher power rating than the thermal-spectrum one of the same reactor pressure-vessel size. Since the fast-spectrum reactor does not require the moderator, its unit capital cost would be lower than the thermal-spectrum reactor.

  8. Proposal for a Northeast Asian Hydrogen Highway: From a Natural-gas-based to a Hydrogen-based Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuhiko O Hashi; Masaru Hirata; William C Leighty; D Eng

    2006-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, East Siberia and Sakhalin are rich in natural gas (NG). The environmental protection and energy security of the Northeast Asian region requires constructing an energy infrastructure network that can transport and distribute NG throughout the region in the near term, and renewable-source gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in the long term. We have promoted the construction of an NG pipeline network, the principal component of the energy infrastructure essential to our evolution toward a hydrogen-based society, through the Northeast Asia Natural Gas and Pipeline Forum (NAGPF). Our ultimate goal is a clean and sustainable society based on renewable energy sources, wherein hydrogen is produced from the vast potential of renewable energy in Siberia and China. The hydrogen thus produced would be transmitted through the pipeline network, progressively replacing NG as it is depleted. Over three-quarters of commercially exploitable hydroelectric power (hydro) resources of all Russia is in East Siberia. The areas from Kamchatka through the Kurilskiye Islands (called the Chishima Islands, in Japan) to Sakhalin is a world-class wind energy resource. West China has huge potential for solar energy. (authors)

  9. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  10. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  11. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  12. Size distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, sugars, WSOC, OC, EC and inorganic ions in atmospheric particles over Northern Japan: implication for long-range transport of Siberian biomass burning and East Asian polluted aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Agarwal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the size-segregated chemical composition of aged organic aerosols in the western North Pacific rim, day- and night-time aerosol samples were collected in Sapporo, Japan during summer 2005 using an Andersen impactor sampler with 5 size bins: Dp<1.1, 1.1–2.0, 2.0–3.3, 3.3–7.0, >7.0 μm. Samples were analyzed for the molecular composition of dicarboxylic acids, ketoacids, α-dicarbonyls, and sugars, together with water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC and inorganic ions. Based on the analyses of backward trajectories and chemical tracers, we found that during the campaign, air masses arrived from Siberia (a biomass burning source region on 8–9 August, from China (an anthropogenic source region on 9–10 August, and from the East China Sea/Sea of Japan (a mixed source receptor region on 10–11 August. Most of the diacids, ketoacids, dicarbonyls, levoglucosan, WSOC, and inorganic ions (i.e., SO42−, NH4+ and K+ were enriched in fine particles (PM1.1 whereas Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cl peaked in coarse sizes (>1.1 μm. Interestingly, OC, most sugar compounds and NO3 showed bimodal distributions in fine and coarse modes. In PM1.1, diacids in biomass burning-influenced aerosols transported from Siberia (mean: 252 ng m−3 were more abundant than those in the aerosols originating from China (209 ng m−3 and ocean (142 ng m−3, whereas SO42− concentrations were highest in the aerosols from China (mean: 3970 ng m−3 followed by marine- (2950 ng m−3 and biomass burning-influenced (1980 ng m−3 aerosols. Higher loadings of WSOC (2430 ng m−3 and OC (4360 ng m−3 were found in the fine mode, where biomass-burning products such as

  13. Zircon growth in a granitic pluton with specific mechanisms, crystallization temperatures and U-Pb ages. Implication to the 'spatiotemporal' formation process of the Toki granite, central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuguchi, Takashi; Ishibashi, Masayuki; Sasao, Eiji; Iwano, Hideki; Danhara, Tohru; Kato, Takenori; Sakata, Shuhei; Hattori, Kentaro; Hirata, Takafumi; Sueoka, Shigeru; Nishiyama, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Zircons collected from a granitic pluton provide evidence of serial growth events with specific mechanisms, crystallization temperatures and U-Pb ages, revealing details of the sequential formation process from intrusion through emplacement to crystallization/solidification. The events have been identified by: 1) the study of the internal structure of zircon using cathodoluminescence, 2) deriving crystallization temperatures using Ti-in-zircon thermometry of the internal structure and 3) U-Pb age dating of the internal structure. The magmatic zircons from the Toki granite, central Japan, show two kinds in their internal structure: a low luminescence core (LLC) and oscillatory zonation (OZ). The LLC was produced by interfacial reaction-controlled growth in the granitic magma with cooling from about 910 to 760°C. The formation of OZ occurred by diffusion-controlled growth in a cooling magma chamber from about 850 to 690°C. The U-Pb ages derived from the LLC ranges from 74.7 ± 4.2 to 70.5 ± 1.3 Ma, indicating the incipient intrusion timing of the magma into the shallow crust. The OZ ages distribute from 72.7 ± 0.6 to 70.4 ± 1.7 Ma, which mean the timing from emplacement to crystallization/solidification of the granite pluton. Thus, the serial processes from intrusion through emplacement to crystallization/solidification occurred within a few million years. The old LLC and OZ ages are recognized in the western margins of the Toki granite, implying that the magma forming the western margins was the first to intrude, emplace and crystallize/solidify. The western margins with initial intrusion may accompany the crustal assimilation in order to create sufficient magma reservoir space, which is consistent with larger SrI and ASI values found in the western margins of the granite. (author)

  14. The Cogema group in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The partnership between the Cogema group and Japan in the domain of fuel cycle started about 20 years ago and the 10 Japanese nuclear operators are all clients of the Cogema group. The 1997 turnover realized with Japan reached 3.6 billions of francs (11% of the total turnover of the group). This short paper presents briefly the nuclear program of Japan (nuclear park, spent fuels reprocessing-recycling strategy) and the contracts between Cogema and the Japanese nuclear operators (natural uranium, uranium conversion and enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing, plutonium recycle and MOX fuel production markets). (J.S.)

  15. Rare earth element and strontium isotopic study of seamount-type limestones in Mesozoic accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane, central Japan. Implication for incorporation process of seawater REE into limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Miura, Noriko; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Kawabe, Iwao

    2003-01-01

    Ishimaki and Tahara limestones occur as exotic blocks juxtaposed in the Mesozoic (Jurassic) accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane in eastern Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. They are supposed to be of the seamount-type limestone, since they have no terrigenous materials and are intimately associated with greenstones. REE (rare earth elements) and Sr isotopic studies for the limestones have been made in order to know their geochemical characteristics, ages and origins. Their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, when referred to the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve and relevant geological data, suggest that Ishimaki and Tahara limestones are the late Permian and the Carboniferous to the Early Permian, respectively. Two greenstone fragments found inside the Ishimaki limestone block and one greenstone sample associated with Tahara limestone block, resemble the Hawaiian alkali basalt in the their REE and Y patterns. This is supporting the idea that the limestone blocks may be parts of reef limestones on ancient volcanic seamounts. All the limestone samples, except three unusual Tahara ones, show seawater REE and Y signatures in their chondrite-normalized patterns. Their REE/Ca ratios, however, are 10 2 -10 4 times as high as those ratios of modern biogenic carbonates like corals and the seawater. Accordingly, seawater REE and Y were incorporated into the limestones, when originally biogenic carbonates transformed into inorganic calcite and its secondary growths occurred in diagenesis in contact with sufficient seawater. This view is favored by the reported REE partition experiment between calcite overgrowths and seawater solution. The seawater Ce anomaly as a function of water depth in the modern ocean is a key to infer the water depth of the REE and Y incorporation. The Ce anomalies given by log (Ce/Ce*) for about a half of Ishimaki samples and most of Tahara ones are between -0.5 and -0.2, which are compatible with the shallow water origin. Another half of Ishimaki samples

  16. Tectonic and metallogenic model for northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Berzin, Nikolai A.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Dril, Sergy I.; Gerel, Ochir; Goryachev, Nikolai A.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Kuz'min, Mikhail I.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Ratkin, Vladimir V.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Shpikerman, Vladimir I.; Timofeev, Vladimir F.; Tomurtogoo, Onongin; Yan, Hongquan; Nokleberg, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the digital files in this report that contains a tectonic and metallogenic model for Northeast Asia. The report also contains background materials. This tectonic and metallogenic model and other materials on this report are derived from (1) an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1765, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of Northeast Asia that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1765/; and (2) the Russian Far East parts of an extensive USGS Professional Paper, 1697, on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera that is available on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1697/. The major purpose of the tectonic and metallogenic model is to provide, in movie format, a colorful summary of the complex geology, tectonics, and metallogenesis of the region. To accomplish this goal four steps were taken: (1) 13 time-stage diagrams, from the late Neoproterozoic (850 Ma) through the present (0 Ma), were adapted, generalized, and transformed into color static time-stage diagrams; (2) the 13 time-stage diagrams were placed in a computer morphing program to produce the model; (3) the model was examined and each diagram was successively adapted to preceding and subsequent diagrams to match the size and surface expression of major geologic units; and (4) the final version of the model was produced in successive iterations of steps 2 and 3. The tectonic and metallogenic model and associated materials in this report are derived from a project on the major mineral deposits, metallogenesis, and tectonics of the Northeast Asia and from a preceding project on the metallogenesis and tectonics of the Russian Far East, Alaska, and the Canadian Cordillera. Both projects provide critical information on bedrock geology and geophysics, tectonics, major metalliferous mineral resources, metallogenic patterns, and crustal origin and evolution of mineralizing systems for this region. The major

  17. Approaches to regional security and arms control in North-East Asia: Tasks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    In order to pave the way towards regional security and arms control in North-East Asia, one of the outstanding issues left over from the cold war, that is, the question of a divided Korea-must be solved first. In settling the Korean problem, the importance of the bilateral negotiation between the parties in direct conflict can never be overemphasized. Over the past few years, fortunately, there has been an accumulation of developments that would have a positive effect on the improvement of inter-Korean relations and peaceful unification of the peninsula. In this sense, the first challenge for the two Koreas is to fulfil the pledges that they committed in the agreements. Concluding agreements is only a first step. They must be implemented fully both in letter and in spirit. Only upon the sincere and complete translation of the agreements into action can the two Koreas establish a solid peace system and move towards unification. This fulfilment will eventually contribute to security and stability in North-East Asia. To emphasize the importance of bilateral negotiation between the two Koreas is not necessarily to exclude the role of external Powers. The four major Powers in North-East Asia-China, Japan, Russia and the United States - could support the South-North dialogue, help ease tensions, facilitate discussion of common security concerns and possibly guarantee the outcomes negotiated between the two Koreas. By fostering bilateral negotiation between the parties to the conflict, they could contribute to enhancing security, confidence and disarmament in the region. At this moment, the most urgent task in the Korean peninsula relates to the problem of Pyongyang's nuclear weapons programme. To solve the nuclear problem, a significant progress on mutual reciprocal inspections must be made immediately in accordance with the wordings of the Declaration. Mutual inspection will test whether Pyongyang intends to go towards nuclear weapons, or away from them and towards

  18. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  19. PETROBRAS Northeast gas security of supply study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Heil, Luciana; Saker, Leonardo; Vieira, Flavia; Risi, Francisco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Joaquim; Alvarenga, Tobias; Mussel, Patricia [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the study developed jointly by PETROBRAS Gas and Power Department and Det Norske Veritas (Brazil and United Kingdom office). The study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the security of supply 2009 PETROBRAS Northeast gas network. This network provides gas to thermo plants, to vehicles and to industrial and residential consumers. The occurrence of contract shortfalls implies on heavy fines for the suppliers. To provide best in class analysis, state of the art software was used in order to count on powerful tools to model the gas supply system and to quantify the availability and the efficiency of the overall network and of its individual components. It also provides the prioritization of investment, based on cost benefit analysis, and as a by-product, contingency plans that were developed, considering the identified failure scenarios. (author)

  20. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  1. Security and disarmament in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Joo Han

    1995-01-01

    The new international environment embodies several characteristics: multi-polarisation of the international order, political reconciliation and cooperation between nation-states; the rising importance of economic relations; the wider dissemination of liberal democracy and market economy; and increasing interdependence and globalization. The Northeast Asian region is also undergoing transformation. Despite repeated assurances to the contrary USA's ability and willingness to maintain a significant military in the region is often called into question. The danger of arms proliferation in the region calls for arms control and eventual elimination. Related to this Korea strongly supports efforts to stop nuclear proliferation beyond 1995 through the extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and supports the strengthening of the IAEA safeguards as the primary device to ensure the effectiveness of the Treaty. At the same time Korea urges the nuclear-weapon states not only to accelerate their efforts to reduce their nuclear arsenal but to realise a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

  2. Whistleblowing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anne J; Konishi, Emiko

    2007-03-01

    This article, written from research data, focuses on the possible meaning of the data rather than on detailed statistical reporting. It defines whistleblowing as an act of the international nursing ethical ideal of advocacy, and places it in the larger context of professional responsibility. The experiences, actions, and ethical positions of 24 Japanese nurses regarding whistleblowing or reporting a colleague for wrongdoing provide the data. Of these respondents, similar in age, educational level and clinical experience, 10 had previously reported another nurse and 12 had reported a physician for a wrongful act. These data raise questions about overt actions to expose a colleague in a culture that values group loyalty and saving face. Additional research is needed for an in-depth understanding of whistleblowing, patient advocacy and professional responsibility across cultures, especially those that value group loyalty, saving face and similar concepts to the Japanese Ishin Denshin, where the value is on implicit understanding requiring indirect communication. Usually, being direct and openly discussing sensitive topics is not valued in Japan because such behavior disrupts the most fundamental value, harmony (wa).

  3. Outage planning in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedderman, John.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators in Japan are constrained to keep refuelling and maintenance outages to a minimum by the regulation limiting operating cycles to no longer than 13 months. Outage planning by two contrasting operators is described. Hokkaido Electric, which operates only one plant, Tomari, with two PWRs, plans to reduce outage time from the present 65 days in two stages. Detailed review of previous outage schedules has shown that a reduction to 59 days should be achievable by careful planning without any fundamental changes. The second reduction to 49 days will require such measures as relaxing water purity standards, rescheduling fuel unloading and loading shifts and speeding up eddy current testing of primary equipment by using steam generator nozzle dams. Kansai Electric, operating 11 PWRs at three plants, has scope for reducing outages at all of its units using a range of measures. Steam generator replacement in the seven oldest reactors, completed in July 1997, is by far the most significant of these and is expected to save 64 days repair time in a previous average outage time of 131 days. (UK)

  4. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  5. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, A.

    1994-01-01

    The energy situation in Japan is briefly outlined. Vulnerability in energy structure of the country is shown by a comparison of primary energy supply patterns of Japan and Western countries. Japan's energy policy consists in reducing dependence on oil, promoting efficient use of energy and increasing use of non-fossil fuels. Nuclear power is a core of alternative energy for petroleum because of stable supply of nuclear fuel, low detrimental emissions and less dependence on the fuel. A short historical review of nuclear power development in Japan is presented. Some future issues as development of entire nuclear fuel cycle, social acceptance, reactor safety and nuclear power economics are also discussed. 6 figs. (R.T.)

  6. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  7. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodushkin, Ilia; Engstroem, Emma; Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2007-01-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic 187 Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean 187 Os/ 188 Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) ≤ spruce needles ≤ mushrooms ≤ tree leaves ≤ pine needles 4 ) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO 4 concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only source of contemporary environmental contamination

  8. Stenichnus lackneri sp. n. of Japan (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2016-03-29

    Stenichnus Thomson, 1859 is a species-rich and common genus in the western Palaearctic, but only a few species are known from the Far East. Six species have been so far recorded from Japan (Sharp 1886; Jałoszyński 2004, 2006; Jałoszyński, Arai 2009). Interestingly, the Japanese species occur in the temperate or cool climate of Hokkaido in the north-east (Stenichnus minipollens Jałoszyński, 2004) and in subtropical forests of the south-western Yaeyama Archipelago (St. bellulus Jałoszyński, 2004 and St. totoro Jałoszyński, 2004), showing a broader range of ecological plasticity than their western Palaearctic congeners. Two more species are known to occur in the Japan mainland, i.e., St. pollens (Sharp, 1886) in Kyushu and St. sakurayamanus Jałoszyński & Arai, 2009 in the central part of Honshu, and one species, St. mitai Jałoszyński, 2006, was discovered on the small Nakanoshima Island of the Tokara Archipelago. Only the species that occur in the Yaeyama Islands are relatively common, all remaining species are known from holotypes only. Interestingly, St. pollens and St. minipollens, which occur on different islands separated by nearly 1500 km, share very similar aedeagi with a unique long ventral projection (Jałoszyński 2004).

  9. Japan Sports Arbitration Agency (JSAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina P. Rusakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes the activities of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency. Author considers the goals, objectives and procedure for dealing with disputes relating to the use of performance-enhancing drugs by athletes. Author study the regulation of Japan Sports Arbitration Agency, to resolve disputes relating to the use of doping, as well as the procedure for application and acceptance of its agency, the choice of arbitrators, counterclaim, protection of evidence.

  10. The photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, O.

    2005-07-01

    Today the Japan is the leader of the photovoltaic energy. The first reason of this success is an action of the government integrating subventions for the installation of photovoltaic systems and a support of the scientific research. To explain this success, the author presents the energy situation in Japan, details the national programs, the industrial sector (market, silicon needs, recycling, manufacturers, building industry) and presents the main actors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Japan's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni P. Olivei

    2002-01-01

    The goal of monetary policy as conducted by the Bank of Japan is to contribute to the sound development of the national economy through the pursuit of price stability. The objective of price stability, however, is not precisely defined as it has been for other central banks. Following the implementation of the new Bank of Japan Law in 1998, the monetary policy framework is characterized by central bank independence, the primacy of the price stability objective, instrument independence, and po...

  12. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  13. Modelling psychological responses to the Great East Japan earthquake and nuclear incident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Goodwin

    Full Text Available The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto earthquake of March 2011 was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11-13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants, Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants, and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants. Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan. The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events.

  14. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  15. 78 FR 76077 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Final Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector... allows fishing access for Northeast multispecies sectors to two portions of the Southern New England... of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional Office...

  16. Nuclear power in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations

  17. Nuclear power in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, J [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-07-01

    The Japanese movement against nuclear energy reached a climax in its upsurge in 1988 two years after the Chernobyl accident. At the outset of that year, this trend was triggered by the government acknowledgement that the Tokyo market was open to foods contaminated by the fallout from Chernobyl. Anti-nuclear activists played an agitating role and many housewives were persuaded to join them. Among many public opinion surveys conducted at that time by newspapers and broadcasting networks, I would like to give you some figures of results from the poll carried out by NHK: Sixty percent of respondents said that nuclear power 'should be promoted', either 'vigorously' 7 or 'carefully' 53%). Sixty-six percent doubted the 'safety of nuclear power', describing it as either 'very dangerous' 20%) or 'rather dangerous' (46%). Only 27% said it was 'safe'. In other words, those who acknowledged the need for nuclear power were almost equal in number with those who found it dangerous. What should these figures be taken to mean? I would take note of the fact that nearly two-thirds of valid responses were in favor of nuclear power even at the time when public opinion reacted most strongly to the impact of the Chernobyl accident. This apparently indicates that the majority of the Japanese people are of the opinion that they would 'promote nuclear power though it is dangerous' or that they would 'promote it, but with the understanding that it is dangerous'. But the anti-nuclear movement is continuing. It remains a headache for both the government and the electric utilities. But we can regard the anti-nuclear movement in Japan as not so serious as that faced by other industrial nations.

  18. Capturing Postseismic Processes of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan, Using Dense, Continuous GPS and Short-repeat Time ALOS-2 InSAR Data: Implications for the Shallow Slip Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliner, C. W. D.; Burgmann, R.; Wang, T.; Inbal, A.; Bekaert, D. P.; Liang, C.; Fielding, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Separating the contribution of shallow coseismic slip from rapidly decaying, postseismic afterslip in surface rupturing events has been difficult to resolve due to the typically sparse configuration of GPS networks and long-repeat time of InSAR acquisitions. Whether shallow fault motion along surface ruptures is a result of coseismic slip, or largely a product of rapid afterslip occurring within the first minutes to days, has significant implications for our understanding of the mechanics and frictional behavior of faulting in the shallow crust. To test this behavior in the case of a major surface rupturing event, we attempt to quantify the co- and postseismic slip of the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using a dense and continuous GPS network ( 10 km spacing), with short-repeat time, ALOS-2 InSAR data. Using the Network Inversion Filter method, we jointly invert the GPS and InSAR data to obtain a time history of afterslip in the first minutes to months following the mainshock. From our initial results, we find no clear evidence of significant shallow afterslip (i.e., no observable slip > 30 cm at depths of changes related to poroelastic processes, the majority of shallow fault slip was largely complete after rupture cessation. We also attempt to improve our coseismic slip model by implementing a method that inverts changes in seismicity rates for coseismic slip, helping constrain parts of the model space at depth where geodetic data loses resolving power. The use of geodetic data with the ability to resolve near-field, coseismic deformation and rapidly decaying postseismic processes will aid in our understanding of the frictional properties of shallow faulting, giving more reliable predictions for ground motion simulations and seismic hazard assessments.

  19. Performance evaluation of concrete railroad ties on the northeast corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Simpson Gumpertz & Heger Inc. conducted an investigation into the factors that caused widespread failure in prestressed concrete : railroad ties on the Northeast Corridor. The problem was apparent in ties manufactured and installed circa 19941998....

  20. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Ground Validation Points 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  1. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  2. Considerations about Santa Catalina Formation northeast of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keidel, J.

    1984-01-01

    A serial of land deposits placed in Santa Catharina south Brazil, and northeast of Uruguay. Most of them have been composed with a number of marine sediments, marshy region and swamp from upper paleozoic and low mesozoic.

  3. Granite-types in Northeast Brazil: current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Several granitoids in Northeast Brazil, located within the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro foldbelt (CSF), Pernambuco and Paraiba States, Brzil, were analysed, studying the geochemistry of rare earths and the behavior of oxygen isotopes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Deep Sea Coral National Observation Database, Northeast Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The national database of deep sea coral observations. Northeast version 1.0. * This database was developed by the NOAA NOS NCCOS CCMA Biogeography office as part of...

  5. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  6. 78 FR 64480 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC866 Fisheries of the Northeast Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of a determination of overfishing or an...

  7. Seismicity Characterization and Velocity Structure of Northeast Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackey, Kevin G; Fujita, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    A seismicity catalog and associated list of phases for many events has been compiled for northeast Russia using published and unpublished data from the regional networks operating in eastern Russia...

  8. 77 FR 63296 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC159 Fisheries of the Northeast Region AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of determination of overfishing and...

  9. Proceedings of 4. Meeting on Chemistry in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The works of IV Meeting on Chemistry in Northeast are presented, including topics about compounds determination by nuclear analytical techniques and the non-nuclear techniques and physical-chemistry studies of chemical compounds. (C.G.C.)

  10. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  11. Proceedings of the 3. Meeting on Chemistry in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The works of 3. Meeting on Chemistry in Northeast are presented, including topics about elements determination with nuclear techniques. The use of these techniques in soil and food studies are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. Japan`s civil use of foreign military plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Quantum Engineering and Systems Sciences

    1995-12-31

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public`s view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC`s new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author) 10 refs.

  13. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  14. Multilateral cooperation for power interconnection in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudinova Lyudmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered is experience of electric power integration in different parts of the world with emphasis on bilateral/multilateral interstate structures intended for promotion and development of interstate power grids. Analysed are Northeast Asian intergovernmental structures providing bilateral energy and power cooperation between Russia and other countries of the region. Multilateral cooperation in the field is just emerging, but should play a key role in promotion and development of Northeast Asian power grid.

  15. Radar Image, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The southeast part of the island of Hokkaido, Japan, is an area dominated by volcanoes and volcanic caldera. The active Usu Volcano is at the lower right edge of the circular Lake Toya-Ko and near the center of the image. The prominent cone above and to the left of the lake is Yotei Volcano with its summit crater. The city of Sapporo lies at the base of the mountains at the top of the image and the town of Yoichi -- the hometown of SRTM astronaut Mamoru Mohri -- is at the upper left edge. The bay of Uchiura-Wan takes up the lower center of the image. In this image, color represents elevation, from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest. The radar image has been overlaid to provide more details of the terrain. Due to a processing problem, an island in the center of this crater lake is missing and will be properly placed when further SRTM swaths are processed. The horizontal banding in this image is a processing artifact that will be removed when the navigation information collected by SRTM is fully calibrated. This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 100 by 150 kilometers (62

  16. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, W.; Otani, H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co. caused a nuclear hazard. Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami within the week the hazard was caused. As for the urgent safety measures of each licensee, it is clarified that effective measures have been appropriately implemented as a result of the inspection of the national government, the verification based on the guideline of the Japan Society of Maintenology and the stress test. (author)

  17. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  18. Solar radiation in the Brazilian northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru [Federal University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The significant increase in recent years of the number of rural electrification systems (some thousands of them do exist) using photovoltaic technology installed in the Northeast of Brazil (1,500,000 km{sup 2}, approximately 42 million people) used for illumination or water pumping, calls for an improvement on the design procedures in order to reduce the burden of capital costs per unit of generated power. Such objective can be accomplished as long as a better knowledge about the solar resource is achieved, considering how much these applications depend on it. The sources of information on solar radiation in Brazil are quite varied at both institutional and publication level. At institutional Meteorology (INMET), State Departments of Agriculture, research institute, universities and electric power generation and distribution utilities. Progress reports or scientific and technical journals are the main publishing vehicles where this information can be found. This way, data quality varies considerably, showing, spatial and temporal discontinuities, in addition to the fact that measurement instruments and physical units of registered data are not standardized. The Solarimetric Atlas of Brazil was recently published and it contains that information, which is grouped, evaluated, qualified, and presented in a standardized way. It is one of the best currently existing sources of information, and in certainly consists of almost the entirety of the existing information on the solar resource (data on solar radiation and sunshine hours) in Brazil. By using this database, simultaneous records of solar radiation (measured with pyranoghaps or pyranometers) and sunshine hours with heliographs were obtained in 35 different places in the Northeast region. Coefficients a and b were calculated for those different places using Angstrom's correlation. Using the geostatistical interpolation method known as kriging, the values of a and b were placed on contour maps, the coverage of

  19. Future of nuclear power in the Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailor, V.L.; Shore, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    As of July 1975, there were 15 operable nuclear power plants in the Northeast, representing approximately 11 percent of the regional electric generating capability. Construction plans for the next two decades show a strong preference for nuclear units, there being 18 new units under construction and 33 additional units announced. Three projections (scenarios) covering the period from 1976 to 2000 are presented. The Base Case Nuclear Scenario assumes that the construction schedules as of August 31, 1975 are implemented. A Nuclear Moratorium Scenario assumes that no new plants are undertaken after January 1, 1977. Finally, a Maximum Nuclear Growth Scenario postulates a concerted effort to add additional nuclear capacity beginning in 1982, but constrained by the ability of industry to expand the capabilities needed to supply the components and fuel. Appreciable differences in the three scenarios do not appear until about 1985, a consequence of the long lead time in making plans and completing construction. The cumulative incremental costs of the Nuclear Moratorium Scenario postulated in this study exceed $160 billion by the year 2000. Despite the present favorable economics and performance of the nuclear units, and despite the strong preference of the planners for nuclear capacity to meet future demands, there are many factors which cast doubt on whether these plans will be executed. Cost escalation, combined with difficulties in raising capital funds, have forced many units to be deferred or canceled

  20. Listening to the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhigang; Aiken, Chastity; Kilb, Debi; Shelly, David R.; Enescu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki, Japan, earthquake on 11 March 2011 is the largest earthquake to date in Japan’s modern history and is ranked as the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900. This earthquake occurred within the northeast Japan subduction zone (Figure 1), where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Okhotsk plate at rate of ∼8–9 cm/yr (DeMets et al. 2010). This type of extremely large earthquake within a subduction zone is generally termed a “megathrust” earthquake. Strong shaking from this magnitude 9 earthquake engulfed the entire Japanese Islands, reaching a maximum acceleration ∼3 times that of gravity (3 g). Two days prior to the main event, a foreshock sequence occurred, including one earthquake of magnitude 7.2. Following the main event, numerous aftershocks occurred around the main slip region; the largest of these was magnitude 7.9. The entire foreshocks-mainshock-aftershocks sequence was well recorded by thousands of sensitive seismometers and geodetic instruments across Japan, resulting in the best-recorded megathrust earthquake in history. This devastating earthquake resulted in significant damage and high death tolls caused primarily by the associated large tsunami. This tsunami reached heights of more than 30 m, and inundation propagated inland more than 5 km from the Pacific coast, which also caused a nuclear crisis that is still affecting people’s lives in certain regions of Japan.

  1. Aftereffects of Subduction-Zone Earthquakes: Potential Tsunami Hazards along the Japan Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Koji; Sugawara, Daisuke; Yamanoi, Tohru; Yamada, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake is a typical subduction-zone earthquake and is the 4th largest earthquake after the beginning of instrumental observation of earthquakes in the 19th century. In fact, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake displaced the northeast Japan island arc horizontally and vertically. The displacement largely changed the tectonic situation of the arc from compressive to tensile. The 9th century in Japan was a period of natural hazards caused by frequent large-scale earthquakes. The aseismic tsunamis that inflicted damage on the Japan Sea coast in the 11th century were related to the occurrence of massive earthquakes that represented the final stage of a period of high seismic activity. Anti-compressive tectonics triggered by the subduction-zone earthquakes induced gravitational instability, which resulted in the generation of tsunamis caused by slope failing at the arc-back-arc boundary. The crustal displacement after the 2011 earthquake infers an increased risk of unexpected local tsunami flooding in the Japan Sea coastal areas.

  2. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rénald Belley

    Full Text Available The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen, quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and

  3. The educational system in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid economic growth of Japan since World War II has resulted in Japan becoming a reference point for developing nations and the West. This remarkable growth results from a combination of factors, one of which has been unyielding attention to education in order to cultivate the human talent necessary to provide the productivity for economic growth. The Japanese education system emphasizes quality of instruction and rewards hard work. Some of the principles of the system are outlined together with a summary of the content of the curriculum, the quantity and quality of instruction, and the influence of culture and environment.

  4. Datafile: [nuclear power in] Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Japan is third after the USA and France in terms of the Western World's installed nuclear capacity, but it has by far the largest forward programme. Great effort is also being put into the fuel cycle and advanced reactors. There is close co-operation between the government, utilities and manufacturers, but Japan has not sought to export reactors. The government has responded to the growing public opposition to nuclear power with a massive increase in its budget for public relations. Details of the nuclear power programme are given. (author)

  5. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  6. Increased rates of large‐magnitude explosive eruptions in Japan in the late Neogene and Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Wallace, L. M.; Engwell, S. L.; Scourse, E. M.; Barnard, N. H.; Kandlbauer, J.; Brown, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tephra layers in marine sediment cores from scientific ocean drilling largely record high‐magnitude silicic explosive eruptions in the Japan arc for up to the last 20 million years. Analysis of the thickness variation with distance of 180 tephra layers from a global data set suggests that the majority of the visible tephra layers used in this study are the products of caldera‐forming eruptions with magnitude (M) > 6, considering their distances at the respective drilling sites to their likely volcanic sources. Frequency of visible tephra layers in cores indicates a marked increase in rates of large magnitude explosive eruptions at ∼8 Ma, 6–4 Ma, and further increase after ∼2 Ma. These changes are attributed to major changes in tectonic plate interactions. Lower rates of large magnitude explosive volcanism in the Miocene are related to a strike‐slip‐dominated boundary (and temporary cessation or deceleration of subduction) between the Philippine Sea Plate and southwest Japan, combined with the possibility that much of the arc in northern Japan was submerged beneath sea level partly due to previous tectonic extension of northern Honshu related to formation of the Sea of Japan. Changes in plate motions and subduction dynamics during the ∼8 Ma to present period led to (1) increased arc‐normal subduction in southwest Japan (and resumption of arc volcanism) and (2) shift from extension to compression of the upper plate in northeast Japan, leading to uplift, crustal thickening and favorable conditions for accumulation of the large volumes of silicic magma needed for explosive caldera‐forming eruptions. PMID:27656115

  7. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  8. Analysis of the Factor Endowments and Agricultural Trade for Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong Keun Eor

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production factors, productivity and trade structures of China, Japan and Korea were analyzed. Their agriculture has mutual complementarity arising from differences in factor endowments as well as mutual competitiveness caused by similarities in production structure. Although agriculture of the three countries can be characterized by small-scale farming in common, the capital/labor ratio and the labor/land ratios are much different by country. As a result, Japan and Korea have advantages in producing labor saving and capital intensive products while China has advantages in labor intensive and capital saving products. Since agricultural productivity of factors such as labor, land and capital showed huge differences by country, mutually beneficiary development might be possible through the agricultural cooperation in the Northeast Asian region. Agricultural products of China, Japan and Korea can be classified into two groups of mutually competitive and complementary products. Regional cooperation in agriculture can be vitalized by combining production of mutually competitive products at certain levels in each country with internalizing trade of mutually complementary products. Unfortunately, however, agricultural exports are more and more competitive as the export similarity indices are high and degree of export competition is increasing in the region. For the regional agriculture, sharing markets in the region through establishing complementary systems of utilizing production factors would be better than seeking monopolistic rent or market domination through unlimited competition with each other. Price competition based on the concept of comparative advantage assumes production specialization. However, such kind of competitive advantage is likely to disappear when relative factor prices change as the national economy grows. Consequently, agricultural markets in the region might be dominated by any competitor outside the region. China

  9. Cryostratigraphy, sedimentology, and the late Quaternary evolution of the Zackenberg River delta, northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Graham L.; Cable, Stefanie; Thiel, Christine; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Elberling, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' E) at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2) formed during relative sea-level (RSL) fall. We investigated the deposits using sedimentological and cryostratigraphic techniques together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. We identify four facies associations in sections (4 to 22 m in height) exposed along the modern Zackenberg River and coast. Facies associations relate to (I) overriding glaciers, (II) retreating glaciers and quiescent glaciomarine conditions, (III) delta progradation in a fjord valley, and (IV) fluvial activity and niveo-aeolian processes. Pore, layered, and suspended cryofacies are identified in two 20 m deep ice-bonded sediment cores. The cryofacies distribution, together with low overall ground-ice content, indicates that permafrost is predominately epigenetic in these deposits. Fourteen OSL ages constrain the deposition of the cored deposits to between approximately 13 and 11 ka, immediately following deglaciation. The timing of permafrost aggradation was closely related to delta progradation and began following the subaerial exposure of the delta plain (ca. 11 ka). Our results reveal information concerning the interplay between deglaciation, RSL change, sedimentation, permafrost aggradation, and the timing of these events. These findings have implications for the timing and mode of permafrost aggradation in other fjord valleys in northeast Greenland.

  10. Diversity of thermophilic archaeal isolates from hot springs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Naoto; Takashina, Tomonori

    2005-09-01

    In the light of the significance of extremophiles as model organisms to access possible extraterrestiral life, we provide a short review of the systematics of thermophilic Archaea, and introduce our exploratory research of novel thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan. Up to date, we have isolated 162 strains of the thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan by the enrichment method or the most probable number/PCR method, and the 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined to reveal their phylogenetic diversity. The sequence comparison illustrated that the isolates belonged to the orders Sulfolobales (117 isolates) , Thermoproteales (29 isolates), Desulfurococcales (8 isolates) and Thermoplasmatales (8 isolates), and there were six separate lineages representing new genera, and at least seven new species as predicted by the phylogenetic distance to known species. The collection of isolates not only included novel taxa but would give some implication for a necessity to reevaluate the current taxonomy of the thermophilic Archaea.

  11. LLRW storage: Perspectives from the Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    It is very difficult to predict development in the low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) scene for the coming decade because of the unsettled climate at present. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that storage will play an important role in the LLRW management equation. It is a vital and integral component of meeting the intent of the federal LLW Acts and all states and compacts, as well as individual generators, should be factoring it into their management strategies. The reason is that the mandated milestones are not going to be met. Very few states or compacts will comply with either the 1993 or 1996 deadlines. New York provides a good example of how a dedicated, conscientious and well-funded effort to locate a site for disposal facility was thwarted by public pressure, and progress in New York will be greatly delayed. Storage is an inevitable requirement. As will be shown, the technology for LLRW storage is not complicated. There are proven, safe and cost efficient methods available. However, they must be implemented with care and political, licensing and public interaction processes must be included. This all requires time. It is important that storage plans be developed early and in parallel with disposal plans and receive the same degree of intellectual effort and commitment. In this presentation the author describes some of the storage technologies that are being successfully used today. The paper discusses some of the alternative methods by which these technologies might be implemented and reviews the storage strategies that are being used by some of the states in the Northeast

  12. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km 2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137 Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238 U, 234 Th, and 226 Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R 2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238 U-seies and 232 Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226 Ra and 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  13. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  14. Mantle transition zone beneath northeast China from P-receiver function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    We used receiver functions to examine lateral topographical variations on the 410- and 660-km beneath northeast China and particularly the Kuril-Japan arc junctions. Compared to other receiver functions studies, our analysis was based on greater station coverage of higher density by combining all recent seismic arrays so far deployed in northeast China. Our image shows that the 410-km is featured by a ~10-20 km uplift extending in the NNE direction beneath some areas of the Quaternary basaltic rocks distributed at Abaga and at Wudalianchi. The Clapeyron slope of the olivine phase transiton at 410-km suggests that the uplift is compatible with a negative thermal anomaly. We also confirm a significant depression of the 660 from the Changbai volcanism in the north to Korea in the south along the NW-SE direction. The depression is also accompanied by an uplift of the 660 to the west. The shallow 660-km discontinuity is also particularly detected beneath the Kuril-Japan arc junctions, while it was not detected before. The thermal anomaly at 410 km depth is most likely a remnant of a detached mantle lithosphere that recently sank to depth, thus providing robust evidence for the source and evolution of these basalts. The depression of the 660-km discontinuity may support that the subducting Pacific slab bends sharply and becomes stagnant when it meets strong resistance at a depth of about 670 km. After accumulation to a great extent the stagnant slab finally penetrates into the lower mantle. Combined with the previous triplicated studies, the shallow 660-km may suggest that descending Pacific slab at its leading and junction edges might be accommodated by a tearing near a depth of 660 km. Acknowledgements. Two liner seismic arrays were deployed by the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration. The data of the permanent stations were provided by the Data Management Centre of China, National Seismic Network at the Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake

  15. JPRS Report, East Asia, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-02

    May 87) 17 Amada Technical Center 17 Punch-press Production in France, by Andreas Gandow 17 Study on Dynamics of Foreign Exchange Rates (Kenichi...468 20 ECONOMIC STUDY ON DYNAMICS OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATES Tokyo THE JAPAN TIMES in English 29 Jul 87 pp 7-9 (Article by Kenichi Ohmae] [Text

  16. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  17. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  18. Superconducting magnet development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, K.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration

  19. Radioactivity survey data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in Japan were determined in rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soils, total diet, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds. The results were shown in tables. (J.P.N.)

  20. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-06

    Sought ( Nobuaki Teraoka; PUROMETEUSU, Nov 87) 62 IPCR Molecular Laser Uranium Enrichment Method Discussed (GENSHIRYOKU IINKAI GEPPO, Nov 87... Kobayashi ) Investigation of Tokyo University character of winter (Professor Tatsuo thunder on Japan Kawamura, Sea side by new Assistant...PUROMETEUSU in Japanese Nov 87 pp 78-81 [Article by Nobuaki Teraoka, Technology Development Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency

  2. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  3. U.S. Forces Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 02:07:00 GMT Scuba Savior: 3d MLG Marine saves life in Okinawa Fri, 25 May 2018 by @USForcesJapan Facebook Facebook Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend, b... Followers, We hope you've brushed up on your USFJ knowledge over the weekend

  4. July 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  5. Japan's new basic energy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, John S.; Woodall, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, the Japanese cabinet adopted a new Basic Energy Plan (BEP). This was the third such plan that the government has approved since the passage of the Basic Act on Energy Policy in 2002, and it represents the most significant statement of Japanese energy policy in more than four years, since the publication of the New National Energy Strategy (NNES) in 2006. Perhaps more than its predecessors, moreover, the new plan establishes a number of ambitious targets as well as more detailed measures for achieving those targets. Among the targets are a doubling of Japan's 'energy independence ratio,' a doubling of the percentage of electricity generated by renewable sources and nuclear power, and a 30 percent reduction in energy-related CO 2 emissions, all by 2030. This paper explains the origins of the 2010 BEP and why it was adopted. It then describes the content of the plan and how it differs from the NNES. A third section analyzes the appropriateness of the new goals and targets contained in the BEP and their feasibility, finding that achievement of many of the targets was likely to be quite challenging even before the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. - Highlights: → Origins of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Content of Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Feasibility of achieving the targets in Japan's new Basic Energy Plan. → Impact of 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanese energy policy.

  6. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  7. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  8. Urban and spatial planning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Tominaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the urban and spatial planning inJapan. According to the national planning system of Japan, chapter 2, the planning system has 3 administrative levels and each territorial region has its own regulation. This paper introduces especially about planning and regulation system in city region in Japan.

  9. Japan: Sendai, first reactor to restart. Sendai restart: how does it work? Japan: restart will be 'progressive'. 2015: which role for nuclear energy in Japan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris; Jouette, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    A set of articles addresses the restart of nuclear plants in Japan. The first one presents the Sendai nuclear plant, evokes the commitment of the Japanese nuclear safety authority (the NRA) at each step of the restart process, the agreement of local populations, the loading of the nuclear fuel, a successful crisis exercise, and the benefits expected from this restart. The second article addresses the restart process with its administrative aspects, the implication of local authorities, its technical aspects, and investments made to improve nuclear safety. The third article proposes an interview of the nuclear expert of the French embassy in Tokyo. He outlines that the restart of nuclear plants will be progressive, comments how Sendai restart has been commented in the Japanese press, evokes how this restart is part of the Japanese Prime Minister's policy, evokes the role and challenges of nuclear energy in Japan for the years to come, and the role France may play. The last article discusses the role of nuclear energy in Japan in 2015: importance of the old 3E policy (Energy, Environment, Economy) which is put into question again by the Fukushima accident, creation of a new nuclear safety authority as a first step before restarting nuclear reactors

  10. Future oil supply to the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronheim, H.

    1976-06-01

    The Northeast consumed some 4.6 million bbls/day of petroleum products in 1972. Nearly 63 percent of that supply was of foreign origin, making the Northeast the single largest oil-importing region in the nation. The remainder of its supply originated mainly in states on the Gulf of Mexico. The phasing out of coal as a major utility boiler fuel and curtailment of natural gas sales to the Northeast have led to the rapid increase in the use of petroleum products. Nationwide oil production reached a peak of 11.3 million bbls/day in 1970 and has been declining yearly ever since. The Northeast in particular has led the movement to foreign imports because of its coastal location, its distance from domestic sources, the competitive pricing of foreign oils, and because of environmental considerations. Under various assumptions of total U.S. reserves of oil (discovered and undiscovered) coupled to alternate schedules of national resource development, projections of crude oil production were made for the years 1985 and 2000. The projections indicate that even under optimistic conditions crude oil production will be declining in the post-1985 period, if not earlier. The scenarios consistently indicate that the Northeast's regional share will be heavily constrained by 1985, and rapidly declining thereafter. On the other hand, production of oil worldwide will concentrate further in the hands of the Arab OPEC nations who are likely to exercise growing control over pricing and the international supply of crude oil.

  11. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5 o C, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  12. Alignment of E-Business with SMEs’ strategies in Northeast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Pedraza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The alignment of e-business with business strategy is a theme that has gained interest among managers and researchers in the area. In this sense, the objectives of the present study are: (i to identify the existing perspective of the strategic alignment in the SMEs; (ii to find out the perception that the SMEs’ managers have about the criteria that determine the maturity level of the e-business alignment with the business strategy; and (iii to identify the existing relationship between the perspective of the e-business alignment with the criteria that promotes its alignment with the business strategy.  This study adopted the models developed by Henderson and Venkatraman (1993, 1999, Luftman (2000 and Sledgianoswki et al. (2006. Methodologically, a 52 item questionnaire was administered to a sample of 82 managers of enterprises located in the northeast of Mexico. The results present relevant implications for the strategic management of private organizations.

  13. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  14. Urgent Safety Measures in Japan after Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniura, Wataru; Otani, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Due to tsunami triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the operating and refueling reactor facilities at Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni Nuclear Power Plants caused a nuclear hazard. Given the fact, Japanese electric power companies voluntarily began to compile various urgent measures against tsunami. And then the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) ordered the licensees to put into practice the voluntarily compiled urgent safety measures, in order to ensure the effectiveness of the means for recovering cooling functions along with avoiding the release of radioactive substances to the possible minimum, even if a huge tsunami following a severe earthquake hits nuclear power plants. The following describes the state and the effect of the urgent safety measures implemented for 44 reactors (under operation) and 1 reactor (under construction) in Japan and also describes the measures to be implemented by the licensees of reactor operation in the future.

  15. Family Life and Family Policy in Sweden: Implications for JapanS (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Hayashi

    2005-01-01

    By conducting a survey of Swedish families and analyzing the data, this paper identifies factors that support the coexistence of high female labor participation and total fertility rate: child-care leave for more than one year, working part-time after leave, child-care service at lower cost and better child benefits. Due to leave, 25 percent of the female labor force age 25-34 are actually absent from the workplace. The survey also finds that more than 90 percent of Swedish legally married co...

  16. Ocean impact on Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers around Greenland. The largest of three outlet glaciers draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier (also referred to as 79 North Glacier). Historic observations showed that warm waters of Atlantic origin are present in the subglacial cavity below the 80 km long floating ice tongue of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier and cause strong basal melt at the grounding line, but to date it has been unknown how those warm water enter the cavity. In order to understand how Atlantic origin waters carry heat into the subglacial cavity beneath Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, we performed bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations in the vicinity of the main glacier calving front aboard RV Polarstern in summer 2016. The bathymetric multibeam data shows a 500 m deep and 2 km narrow passage downstream of a 310 m deep sill. This turned out to be the only location deep enough for an exchange of Atlantic waters between the glacier cavity and the continental shelf. Hydrographic and velocity measurements revealed a density driven plume in the vicinity of the glacier calving front causing a rapid flow of waters of Atlantic origin warmer 1°C into the subglacial cavity through the 500 m deep passage. In addition, glacially modified waters flow out of the glacier cavity below the 80 m deep ice base. In the vicinity of the glacier, the glacially modified waters form a distinct mixed layer situated above the Atlantic waters and below the ambient Polar water. At greater distances from the glacier this layer is eroded by lateral mixing with ambient water. Based on our observations we will present an estimate of the ocean heat transport into the subglacial cavity. In comparison with historic observations we find an increase in Atlantic water temperatures throughout the last 20 years. The resulting

  17. A utility perspective on the proposed Northeast interstate compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposed Northeast Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste appears to be stalled in its present form. The Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 encourages states to enter into regional waste compacts where practicable. The Northeast Region, which includes eleven states made up of the six New England states plus New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, is the largest proposed compact region from the standpoint of low-level radioactive waste volumes. There is also wide variation in volumes among the states. Four states in the region have ratified the Northeast Compact, but the remaining seven states, including the three largest generating states, have not ratified to date. The large states are pivotal in determining whether the compact will move forward. The prime concerns of these large volume generating states appear to be host state selection and responsibility issues, as well as some of the proposed powers and authority of the Regional Commission

  18. Japan’s Defense Policy: Forecast and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-21

    development of a warrior upper class, the Heian era, from 794 until 1185, was a remarkable age known for peaceful pursuit in the arts and for the absence of...for an increasing regional and world role. In the 1960’s, nationalism had become fashionable because it was not linked to prewar militarists or the

  19. Systematics of Phyllocnistis leaf-mining moths (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae feeding on dogwood (Cornus spp. in Northeast Asia, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kirichenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During an ongoing DNA-barcoding campaign of the leaf-mining moths that feed on woody plants in Northeast Asia, four lineages of the genus Phyllocnistis (Gracillariidae, Phyllocnistinae were discovered on dogwood (Cornus spp: P. cornella Ermolaev, 1987 on C. controversa Hemsl. (Japan: Hokkaido and three new species – one feeding on C. controversa, C. florida L. and C. macrophylla Wall. in Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, a second species on C. macrophylla in China (Yunnan and a third on Siberian dogwood Cornus alba L. in Russia (Siberia. All these species showed differences in morphology, in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene and in two nuclear genes (histone H3 and 28S ribosomal RNA. No correlation was found between the deep mitochondrial splits observed and the Wolbachia infection pattern. Based on both morphological and molecular evidence, the three recently discovered lineages are described here as new species: P. indistincta Kobayashi & Triberti, sp. n. (Japan, P. saepta Kirichenko, Ohshima & Huang, sp. n. (China and P. verae Kirichenko, Triberti & Lopez-Vaamonde, sp. n. (Russia. In addition, the authors re-describe the adult morphology of P. cornella, provide the first record of this species from Japan and highlight the diagnostic characters that allow these Cornus-feeding Phyllocnistis species to be distinguished.

  20. Getting 'Lean': hardwiring process excellence into Northeast Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tricia; Duthe, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare organizations are turning to the "Lean" Toyota Production System as a means to hardwire process excellence into their organizations. Northeast Health, an integrated delivery system in New York's capital region, introduced the Lean concept into its culture in 2004. After four years, the organization is beginning to see its staff hardwire Lean thinking into day-to-day behaviors. This paper focuses on the approach used by Northeast Health to introduce Lean concepts into its culture, challenges faced, lessons learned and the factors critical to success.

  1. Northeast China while Implementing the Economic Recovery Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izotov D. A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of China’s official statistics, intermediate results of the realization of the Northeast China’s Economic Recovery Plan are summarized, and the efficiency of measures taken in 2003-2007 is evaluated. It is shown that the large-scale reforms going on in Northeast China will inevitably affect its trade-economic relations with the neighboring constituent entities of the Russian Federation and will considerably determine external conditions of development of their economy in the foreseeable future

  2. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  3. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rignot, E.J.; Gogineni, S.P.; Krabill, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...... front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise....

  4. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  5. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation Subcommittee and...) Northeast California Resource Advisory Council's sage grouse conservation subcommittee and the full Resource... conservation of sage grouse habitat. On November 12, the subcommittee will develop a recommendation for...

  6. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  7. 77 FR 57010 - Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... proposed rulemaking to modify RNAV route Q-62 in Northeast United States by extending it further west (77...

  8. 75 FR 5704 - Proposed Modification of Jet Routes J-37 and J-55; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Jet Routes J-37 and J-55 in the Northeast United...

  9. 76 FR 57902 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule.../DME 040[deg] radial northeast of Kennedy VOR/DME. V-16 then turns east bound, bypassing the Deer Park...

  10. 78 FR 37150 - Sweet Onions Grown in the Walla Walla Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Valley of Southeast Washington and Northeast Oregon; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural... northeast Oregon, to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling...

  11. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  12. Japan og Singapore i Arktis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Watters, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the Nordic region of Asia’s increased interest in the Arctic region and Arctic affairs, including in relation to Greenland. However, with the possible exception of China, there has been little Western scholarly work to analyze exactly why Asian countries...... are interested in the Arctic. Looking at the Arctic engagement of Japan and Singapore, this paper finds that their interest in the Polar Regions is not necessarily a new phenomenon and that Arctic policy, as with the development of other foreign policy objectives, is a complex mix of national, bureaucratic...... and group interests. For Greenlandic and Danish policymakers, it may be useful to understand the genesis of Japan and Singapore’s Arctic policies and that their interest is complex and multi-faceted....

  13. Another Neolithic in Holocene Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nishida

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese Islands, small sedentary villages sustained by hunting, gathering, fish- ing and cultivation emerged around 10 000 years ago. This life style of the Jomon people continued for around 7000 years without any drastic changes in material culture, subsistence strategy and vil- lage size until the diffusion of continental civilization into Japan approximately 2500 years ago. This indicates that the incipient sedentary society of the Jomon Period was very stable, a state which is not indicative of civilized society after that time. After the prehistoric situation in Japan, we are able to classify sedentary society into two phases; sedentism with stability and sedentism with instability (civilized society. Therefore it is possible to say that the emergence of sedentism and cultivation are not direct factors which promote the emergence of civilization.

  14. WDC Activities in Japan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Watanabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews the activities of the International Council for Science (ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs in Japan at a time of great change in the data and information structures of the ICSU ? the creation of the World Data System (WDS in 2009. Seven WDCs are currently operating in Japan: the WDC for Airglow, the WDC for Cosmic Rays, the WDC for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, the WDC for Ionosphere, the WDC for Solar Radio Emission, and the WDC for Space Science Satellites. Although these WDCs are highly active, along-term support system must be established to ensure the stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community.

  15. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  16. The japan a nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumin, D.; Joubert, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This work analyzes the Japan nuclear policy, in the frame of its foreign and safety policy in Pacific Asia, since the end of the cold war, especially the relations with the Usa and China. The Japan is a civil power because it has submitted the military institution to juridical restrictions and because it does not rely on the armed force to promote its national interests. The anti nuclear speech is joined with the acknowledgement of the dissuasion necessity, of the control of industrial processes and energy channels susceptible of military applications. Cultivating the ambiguity, the Japanese government can send a dissuasive message, perfectly legible, kind of communication of latent intimidation constituted by the virtual nuclear power of a state that takes part to the non proliferation treaty. (N.C.)

  17. Use of radioisotopes in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldiak, G.

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the following general data on the use of radioisotopes in Japan is given (from the material of the 11th Japan Conference on Radioisotopes): 1. number of the organizations using radioactive isotopes, grouped according to special working fields and instruments; 2. amount of the unsealed sources (Ci) used in the different special working fields in 1971, 4. amount of the sealed sources (Ci) used between 1966 and 1971. 5. number of the institutions using sealed sources, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 6. number of the accelerators applied, grouped according to special working fields (March, 1972), 7. number of the nuclear instruments in the education and research institutes (March, 1972), 8. amount of the collected radioactive waste material between 1960 and 1971 (number of containers). (K.A.)

  18. Key Drivers for Cooperation toward Sustainable Development and the Management of CO2 Emissions: Comparative Analysis of Six Northeast Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Chapman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the key drivers of the relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions in six Northeast Asian countries (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and Russia from 1991 to 2015. We apply a decomposition analysis approach using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index to identify the main contributing factors toward CO2 emission changes. To discuss the decomposition results in more in detail, we explain the energy portfolio change in each country to understand the energy and resource utilization strategy. From the results, we find that the key driving factors of CO2 emissions change and energy portfolio trends are different among Northeast Asian countries, driven by economic growth in China and Korea, reduced by energy efficiency improvements in Russia and the DPRK, while being relatively benign in Japan and Mongolia due to a combination of these factors. This result implies that we can better understand the regional cooperation policy for improving each driving factor to achieve sustainable development and management of CO2 emissions considering the characteristics of each country.

  19. Japan's Trade Policy with Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Shujiro Urata

    2014-01-01

    Japan's economic relations with Asian countries have rapidly become increasingly close in recent years, mainly through trade and direct investment. In Asia, Japanese companies have pursued a gfragmentation strategy, h which refers to breaking down production processes and assigning each process, through direct investment, to the country or region suited to implement it most efficiently. As a result, when a certain product is manufactured, its intermediate materials and parts are actively trad...

  20. Supply of radiopharmaceuticals in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Tsuguo

    2006-01-01

    Detailed statistics of the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine in Japan are summarized. They are the amount of supply in terms of monetary value and radioactivity, categorized usages of in vivo and in vitro, number of facilities using the radiopharmaceuticals for the time span of 5 years (1998-2002). Obvious tendency of decrease for in vitro use can be seen while the total amount of radiopharmaceuticals is almost unchanged. (author)

  1. Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is the next accelerator project proposed at KEK to promote exciting sciences by utilising high-intensity proton beams. The project is characterised by three unique features: hadronic beams of the world's highest intensity; a variety of beams from one accelerator complex; frontier sciences to cover a broad research area including nuclear physics, particle physics, material sciences and life sciences by utilising a common accelerator complex. (author)

  2. Reactor construction programme in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

  3. Romanticising Shinsengumi in Contemporary Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Shinsengumi, a group of young men recruited by the Bakufu to protect Kyoto from radical Imperial House loyalists in the tumultuous Bakumatsu period, is romanticised and idolised in Japan despite its limited place in history. This article attempts to comprehend this phenomenon by locating the closest crystallisation of popularly imagined Shinsengumi in Moeyo ken, a popular historical fiction by Shiba Ryōtarō. Antonio Gramsci explains readers are attracted to popular literature because it refle...

  4. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-17

    Stock of Bacillus Subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a relative of bacillus natto that has been in use in Japan from the ancient times. It is safe and...addition to the advantages of this combination of personal styles, the two had great confidence in each other. Chairman Kaneo is the so-called "fair...sixth year of his presidency. That has been just the right age for a president, and given these advantages Sunagane has a good chance of becoming

  5. Potato irradiation technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    After the National research program on potato irradiation, the public consumption of potatoes irradiated to a maximum of 15 krad was authorized by the Ministry of Welfare. Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association, one of the largest potato producers in Japan with an annual production of 200,000 tons, intended an application of the irradiation to their potato storage system. This paper describes the technological background of the potato irradiation facility and operational experience. (author)

  6. Japan: 45 Years of INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    I would like to congratulate INIS on its 45th anniversary. Japan is a founding member of this international cooperation program, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (formerly, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute — JAERI) was appointed as the national center of INIS by the Japanese government. We have contributed to the collection, classification, indexing, abstracting and submission of nuclear literature published in our country, as well as promoted the INIS database within our country. I have been engaged in INIS activities for many years and have a lot of experience with INIS. On the occasion of INIS’ 45th anniversary, I would like to look back on this experience. I started my career at JAERI in 1984. The first regional training seminar for the Far East was held in Tokyo in October 1984. I was assigned to the Library Division of JAERI, but I worked as support staff for the regional training seminar. During the seminar, I had an opportunity to attend the technical tour with the seminar participants to the University of Library and Information Science, research laboratories, etc., in Tsukuba Science City. This was my first involvement with INIS. It was a very impressive and interesting experience

  7. Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ishitoya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a heterogeneous disease. In Europe and the United States, it has recently been divided into two subgroups: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP. The majority of CRSwNP cases have a strong tendency to recur after surgery and show eosinophil-dominant inflammation. However, this definition has proved difficult to apply in Japan and East Asia, because more than half of the CRSwNP cases do not exhibit eosinophil-dominant inflammation in these areas of the world. In Japan in the 1990s, refractory CRSwNP to the standard treatment was focused on in clinical studies and the term ''eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis'' (ECRS was introduced to identify this subgroup of chronic rhinosinusitis in 2001.ECRS is different from non-ECRS in terms of many clinical features: symptom appearance, occurrence site of nasal polyps, CT scan findings, the histology of nasal polyps, blood examination findings, clinical course after surgery, and co-morbid asthma, etc. In this review, we describe these clinical features and mention how to make a clinical diagnosis of ECRS as well as how to treat it. Finally, we discuss the pathophysiology of ECRS. The concept of ECRS in Japan would be applicable for CRSwNP in other countries including Europe and the United States. KEY WORDS: chronic rhinosinusitis, clinical feature, diagnosis, eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophils

  8. Varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papori Borah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disorder, characterized by stenosis or occlusion of bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs, anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, accompanied by a collateral network of vessels formed at the base of the brain. Ischemia and intracranial hemorrhage are the common typical manifestations. However moyamoya disease has been associated with atypical presentations like headache, seizures and involuntary movements. Although frequently reported from Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea, only few studies reported on clinical manifestations of moyamoya disease from India. Objectives: To study the varied presentations of moyamoya disease in a tertiary care hospital of north-east India. Material and Methods: Relevant investigations were done to rule out other causes of moyamoya syndrome. Results: We report 6 cases of moyamoya disease with varied presentations from a tertiary care referral government hospital. Case 1, 2 and 6 presented with alternating hemiparesis. Case 3 had amaurosis fugax. Case 4 had history suggestive of ischemic stroke and presented with hemichorea. Case 4 had focal seizure as the only manifestation. Cases 4 and 5 notably had stenosis of posterior cerebral artery (PCA in addition to stenosis of bilateral ICAs, ACAs and MCAs. Conclusion: Owing to its low incidence in India, moyamoya disease is easily overlooked as a possible diagnosis. However, because of its progressive nature, it is imperative to diagnose this disease early and offer surgical treatment to the patients.

  9. Recent Transport History of Fukushima Radioactivity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John N; Rossi, Vincent; Buesseler, Ken O; Cullen, Jay T; Cornett, Jack; Nelson, Richard; Macdonald, Alison M; Robert, Marie; Kellogg, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    The large inventory of radioactivity released during the March, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident in Japan spread rapidly across the North Pacific Ocean and was first observed at the westernmost station on Line P, an oceanographic sampling line extending 1500 km westward of British Columbia (BC), Canada in June 2012. Here, time series measurements of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in seawater on Line P and on the CLIVAR-P16N 152°W line reveal the recent transport history of the Fukushima radioactivity tracer plume through the northeast Pacific Ocean. During 2013 and 2014 the Fukushima plume spread onto the Canadian continental shelf and by 2015 and early 2016 it reached 137 Cs values of 6-8 Bq/m 3 in surface water along Line P. Ocean circulation model simulations that are consistent with the time series measurements of Fukushima 137 Cs indicate that the 2015-2016 results represent maximum tracer levels on Line P and that they will begin to decline in 2017-2018. The current elevated Fukushima 137 Cs levels in seawater in the eastern North Pacific are equivalent to fallout background levels of 137 Cs that prevailed during the 1970s and do not represent a radiological threat to human health or the environment.

  10. 40 CFR 81.256 - Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.256 Section 81.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.256 Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Iowa...

  11. 78 FR 53239 - Establishment, Modification and Cancellation of Air Traffic Service (ATS) Routes; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Traffic Service (ATS) Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... northeast United States. This action is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Lake Henry, PA, VHF... navigation (RNAV) routes; and cancel two VOR Federal airways in the northeast United States (78 FR 38236...

  12. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeast...

  13. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  14. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  15. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  16. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  17. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  18. 76 FR 10852 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2011 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts, and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: As part of the process for the NMFS Northeast Regional Administrator approval of proposed sector...

  19. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... northeast corridor between the Washington, DC and New York City metropolitan areas. The FAA is proposing... northeast corridor between the New York City and Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The routes would serve...

  20. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  1. 75 FR 18113 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2010 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts, and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... approval on a parallel track with Amendment 16 to the Northeast (NE) Multispecies Fishery Management Plan...

  2. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  3. 75 FR 62460 - Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Northeast Alaska, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...-0445; Airspace Docket No. 10-AAL-13] Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Northeast Alaska... removes redundant Class E airspace in Northeast Alaska and establishes Class E airspace near Eagle, Alaska... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register to remove some Class E airspace in Northeast Alaska and...

  4. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  5. 77 FR 67792 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... offered in the Northeast region. Exemption programs may allow a vessel to fish in an area that is limited.... Vessels are also required to request gillnet and lobster tags through the Northeast region permit office...

  6. Quantitative Survey of Laypersons' Attitudes Toward Organ Transplantation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, T; Hsu, E; Aizawa, K; Nakada, H; Toya, W; Matsui, K

    In comparison with foreign countries, living-organ transplantations (LOT) have been performed more frequently than dead organ transplants, including brain-dead organ transplantation (BOT) in Japan. This situation has given rise to organ transplantation tourism. Therefore, we clarify laypersons' preferences regarding organ transplantation that are producing the current situation in Japan, to suggest a possible framework for further efforts. Voluntary completion of a quantitative and anonymous survey was promoted online (a sample size of 1030). The questionnaire had two types of variables concerning demographic characteristics and organ transplantation-related issues. LOT was favored over BOT. However, for willingness to donate to family members, the participants showed a significantly more positive attitude toward brain-dead organ donors (BODs) than living organ donors (LODs). In the evaluation of each transplantation technology, BOT and LOT were positioned in the middle, between transplantation that does not depend on others and the utilization of animal organs. Although LOT was favored over BOT, for participants hypothesized to be in a position to donate and receive organs, BODs received a conversely better reputation than LODs. Our survey and discussion suggest that the present conditions of organ transplantation in Japan might be because there is a lack of deliberation on transplantation tourism and LOT. Therefore, more surveys concerning LOT cases and the implications of avoidance of organs from brain-dead bodies, coupled with more discussions based on these surveys, are necessary to formulate a Japanese transplantation policy for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Shiatsu in Britain and Japan: Personhood, holism and embodied aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Glyn

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, globalisation processes are examined through the prism of shiatsu, an originally Japanese, touch-based therapy, now practised in Europe, Japan, North America, and many other places. Examining this emergent plane of therapeutic practice provides an opportunity to reflect on categories of personhood, notably that of the individual, and its place within processes of globalisation. The article is divided into two parts. In the first part the holisms inherent to East Asian medical practice and underlying notions of personhood in Japan and Britain are critically examined. The seemingly reductionistic practice of 'bodily holism' in Japan is shown to reflect socio-centred notions of the person. The concept of holism animating shiatsu in a British school in London, far from being Japanese, 'ancient', or 'timeless', is shown to reflect individualism characteristic of the New Age movement. In the second part of the paper, using an auto-phenomenological approach, a description of practitioner (my own) and client's lived experience of shiatsu is given in case study form. This illustrates how 'holism' is felt within the context of a shiatsu treatment. The aesthetic form of the shiatsu touch described is shown to be implicitly individualising. This has, it is argued, profound implications for understanding the embodied dimensions of practitioner-patient encounters, the potential efficacy of treatment, and more generally the practice of globalised East Asian 'holistic' therapies in Britain and other settings.

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yoshinaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system.

  9. Geographical structures and the cholera epidemic in modern Japan: Fukushima prefecture in 1882 and 1895

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukui Hiromichi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease diffusion patterns can provide clues for understanding geographical change. Fukushima, a rural prefecture in northeast Japan, was chosen for a case study of the late nineteenth century cholera epidemic that occurred in that country. Two volumes of Cholera Ryu-ko Kiji (Cholera Epidemic Report, published by the prefectural government in 1882 and 1895, provide valuable records for analyzing and modelling diffusion. Text descriptions and numerical evidence culled from the reports were incorporated into a temporal-spatial study framework using geographic information system (GIS and geo-statistical techniques. Results Changes in diffusion patterns between 1882 and 1895 reflect improvements in the Fukushima transportation system and growth in social-economic networks. The data reveal different diffusion systems in separate regions in which residents of Fukushima and neighboring prefectures interacted. Our model also shows that an area in the prefecture's northern interior was dominated by a mix of diffusion processes (contagious and hierarchical, that the southern coastal region was affected by a contagious process, and that other infected areas experienced relocation diffusion. Conclusion In addition to enhancing our understanding of epidemics, the spatial-temporal patterns of cholera diffusion offer opportunities for studying regional change in modern Japan. By highlighting the dynamics of regional reorganization, our findings can be used to better understand the formation of an urban hierarchy in late nineteenth century Japan.

  10. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Anthropogenic signatures of lead in the Northeast Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiecka, D.; Gledhill, M.; Milne, A.; Achterberg, E.P.; Annett, A.L.; Atkinson, S.; Birchill, A.; Karstensen, J.; Lohan, M.; Mariez, C.; Middag, R.; Rolison, J.M.; Tanhua, T.; Ussher, S.; Connelly, D.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in enhanced lead (Pb) emissions to the environment over the past century, mainly through the combustion of leaded gasoline. Here we present the first combined dissolved (DPb), labile (LpPb), and particulate (PPb) Pb data set from the Northeast Atlantic (Celtic

  12. The Critical Role of Teacher Incentives in the Northeast States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, David

    This paper discusses a variety of incentives that can make a difference in attracting and retaining high quality teachers. These incentives include salaries, retirement benefits, working conditions, quality of life, tenure and seniority rights, and sick leave. The states in the Northeast vary considerably in their ability to attract quality…

  13. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MINERAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST MINNESOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Wilbur R.

    1980-01-01

    The economic effects of mineral resource development addressed in this paper are the changes in employment, population and income in the State of Minnesota and in Northeast Minnesota. These include the present mining, processing and shipping of natural ores and taconite pellets and the potential copper-nickel development.

  14. 75 FR 28564 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region; Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This action serves as a notice that NMFS, on behalf of the... to overfishing and are in an overfished condition. Also, in the Northeast Region, Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic windowpane is subject to overfishing and Georges Bank winter flounder is in an...

  15. Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, FHG; Lanjouw, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper combines two complementary data sets to present a disaggregated spatial profile of poverty in the Brazilian Northeast, and to investigate the importance of nonagricultural activities for its rural dwellers. We present both univariate and multivariate profiles of nonagricultural employment

  16. Time series analysis of monthly pulpwood use in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones

    1980-01-01

    Time series analysis was used to develop a model that depicts pulpwood use in the Northeast. The model is useful in forecasting future pulpwood requirements (short term) or monitoring pulpwood-use activity in relation to past use patterns. The model predicted a downturn in use during 1980.

  17. H2USA: Siting Refueling Stations in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarett [Consultant; Ellis, Steve [Honda

    2017-11-01

    To achieve cost-effective deployment of both fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hydrogen stations, the number of vehicles and public stations must grow together in areas of highest demand. This fact sheet introduces two advanced modeling tools and presents preliminary analysis of the hydrogen refueling station locations needed to support early consumer demand for FCEVs in the Northeast United States. United States.

  18. Assessing changes in the importance of tourism in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommy L. Brown

    1980-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that tourism is a vital component of the economy of counties and states in the Northeast, as well as in other regions of the US. Nearly all states claim tourism as one of their three largest industries. Yet data which accurately measure tourism and its economic impacts are woefully lacking.

  19. 12. Meeting of the North and Northeast physicists. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These proceedings present a general overview of different branches of physics developed in the North and Northeast of Brazil. The papers cover a rather broad list of topics ranging from teaching at high school to research carried out universities. The emphasis was on experimental and theoretical aspects of condensed matter and nuclear physics

  20. Quality control in radiotherapy: an assessment in the Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Melo, R.T.; Figueiredo, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of Fricke Xylenol Gel dosimeter (FXG) in Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, and an study with this type of dosimeter in some hospitals of the Brazilian Northeast. It is demonstrated the applicability of the dosimeter for X-ray equipment and the values of the doses show the reality of the doses used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L.; Guo, Wei Ying; Zhao, Bing; Hoes, Arno W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of metabolic abnormalities and has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among employees in Northeast China. Methods:

  2. A survey of forest tree diseases in the Northeast - 1957

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Zabel; Savel B. Silverborg; Marvin E. Fowler

    1958-01-01

    A serious handicap in planning forestry programs in the Northeast is a lack of basic information about forest diseases and their impact on the forest. Magnitude of disease losses, the relative importance of various diseases, their locations, rates of spread, intensities, and the tree mortality they cause - information on all these factors is basic to the development of...

  3. Northeast Regional Biomass Program: Mission, accomplishments, prospects, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This 1991 Report contains an update on the mission, goals and accomplishments of the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP). It describes the activities conducted during the past two years and incorporates the information contained in the 1989 publication of the NRBP Five Year Report. It describes the biomass projects conducted by the individual states of the Northeast Region, and summarizes the results from the Program's technical studies. Publications from both the state and regional projects are listed as well. An appendix lists the biomass-fired electricity generating stations planned or in operation in the region. The NRBP began in 1983 by developing a five year plan to guide its work. Within that time frame, the NRBP undertook over 20 applied research and technology transfer projects, and supported and guided the work of its eleven member states. During and since that period, the NRBP has brought together public and private sector organizations to promote the use in the Northeast of biomass and municipal waste energy resources and technologies. The NRBP's long-range plan was updated in 1990. In light of the accomplishments of the NRBP and the remaining challenges, this Report considers directions for future efforts. The Northeast has abundant biomass resources and markets for their use as energy. Meeting this potential will contribute to reducing the atmospheric greenhouse effect and dependence on imported oil. 49 refs

  4. Northeast U.S. update: price and demand issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The issues affecting natural gas prices in the northeast United States were discussed. The supply of natural gas is high because of new pipeline projects and new market entrants. The demand for natural gas is also high because of nuclear plant closings, new electric plants, the clean air act, and economic growth. The supply of natural gas is expected to grow in the Northeast by 27 per cent by the year 2000. Future pipeline projects from Western Canada to Chicago, New York and Boston were examined and their effect on supply and pricing were analyzed. As another variable that affects the pricing of natural gas, a list of the nuclear plants that have closed and which may soon close in the northeast United States was provided, along with a list of new gas fired plants. Other factors affecting winter market prices in the northeast United States for 1997-1998 include El Nino, warm weather forecasts, NYMEX forecasts, natural gas demand, and low oil prices, were also reviewed. Cultivating long term comprehensive relationships, and focusing on customer service were considered the key to successful Canadian export growth. 7 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Recolonization of experimentally defaunated tidepools by northeast Pacific intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Polivka; M.A. Chotkowski

    1998-01-01

    Site fidelity and maintenance of home ranges are common in fishes (e.g., Stephens et al., 1970; Robertson and Sheldon, 1979; Hixon, 1981), especially for intertidal species for which the ability to navigate to a safe region of an environment that periodically drains of water may be adaptive (e.g., Gibson 1967, 1969, 1982). For intertidal fishes in the northeast Pacific...

  6. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  7. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  8. Towards a Curriculum for the Thai Lao of Northeast Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…

  9. Essential oil of Machilus bombycina King from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oil of Mac hilus bombycina Kingwas produced by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, collected from Northeast India. The oil was analyzed by GC/MS and 40 components were identified, which constituted 93.7% of the oiL The major components of the oil were decanal (12.5%), ll-dodecenal

  10. Soil-Snow-Vegetation Interactions at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacitua, Guisella

    -term eects on the ecosystem function and dynamics. At the Zackenberg Research Station in Northeast Greenland ecosystem processes are routinely monitored through a comprehensive monitoring program. This PhD project investigates and discusses the interactions between climate, the physical components...

  11. Seasonal ice dynamics of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2018-01-01

    and temporal details. This study focus on the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which consists of three main outlets, 79 North glacier (79N), Zachariae Isstrøm (ZI) and Storstrømmen Glacier (SG). While both 79 North and Storstrømmen have floating tongues, Zachariae Isstrøm is mostly grounded...

  12. Pollution of the Arctic Troposphere: Northeast Greenland 1990-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidam, N. Z.; Christensen, J.; Wåhlin, P.

    Measurements of atmospheric pollution have taken place at Station Nord in Northeast Greenland since 1990. Weekly samples have been collected for analysis of sulphur dioxide, sulphate in particles, total gaseous and particulate phases of reduced and of oxidised nitrogen. In addition concentrations...

  13. Northeast Tennessee Educators' Perception of STEM Education Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kristin Beard

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative nonexperimental survey study was developed to investigate Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators' perceptions of STEM education. This study was an examination of current perceptions of STEM education. Perceived need, current implementation practices, access to STEM resources, definition of STEM, and the current condition of STEM in…

  14. Tidal Movement of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland: Observations and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mayer, C.; Olesen, O. B.

    2000-01-01

    Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier is a > 60 km long and 20 km wide floating outlet glacier located at 79 degrees 30' N, 22 degrees W, draining a large area of the northeast Greenland ice sheet. Climate, mass-balance and dynamics studies were carried out on the glacier in three field seasons in 1996...

  15. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however,

  16. Opportunistically recorded acoustic data support Northeast Atlantic mackerel expansion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, vander Jeroen; Fassler, S.M.M.; Stephens, D.; Readdy, Lisa; Scott, B.; Roel, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries independent monitoring of widely distributed pelagic fish species which conduct large seasonal migrations is logistically complex and expensive.One of the commercially most important examples of such a species in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean is mackerel for which up to recently only an

  17. Forest insect & disease conditions in the Northeast - 1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. Waters; Alma M. Waterman

    1957-01-01

    This annual report on forest pest conditions in the Northeast combines, for the first time, information about both the major forest insects and the major forest diseases in the region. It was prepared as an aid to those who have a concern for protecting our forests from insect and disease attacks.

  18. Research and Development Strategy for Fishery Technology Innovation for Sustainable Fishery Resource Management in North-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of fishery technologies supports food sustainability to achieve a steady supply of fish and fishery products. However, the priorities for research and development (R&D in fishery technologies vary by region due to differences in fish resource availability, environmental concerns, and consumer preferences for fishery products. This study examines trends in fishery technology innovations using data on patents granted as an indicator of changing R&D priorities. To clarify changes in R&D priorities, we apply a decomposition analysis framework that classifies fishery technologies into three types: harvesting, aquaculture, and new products. This study mainly focuses on China, Japan, and Korea as the major fishing countries in the north-east Asia region. The results show that the number of fishery technology patents granted increased between 1993 and 2015; in particular, the number of aquaculture patents granted has grown rapidly since 2012. However, the trend in Japan was the opposite, as the apparent priority given to aquaculture technology innovation decreased between 1993 and 2015. The trends and priority changes for fishery technology inventions vary by country and technology group. This implies that an international policy framework for fishery technology development should recognize that R&D priorities need to reflect diverse characteristics across countries and the technologies employed.

  19. Implicative Algebras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implicative algebras which is an equivalent definition of lattice implication algebra of Xu (1993) and further we prove that it is a regular Autometrized. Algebra. Further we remark that the binary operation → on lattice implicative algebra can never be associative. Key words: Implicative ...

  20. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  1. The Differences between Women Executives in Japan and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roibu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Around the world employment of women on an equal bases allows companies, industries and countries to make better use of the available talent pool, generally with potential growth implication. In Japan, since 2013, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has been a ceaseless advocate for the increase in the number of female employees for the revival of the economy, and many governmental programs in support of working women have been put in place. However, the traditional Japanese management systems of lifetime employment, enterprise unions, seniority systems, together with a group-oriented and risk-adverse orientation make things change slowly. In Romania, the second country analyzed in this article, women entrepreneurs also face professional stereotypes, difficulties in getting specific jobs, traditional prejudices and a collective mentality related to women’s place in society. This article explores and compares how Romanian and Japanese cultures, societies, and economies have either encouraged, or discouraged, the growth of female entrepreneurship on their own territories, and analyzes how the best emerging female executives can be supported in the future in order to maximize their potential. The analysis is based on the data provided by OECD, the World Bank, the Global entrepreneurship monitor, Japan statistics, the legislations of the two countries and the literature related to the two social environments. The findings indicate that although there are many similarities between the two countries, the percentage of female executives in Japan is much smaller than the one in Romania. This is due to the fact that Japan, with all the governmental programs in action, for the moment, still has a stricter social and work environment, a weaker maternity and childcare legislation and a higher gender gap.

  2. Understanding Great Earthquakes in Japan's Kanto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Reiji; Curewitz, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Third International Workshop on the Kanto Asperity Project; Chiba, Japan, 16-19 February 2008; The 1703 (Genroku) and 1923 (Taisho) earthquakes in Japan's Kanto region (M 8.2 and M 7.9, respectively) caused severe damage in the Tokyo metropolitan area. These great earthquakes occurred along the Sagami Trough, where the Philippine Sea slab is subducting beneath Japan. Historical records, paleoseismological research, and geophysical/geodetic monitoring in the region indicate that such great earthquakes will repeat in the future.

  3. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadvornaya Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  4. Point Climat no. 11 'Japan's Bilateral Offset Crediting Mechanism: A Bilateral Solution to a Global Issue?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Hanh; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: In order to achieve its long-term emission reduction target following the Fukushima incident, Japan would rely more heavily on international offsetting activities. Concurrent to vigorous proposals to reform the CDM, Japan is also promoting an offset crediting scheme through bilateral agreements with developing countries as a post-2012 market mechanism. Despite potential benefits, issues relating to the accounting rules, environmental integrity and implications to carbon markets warrant further consideration prior to international recognition

  5. Public information activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijima, Kazunori

    1998-01-01

    This is a slide presentation dealing with the public information (PI) activities in Japan. At present in Japan 51 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation contributing with a capacity of about 440 G We, i.e. 1/3 of the total electricity is produced by nuclear power. An investigation conducted by Advisory Committee for Energy resulted in the following guidelines in the advancing the Nuclear Power Policy: - maintain transparency in determining policy and reflect the voice of people, making information available to the public; - promote mutual understanding between areas that produce electricity by nuclear power and those that consume electricity; - cultivate an awareness of energy issues amongst the public to encourage them to take issues regarding Japan's energy policy to heart. Concerning the current PI, the following actions are undertaken at a nationwide scale: - for all people, supplying information by mass media, internet and holding lecture meetings and panel discussions etc; - for women, advertisements in journals; - for youth, educational materials, exhibition of energy etc; - for teachers, seminars; for opinion leaders, sending newsletters on nuclear energy. In areas for planned or constructed nuclear plants the PI actions are addressed to all people, women, fishermen, farmers and opinion leaders. There are given the responses to the following three questions addressed to the public concerning the nuclear power: - do you think whether we need nuclear power plants? - do you think whether nuclear power plants are safe? - what mechanism do you think generates energy during the production of nuclear power. A discussion of the results is presented. As future objectives of PI activities the following are in view: to cultivate reliability, to aware of information about nuclear power, to promote awareness of nuclear power, to promote mutual understanding of nuclear power. In conclusion, the need is stressed to make the PI activities more effective, to find

  6. Children in Japan and multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimauchi, Y

    1999-01-01

    Many parents in Japan today are very concerned and have daily problems with their children over the following kind of issues concerning video games, multimedia, and similar devices. 1) Is children's enthusiasm for video games actually harming their growth (physically or mentally)? 2) Is there any way that video games can help children in the future? For example, will playing these games help children learn to use computers or develop their power of thought? 3) Will excessive enthusiasm for TV games undermine our basic lifestyle? Is the time they spend studying at home or playing outside actually decreasing? 4) Will the methods of communication brought about by computers, pagers, and cellular phones weaken human relations among children? 5) Will being immersed in a virtual world created by computers result in a diminished sense of reality? The causes of this uneasiness may be traced to parents' own anxieties and concerns about the exceedingly rapid growth of the "information society" of today, together with the fact that their children are directly caught up in the deluge of this information and multimedia society. The development of media has coincided with the growth of today's adults, but children are immersed in a media-filled environment from the day they are born. In Japan, there are now children who can play video games before even learning to write. No one can predict what kind of adults these children will grow to be in the future, and it is fair to say that the most parents and children in Japan are being tossed about on the waves of this information explosion. At this international symposium, we hope to hear the many views that are held around the world concerning children and multimedia.

  7. Bone marrow transplantation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaoka, Tohru

    1989-01-01

    BMT in Japan was started in 1975. From 1981 Japan BMT study group was organized by the grant of ministry of health and welfare Japan. A rapid increase of number of BMT parallel to the improvement of results was observed in the 489 patients by the registry of this group. The major causes of failure of BMT were interstitial pneumonitis (IP), relapse of leukemia, infection, and graft versus host disease (GVHD). The incidence of IP decreased very rapidly by fractionation of total body irradiation and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody negative platelet transfusion. Prophylactic administration of anti-CMV immunoglobulin produced also significant reduction of IP. In the double blind controled study oral administration of aciclovir revealed significant reduction of herpes stomatitis, followed by the reduction of other infections including sepsis. For the decontamination of bioclean room we have developed ozone decontamination, which revealed to be very effective for fungus. Colony stimulating factor was found to shorten the period of granulocytopenia. The patients with GVHD showed lower incidence of relapse of leukemia than those without GVHD. In the patients who received BMT during their first remission of ALL. Long survival rate was 63 %, for ANLL in the first remission, 64 % and for CML in the chronic phase, 40 %. Out of the first 20 BMT patients of the center for adult diseases Osaka, only three are living now, while out of the next 25 patients 22 are living disease free. Major items of modification of BMT procedures between those two groups were cyclosporine A, colony stimulating factor, fractionated TBI, CMV-negative platelet donar, BMT in first remission for acute leukemia or chronic phase in CML. BMT seemed to be a very reliable and promising treatment of leukemia with a very high possibility of complete cure. (author)

  8. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  9. Photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls the early investment of Japan in the solar energy which gave a leadership position to this country. However, it has been recently over-taken by Germany and Spain in terms of installed power. The share of the different technologies for the manufacturing of photovoltaic panels (polycrystalline silicon, mono-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, copper-indium-selenium cells) of different sizes, is presented, together with the current measures which are aimed at giving a new boost to this sector. The author tries then to foresee the evolutions of this sector during the next years and in a longer term (market prospective evolutions, factory projects, power station projects)

  10. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  11. Japanese History, Post-Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jason Ānanda Josephson, The Invention of Religion in Japan. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012. 408 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper. Hwansoo Ilmee Kim, Empire of the Dharma: Korean and Japanese Buddhism, 1877–1912. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 444 pp. $50 (cloth. Jung-Sun N. Han, An Imperial Path to Modernity: Yoshino Sakuzō and a New Liberal Order in East Asia, 1905–1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2012. 244 pp. $40 (cloth.

  12. Neurosurgeons in Japan Are Exclusively Brain Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoto, Shunji

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, neurosurgeons have traditionally mainly treated brain diseases, with most cases involving the spine and spinal diseases historically being treated by orthopedists. Nowadays, spinal surgery is 1 of the many subspecialties in the neurosurgical field in Japan. Most patients with neurological deficits or suspected neurological diseases see board-certified neurosurgeons directly in Japan, not through referrals from family physicians or specialists in other fields. Problems originating in the spine and spinal cord have been overlooked or misdiagnosed in these situations. Neurosurgeons in Japan must rethink the educational program to include advanced trauma life support and spinal surgery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  14. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  15. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  16. Thorium research activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear energy policy in Japan is based on the Uranium-Plutonium fuel cycle with Light Water Reactors (LWR) and Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). After the accident at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the Japanese government recognizes the importance to ensure the flexibility for future nuclear power generation and then, it was specified in the latest Japanese strategic energy plan. Two research groups related to thorium fuelled nuclear systems and fuel cycle was set up in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan in 2013. One is a 'Research Committee on Nuclear Applications of Molten Salt'. The committee was established to discuss the current molten-salt technology including molten-salt cooled reactor, molten-salt fuelled reactor, accelerator driven system, fusion reactor blankets and dry reprocessing processes. Throughout two years discussion, the committee summarizes a current state of the art and issues of molten-salt application systems. Committee also discussed the handling technologies for molten-salt reactors especially in China and United Kingdom, issues of molten-salt application to fusion reactor, dry reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, and non-nuclear application of molten-salt. Term of the committee will be extended for further research activities

  17. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  18. Food irradiation development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, T.

    1981-01-01

    In Japan, the first food irradiation research was carried out on the preservation of fish and fishery products. In 1966, the Atomic Energy Commission of the Japanese Government (JAEC) decided to promote the National Project on Food Irradiation and, in 1967, the Steering Committee on food irradiation research in the Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, selected the following food items as of economic importance to the country, i.e., potatoes, onions, rice, wheat, ''Vienna'' sausage, ''kamaboko'' (fish meat jelly products) and mandarin oranges. The National Project is expected to finish at the end of the 1981 fiscal year. Based on the studies by the National Project, irradiated potatoes were given ''unconditional acceptance'' for human consumption in 1972. Already in 1973, a commercial potato irradiator was built at Shihoro, Hokkaido. In 1980, the Steering Committee submitted a final report on the effectiveness and wholesomeness studies on irradiated onions to the JAEC. This paper gives a brief explanation of the legal aspects of food irradiation in Japan, and the present status of wholesomeness studies on the seven items of irradiated foods. In addition, topics concerning food irradiation research on ''kamaboko'', especially on the effectiveness and a new detecting method for the irradiation treatment of these products, are outlined. (author)

  19. Medical facility statistics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Hasebe, Ryo; Myat Cho, Su; Khaing, Moe; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Mon Saw, Yu; Yamamoto, Eiko

    2017-11-01

    Medical facility statistics provide essential information to policymakers, administrators, academics, and practitioners in the field of health services. In Japan, the Health Statistics Office of the Director-General for Statistics and Information Policy at the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is generating these statistics. Although the statistics are widely available in both Japanese and English, the methodology described in the technical reports are primarily in Japanese, and are not fully described in English. This article aimed to describe these processes for readers in the English-speaking world. The Health Statistics Office routinely conduct two surveys called the Hospital Report and the Survey of Medical Institutions. The subjects of the former are all the hospitals and clinics with long-term care beds in Japan. It comprises a Patient Questionnaire focusing on the numbers of inpatients, admissions, discharges, and outpatients in one month, and an Employee Questionnaire, which asks about the number of employees as of October 1. The Survey of Medical Institutions consists of the Dynamic Survey, which focuses on the opening and closing of facilities every month, and the Static Survey, which focuses on staff, facilities, and services as of October 1, as well as the number of inpatients as of September 30 and the total number of outpatients during September. All hospitals, clinics, and dental clinics are requested to submit the Static Survey questionnaire every three years. These surveys are useful tools for collecting essential information, as well as providing occasions to implicitly inform facilities of the movements of government policy.

  20. The electronuclear program of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear [fr

  1. Nuclear power development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishiro, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the advantages of nuclear energy for Japan. In 1997 the composition of the total primary energy supply (TPES) was oil 52.7%, coal 16.5%, nuclear 16.1% and natural gas 10.7%. Nuclear power has a significant role to play in contributing to 3 national interests: i) energy security, ii) economic growth and iii) environmental protection. Energy security is assured because a stable supply of uranium fuel can be reasonably expected in spite of dependence on import from abroad. Economic growth implies the reduction of energy costs. As nuclear power is capital intensive, the power generation cost is less affected by the fuel cost, therefore nuclear power can realize low cost by favoring high capacity utilization factor. Fossil fuels have substantial impacts on environment such as global warming and acid rain by releasing massive quantities of CO 2 , so nuclear power is a major option for meeting the Kyoto limitations. In Japan, in 2010 nuclear power is expected to reach 17% of TPES and 45% of electricity generated. (A.C.)

  2. Fusion tritium program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Fusion Council, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, has started to review the nuclear fusion R and D plan for the next stage, post JT-60. The council launched a subcommittee on fundamental issues in the nuclear fusion development in 1985, for review of the basic strategy of a development plan. The subcommittee presented an interim report in Feb. 1986 after 6 months discussion and the report was approved by the Nuclear Fusion Council. Two major R and D programs described in the interim report are the development of a Tokamak type large facility and the comprehensive development of the fusion reactor technology. The latter means to promote the reactor technologies which will be essential in the future to construct not only a D/T burning but also a DEMO reactor. The Nuclear Fusion Development Program in Japan is shown. The interim report recommended to organize two subcommittees to establish an integrated national R and D plan; one was for the design of the next step large facility and the other was for the R and program of the fusion technology. The subcommittee for the latter consisted of 7 working groups; one of them was organized for the tritium technology

  3. Real Conditions and Themes of Gender Diversity in Management in Japan, China, and South Korea: 605 results from the "Corporate Survey of Human Resource Utilization (China and Korea)" (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIZUKA Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Japan, China, and South Korea, as neighboring countries in northeast Asia, have a Confucian-rooted orientation toward the separation of labor among women and men, and they share the perception of having gender disparities in the workplace. Hereafter, their various roles in serving the world economy will increase, as will corporate expansion and employee movements. The purpose of this paper is to use the company survey data of the three countries to compare the real conditions of gender divers...

  4. River flood seasonality in the Northeast United States and trends in annual timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The New England and Mid-Atlantic regions of the Northeast United States have experienced climate-associated increases in both the magnitude and frequency of floods. However, a detailed understanding of flood seasonality across these regions, and how flood seasonality may have changed over the instrumental record, has not been established. The annual timing of river floods reflects the flood-generating mechanisms operating in a basin and many aquatic and riparian organisms are adapted to flood seasonality, as are human uses of river channels and floodplains. Changes in flood seasonality may indicate changes in flood-generating mechanisms, and their interactions, with important implications for habitats, floodplain infrastructure, and human communities. For example, changes in spring or fall flood timing may negatively or positively affect a vulnerable life stage for a migratory fish (e.g., egg setting) depending on whether floods occur more frequently before or after the life history event. In this study I apply an objective, probabilistic method for identifying flood seasons at a monthly resolution for 90 climate-sensitive watersheds in New England and the Mid-Atlantic (Hydrologic Unit Codes 01 and 02). Historical trends in flood timing during the year are also investigated. The analyses are based on partial duration flood series that are an average of 85 years long. The seasonality of flooding in these regions, and any historical changes, are considered in the context of other ongoing or expected phenological changes in the Northeast U.S. environment that affect flood generation—e.g., the timing of leaf-off/leaf-out for deciduous plants. How these factors interact will affect whether and how flood magnitudes and frequencies change in the future and associated impacts.

  5. Cryostratigraphy, sedimentology, and the late Quaternary evolution of the Zackenberg River delta, northeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74°30′ N, 20°30′ E at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2 formed during relative sea-level (RSL fall. We investigated the deposits using sedimentological and cryostratigraphic techniques together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating. We identify four facies associations in sections (4 to 22 m in height exposed along the modern Zackenberg River and coast. Facies associations relate to (I overriding glaciers, (II retreating glaciers and quiescent glaciomarine conditions, (III delta progradation in a fjord valley, and (IV fluvial activity and niveo-aeolian processes. Pore, layered, and suspended cryofacies are identified in two 20 m deep ice-bonded sediment cores. The cryofacies distribution, together with low overall ground-ice content, indicates that permafrost is predominately epigenetic in these deposits. Fourteen OSL ages constrain the deposition of the cored deposits to between approximately 13 and 11 ka, immediately following deglaciation. The timing of permafrost aggradation was closely related to delta progradation and began following the subaerial exposure of the delta plain (ca. 11 ka. Our results reveal information concerning the interplay between deglaciation, RSL change, sedimentation, permafrost aggradation, and the timing of these events. These findings have implications for the timing and mode of permafrost aggradation in other fjord valleys in northeast Greenland.

  6. Report of 457 sporotrichosis cases from Jilin province, northeast China, a serious endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Li, S-S; Zhong, S-X; Liu, Y-Y; Yao, L; Huo, S-S

    2013-03-01

    Most reported sporotrichosis cases came from South American countries, the USA, India and Japan. This mycosis is also endemic in Northeast China. However, the situation is not clear for international researchers due to lack of large series reported in English. To report and analyse 457 sporotrichosis cases. Retrospective study of 457 cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed by fungal culture at the First Hospital of Jilin University from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009. In this series, the male: female ratio was 1:1.42. Mean age was 41.2 years. Cases from age group 51-60 years accounted for most of the cases (22.54%). A total of 434 patients lived in rural areas (94.97%). The onset of symptoms in 67.61% cases happened in cold seasons (winter and spring). History of trauma presented in 133 cases (29.1%). The mean duration of the symptoms before the presentation was 6.41 months. A total of 190 (41.58%) showed lymphocutaneous form, 252 patients (55.14%) showed fixed form, 8 patients (1.75%) showed disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis and the clinical form of 7 patients (1.53%) could not be defined. Extremities and nodules were the most frequently involved sites and founded manifestation. Main histopathology findings were suppurative granuloma, tuberculoid granuloma and mixed inflammatory granuloma. A total of 75 cases (19.74%) had fungal elements revealed by Periodic Acid-Schiff staining. Patients responded well to potassium iodide (KI), itraconazole, terbinafine and combinations of these agents with a mean course of 2.17 months to resolve. As the first report of a large series of sporotrichosis cases from China to be published in English literature, our study indicated a serious sporotrichosis endemic situation in Jilin province, Northeast China, with epidemiological and clinical characteristics similar to those of previous Chinese reports, but different from those in other countries. KI, itraconazole and terbinafine are effective for the treatment. © 2011 The Authors

  7. Physical properties of the Miyamori ultramafic complex in the Kitakami Mountains, northeast Japan; Miyamori choku tetsushitsu gantai no butsuriteki seishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, H.; Katada, M.; Nagahara, M.

    1998-03-05

    Physical properties of 61 rock sample collected from 22 outcrops of the Miyamori ultramafic complex in the Kitakami Mountains are reported in this paper. Their density, P-wave velocity, magnetic susceptibility, Curie temperature, and natural remanent magnetization were newly measured and discussed based on the petrographic data. The western part of the Miyamori ultramafic complex was intruded by an early Cretaceous granite, which thermally affected one-third of this complex. The characteristics of data are summarized as follows. Rock density varies from 2.56 to 3.15 g/cm{sup 3} with an average of 2.76 g/cm{sup 3} (gabroic rocks are excluded). P-wave velocity varies from 4.26 to 6.76 km/s with an average of 5.83 km/s. Magnetic susceptibility varies from 1.2 to 14.4 times 10{sup -3} (cgsemu) and the Konigsberger ratio varies widely from 0.3 to 4.9, with ratio less than 1.1 for most of the strongly metamorphosd rocks. Curie temperature is approximately 578degC in 65 percent of the rock samples, indicating the presence of magnetite, whereas many strongly metamorphosed rocks have two Curie temperatures for hematite, magnetite and titanomagnetite. One sample have three Curie temperatures for hematite, magnetite and titanomagnetite. The declination of natural remanent magnetization of the rocks are mostly plotted in the northwest and all the inclinations plot downward. The average of inclination and declination are 50degN and 35degW, respectively. In preliminary palaeomagnetic observations by AC demagnetizations, the mean direction of 18 outcrops show the results similar to that of natural remanent magnetization (51degN,39degW). Significant difference was not recognized between the strongly metamorphosed and the less metamorphosed rocks. It is evident that the decreasing tendency of rock density and P-wave velocity with increasing magnetic susceptibility was caused by serpentinization. But it is not clear when serpentinization occur

  8. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  9. REE in cretaceous to tertiary granitoids of Chugoku and Shikoku district, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Harada, Michiru

    1998-01-01

    `Niho plutonic composite rocks` distributed in Niho Kamigo area in the northeast of Yamaguchi-city in Japan. It is small plutonic composite rocks, of about 2 km in long length and 1 km of short length. The rocks were studied by the geological survey. Many kinds of rock and rare earth elements were determined. The constitution process is estimated by these results. It consists of gabbro-quartz diorite-tonalite{center_dot}granodiorite-granito. The more inside of rock existed, the more felsic rock are discovered. Chemical compositions were TiO{sub 2}, FeO, MnO and K{sub 2}O. It is estimated that intrusion of tonalite and successive intrusion of granodiorite generated and then formed in situ crystallization differentiation. (S.Y.)

  10. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  11. Japan mellem øst og vest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted; Ipsen, Lene

    Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938.......Skildrer Japans historie gennem de sidste 200 år inklusiv et kapitel om historiebrug ift. Nanjingmassakren i 1937-1938....

  12. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  13. Internet Ethics Issues and Actions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    江澤, 義典

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Internet Ethics 2012 was planned and organized by the Korea Internet Security Agency and was held in September 2012 at the Lotte Hotel World in Seoul. This note relates to the presentation in Japan, it outlines current Internet ethics issues and actions in Japan. Moreover, four aspects of Japanese civilization were introduced as the bases of these ethics issues.

  14. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  15. Getah Virus Infection among Racehorses, Japan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kikuchi, Takuya; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. PMID:25898181

  16. On recycling of nuclear fuel in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In Japan, atomic energy has become to accomplish the important role in energy supply. Recently the interest in the protection of global environment heightened, and the anxiety on oil supply has been felt due to the circumstances in Mideast. Therefore, the importance of atomic energy as an energy source for hereafter increased, and the future plan of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan must be promoted on such viewpoint. At present in Japan, the construction of nuclear fuel cycle facilities is in progress in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture. The prototype FBR 'Monju' started the general functional test in May, this year. The transport of the plutonium reprocessed in U.K. and France to Japan will be carried out in near future. This report presents the concrete measures of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan from the long term viewpoint up to 2010. The necessity and meaning of nuclear fuel recycling in Japan, the effort related to nuclear nonproliferation, the plan of nuclear fuel recycling for hereafter in Japan, the organization of MOX fuel fabrication in Japan and abroad, the method of utilizing recovered uranium and the reprocessing of spent MOX fuel are described. (K.I.)

  17. Japan's oil situation and relationship with the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Japan's energy supply structure and the demand for energy in the country. It focuses on oil relations between Japan and the Middle Eastern oil countries, and Japan's attempt to enhance energy supply-security policy measures

  18. Analysis of Energy Industry Upgrading in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Ji, Yu-liang; Guan, Bai-feng; Jing, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Promoting regional economic growth and realizing the transformation of the mode of economic growth are in industrial upgrading essence The product is a carrier that represents a series of links of production, management and marketing behind the enterprise, and is a comprehensive reflection of the knowledge and ability of a country or region. Based on the industrial spatial structure, this paper visualizes the industrial space in Northeast China from 2005 to 2015, analyzes the comparative advantages of the energy industry in Northeast China, and examines the status quo of the upgrade of the energy industry according to the industrial upgrading status. Based on the industrial spatial structure, Industry intensity in the industrial space, put forward the future direction of the energy industry upgrade and upgrade path.

  19. Cultural significance of primary teeth for caregivers in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn K; Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Martin, Michele N; Dias, Hilma Fontenele

    2008-04-01

    This anthropological study critically evaluates Brazilian caregivers' symbolic production and significance of their malnourished offspring's primary teeth, as well as their own, and describes popular dental practices. From January to June 2004, ethnographic interviews of 27 poor, low-literacy mothers were conducted at a public Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State. Participant observation of clinical pathways and home environments supplemented the data. Content analysis was performed. Results confirm that primary teeth are imbued with cultural significance in Northeast Brazil. Mothers examine mouths, perceive signs of decay, associate primary with permanent tooth healthiness, identify ethnodental illnesses, seek assistance, and perform rituals with exfoliated teeth. The mother's motivation to care for primary teeth is sparked by her memories of past toothache and attempts to avoid stigma and discrimination. Social determinants, not mothers' beliefs or behaviors, are the most critical obstacles to effective dental care. Legitimizing lay knowledge and empowering caregivers and children can improve oral health in Northeast Brazil.

  20. Nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia: South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo-Hang Lee

    1995-01-01

    Under new circumstances, that is after the end of the Cold War, the current security situation in Northeast Asia and Korean peninsula is reviewed. The South Korean Non-proliferation policy and its strong commitment to the NPT is embodied in the following: treaty commitments; government officials' statements; presidential declarations; North/South joint declarations; and domestic laws and regulations.Korea has made efforts towards denuclearisation of Korean peninsula. Its nuclear policy is based on peaceful uses of nuclear energy and on maintaining a strong commitment to the NPT. The ultimate goal of its policy is to deter North Korea from developing nuclear weapons and thus secure a nuclear-free Korean peninsula. This could lay foundation for the ultimate creation of region-wide nuclear-free zone in Northeast Asia

  1. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here

  2. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  3. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  4. A cross-cultural analysis of household energy use behaviour in Japan and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, H.; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Masuda, Takashi; Yamaga, Yukiko [Jyukankyo Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Haneda, Hiroshi [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    In this paper we compare and contrast the results of ethnographic investigations of energy use behaviour in Fukuoka, Japan and Oslo, Norway. These studies show significant differences in end use patterns for space heating, lighting and hot water use. We discuss how these patterns are related to cultural and economic factors. Our findings show that while energy intensive space heating and lighting habits have become an integral part of the presentation of the Norwegian home, Japanese space heat and light habits are more disciplined and less culturally significant. In Japan, the bathing routine is extremely important to the Japanese lifestyle and at the same time very energy intensive. Other energy intensive patterns are identified which do not have the same cultural significance, such as lax temperature setback in Norway and dish washing practices in Japan. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  5. The natural gas industry in Japan and Europe. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo Taki.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas demand is forecast to rise dramatically in both Japan and Europe in the next two decades. Between the Japanese gas market and that of West European countries, however, there are considerable differences as well as some similarities. This study looks at demand and supply of natural gas, the history and structure of the industries, and the regulatory regimes, in both Japan and West European countries. It concentrates specifically on the latest moves towards liberalization of gas markets. Finally it considers possible implications of the European experience for the future of the industry in Japan, where not only is the government about to introduce a more competitive environment, but construction of a national transmission pipeline is under active consideration. (author)

  6. Pricing and Policy Problems in the Northeast Fluid Milk Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This article documents the need for reform of milk pricing in the Northeast. The New York price gouging law can be recast as a fair share law. This new milk policy "kills two birds with one stone." It corrects regional inequities in raw milk pricing by reforming the pricing of milk at retail by limiting and redistributing excessive retail margins to farmers and consumers. The fair share policy relieves allocative price inefficiency, improves the performance of the federal milk market order po...

  7. Phytochemical characterization of wild edible Boletus sp. from Northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2010-01-01

    Our research has been focused on the documentation of nutritional composition and nutraceutical potential of wild mushrooms, making the information available for a better management and conservation of these species and related habitats. In the present work, the chemical composition and bioactivity of three wild edible Boletus sp. (Boletus aereus, Boletus edulis, Boletus reticulatus) from Northeast Portugal were evaluated, in order to valorise these species as sources of important...

  8. The instrumentation calibration reduction program (ICRP) at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, R.; Blanch, P.

    1987-01-01

    Northeast Utilities (NU) funded a project to study the feasibility of determining the state of core exit thermocouple (CET) calibration without having to have direct access to the CETs. Although the CETs were the prime focus, other safety related sensors were investigated. This paper describes presumptions and methods employed in the first phase, the feasibility study. Additionally, it describes the cost/benefit analysis which can be used by any utility to determine ICRP payback

  9. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. RETRAN's role in the development of Northeast Utilities' analytical capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaca, M.V.; Gharakhani, A.; Sterner, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The RETRAN code plays an important role in Northeast Utilities' (NUSCO's) safety analysis capabilities. Its ability to predict plant response to operational transients has been shown by several benchmarking efforts. Additionally, it has been utilized in performing both design-basis and bestestimate analyses for NUSCO's operating plants. The decision to use RETRAN as a major contributor to reload analysis efforts at NUSCO was justified by the results of numerous analyses proving RETRAN's capabilities and credibility

  11. Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME) 1996 annual/final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.; Kaplan, E.; Palmedo, P. Wortman, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Northeast Waste Management Enterprise was created in response to Dr. Clyde Frank's vision of a new partnership between research, industrial, and financial sectors, with the goal of speeding development and use (particularly at U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] facilities) of environmental remediation technologies. It was anticipated that this partnership would also strengthen the international competitiveness of the U.S. environmental industry. Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) response to Dr. Frank was a proposal to create the Northeast Waste Management Alliance, later renamed the Northeast Waste Management Enterprise (NEWME). Recognizing the need to supplement its own technical expertise with acumen in business, financial management, and venture capital development, BNL joined forces with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI). Since its inception at the end of FY 1993, NEWME has achieved several significant accomplishments in pursuing its original business and strategic plans. However, its successes have been constrained by a fundamental mismatch between the time scales required for technology commercialization, and the immediate need for available environmental technologies of those involved with ongoing environmental remediations at DOE facilities

  12. Characteristics of Wet Deposition in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, A.; Arakaki, T.

    2017-12-01

    Acid deposition survey in Japan has started since 1991 by Japan Environmental Laboratories Association (JELA). The JELA has about 60 monitoring sites for wet deposition including remote, rural and urban area. The measured constituents of wet deposition are; precipitation, pH, electric conductivity, major Anions, and major Cations. From those data, we analyze spatial and temporal variations of wet deposition components in Japan. Among the 60 monitoring sites, 39 sampling sites were selected in this study, which have kept sampling continuously between 2003JFY and 2014JFY. All samples were collected by wet-only samplers. To analyze area characteristics, all the areas were divided into 6 regions; Northern part of Japan (NJ), Facing the Japan Sea (JS), Eastern part of Japan (EJ), Central part of Japan (CJ), Western part of Japan (WJ) and Southern West Islands (SW). NO3- and non-sea-salt-SO42- (nss-SO42-) are major components of rain acidification. Especially, between December and February (winter) the air mass from west affected the temporal variations of those acid components and the concentrations were higher in JS and WJ regions than those in other regions. Japanese ministry of the Environment reported that mixing ratio of NO2 in Japan has been less than 0.04ppm since 1976, and that of SO2 has been less than 0.02ppm since 1978. Their concentrations in Japan have remained flat or slowly decreased recently. However the temporal variations of NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio in winter in JS region were significantly increased on average at 2.2% y-1 from 2003JFY to 2014JFY. The results suggest that long-range transboundary air pollutants increased NO3- concentrations and NO3-/nss-SO42- ratio.

  13. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, Hans J; UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan

    2010-01-01

    This book represents Volume II of the Proceedings of the UN/ESA/NASA Workshop on the International Heliophysical Year 2007 and Basic Space Science, hosted by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 18 - 22 June, 2007. It covers two programme topics explored in this and past workshops of this nature: (i) non-extensive statistical mechanics as applicable to astrophysics, addressing q-distribution, fractional reaction and diffusion, and the reaction coefficient, as well as the Mittag-Leffler function and (ii) the TRIPOD concept, developed for astronomical telescope facilities. The companion publication, Volume I of the proceedings of this workshop, is a special issue in the journal Earth, Moon, and Planets, Volume 104, Numbers 1-4, April 2009.

  14. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  15. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  16. Application of EB in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  17. The gas industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    2000-01-01

    Though oil is the most widely used primary energy in Japan, its market share is decreasing steadily in favour of other energies such as natural gas. Around 80 % of the gas consumed in Japan is imported in the form of LNG, with locally produced natural gas accounting for 5 % and LPG 12%. Annual LNG supplies now total 48 million tons (720 TWh) and are forecast to rise to 57 million tons over the next ten years. However, only on third of the total volume of LNG, i.e., 242 TWh, is distributed to final consumers. The rest is imported directly by power companies to produce electricity. The 245 gas distribution companies, 70 in the public sector and 175 in the private sector (including three large firms: Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas and Toho Gas) carry the gas through their own non-interconnected networks to around 25 million customers, though the gas supply area covers only 5 % of the country. This small percentage can be explained partly by Japan's topography: 80 % of the land is covered by mountains. This means that only 20 % of the country is suitable for industrial and residential development. Populations living outside the gas supply areas mainly use LPG. The number of LPG customers totals around 25 million, a similar number to those using mains gas. However, the share of mains gas is increasing each year due to the population increase in urban zones. Though gas represents only 11 % of the energy consumed in Japan, it is nevertheless present on practically all markets and holds the leading position for domestic hot water and cooking in the residential sector. However, for heating, it lags well behind oil. In industry, mains gas covers only 5% of energy needs. However, with the expansion of the pipeline network and market liberalization, the share of gas is set to increase. The price of gas for the residential sector is 2 to 3 times higher than in western countries. This can be attributed to the following factors: most natural gas is imported LNG; unit consumption in the

  18. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  19. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade... Japan-United States Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum (``Fukushima Recovery Forum...

  20. Forest medicine research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing attention on the effects of forest on physiological relaxation and immune recovery, particularly in forest medicine research, from a perspective of preventive medicine. Japan is a world leader in the accumulation of scientific data on forest medicine research. In this review, we summarize the research that has been conducted in this area since 1992. We conducted field experiment, involving 420 subjects at 35 different forests throughout Japan. After sitting in natural surroundings, these subjects showed decrease in the following physiological parameters compared with those in an urban control group: 12.4% decrease in the cortisol level, 7.0% decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, 1.4% decrease in systolic blood pressure, and 5.8% decrease in heart rate. This demonstrates that stressful states can be relieved by forest therapy. In addition, it should be noted that parasympathetic nervous activity was enhanced by 55.0%, indicating a relaxed state. The results of walking experiments provided similar results. Li et al. demonstrated that immune function was enhanced by forest therapy in middle-aged employees who volunteered to participate in these experiments. Natural killer cell activity, an indicator of immune function, was enhanced by 56% on the second day and returned to normal levels. A significant increase of 23% was maintained for 1 month even after returning to urban life, clearly illustrating the preventive benefits of forest therapy. In an indoor room experiment, we conducted tests with the following: 1) olfactory stimulation using wood smell, 2) tactile stimulation using wood, and 3) auditory stimulation using forest sounds. These indoor stimulations also decreased the blood pressure and pulse rate, and induced a physiological relaxation effect. We anticipate that forest medicine will play an increasingly important role in preventive medicine in the future.

  1. Pathways of warm water to the Northeast Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Kanzow, Torsten; Arndt, Jan Erik; Mayer, Christoph; Schauer, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers surrounding the Greenland coast. The warming and accumulation of Atlantic Water in the subpolar North Atlantic has been suggested to be a potential driver of the glaciers' retreat over the last decades. The shelf regions thus play a critical role for the transport of Atlantic Water towards the glaciers, but also for the transfer of freshwater towards the deep ocean. A key region for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This large ice stream drains the second-largest basin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and feeds three outlet glaciers. The largest one is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79°N-Glacier) featuring an 80 km long floating ice tongue. Both the ocean circulation on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the circulation in the cavity below the ice tongue are weakly constrained so far. In order to study the relevant processes of glacier-ocean interaction we combine observations and model work. Here we focus on historic and recent hydrographic observations and on the complex bathymetry in the Northeast Greenland shelf region, which is thought to steer the flux of warm Atlantic water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavity beneath the 79°N-Glacier. We present a new global topography data set, RTopo-2, which includes the most recent surveys on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf and provides a detailed bathymetry for all around Greenland. In addition, RTopo-2 contains ice and bedrock surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica. Based on the updated ocean bathymetry and a variety of hydrographic observations we show the water mass distribution on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland. These maps enable us to discuss possible supply pathways of warm modified Atlantic waters on the continental shelf and thus potential ways of heat

  2. Post-disaster resilience of a 100% renewable energy system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, Miguel; Portugal-Pereira, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan is having to re-design its energy policy. With the danger of nuclear power in an earthquake-prone country exposed, renewable energies are being seen as a potential alternative. An assessment of the feasibility of a 100% renewable energy electricity system in Japan by the year 2030 was shown to be able to achieve a higher level of electricity resilience. The assessment is based on a simulation of the hourly future electricity production based on wind and solar meteorological data, that can cope with the estimated future hourly electricity demand in Japan for the year 2030. Such as system would use pump-up storage and electric batteries to balance the daily fluctuations in supply and demand, though the most important challenge of the system would be providing sufficient electricity to meet the summer demand peak. These findings have import implications at the policy making level, as it shows that the Japanese electricity generation system is technically able to increase the share of renewables up to 100%, guaranteeing a stable and reliable supply. - Highlights: • Hourly simulation of a 100% renewable energy system in Japan. • Feasibility analysis of system reliability and risk of failure. • Use of car electric batteries to store electricity during night. • Analysis of policy implications to implement decentralized smart grid system

  3. Tephrostratigraphy of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China, since the mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunqing; Liu, Jiaqi; You, Haitao; Nemeth, Karoly

    2017-12-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphy of an active volcano is essential for evaluating its eruptive history, forecasting future eruptions and correlation with distal tephra records. Changbaishan volcano is known for its Millennium eruption (ME, AD 940s; VEI 7) and the ME tephra has been detected in Greenland ice cores ∼9000 km from the vent. However, the pre-Millennium (pre-ME) and post-Millennium (post-ME) eruptions are still poorly characterized. In this study, we present a detailed late Holocene eruptive sequence of Changbaishan volcano based on single glass shard compositions from tephra samples collected from around the caldera rim and flanks. Tephra ages are constrained by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and AMS 14C dates. Tephra from the mid-Holocene pre-ME eruption can be divided into two pyroclastic fall subunits, and it cannot be correlated with any known Changbaishan-sourced tephra recorded in the Japan Sea based on major element composition of glass shards, such as the B-J (Baegdusan-Japan Basin) and B-V (Baegdusan-Vladivostok-oki) tephras. ME pyroclastic fall deposits from the caldera rims and volcanic flanks can be correlated to the juvenile pumice lapilli or blocks within the pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits deposited in the valleys around the volcano based on glass shard compositions. Our results indicate that the glass shard compositions of proximal ME tephra are more varied than previously thought and can be correlated with distal ME tephra. In addition, widely-dispersed mafic scoria was ejected by the ME Plinian column and deposited on the western and southern summits and the eastern flank of the volcano. Data for glass from post-ME eruptions, such as the historically-documented AD 1403, AD 1668 and AD 1702 eruptions, are reported here for the first time. Except for the ME, other Holocene eruptions, including pre-ME and post-ME eruptions, had the potential to form widely-distributed tephra layers around northeast Asia, and our dataset

  4. Phragmitetum japonicae in Korean Peninsula and Japan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2010), s. 479-488 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : riverside vegetation * vegetation classification * Northeast Asia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.609, year: 2010

  5. Predictable and unpredictable modes of seasonal mean precipitation over Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kairan; Frederiksen, Carsten S.; Zhao, Tianbao; Zheng, Xiaogu; Xiong, Zhe; Yi, Xue; Li, Chunxiang

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the patterns of interannual variability that arise from the potentially predictable (slow) and unpredictable (intraseasonal) components of seasonal mean precipitation over Northeast (NE) China, using observations from a network of 162 meteorological stations for the period 1961-2014. A variance decomposition method is applied to identify the sources of predictability, as well as the sources of prediction uncertainty, for January-February-March (JFM), April-May-June (AMJ), July-August-September (JAS) and October-November-December (OND). The averaged potential predictability (ratio of slow to total variance) of NE China precipitation has the highest value of 0.32 during JAS and lowest value of 0.1 in AMJ. Possible sources of seasonal prediction for the leading predictable precipitation EOF modes come from the SST anomalies in the Japan Sea, as well as the North Atlantic during JFM, the Indian Ocean SST in AMJ, and the eastern tropical Pacific SST in JAS and OND. The prolonged linear trend, which is seen in the principal component time series of the leading predictable mode in JFM and OND, may also serve as a source of predictability. The Polar-Eurasia and Northern Annular Mode atmospheric teleconnection patterns are closely connected with the leading and the second predictable mode of JAS, respectively. The Hadley cell circulation is closely related to the leading predictable mode of OND. The leading/second unpredictable precipitation modes for all these four seasons show a similar monopole/dipole structure, and can be largely attributed to the intraseasonal variabilities of the atmosphere.

  6. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  7. [Building epilepsy care network in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Taisuke

    2012-01-01

    Number of epilepsy patient in Japan officially surveyed by our government in 2008 is 219,000, which is only 0.17% of the total population and less than one third of the prevalence rate reported in Western countries. Number of epilepsy surgery per year in Japan is also low and less than half of other countries such as US, UK and Korea. These numbers may suggest that epilepsy care in Japan is not sufficient to cover all hidden medical needs of people with epilepsy at present. To solve this issue, our research group funded by the government have started to build an epilepsy care network among primary care physicians, secondary care neurology specialists and tertiary care epilepsy centers by utilizing a web site: Epilepsy Care Network-Japan (http://www.ecn-japan.com/) from July 2012. We are also proposing an epilepsy care algorithm suitable for our complex medical community consisted with various neurology specialists such as pediatric and adult neurologists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. Building Epilepsy Care Network in Japan may facilitate better medical and social support for people with epilepsy in Japan.

  8. Japan's National Security: Structures, norms, and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenstein, P.J.; Okawara, N.

    1993-01-01

    Japan's national security policy has two distinctive aspects that deserve analysis. First, Japan's definition of national security goes far beyond traditional military notions. National security is viewed in comprehensive terms that also include economic and political dimensions. The second feature of Japan's security policy worth explanation is a distinctive mixture of flexibility and rigidity in the process of policy adaptation to change: flexibility on issues of economic security, rigidity on issues of military security, and flexibility combined with rigidity on issues of political security. With the end of the Cold War and changes in the structure of the international system, it is only natural that we ask whether and how Japan's national security policy will change as well. Optimists insist that the Asian balance of power and the US-Japan relationship will make Japan aspire to be a competitive, noninterventionist trading state that heeds the universal interest of peace and profit rather than narrow aspirations for national power. Pessimists warn us instead that the new international system will finally confirm Herman Kahn's prediction of 1970: Japan will quickly change to the status of a nuclear superpower, spurred perhaps by what some see as a dangerous rise of Japanese militarism in the 1970s and 1980s

  9. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  10. Promoting Tourism Destination through Film-Induced Tourism: The Case of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper describes the marketing potential of film-induced tourism in marketing Japan, as a popular tourism destination for non-Asian visitors. In particular, it focuses on the popular culture and on engaging young people from Europe, America, and Australia in discovering and promoting its cultural heritage. Design/Methodology/Approach – The number of Western tourists to Japan rose by 50 % between 2010 and 2015. Many of these tourists are attracted by the films associated with Japan in one way or another. We assume that, even though the majority of incoming tourists in Japan are Chinese visitors, the marketing potential of film-induced tourism in Japan represents a source of untapped potential. One can trace the increase in the popularity of Japan as the tourism destination to a number of new Western films taking place in Japan. Findings and implications – We employ the monthly data on the combined box office revenues of recent films set in Japan, as well as the monthly statistics on the number of visitors from Australia, Europe, and North America. We find causality between the popularity of the films and the number of tourists from the destinations that are mostly impacted by those films. Limitations – The research is limited by the issue of popularity of Western culture and films in Asia. One should remember that just 3 million out of 19 million foreign tourists that visited Japan in 2015 were non-Asian. Originality – The popularity of films either related to or taking place in Japan is enormous in the Western world. Headed by the recent 2015 Hungarian dark comedy “Liza, the Fox-Fairy”, there is a whole array of films drawing from both exotic and cosmopolitan Japanese culture. The Japanese setting offers a picturesque scenery for melodramas, such as “Lost in translation” (USD 119.7 million in box office revenues or “Memories of a Geisha” (USD 162 million, horrors and thrillers, including “The Grudge” (USD

  11. Fukushima accident: the consequences in Japan, France and in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Sorin, F.

    2011-01-01

    This document begins with a description of the Fukushima accident, the second article reviews the main consequences in Japan of the accident: setting of a forbidden zone around the plant, restriction of the exports of food products, or the shutdown of the Hamaoka plant. The third article is the reporting of an interview of L. Oursel, deputy general director of the Areva group, this interview deals mainly with the safety standard of the EPR and with the issue of passive safety systems. The last part of the document is dedicated to the consequences in France (null sanitary impact, cooperation between Areva, EdF, CEA and the Japanese plant operator Tepco...) and in the rest of the world: the organization of resistance tests in the nuclear power plants operating in the European Union, the decision about the agreement of EPR and AP1000 reactor has been delayed in United-Kingdom, acceleration of the German program for abandoning nuclear energy, Italy suspends its nuclear program, China orders a general overhaul of the safety standard of its nuclear power plants, Poland and Romania reaffirm their trust in nuclear energy, France wishes a 'mechanism' allowing a quick international intervention in case of major nuclear accident, Russia proposes measures to improve nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  12. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  13. The scale of biomass production in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yukihiko [School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima-shi 739-8527 (Japan); Inoue, Takashi; Fukuda, Katsura [Global Warming Research Department, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc., 2-3-6 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8141 (Japan); Komoto, Keiichi; Hada, Kenichiro [Renewable energy Team, Environment, Natural Resources and Energy Division, Mizuho Information and Research Institute, Inc., 2-3 Kanda-nishikicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8443 (Japan); Hirata, Satoshi [Technical Institute, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-1 Kawasakicho, Akashi-shi, Hyogo 673-8666 (Japan); Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Recycle Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced and Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-2 Hiro, Suehiro, Kure-shi, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiromi [Socioeconomic Research Center, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1-6-1 Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8126 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Policymakers working to introduce and promote the use of bioenergy in Japan require detailed information on the scales of the different types of biomass resources generated. In this research, the first of its type in Japan, the investigators reviewed various statistical resources to quantify the scale distribution of forest residues, waste wood from manufacturing, waste wood from construction, cattle manure, sewage sludge, night soil, household garbage, and waste food oil. As a result, the scale of biomass generation in Japan was found to be relatively small, on the average is no more than several tons in dry weight per day. (author)

  14. Promoting Profit Model Innovation in Animation Project in Northeast Asia: Case Study on Chinese Cultural and Creative Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of three animation companies in the Chinese cultural and creative industry, this study aims to understand how profit model innovation is promoted. Due to the rapidly changing environments and resource scarcity, cultural and creative companies need to select the appropriate profit model according to their own key resources. The study uncovers two critical factors that promote profit model innovation in animation projects: the quantity of consumers and their consumption intention. According to these two dimensions, the authors’ analysis shows profit model innovation in animation projects can be divided into Fans mode, Popular mode, Placement mode, and Failure mode, respectively. This study provides an empirical basis for advocating profit model innovation and discusses the resource requirements of Fan mode, Popular model, and Placement mode in China’s cultural and creative industry. The authors’ research also has managerial implications that might help firms promote profit model innovation. Finally, learning and promoting the profit model of China’s animation industry in the Northeast Asia area will be conducive to Northeast Asia’s cooperation and sustainable development.

  15. Shirataki obsidian exploitation and circulation in prehistoric northern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Yakushige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the total number of archaeological obsidian sources in Japan is more than 80, and among them, 21 are in Hokkaido, northern part of the Japanese archipelago (Izuho and Sato 2007. Obsidian was the dominant of lithic raw material in the Upper Paleolithic Hokkaido (35-10 ka cal BP. Out of 21 archaeological obsidian sources in Hokkaido, 4 sources: Shirataki, Oketo, Tokachi, and Akaigawa are the major obsidian sources and the others are minor sources. Shirataki is one of the largest obsidian sources in Northeast Asia and it is well known that Shirataki obsidian was transported outside Hokkaido to Sakhalin and the Paleo-Honshu Island from the Late Upper Paleolithic period.We compiled data of obsidian source analyses conducted to artefacts from Paleolithic sites in Hokkaido, and it became clear that the ratio of Shirataki obsidian in all analyzed materials is more than half (Sato and Yakushige in press.We examined how far Shirataki obsidian was transported in each period: the Early Upper Paleolithic (35-25 ka cal BP and the Late Upper Paleolithic (25-10 ka cal BP. The Late Upper Paleolithic is divided into three stage, the early Early Microblade Industry (Stage 1: 25-21 ka cal BP, the late Early Microblade Industry (Stage 2: 19-16 ka cal BP, and the Late Microblade Industry (Stage 3: 16-10 ka cal BP. As a result, it is revealed that the distribution areas of Shirataki obsidian did not expand gradually over time, but are different in different lithic industries. In the background of this situation lay the difference of ecological adaptation strategies adopted by the prehistoric people of the time and their movement behavioral strategies.

  16. A Review of Boys Love Manga and Beyond: History, Culture, and Community in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany A. Flowers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This book review provides a brief overview of the collection 'Boys Love Manga and Beyond: History, Culture, and Community in Japan', edited by Mark Mclelland, Kazumi Nagaike, Katsuhiko Suganuma and James Welker (University Press of Mississippi, 2015. The review offers a summary of the main topics covered in the collection, and discusses its strengths, weaknesses and implications for other academic fields from the perspective of a scholar specializing in Education, Children’s Literature, Literacy and Diversity.

  17. Fujifilm-Kodak Duopolistic Competition in Japan and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshi Tsurumi; Hiroki Tsurumi

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the duopolistic competition of Fujifilm and Kodak according to the product life cycle and “game theoretic” exchange-of-hostage hypothesis of international trade and investment. It shows how each firm used its home-team and first-mover advantages to compete with the other. It shows that Fujifilm's strategic use of marketing logistics and innovative products reduced Kodak's market share in Japan and elsewhere. This article has implications for the global competition of mul...

  18. Summary of Available Hydrogeologic Data for the Northeast Portion of the Alluvial Aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unthank, Michael D; Nelson, Jr., Hugh L

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific...

  19. Constructing a Regional Order: Northeast Asia and the Systemic Constraints on Korean Unification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vance, Terence J

    2006-01-01

    .... Using a truly unique International Relations approach, this thesis explores the utility of Alexander Wendt's Social Theory of International Politics to address the evolving structure of Northeast...

  20. Inferring the population expansions in peopling of Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sheng Peng

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in different fields have been performed to reconstruct the prehistory of populations in the Japanese archipelago. Estimates the ancestral population dynamics based on Japanese molecular sequences can extend our understanding about the colonization of Japan and the ethnogenesis of modern Japanese.We applied Bayesian skyline plot (BSP with a dataset based on 952 Japanese mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genomes to depict the female effective population size (N(ef through time for the total Japanese and each of the major mtDNA haplogroups in Japanese. Our results revealed a rapid N(ef growth since ∼5 thousand years ago had left ∼72% Japanese mtDNA lineages with a salient signature. The BSP for the major mtDNA haplogroups indicated some different demographic history.The results suggested that the rapid population expansion acted as a major force in shaping current maternal pool of Japanese. It supported a model for population dynamics in Japan in which the prehistoric population growth initiated in the Middle Jomon Period experienced a smooth and swift transition from Jomon to Yayoi, and then continued through the Yayoi Period. The confounding demographic backgrounds of different mtDNA haplogroups could also have some implications for some related studies in future.