WorldWideScience

Sample records for north-central british columbia

  1. Growth-Inhibitory and Immunomodulatory Activities of Wild Mushrooms from North-Central British Columbia (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Javed, Sumreen; Barad, Ankush; Myhre, Vicky; Li, Wai Ming; Reimer, Kerry; Massicotte, Hugues B; Tackaberry, Linda E; Payne, Geoffrey W; Egger, Keith N; Lee, Chow H

    2017-01-01

    Wild mushrooms, especially from North America, have not been systematically explored for their medicinal properties. Here we report screening for the growth-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities of 12 species collected from multiple locations in north-central British Columbia, Canada. Mushrooms were characterized using morphology and DNA sequencing, followed by chemical extraction into 4 fractions using 80% ethanol, 50% methanol, water, and 5% sodium hydroxide. Growth-inhibitory, immunostimulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of 5 mushrooms (Leucocybe connata, Trichaptum abietinum, Hydnellum sp., Gyromitra esculenta, and Hericium coralloides) are reported here, to our knowledge for the first time. Growth-inhibitory effects were assessed using the cytotoxic MTT assay. Immunostimulatory activity was assessed by tumor necrosis factor-α production in Raw 264.7 macrophages, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was assessed based on the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α production. The ethanol and aqueous extracts of Hydnellum sp. were potent growth inhibitors, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.6 mg/mL. All 5 fungi displayed strong immunostimulatory activity, whereas only L. connata and T. abietinum showed strong anti-inflammatory activity. For the 7 other fungi investigated, which included well-known medicinal species such as Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus igniarius, and Ganoderma applanatum, the remarkable similarities in the biological activities reported here, and by others for specimens collected elsewhere, suggest that mushrooms can produce similar metabolites regardless of their habitat or ecosystem. This is to our knowledge the first study to explore wild mushrooms from British Columbia for biological activities that are relevant to cancer, and the results provide an initial framework for the selection of mushroom species with the potential for discovery of novel anticancer compounds.

  2. Seasonal habitat use and movements of woodland caribou in the Omineca Mountains, north central British Columbia, 1991-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari D. Wood

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1991 to 1993, 30 woodland caribou were captured and fitted with radio-collars west of the Williston Reservoir in north central B.C. Monthly radio-telemetry location flights revealed that caribou in the Northern Area, characterized by a complex of mountain ranges, moved greater distances to calving areas than did those in the South, where only one major mountain range exists. In the year of record heavy snowfall for the area, all collared caribou wintered on windswept alpine slopes, while during the below average snowfall year, many caribou remained in forested habitats. In winter, caribou were found to forage on terrestrial lichens in both lowland lodgepole pine flats and on windswept alpine slopes, and on arboreal lichens in upper elevation Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir forests. There are at least 600-700 caribou in the Omineca Mountains.

  3. Brucellosis in Moose (Alces alces). A Serological Survey in an Open Range Cattle Area of North Central British Columbia Recently Infected with Bovine Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, M.; Child, K. N.; Hatler, D. F.; Fujino, K. K.; Hodson, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    A serological survey for Brucella abortus antibodies in mature cow moose (Alces alces) was made in an area of northcentral British Columbia which recently had been heavily infected with bovine brucellosis and in which there was considerable intermixing of moose and range cattle. No evidence of Brucella infection was found in the moose tested and it was concluded that they were probably not of great significance in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the study area and were therefore unl...

  4. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  5. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  6. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of British Columbia's environmental assessment process for first nations' participation in mining development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Douglas C.; McLelland, James N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper applies effectiveness as a criterion to measure the participation of First Nations' participation in British Columbia's environmental assessment process. Effectiveness is reviewed as a means to measure policy implementation and an expanded framework is proposed to measure effectiveness. The framework is applied to three case studies in north-central British Columbia to measure the effectiveness of First Nations' participation in the EA process for mining development. All three cases failed to achieve procedural, substantive, and transactive efficacy and thereby failed to meet overall policy effectiveness. The policies used by the British Columbia government, including the relatively recent Environmental Assessment Act (1995), reflect a poor integration of First Nations people in the EA decision-making process with respect to mine development

  8. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  9. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  10. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  11. Markets for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerz, D.H.; Coad, L.A.

    1990-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry and the fundamentals underlying both the increase in activity and the longer-term outlook for the natural gas sector are examined. The basis for the analysis was the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model, to which a number of modifications were made. The level of natural gas resource assumed for northeastern British Columbia corresponds to an ultimate potential of 50 Tcf. Significant growth in production over the outlook period (1988-2007) is predicted. High rates of utilization on the Westcoast system underscore the need for significant capacity expansion if the production levels projected for the mid-1990s are to be achieved. Natural gas production is projected to be sustained at the 800 billion cubic foot level from the mid-1990s onwards, with the majority of the production growth occurring between 1992 and 1997. Significant growth in exports is projected, especially when capacity is available to move gas supplies directly into the California and Rocky Mountain regions in the US. These two transport corridors represent over half the increase in British Columbia production between 1992 and 1997. 53 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  12. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Nielen-Kiezebrink, van M.F.; Locking, T.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology - multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins - and lateral channel stability We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper

  13. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  14. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  16. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  17. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  18. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  19. Geothermal prospects in British Columbia: Resource, market and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Brown, T.L.S.; MacRae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia is host to about 15 young volcanic centres and 60 hot springs, all evidence of presence of geothermal resources. Most high-grade geothermal prospects in British Columbia are located along 3 volcanic belts in the south-western region of the province. It is estimated that a minimum of 800 MWe can be generated from the known prospects in this region. Significant low-grade geothermal resources exist in several provincial regions. Market applications consistent with the geothermal resources known and expected to occur in British Columbia include electrical generation, process and other direct heat uses and recreation. Leasing, exploration and development operations for high-grade geothermal resources are addressed by the British Columbia open-quotes Geothermal Resources Actclose quotes which defines geothermal resources and reserves all rights to the Crown in the right of the Province

  20. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  2. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for British Columbia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in British Columbia. In contrast, a consumptionbased emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in British Columbia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in British Columbia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Vancouver that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from British Columbia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of Alberta crude oil that is refined in British Columbia and sold as motor gasoline to a British Columbia consumer are recorded as a trade flow from Alberta to British Columbia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  3. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  4. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  5. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  6. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A Bayesian approach to evaluating habitat for woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. McNay; B.G. Marcot; V. Brumovsky; R. Ellis

    2006-01-01

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) populations are in decline throughout much of their range. With increasing development of caribou habitat, tools are required to make management decisions to support effective conservation of caribou and their range. We developed a series of Bayesian belief networks to evaluate conservation policy...

  8. Botanical forest products in British Columbia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geus, N.

    1994-12-31

    This report gives an overview of the botanical forest products harvest in British Columbia; discusses the issues of sustainability, multiple forest resource use, revenue to government, social and economic factors, health and safety, and interagency coordination; and gives recommendations for managing the industry. The report describes the industry and the harvest in British Columbia and other jurisdictions of wild edible mushrooms; floral and greenery products such cedar foliage and white pine boughs; medicinal and pharmaceutical products such as Cascara bark and Western yew bark; wild berries and fruit; herb and vegetable products; native landscaping plants; craft products; and such miscellaneous products as honey and by-products, syrup, and smoke woods.

  9. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  10. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  11. The Discursive Framing of International Education Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Dwayne

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how international education programs in British Columbia have been discursively framed by government and media sources. Over the past two decades, international education programs have expanded in number and scale in the province, a phenomenon that has been interpreted by some education researchers and media sources as…

  12. Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Eagle, A.J.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development

  13. British Columbia marine oil spill response plan. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The scope and structure of British Columbia's involvement in response to a major oil spill was defined in this document. Emergency preparedness and response management in the case of an oil spill in British Columbia is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. The Incident Command Post is a marine oil spill response plan that focuses on a response at the spill site. This marine oil spill response plan was designed to be operated concurrently and in cooperation with the plans in place by other responding jurisdictions and companies. The plan discusses: provincial response strategy; incident notification, escalation and support; response organization; checklist of individual duties; ministry roles and services; and provincial support. 27 refs., 6 figs

  14. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  15. The criminal careers of chronic offenders in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Christopher M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Typically, research on “chronic offenders” employs a cohort design with general population or higher risk samples. These designs tend to include a small number of high frequency offenders. This dissertation examines the conviction histories of 152 pre-identified high frequency offenders who are supervised by the Chronic Offenders Program (COP) at the Vancouver Police Department in Vancouver, British Columbia. The lifetime conviction histories and other background variables of the 152 offen...

  16. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  17. Remote sensing education at the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development, current status, and organization of the University of British Columbia's interdisciplinary graduate program in remote sensing are described. Specialized programs are tailored to meet student's needs and interest and can range from the theoretical development of technology (sensor development, modelling, and computer analysis) to specialized application of remote sensing in resource analysis such as the determination of vegetation damage, land classification, and land use. The courses and faculty members are listed.

  18. Registration matters: Explaining youth voter participation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Poaps, Lyndsay

    2008-01-01

    This study explores why voter turnout is higher among some youth then others in British Columbia and evaluates the ability of demographic, institutional and engagement variables to predict which youth vote. The primary source of data is Elections BC for the 2001 and 2005 election. Supplemental data is acquired through BC Stats, the Canadian Federation of Students, and Check Your Head. Ordinary Least Square regressions are estimated using a dozen explanatory variables. Statistical analysis ind...

  19. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.; Hertzog, S.; Scott, G.

    2001-11-01

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  2. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  3. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  4. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  5. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 10 9 m 3 , up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 10 3 m 3 , an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  6. Reducing environmental risks in water management in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownlow, H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of water management regarding hydroelectric generating facilities in British Columbia was discussed. BC Hydro has adopted the following three processes to address water management risks: (1) the Electric System Operating Review, (2) Water Use Plans, and (3) an Environmental Management System. The greatest concern regarding water management are the potential impacts to fish and fish habitat. More than 90 per cent of BC Hydro's installed capacity is hydroelectric, with the balance produced by natural gas and diesel. All facilities are licensed under the provincial Water Act which has been in effect for the past century and is currently way out of date. Among its inadequacies is the fact that it does not provide for the protection of fish. The B.C. Fish Protection Act suggests that effective immediately, there should be no new dams on the Fraser and other significant rivers. BC Hydro facilities impact 16 of the 2,576 streams in British Columbia that support anadromous (migrating) salmon stocks. BC Hydro has 25 dams and diversions located on these 16 rivers. It was concluded that BC Hydro's impact on fish and fish habitat, although relatively small compared to the total fish resource in the province, is significant. The technology now used by BC Hydro is claimed to have the capacity to allow for easy documentation, rapid communication and the development of a comprehensive database for use in identifying and managing the impact of the Utility's operations on the fish population. 10 refs., 12 figs

  7. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, L.; Bonner, L.; Brown, R.; Francis, K.; Johanneson, D.; Canessa, R.; Paynter, R.

    2006-01-01

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Reforming British Columbia's electricity market: A way forward. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report begins with background on developments in electricity market structure and customer access, recent electricity market developments in British Columbia, factors driving change in that market, key elements of electricity market reform, and the work of the task force appointed to propose such reform. It then presents a consensus proposal for reform from the task force. The proposal has four major elements: Increasing customer access; transition toward a vertically de-integrated market structure; ensuring that social values associated with the existing electricity market are protected and enhanced; and environmental concerns (increasing energy efficiency and favoring the development of environmentally desirable electricity generation technologies). Finally, the proposals are evaluated against the task force terms of reference. Includes glossary

  9. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  10. Achievable conservation potential in British Columbia: A review and critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy conservation of British Columbia's Hydro Utility is being reviewed after a two phase report (Synergetic Resources Corp'n, (1994a,1994b)). Phase 2 is the centre of the attention for this review and critique. The information gained in the Phase 1 analysis answered what boundaries were achievable for electrical conservation. Phase 2 was to estimate the conservation potential (1) through technological and operating change and (2) through lifestyle changes of individuals and society in general. The study is part of a new, largely unexplored area of research for electricity utilities, promoting and planning for electricity conservation. While it succeeded in considering the effects of various initiatives on consumers' decisions when purchasing and using technologies, it's shortcomings limit its usefulness. The three main shortcomings of BC Hydro's report are (1) lack of relevant information, (2) questions on the methodology, and (3) lack of connection between Part 1 and Part 2. 2 refs

  11. Evaluation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.

  12. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts : British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of British Columbia's petroleum industry is presented. The industry injects more than one billion dollars annually into the BC economy. The province is the second largest natural gas producer in Canada. Seven thousand people are engaged in upstream activities such as exploration, production and development, while the downstream sector of the industry employs about 25,000 people in refining, pipeline transportation, natural gas distribution and retail gasoline operations. There is an extensive pipeline network with nearly 24,000 kilometres of pipeline serving local, national and international markets. From 1993 to 1997, the number of oil and gas wells drilled in BC nearly doubled from 324 wells to 616 wells. More than half of the natural gas produced in BC is exported, mostly to the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Some gas also goes to eastern Canada, the U.S. midwest and California. 3 figs

  13. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  14. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  15. Evaluation of British Columbia's environmental assessment process : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, B.

    1997-11-01

    An independent and impartial review of the experience in implementing British Columbia's Environmental Assessment (EA) process was presented. B.C.'s EA Act was established on June 30, 1995. The Act was designed to evaluate major development proposals such as oil and gas projects, mine projects and highway projects. A commitment was made at that time to examine the process at an early stage to determine how well it was working. This is the final report of that evaluation. The report was based on a survey questionnaire and consultations with stakeholders and participants in the EA process. While a number of 'systemic' 'strategic' or 'specific' issues have been raised by participants, it was generally concluded that B.C.'s EA Act provides for a consistent, vigorous and neutrally-administered review process for all major development proposals. Recommendations were made on how the EA process might be improved and strengthened. Participation by First Nations representatives on project committees was also reviewed. 6 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Ecological niche modeling of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Sunny; Klinkenberg, Brian; Bartlett, Karen; Fyfe, Murray

    2010-05-01

    Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 1999, causing human and animal illness. Environmental sampling for C.gattii in southwestern BC has isolated the fungal organism from native vegetation, soil, air, and water. Our aim was to help public health officials in BC delineate where C.gattii is currently established and forecast areas that could support C.gattii in the future. We also examined the utility of ecological niche modeling (ENM) based on human and animal C.gattii disease surveillance data. We performed ENM using the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) to predict the optimal and potential ecological niche areas of C.gattii in BC. Human and animal surveillance and environmental sampling data were used to build and test the models based on 15 predictor environmental data layers. ENM provided very accurate predictions (> 98% accuracy, p-value models identified optimal C.gattii ecological niche areas along the central and south eastern coast of Vancouver Island and within the Vancouver Lower Mainland. Elevation, biogeoclimatic zone, and January temperature were good predictors for identifying the ecological niche of C.gattii in BC. The use of human and animal case data for ENM proved useful and effective in identifying the ecological niche of C.gattii in BC. These results are shared with public health to increase public and physician awareness of cryptococcal disease in regions at risk of environmental colonization of C.gattii.

  18. Workplace violence in Alberta and British Columbia hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Kathryn L; Duncan, Susan M; Estabrooks, Carole A; Reimer, Marlene A; Giovannetti, Phyllis; Hyndman, Kathryn; Acorn, Sonia

    2003-03-01

    Workplace violence is a significant and widespread public health concern among health care workers, including nurses. With growing awareness of how practice environments influence patient outcomes and the retention of health professionals, it is timely to consider the impact of workplace violence in hospitals. Registered nurses in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada were surveyed on their experiences of violence in the workplace over the last five shifts. Our results suggest that nurses are experiencing many incidences of violence in a given work week, particularly in the emergency, psychiatric, and medical-surgical settings. Most violent acts are perpetrated by patients, but there is also a significant portion of violence and abuse committed by hospital co-workers, particularly emotional abuse and sexual harassment. Our results also indicate that the majority of workplace violence is not reported. We suggest that using the Broken Windows theory might be a useful tool to conceptualize why workplace violence occurs, and that this framework be used to begin to develop new violence prevention policies and strategies.

  19. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  20. British Columbia Petroleum Corporation annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The British Columbia Petroleum Corporation is a provincial Crown agency whose principal mandate is to facilitate and monitor the sale of natural gas, and to act as a central source of information specific to the natural gas industry for the benefit of all industry participants. The Corporation's activities for the year ending March 31, 1993 are summarized. With the devolution of the Corporation's marketing functions in 1990 to CanWest Gas Supply Inc. and the deregulation of the natural gas market, the Corporation no longer markets natural gas and byproducts, but performs a number of administrative functions on behalf of the province. These include issuing acquisition orders and determining the respective netback prices for the purpose of calculating royalties; collection of a production-related levy; collection of data regarding all sale transactions; monitoring of all production, sales and marketing costs; and information gathering for all sectors of the industry. In 1992/93, a total of 27 companies remained with the Corporation, representing 111 individual gas purchase agreements for a combined deliverability of 1,769,300 m 3 /d. At fiscal year end, a total of 713 acquisition orders were being monitored and 20 findings of producer support were issued in response to netback sales applications. Industry volume throughputs increased 8.7% over the previous year and the average netback price rose to $44.87 per 1,000 m 3 . Financial statements are included. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  2. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  3. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  4. Oil and gas in British Columbia : 10 steps to responsible development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The British Columbia government has proposed to double production of oil and gas, the burning of which causes global warming. West Coast Environmental Law (WCEL) claims there is a strong divide between British Columbia's plans to expand the production and use of fossil fuels, and the international scientific consensus regarding the negative aspects of global warming. The impacts of oil and gas production negatively affect the health of local citizens, First Nations rights and the environment. Offshore oil and gas development could also threaten fisheries and pollute sensitive marine ecosystems. WCEL criticizes the fact that the British Columbia government has streamlined environmental regulations, has laid off compliance monitoring staff, and has given subsidies to the highly profitable oil and gas industry. WCEL argues that the impact of fossil fuel production must be mitigated to limit the damage to lands and people in British Columbia. The organization has proposed 10 recommendations to the British Columbia government. The recommendations focus on impacts of land-based oil and gas development rather than offshore impacts. WCEL claims that adoption of the 10-point mitigation plan is vital for putting British Columbia on the path toward sustainable development. 43 refs

  5. Presence of Microplastics in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdages, M.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Paine, J. K.; Bogaerts, P.; Strangway, A.; Robertson, K.; Groeneweg, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microplastics are a source of anthropogenic contamination in watercourses and water bodies around the world. The extent of the implications associated with microplastics, however, is not fully known. These plastic particles, less than 5mm in diameter by definition, threaten a wide range of aquatic and land-based organisms, as the ingestion of microplastics by aquatic organisms can form blockages in digestive tracts, and can provide pathways for other contaminants to enter their bodies (Ziajahromi et al. 2017). Land-based organisms can then ingest the contaminated organisms, potentially impacting their health. Microplastics can be introduced into the aquatic environment through aquatic or land-based sources (Ziajahromi et al. 2017). A river system that is at a particular threat from microplastic contamination is the Fraser River. The Fraser River is a major salmon bearing river system in British Columbia and drains an area of over 220,000 km2. Potential sources of microplastic contamination include pulp and lumber mills near Prince George and Quesnel, the agriculturally dominated Fraser Valley, and the highly urbanized and industrialized stretch of the Lower Mainland east of Vancouver. Preliminary tests in the summer of 2016 on 200 liters of Fraser River water, processed through a 45 µm sieve, revealed the presence of microplastics, including the detection of blue dye polyethylene by Raman spectroscopy. Since then additional water samples were taken monthly at the Fraser River Observatory in Fort Langley from October 2016 to March 2017, and then bi-weekly commencing in April 2017. These samples are to be analysed at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in the Fall of 2017. This ongoing project aims at identifying the presence, amount, and type of microplastics being transported by the Fraser River to the coastal ocean. Ziajahromi, S.,et al., 2017. Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater

  6. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  7. Anatomy of the Kitimat fiord system, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Stacey, Cooper D.; Wu, Yongsheng; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    2017-09-01

    The geomorphic complexity of the Kitimat fiord system, on the active margin of British Columbia, Canada, is analysed from several perspectives. Sub-glacial landforms and sediments show that grounded ice exiting the fiord system at the last glacial maximum streamed down Moresby Trough towards the Queen Charlotte trough mouth fan. After brief halts on the inner shelf, grounded ice margins cleared the fiord threshold perhaps by c. 15.5 ka cal. yrs BP, and certainly before 13 ka cal. yrs BP. Just outside the fiords, meltwater plumes deposited stratified glaciomarine sediments interbedded with submarine slides. Inside the fiords, thick glaciomarine sediments were deposited, and large transverse moraines formed during temporary halts in retreat. Several glacial outburst floods eroded the Kitkiata moraine and deposited distinctive mud deposits. Postglacial sedimentation on fiord floors has been spatially variable: drifts of mud > 90 m-thick corresponding with areas of low current velocity alternate with areas of non-deposition and erosion corresponding with areas of high velocity. The fiord system hosts more than a hundred morphologically diverse fan deltas that can be classified in the Prior and Bornhold (1989, 1990) system. Submarine mass transport was most frequent immediately following ice retreat (15.5-11.5 ka cal. yrs BP). The largest event ( 1.2 km3) involved failure of glaciomarine sediment on a submarine moraine at Squally Channel, and consequent movement of material into the adjacent deep basin. This event occurred post-13 ka cal. yrs BP. In the postglacial phase, mass transport continued on a lesser scale up to the present day, most intensively in Kitimat Arm. From the perspective of glacial landforms, postglacial sedimentation and mass transport, this Pacific active margin fiord system has some parallels with fiord systems on Canada's east coast passive margin, and with Norwegian fiords, but the intensive development of Holocene fan deltas is strongly

  8. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-04-01

    Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children's Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur.

  9. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  10. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  11. Automation of the seizure investigation unit at the University of British Columbia Health Sciences Centre Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panych, L P; Wada, J A; Beddoes, M P

    1985-12-01

    At the University of British Columbia Health Sciences Centre Hospital we have constructed an automated Seizure Investigation Unit for long term monitoring of epileptic patients. A central component of this system is a new device, developed at the University of British Columbia, which prevents video and EEG records of seizures recorded on video tape from being over-recorded. Computer technology is relied upon to a considerable degree in our unit. Computers are seen, in this phase of development of the SIU, as a means of making patient monitoring less dependent on supervision. They can help to redirect human energy towards complex analysis rather than time consuming and simple monitoring tasks.

  12. Trends in paediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries: An injury surveillance study at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) from 1992 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125

  13. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  14. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  15. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  16. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  17. Giving Voice: Autobiographical/Testimonial Literature by First Nations Women of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Laura J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various definitions of the "testimonial" and characteristics that distinguish it from related literary genres. Examines autobiographical and testimonial literature by Native women of British Columbia, focusing on first-hand accounts of student experiences in Indian residential schools. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  18. Benefits and costs of impeding free trade: Revisiting British Columbia's restrictions on log exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    The government of British Columbia (BC) imposes restrictions on the export of logs from public and private forestlands, primarily to promote local processing and associated employment benefits. Most economists wholeheartedly oppose BC's export restrictions, arguing that BC's citizens are worse off

  19. Delving into Inquiry Learning in Teacher Education at the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Claire; Webb, Andrea S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of inquiry-based seminars that are central to the teacher education program at the University of British Columbia. This teacher education program reflects the changing curriculum in the province. The new inquiry-based provincial curriculum is being implemented between 2015 and 2018 and the teacher education program is…

  20. Degree Completion for Aboriginal People in British Columbia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…

  1. The Administrative Impact of Computers on the British Columbia Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Trevor P.

    This case study analyzes and evaluates the administrative computer systems in the British Columbia public school organization in order to investigate the costs and benefits of computers, their impact on managerial work, their influence on centralization in organizations, and the relationship between organizational objectives and the design of…

  2. Government's Paper Empire: Historical Perspectives on Measuring Student Achievement in British Columbia Schools, 1872-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas; Raptis, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Few historical studies of government's interest in student achievement exist and, of those that do, most concern themselves with relatively short periods of time, a decade or two in general. This discussion takes a longer view of measurement practices in one jurisdiction, British Columbia. Based on archival records, it examines testing and…

  3. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  4. The El Niño Southern Oscillation index and wildfire prediction in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zhen; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential to predict monthly wildfires and area burned in British Columbia's interior using El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and the generalized Pareto (GP) distributions are used, respectively, to account for uncertainty in

  5. Patient-Initiated Elective Cesarean Section of Nulliparous Women in British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, E.K.; Kornelsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The proportion of cesarean sections is increasing in Canada overall and in British Columbia in particular. It has been suggested that this increase is partially the result of women requesting the procedure, although the prevalence of patient-initiated elective cesarean section is

  6. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  7. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  8. DNA barcode-based survey of Trichoptera in the Crooked River reveals three new species records for British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Yurkowski, Emily A; Huber, Dezene P W

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on aquatic systems have placed a renewed focus on biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates. By combining classical taxonomy and DNA barcoding we identified 39 species of caddisflies from the Crooked River, a unique and sensitive system in the southernmost arctic watershed in British Columbia. Our records include three species never before recorded in British Columbia: Lepidostoma togatum (Lepidostomatidae), Ceraclea annulicornis (Leptoceridae), and possibly Cheumatopsyche harwoodi (Hydropsychidae). Three other specimens may represent new occurrence records and a number of other records seem to be substantial observed geographic range expansions within British Columbia.

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of native Rosa sp. from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ocksook; Jovel, Eduardo M; Towers, G H Neil; Wahbe, Tanya R; Cho, Dongwuk

    2007-05-01

    Indigenous traditional knowledge and western science have revealed the potential for significant nutritional and therapeutic benefits among natural antioxidants. We investigated antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rose hip extracts (Rosa nutkana, Rosa pisocarpa and Rosa woodsii) from wild British Columbia populations using liposome oxidation and disc diffusion assays. All extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity. R. nutkana pericarp extracts contained high phenolic concentrations and showed greater antioxidant and antimicrobial activity than seed extracts. R. woodsii seed extracts had a higher phenolic concentration and greater antioxidant activity than pericarp extracts. Antioxidant activity was correlated with antimicrobial activity, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity against yeast and Gram-positive bacteria. Our study is the first to demonstrate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wild British Columbia roses. The effectiveness of selected species compared with standards demonstrates the significance of this natural resource to the continued health of human populations, and the need for conservation practices.

  10. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  11. Financial reporting for the Powersmart programs of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    The Powersmart program at British Columbia Hydro seeks to minimize the short- and long-term energy costs to customers through the efficient or avoided use of electricity. In determining the overall financial reporting of Powersmart, four areas were reviewed in depth. The question of deferral or expensing of expenditures was examined with reference to accounting principles and industry practice in Canada and the USA. Discussion is provided on the costs that would be deferred, the amortization period of deferred expenses, and financial statement presentation. Deferral and amortization appear appropriate if the costs incurred are recoverable under future rates. The design, development, and implementation of power saving programs are outlined as well as the criteria for selection of an amortization period. At British Columbia Hydro, all Powersmart programs are treated as one type of expense and an amortization period of 7 years has been selected for all programs to simplify the accounting

  12. PRICING ATTRIBUTES OF WINES FROM EMERGING SUPPLIERS ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica YOO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine British Columbia (BC wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, brand name, country of origin, and alcohol content are important factors influencing prices paid by consumers. In particular, Chilean white and red wines are associated with larger price premia as compared to Argentinean wines. Wines from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia, although sold in large quantities in the BC market, are substantially discounted in comparison to New World wines. Cabernet Sauvignon fetches a higher price when blended with other varietals and Chardonnay appears to be popular and highly valued by consumers among white wines.

  13. Talking Trash: the politics of sustainability and waste management in Whistler, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Temenos, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Resort Municipality of Whistler, British Columbia began shipping its solid waste to a landfill in Redmond, Washington as part of its solid waste management program. According to the municipality this practice is in line with Whistler 2020, its fifteen-year comprehensive sustainability plan, adopted in 2004. Whistler’s waste management policy and practices raise questions of municipal, citizen, business, and visitor responsibility regarding waste management and sustainability in r...

  14. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  15. Teacher Incompetence, Misconduct and Dismissal in British Columbia: An Archival Analysis (1962–1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart M. Piddocke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of teacher competence and the administrative management of teacher performance are pressing issues of educational accountability. Much is claimed about the putative incompetence of teachers but little systematic data exist to document the extent of this alleged incompetence or to describe incidents of incompetence. This paper reports an archival study of such cases in British Columbia between 1962-1987 and compares these findings with an earlier study from the United States.

  16. Changes in food habits among Farsi and Dari speaking immigrant women in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanzadeh, Mana

    2008-01-01

    Changes in dietary habits due to international migration have been associated with chronic diseases including obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in immigrant populations. Four focus groups (n= 20) were conducted with the objective to provide information on food habit changes and the influencing factors on such changes in Farsi and Dari-speaking immigrant women after migration from their home countries to British Columbia, Canada .The find...

  17. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...

  18. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  19. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  20. Potassium-argon ages of mainly intrusive rocks in the Saint Elias Mountains, Yukon and British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodds, C. J; Campbell, R. B

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and two new K-Ar age determinations, largely from granitoid rocks, are reported from the Saint Elias Mountains of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and closely adjacent parts of Alaska...

  1. Routine hydrography and chemical observations in Lake Nitinat, British Columbia, from 1964 to 1975 (NCEI Accession 7800331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains all of the routine hydrographic and chemical measurements obtained from Lake Nitinat. British Columbia on cruises from 1964 to 1975. In...

  2. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  3. A blueprint for complete energy self-sufficiency in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Endless Energy Project is a partnership between the Globe Foundation, BC Hydro, Day 4 Energy, the Power Technology Alliance, the National Research Council of Canada, and Western Economic Diversification. The purpose of the project is to examine British Columbia's potential to be energy self-sufficient from renewable sources by 2025. Background information on the Endless Energy Project was presented with reference to energy use in all sectors of the economy and energy supply from all sources indigenous to the province. The report discussed global drivers and scenarios as well as energy use trends specific to British Columbia. These trends were related to energy use for residential buildings; commercial sector; domestic transportation; gateway transportation; and industrial sources. The report also provided an outlook for each of these sectors. A large-scale supply outlook was also described for solar; geothermal; wind; hydro; biomass; forest waste to energy potential; ocean wave energy potential; and tidal current systems. The report concluded with a discussion of matching renewable energy supplies to demand. It was concluded that based on a combination of renewable energy supply, cleaner burning fuels, such as hydrogen and ethanol, and energy use reduction in homes, businesses, and public sector operations, British Columbia could reasonably achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2025. tabs., figs

  4. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Annie L.; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  5. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest.By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves.We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  6. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  7. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  8. Exploring the practices of educators using open educational resources (OER) in the British Columbia higher education system

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, David Alexander

    2013-01-01

    This thesis details a study that investigated the role of open educational resources (OER) in the work of post-secondary educators in British Columbia. An aim of this study was to assess the current state of knowledge about the development and use of OER in post-secondary institutional contexts in British Columbia, with a focus on describing practices of instructors. The study sought to determine the factors that affected instructor adoption and development of OER and instructors’ engagement ...

  9. A historical review of HIV prevention and care initiatives in British Columbia, Canada: 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olding, Michelle; Enns, Ben; Panagiotoglou, Dimitra; Shoveller, Jean; Harrigan, P Richard; Barrios, Rolando; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S G; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2017-09-19

    British Columbia has made significant progress in the treatment and prevention of HIV since 1996, when Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) became available. However, we currently lack a historical summary of HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in the province since the introduction of HAART and how they have shaped the HIV epidemic. Guided by a socio-ecological framework, we present a historical review of biomedical and health services, community and structural interventions implemented in British Columbia from 1996-2015 to prevent HIV transmission or otherwise enhance the cascade of HIV care. We constructed a historical timeline of HIV interventions implemented in BC between 1996 and 2015 by reviewing publicly available reports, guidelines and other documents from provincial health agencies, community organizations and AIDS service organizations, and by conducting searches of peer-reviewed literature through PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE. We collected further programmatic information by administering a data collection form to representatives from BC's regional health authorities and an umbrella agency representing 45 AIDS Service organizations. Using linked population-level health administrative data, we identified key phases of the HIV epidemic in British Columbia, as characterized by distinct changes in HIV incidence, HAART uptake and the provincial HIV response. In total, we identified 175 HIV prevention and care interventions implemented in BC from 1996 to 2015. We identify and describe four phases in BC's response to HIV/AIDS: the early HAART phase (1996-1999); the harm reduction and health service scale-up phase (2000-2005); the early Treatment as Prevention phase (2006-2009); and the STOP HIV/AIDS phase (2010-present). In doing so, we provide an overview of British Columbia's universal and centralized HIV treatment system and detail the role of community-based and provincial stakeholders in advancing innovative prevention and harm reduction

  10. British Columbia : Climate change business plan, 2000/01 -2002/03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This first Climate Change Business Plan for British Columbia was conceived as part of Canada's national implementation strategy on climate change. It outlines the objectives and the actions to reduce provincial emissions of GHGs and to prepare for future decisions. GHG emissions are a particular challenge in British Columbia where emissions appear to be growing faster than in other parts of the country. The plan focuses on five priority areas for action -- transportation, energy and industry, communities and buildings, forests and agriculture and supporting actions. The plan present more than 40 actions to reduce GHG emissions immediately in ways that are low-cost, high benefit actions that will not cause undue burden on the population. Major initiatives are included in transportation and technology development. They are supported by more than $13 million in new funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy, community-based programs, education and research, policy development and other initiatives. Implementation of the plan will be monitored, and progress will be measured by pre-defined performance indicators. In detailing the 40 plus actions the Government plans to take, it is clear that since individual citizens of British Columbia contribute more than one quarter of provincial emissions, the BC climate change response will rely heavily on private citizens, organizations, businesses and communities to do their part in GHG reduction. Infrastructure and technology will be of critical importance in achieving substantial reductions of GHG, but they will take time to implement. Therefore, in the initial phase, the focus of attention will be on behavioral changes which will be mobilized in every possible way to begin the daunting task of gaining the upper hand on GHG emissions. A chronology of events, past and contemplated, additional BC actions, mapping BC Plan actions to the the national theme, and a glossary are provided in the appendices. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R.; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007– July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013–May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (P<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3–6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. Neospora caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  12. An overview of recent large landslides in northern British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, M.; Clague, J. J.; Schwab, J. W.; Evans, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the last few decades, at least twenty-four, long-runout rapid landslides, each in excess of 1 million m^3, have occurred in northern British Columbia. Fifteen of the landslides have happened within the last 10 years alone. The landslides include low- gradient rapid flowslides in cohesive sediments, rock avalanches, and complex rock slide - flowslides and rock slide - debris flows. The flowslides have occurred in a variety of sediments, including glaciolacustrine deposits, clay-rich tills, and clay-rich colluvium. The rock failures have involved weak shales overlain by sandstone, and volcanic rocks. We are cataloguing these landslides in a compendium of natural hazards for northern British Columbia. Pre- and post-landslide aerial photographs have been obtained for fifteen of the landslides, and detailed topographic maps have been generated from these photographs. In addition we have determined soil properties, including Atterberg tests for six of the flowslides. The rock avalanches occur in three types of settings: (1) dip slopes in sedimentary rocks in the Rocky Mountain foothills; (2) escarpments of flat-lying sedimentary rocks where spreading is happening; and (3) unstable cirque walls. Infrastructure and resources at risk from these types of large landslides include settlements, forest roads and highways, pipelines, fish habitat, forests, and farmland. One rock avalanche terminated within 2 km of the Alaska Highway, and a rock slide came within a few kilometres of a farm house. Most of these landslides have impounded streams or rivers, thus the hazard associated with upstream inundation and catastrophic dam failure must also be considered. There appears to be an increase in the frequency of large landslides in northern British Columbia. Is this due to climate change? Can we expect this trend to continue?

  13. Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Associated with Mussels, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marsha; McIntyre, Lorraine; Ritson, Mark; Stone, Jason; Bronson, Roni; Bitzikos, Olga; Rourke, Wade; Galanis, Eleni

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) outbreak occurred in British Columbia (BC), Canada that was associated with cooked mussel consumption. This is the first reported DSP outbreak in BC. Investigation of ill individuals, traceback of product and laboratory testing for toxins were used in this investigation. Sixty-two illnesses were reported. Public health and food safety investigation identified a common food source and harvest area. Public health and regulatory agencies took actions to recall product and notify the public. Shellfish monitoring program changes were implemented after the outbreak. Improved response and understanding of toxin production will improve management of future DSP outbreaks. PMID:23697950

  14. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Visible light nitrogen dioxide spectrophotometer intercomparison: Mount Kobau, British Columbia, July 28 to August 10, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, C. T.; Elokhov, A. S.; Elansky, N.; Frank, H.; Johnston, P.; Kerr, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization, Environment Canada hosted an international comparison of visible light spectrophotometers at Mt. Kobau, British Columbia in August of 1991. Instruments from four countries were involved. The intercomparison results have indicated that some significant differences exist in the responses of the various instruments, and have provided a basis for the comparison of the historical data sets which currently exist as a result of the independent researches carried out in the past in the former Soviet Union, New Zealand, and Canada.

  17. On the road to collaboration: nurses and newly regulated midwives in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; Dahinten, V Susan; Carty, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    This study describes some of the results of a survey conducted shortly after the introduction of midwives as a regulated and publicly funded provider within the British Columbia health care system. The survey asked hospital-based perinatal nurses about their knowledge and attitudes of midwifery and their experiences with midwives. Results suggest that nurses, for the most part, had a negative view of midwives and their practice and that inattention to the necessary conditions for interprofessional collaboration and positive interprofessional relationships have resulted in parallel practice between the professions instead of interdisciplinary practice.

  18. The business for power : hydro-electricity in southeastern British Columbia 1897-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouat, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution and development of the hydroelectric power industry in southeastern British Columbia was chronicled by recounting the first hundred years of the West Kootenay Power and Light Electrical Utility. The utility's first generator produced electricity in the summer of 1898 when hydro-electric companies were a new phenomenon. The factors behind the success of the company, the personalities of the promoters and entrepreneurs that launched the company, the complex interplay of unique events and the social and political context that illustrate a fascinating process in which electricity became an integral part of everyday life, are described. Refs., tabs., figs

  19. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, T.; Brar, C.; Dodd, M.; Kwong, N.; Seeley

    2004-05-01

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome.

  1. Cultivation of Mediterranean species of Tuber (Tuberaceae) in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    Based on an assessment of soil and climatic conditions in British Columbia (BC), the Truffle Association of British Columbia (TABC) determined that the cultivation of Mediterranean Tuber melanosporum and Tuber aestivum might be possible in the warmer parts of the province. With the cooperation of independent truffle growers, TABC assessed the colonization of host tree roots collected from eight truffle orchards planted 2-7 years earlier using morphological and molecular criteria. Both Tuber species persisted on the roots of inoculated trees in six of the eight truffle orchards studied. The identity of Tuber ectomycorrhizas that had been characterized morphologically as differing from those of T. melanosporum and T. aestivum were determined using DNA sequence analysis to belong to three species of truffles native to the Pacific Northwest. One of those species, Tuber anniae, had been previously reported from BC, but the other two, Tuber menseri nom. prov. and Tuber beyerlei, are reported here from BC for the first time. Recently, production of three Périgord black truffles in one truffle orchard and one Burgundy truffle in another orchard demonstrates that these truffles are able to fruit in BC.

  2. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs

  3. Review of potential 230-kV cable installation by horizontal directional drilling : Tsawwassen, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-29

    As part of the Vancouver Island transmission reinforcement (VITR) project, British Columbia Transmission Corporation (BCTC) is proposing a 4 km long section of overhead line between the existing Tsawwassen substation and the English Bluff terminal. Mill Creek Management Technologies, Inc. proposed that the 4-km installation be performed using underground cables installed by horizontal directional drilling. The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources of British Columbia commissioned an independent assessment of the potential installation, addressing directional drilling feasibility as well as cable system design. This report presented the results of that assessment. It considered alignment and horizontal directional drills. Cable considerations such as cable design, installation, operation, repair and maintenance were discussed. The report also presented a cost estimate and time schedule. A review of the potential horizontal directional drills showed that the drills should be feasible. In addition, it was found that although the cable system was feasible, there were many effects on power system operation and maintenance that should be evaluated. 4 tabs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  4. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission 2. annual report (1999/2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is a regulatory agency which was created in 1998 to oversee oil and gas industry operations in the province including exploration, development, reclamation and pipeline transportation systems. In addition, the OGC resolves industry land use and economic issues related to Aboriginal Lands on behalf of the province. This annual report highlights the operational performance and outlines business priorities and initiatives. Environmental Fund and Advisory Committee activity were also presented along with financial data for fiscal 1999-2000. Given that the OGC is a young agency, it took the year to stabilize its organization and finalize primary recruitment. Its business processes were also reorganized and streamlined. The year also saw an increase in oil and gas activity in Northeast British Columbia. The process to improve relationships with First Nations was initiated. All of the operations and application functions in Fort St. John were consolidated. Applications received during 1999-2000 were 63 per cent higher than the previous year. The OGC also conducted more than 2500 consultations with Treaty 8 First Nations on various applications. The future will focus on innovation and the effective use of technology with a leading edge workforce. 1999/2000 saw record rig activity for the province. In January 2000 there were more than 120 rigs operating in the province. tabs

  6. Electricity subsidies in low-cost jurisdictions : the case of British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviewed the concept of energy subsidies and estimated their significance to residential consumers in British Columbia. It cautioned that energy subsidies provided to electricity consumers create artificially low electricity prices that result in inefficient consumption levels to the detriment of the environment. An estimate of the indirect subsidies was presented along with an evaluation of potential consumption reduction scenarios if market prices were used. The author argued that subsidies, which are customary in developed countries where electricity use is high, tend to help higher-income households. An evaluation of the distribution of this subsidy across income groups showed that high-income households, which use more electricity than lower-income households, receive more than $500 per year in subsidy through regulated low electricity prices, whereas low-income households get approximately $200. This subsidy is estimated at $489 million per year in British Columbia. The author suggested that profits could be increased by $432 million by setting residential electricity prices nearer to the regional export price. This profit could be realized even after allowing for a direct transfer payment program that compensates low-income households for the higher prices. In addition, such a measure would reduce residential electricity consumption in the province by 25 per cent

  7. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  8. Networking to build a world-class bioenergy industry in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weedon, M. [BC Bioenergy Network, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the role of the BC Bioenergy Network and its goal of maximizing the value of biomass resources in British Columbia (BC) and developing a world-class bioenergy industry in the province. Established in March 2008 with $25 million in funding from the BC government, the BC Bioenergy Network is an industry-led association that promotes the development of near-term bioenergy technologies and demonstration of new bioenergy technologies that are environmentally appropriate for the province of BC. The following technology areas require funding support: solid wood residues, pulp and paper residues, harvesting and pelleting, agriculture residues, municipal wastewater, municipal landfill waste, municipal solid waste, and community heating-electricity greenhouse systems. This presentation demonstrated that BC is well positioned to become a major player in the global bioenergy sector, as it has one of the largest forested areas in the world, and is a leader in biomass to value-added wood products. The opportunities, challenges, and requirements to build a world class bioenergy industry in British Columbia were discussed along with successful Canadian, US, and European collaborations with industry, research, and government. tabs., figs.

  9. Temporal and spatial trends in precipitation chemistry in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the 1960s and 1970s, scientific evidence on the impacts of atmospheric acid deposition led to international negotiations to control emissions of compounds (primarily sulphur (S and nitrogen (N oxides that undergo long-range transport. More recently, there has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada, e.g., the Georgia Basin, British Columbia, where S and N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. In the current study, long-term trends (1990–2007 in precipitation chemistry were evaluated at four stations (Saturna, British Columbia; Egbert, Ontario; Chapais Quebec; and Kejimkujik, Nova Scotia using the Mann-Kendall statistical test. Precipitation chemistry at Saturna suggests that the Georgia Basin is less influenced by anthropogenic (S and N emissions compared with monitoring stations in eastern Canada; nonetheless, long-term (1990–2007 trends in precipitation chemistry at Saturna [pH (significant increase sulphate (significant decrease and nitrate (decrease] mirrored those at sites in eastern Canada suggesting all stations (across Canada have responded similarly to large-scale emissions reductions under the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. The chemistry of precipitation and snow in the current study was well characterised by location and elevation, providing a way to estimate long-term mean annual base cation and chloride precipitation chemistry (ions showing no trend at unmonitored sites for contiguous regions in the Georgia Basin.

  10. Grand design : British Columbia sets out to become an energy powerhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2003-01-01

    British Columbia is eager for petroleum companies to build on the conventional drilling successes that took place in the northeastern section of the province to explore unconventional natural gas reserves, such as coalbed methane, shale, and tight rock formations elsewhere in the province. The province hopes to attract 24 billion dollars in investment along with 8,000 new jobs in energy and mining sectors. During the first year of this century, 850 wells were drilled, with production reaching one trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 17 million barrels of oil. It has been acknowledged that the transportation infrastructure needs work to improve access to the northeastern region, as well as other regions of the province hoping to increase resource development. The British Columbia (BC) government is planning more involvement in land use planning and better access to information on oil and gas potential. Road building partnerships are being developed, and an expansion phase is beginning for the gas pipeline and processing network. Offshore resources show promise, with an estimated 9.8 billion barrels of oil and 43.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in four basins, according to the Geological Survey of Canada. Work on coalbed methane is beginning in the province, after a favorable royalty regime was implemented, with nine experimental projects under way. The government will consider reduced royalties for other unconventional resources like shale and tight gas

  11. Factors in Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Co-management in British Columbia Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pinkerton

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of research and efforts to implement co-management in British Columbia fisheries have demonstrated that we lack neither good models nor the political will in communities to design and test local and regional institutions for successful involvement in various aspects of management. The barriers lie rather in the distrust and resistance of management agencies and the lack of broadly organized political support. The nature of the barriers and some of the elements of a successful approach to overcoming them are identified and discussed. The analysis is focused around the barriers encountered by two differently situated fishing communities or regions that have launched conservation initiatives through cooperation between local aboriginal and nonaboriginal fishing groups. In attempting to overcome the political barriers, the communities seek to develop expertise in selective fishing technology for more sustainable harvest, principled multi-stakeholder negotiation, marketing, shared databases, and preliminary ecosystem monitoring. The communities exemplify small- and medium-scale bottom-up approaches to adaptive management. The analysis shows the key and possibly unique contributions of processes at these levels, and suggests how they can be scaled up and linked to processes at other levels. Both types of analysis are largely missing in adaptive management theory, which has tended to focus on larger scale processes and to dismiss the potential of smaller scale ones to transform, expand, and link. This analysis focuses on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. fisheries of British Columbia, Canada, but the literature suggests that the findings have far broader applicability.

  12. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Sabrina T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Methods Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. Results The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30% of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23 and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22. Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98. Conclusions This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  13. Registration for public drug benefits across areas of differing ethnic composition in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Vivian W; Morgan, Steve; Wong, Sabrina T; Hanley, Gillian E; Black, Charlyn

    2010-06-17

    In 2003, the government of British Columbia, Canada introduced a universal drug benefit plan to cover drug costs that are high relative to household income. Residents were required to register in order to be eligible for the income-based benefits. Given past research suggesting that registration processes may pose an access barrier to certain subpopulations, we aimed to determine whether registration rates varied across small geographic areas that differed in ethnic composition. Using linked population-based administrative databases and census data, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine whether the probability of registration for the public drug plan varied across areas of differing ethnic composition, controlling for household-level predisposing, enabling and needs factors. The adjusted odds of registration did not differ across regions characterized by high concentrations (greater than 30%) of residents identifying as North American, British, French or other European. Households located in areas with concentrations of residents identifying as an Asian ethnicity had the highest odds of program registration: Chinese (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.19-1.23) and South Asian (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.16-1.22). Despite this positive finding, households residing in areas with relatively high concentrations of recent immigrants had slightly lower adjusted odds of registering for the program (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95-0.98). This study identified ethnic variation in registration for a new public drug benefit program in British Columbia. However, unlike previous studies, the variation observed did not indicate that areas with high concentrations of certain ethnicities experienced disadvantages. Potential explanations are discussed.

  14. Policy for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at mine sites in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    One of the major environmental issues facing the provincial government of British Columbia is the prevention of environmental impacts from metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The government's major challenge in regulating ML/ARD is to ensure that all mines are planned and operated in a manner that allows for effective problem detection and mitigation, and that the mines emphasize problem prevention at the outset. This paper reviews the legislated requirements regarding ML/ARD prevention and lists guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. Some of the measures to predict and to mitigate ML/ARD include underwater storage of problematic materials, engineered covers, blending of wastes and drainage collection and treatment. Requirements applicable to construction materials, backfill, geotechnical and hydrological considerations, and security of funds for ML/ARD measures are also discussed

  15. British Columbia oil and gas development strategy for the heartlands (OGDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, P.; Molinski, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes the initiatives undertaken by the British Columbia government to promote competition in the midstream petroleum sector. The oil and gas development strategy (OGDS) for the province was announced in June 2003, with additional initiatives announced in November 2003. The Action Plan focuses on four main components, roads, royalties, the service sector and regulations. Investment into roads will provide many benefits, some of which include better access to resources with increased industry and provincial revenues. This presentation described the infrastructure vision as well as the service sector strategy. The royalties targeted to opportunities include deep well exploration, marginal play development, expansion of the summer drilling season, and new resource opportunities in unconventional and new basins. 1 tab., 7 figs

  16. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A model simulation of biogeochemical conditions along the British Columbia Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Angelica; Fine, Isaac; Masson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The British Columbia shelf is at the northern end of the California Current System and is influenced by summer coastal upwelling, mesoscale eddies, and freshwater inputs. A regional coupled circulation-biogeochemical (ROMS) model of this region has been developed to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of climate variability and change on lower trophic levels and the biogeochemistry of the region. A first step to address the impacts of climate variability on marine ecosystem is to develop biophysical models that simulate the present ecosystem state in relation to the climate record and can be used to examine the influence of different forcing acting, at different scales, on ecological processes. This talk will will evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce observations and to respond to main episodic events (seasonal cycle and El Niño events).

  18. The British Columbia Emergency Medicine Network: A Paradigm Shift in a Provincial System of Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Drebit, Sharla; Lindstrom, Ronald R; Archibald, Chantel; Eggers, Kim; Ho, Kendall; Khazei, Afshin; Lund, Adam; MacKinnon, Carolyn; Markham, Ray; Marsden, Julian; Martin, Ed; Christenson, Jim

    2018-01-04

    As generalists, emergency practitioners face challenges in providing state-of-the-art care owing to the broad spectrum of practice and the rapid rate of new knowledge generation. Networks have become increasingly prevalent in health care, and it was in this backdrop, and the resulting opportunity to advance evidence-informed emergency care in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), that a new "Emergency Medicine Network" (EM Network) was launched in 2017. The EM Network consists of four programs, each led by a physician with expertise and a track record in the domain: (1) Clinical Resources; (2) Innovation; (3) Continuing Professional Development; and (4) Real-time Support. This paper provides an overview of the EM Network, including its background, purpose, programs, anticipated evolution, and impact on the BC health care system.

  19. Spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Megan; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean; Molloy, Philip; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Barrow's goldeneyes are sea ducks that winter throughout coastal British Columbia (BC). Their diet consists primarily of intertidal blue mussels, which can accumulate PAHs; accordingly, goldeneyes may be susceptible to exposure through contaminated prey. In 2014/15, we examined total PAH concentrations in mussels from undeveloped and developed coastal areas of BC. At those same sites, we used EROD to measure hepatic CYP1A induction in goldeneyes. We found higher mussel PAH concentrations at developed coastal sites. Regionally, goldeneyes from southern BC, which has relatively higher coastal development, had higher EROD activity compared to birds from northern BC. Our results suggest goldeneyes wintering in coastal BC were exposed to PAHs through diet, with higher exposure among birds wintering in coastal areas with greater anthropogenic influence. These results suggest the mussel-goldeneye system is suitable as a natural, multi-trophic-level indicator of contemporary hydrocarbon contamination occurrence and exposure useful for establishing oil spill recovery endpoints.

  20. The conversion of evenaged into unevenaged mixed conifer forests in southern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the conditions and history leading to the establishment and continuity of all-aged mixed coniferous forests in the montane south central region of British Columbia, Canada. Also described are the attempts by one forest products company to perpetuate and proportionally increase this type of forest cover through the selective removal necessitated by bark beetle depredation of the component, Pinus contorta. The report concludes with a description of and recommendations for the post-harvest management employing treatments which imitate natural conditions leading to a gradual and lasting conversion of natural multi-species stands into unevenaged or all-aged stands of mixed conifers which are conducive to single tree or group selection harvests at more or less regular intervals. 10 figs, 1 tab

  1. A quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzemis, Despina; Al-Qutub, Diana; Amlani, Ashraf; Kesselring, Sarah; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-07-01

    In August 2012, the British Columbia Take Home Naloxone (BCTHN) program was introduced to help to reduce opioid overdose and its consequences. This study evaluates the BCTHN program, identifying the successes and challenges of implementing a provincial program in Canada. In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed the records of the BCTHN administrative program to report on program outcomes (participation and overdose reversals). Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 40 clients in Vancouver; 12 individual interviews were completed with service providers, police officers and parents of people who use opioids from both the Vancouver and Interior regions of British Columbia. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and a qualitative descriptive approach. As of March 13, 2014, the BCTHN program had been implemented at 40 sites, trained 1318 participants in overdose prevention, recognition and response, distributed 836 kits to clients and received reports of 85 overdose reversals. Stakeholders were supportive of the program, and clients reported greater confidence in response to overdose. Service providers found the program training materials easy to use and that training increased client engagement. Some of the challenges included difficulty in identifying physician willing to prescribe, recruitment of some at-risk populations (e.g., long-term opioid users and patients with chronic pain), and clients' reluctance to call 911. We also found that the police had some misconceptions about BCTHN. The BCTHN program was easy to implement, empowering for clients and was responsible for reversing 85 overdoses in its first 20 months. We suggest communities across Canada should consider implementing take-home naloxone programs and evaluate their findings.

  2. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  3. Osteoarthritis incidence and trends in administrative health records from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mushfiqur; Cibere, Jolanda; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Anis, Aslam H; Kopec, Jacek A

    2014-06-01

    To calculate the incidence rates of osteoarthritis (OA) and to describe the changes in incidence using 18 years of administrative health records. We analyzed visits to health professionals and hospital admission records in a random sample (n = 640,000) from British Columbia, Canada, from 1991/1992 through 2008/2009. OA was defined in 2 ways: (1) at least 1 physician diagnosis or 1 hospital admission; and (2) at least 2 physician diagnoses in 2 years or 1 hospital admission. Crude and age-standardized rates were calculated, and the annual relative changes were estimated from the Poisson regression models. In 2008/2009, the overall crude incidence rate (95% CI) of OA using definition 1 was 14.6 (14.0-14.8); [12.5 (12.0-13.0) among men and 16.3 (15.8-16.8) among women] per 1000 person-years. The rates were lower by about 44% under definition 2. For the period 2000/2001-2008/2009, crude incidence rates based on definition 1 varied from 11.8 to 14.2 per 1000 person-years for men, and from 15.7 to 18.5 for women. Annually, on average, crude rates rose by about 2.5-3.3% for both men and women. The age-adjusted rates increased by 0.6-0.8% among men and showed no trend among women. Our study generated updated incidence rates of administrative OA for the Province of British Columbia. Physician-diagnosed overall incidence rates of OA varied with the case definitions used; however, trends were similar in both case definitions. Age-adjusted rates among men increased slightly during the period 2000/2001-2008/2009. These findings have implications for projecting future prevalence and costs of OA.

  4. Trends in AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia between 1981 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Viviane D.; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. Findings The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. Interpretation We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. Funding The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for

  5. Beyond Consultation: First Nations and the Governance of Shale Gas in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Kathryn Henderson

    As the province of British Columbia seeks to rapidly develop an extensive natural gas industry, it faces a number of challenges. One of these is that of ensuring that development does not disproportionately impact some of the province's most marginalized communities: the First Nations on whose land extraction will take place. This is particularly crucial given that environmental problems are often caused by unjust and inequitable social conditions that must be rectified before sustainable development can be advanced. This research investigates how the BC Oil and Gas Commission's consultation process addresses, and could be improved to better address Treaty 8 First Nations' concerns regarding shale gas development within their traditional territories. Interviews were conducted with four Treaty 8 First Nations, the Treaty 8 Tribal Association, and provincial government and industry staff. Additionally, participant observation was conducted with the Fort Nelson First Nation Lands and Resources Department. Findings indicate that like many other resource consultation processes in British Columbia, the oil and gas consultation process is unable to meaningfully address First Nations' concerns and values due to fundamental procedural problems, including the permit-by-permit approach and the exclusion of First Nations from the point of decision-making. Considering the government's failure to regulate the shale gas industry in a way that protects ecological, social and cultural resilience, we argue that new governance mechanisms are needed that reallocate authority to First Nations and incorporate proposals for early engagement, long-term planning and cumulative impact assessment and monitoring. Additionally, considering the exceptional power differential between government, industry and First Nations, we argue that challenging industry's social license to operate is an important strategy for First Nations working to gain greater influence over development within their

  6. Interannual climate variability drives regional fires in west central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jill E.; Smith, Dan J.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the influence of climate variability on forest fire occurrence at eight sites in west central British Columbia, Canada. Forty-six local fire years affecting a single site and 16 moderate fire years affecting two or more sites were identified (1600-1900 A.D.). Existing fire history data were incorporated to identify 17 regionally synchronous fire years (fires that affected ≥3 sites). Interannual and multidecadal relationships between fire occurrence and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern were examined, in addition to the effects of additive positive phases of ENSO and PDO. We examined multiple reconstructions of ENSO, PDO, and PNA and utilized three methodological approaches to characterize climate-fire relationships. We found that the influence of interannual climate, expressed as PDSI, increasingly synchronized the occurrence of fires when examined from local to regional scales. An association between local fires and positive antecedent moisture conditions suggests moisture-driven fine fuel development and the proximity of some sites to grasslands likely function as key determinants of local-scale fire activity. The relationships between regional fires and ENSO, PDO, and PNA suggest that large-scale patterns of climate variability exert a weak and/or inconsistent influence over fire activity in west central British Columbia between 1700 and 1900 A.D. Although inconsistent among reconstructions of climate patterns, we identified a significant relationship between regional fires and large-scale climate patterns when ENSO and PDO were both in positive phases.

  7. The importance of floristics to sagebrush breeding birds of the south Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Paczek; Pam Krannitz

    2005-01-01

    Habitat associations were determined for five species of songbirds breeding in sagebrush habitat of the South Okanagan and Similkameen valleys, British Columbia. We examined the relative importance of plant species versus “total forbs” and “total grasses” at a local level (<100 m) with point counts and vegetation survey...

  8. COMPARATIVE FEEDING ECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE-PERFORMANCE OF OSPREYS IN DIFFERENT HABITATS OF SOUTHEASTERN BRITISH-COLUMBIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEGER, C; ESSELINK, H; YDENBERG, RC

    We compared the general breeding and feeding ecology of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in the Creston and Nelson areas of southeastern British Columbia. In the Creston Valley, ospreys nested atop tall trees surrounding a shallow and productive warm-water marsh. Prey species taken by male ospreys

  9. Magnetic properties of ilmenite-hematite single crystals from the Ecstall pluton near Prince Rupert, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownlee, Sarah J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of the 91 Ma Ecstall pluton and other Cretaceous plutons of British Columbia imply large northward tectonic movements (>2000 km) may have occurred during the tectonic evolution of western North America. However, more recent studies have shown that the eastern edge of the Ecs...

  10. Implications of Expanding Bioenergy Production from Wood in British Columbia: An Application of a Regional Wood Fibre Allocation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stennes, B.; Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Energy has been produced from woody biomass in British Columbia for many decades, primarily within the pulp and paper sector, using residual streams from timber processing to create heat and electricity for on-site use. More recently, there has been some stand-alone electricity production and an

  11. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  12. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Observed Bark Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality in Western United States and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Ferguson, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting wildlife habitat, wildfire risk, forest recovery, biogeochemical cycling, and biophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the US and British Columbia are concerned about monitoring outbreaks and so conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here, we describe a gridded product of bark beetle disturbances for the western conterminous United States (1997-2009) and British Columbia (2001-2009). We converted aerial survey polygon data into 1-km2 grids for each combination of host type (e.g., lodgepole pine) and bark beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle) available in the US, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. Polygon data are considered "affected area" because the polygons include live and killed trees. We converted affected area to mortality area within each grid cell for each year. We compared the number of killed trees from the US data set with high-resolution classified imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico, finding that the number of trees reported by the aerial surveys in these locations was substantially underestimated. We adjusted mortality area for the US and found better matches with the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. As a result, we produced US grids for lower (from the original aerial survey) and upper (with adjustment) estimates. Bark beetle mortality occurred across the entire study domain and temporal and spatial patterns differed among bark beetle species. The calculated mortality area from all bark beetles combined was 0.42 million ha for the lower estimate and 5.04 million ha for the upper estimate in the western conterminous US from 1997 to 2009, and 5.07 million ha in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009. The analyses suggest that mortality area caused by bark beetles in the western conterminous US exceeded the British Columbia mortality

  13. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  14. Gestational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Northeastern British Columbia, Canada: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Valter, Naomi; Chevrier, Jonathan; Ayotte, Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine; Verner, Marc-André

    2018-01-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (Canada) is an area of intense hydraulic fracturing for unconventional natural gas exploitation. There have been multiple reports of air and water contamination by volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of gas wells. Although these chemicals are known developmental toxicants, no biomonitoring effort has been carried out in the region. To evaluate gestational exposure to benzene and toluene in the Peace River Valley, Northeastern British Columbia (Canada). Urine samples were collected over five consecutive days from 29 pregnant women. Metabolites of benzene (s-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA)) and toluene (s-benzylmercapturic acid (S-BMA)) were measured in pooled urine samples from each participant. Levels of benzene metabolites were compared to those from the general Canadian population and from a biomonitoring study of residents from an area of active gas exploitation in Pavillion, Wyoming (USA). Levels measured in participants from the two recruitment sites, and self-identifying as Indigenous or non-Indigenous, were also compared. Whereas the median S-PMA level (0.18μg/g creatinine) in our study was similar to that in the general Canadian population, the median t,t-MA level (180μg/g creatinine) was approximately 3.5 times higher. Five women had t,t-MA levels above the biological exposure index® proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The median urinary S-BMA level in our pilot study was 7.00μg/g creatinine. Urinary metabolite levels were slightly higher in self-identifying Indigenous women, but this difference was only statistically significant for S-PMA. Urinary t,t-MA levels, but not S-PMA levels, measured in our study are suggestive of a higher benzene exposure in participating pregnant women from the Peace River Valley than in the general Canadian population. Given the small sample size and limitations of t,t-MA measurements (e.g., non

  15. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Emmaline; Risk, David; Fougère, Chelsea; Lavoie, Martin; Marshall, Alex; Werring, John; Williams, James P.; Minions, Christina

    2017-10-01

    -up estimates of 78 000 t of methane for all oil and gas sector sources in British Columbia. Current bottom-up methods for estimating methane emissions do not normally calculate the fraction of emitting oil and gas infrastructure with thorough on-ground measurements. However, this study demonstrates that mobile surveys could provide a more accurate representation of the number of emission sources in an oil and gas development. This study presents the first mobile collection of methane emissions from oil and gas infrastructure in British Columbia, and these results can be used to inform policy development in an era of methane emission reduction efforts.

  16. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Giesbrecht, Ian; Korver, Maartje C.; Floyd, William C.; Sanborn, Paul; Bulmer, Chuck; Lertzman, Ken P.

    2017-08-01

    The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM) composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km-2 yr-1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km-2 yr-1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September-April). Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the British Columbia coast, suggesting that

  17. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atherton

    2017-10-01

    . This value exceeds reported bottom-up estimates of 78 000 t of methane for all oil and gas sector sources in British Columbia. Current bottom-up methods for estimating methane emissions do not normally calculate the fraction of emitting oil and gas infrastructure with thorough on-ground measurements. However, this study demonstrates that mobile surveys could provide a more accurate representation of the number of emission sources in an oil and gas development. This study presents the first mobile collection of methane emissions from oil and gas infrastructure in British Columbia, and these results can be used to inform policy development in an era of methane emission reduction efforts.

  18. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  19. Estimating the economic value of British Columbia's domestic cannabis market: implications for provincial cannabis policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Nosyk, Bohdan; Kerr, Thomas; Fischer, Benedikt; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2012-11-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada, is home to a large illegal cannabis industry that is known to contribute to substantial organized crime concerns. Although debates have emerged regarding the potential benefits of a legally regulated market to address a range of drug policy-related social problems, the value of the local (i.e., domestically consumed) cannabis market has not been characterized. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to generate a median value and 95% credibility interval for retail expenditure estimates of the domestic cannabis market in BC. Model parameter estimates were obtained for the number of cannabis users, the frequency of cannabis use, the quantity of cannabis used, and the price of cannabis from government surveillance data and studies of BC cannabis users. The median annual estimated retail expenditure on cannabis by British Columbians was $407 million (95% Credibility Interval [CI]: $169-948 million). Daily users accounted for the bulk of the cannabis revenue, with a median estimated expenditure of approximately $357 million (95% CI: $149-845 million), followed by weekly users ($44 million, 95% CI: $18-90 million), and monthly users ($6 million, 95% CI: $3-12 million). When under-reporting of cannabis use was adjusted for, the estimated retail expenditure ranged from $443 million (95% CI: $185-1 billion) to $564 million (95% CI: $236-1.3 billion). Based on local consumption patterns, conservative estimates suggest that BC's domestic illegal cannabis trade is worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Given the value of this market and the failure and harms of law enforcement efforts to control the cannabis market, policymakers should consider regulatory alternatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrocarbon source rock characterization and thermal maturity of the upper Triassic Baldonnel and Pardonet formations, northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riediger, C.; Carrelli, G. G. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Zonneveld, J-P. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrocarbon source rock potential of Upper Triassic strata in northeastern British Columbia was assessed by geochemical analysis of samples taken from nine outcrops and seven drill cores. Geochemical data from the outcrop and cores suggest that the Pardonet Formation in northeastern British Columbia had good to very good initial hydrocarbon potential, capable of generating economically significant quantities of hydrocarbon. However, mass balance calculations based on the geochemical data for the Pardonet Formation suggests that current initial in-place reserve estimates for Upper Triassic reservoir strata are four or five times less than initially estimated, possibly due to a portion of the calculated volume of hydrocarbons having been retained within the Pardonet Formation itself, possibly due to a fractured shale pay. With respect to the Baldonnel Formation, the conclusion is that it had only poor to fair initial hydrocarbon potential, and is not a significant source of hydrocarbons. 27 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs,. 2 appendices.

  1. Institutions and processes for scaling up renewables: Run-of-river hydropower in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccard, Mark; Melton, Noel; Nyboer, John

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic scale-up of renewable energy over the coming decades is likely to pose significant challenges for coordinating land use allocation, environmental assessment, energy system planning and the design of greenhouse gas abatement policy. Of particular concern is the establishment of institutions and processes that enable consideration of multiple objectives and attributes, with adequate representation of affected interests, and without resulting in excessive delays in the development of renewable energy as part of a greenhouse gas abatement strategy. This paper uses the Canadian province of British Columbia as a case study for describing these challenges and the responses of policy makers seeking to rapidly scale-up renewables. Using evaluative criteria to assess this experience, we identify lessons that may be applicable to other jurisdictions seeking to quickly expand the production of renewable energy. These lessons include the design of institutions and processes that would likely be required in almost any jurisdiction with similar aims. - Research highlights: → Tension exists between mitigating climate change through substantial renewable energy development and the local environmental impacts associated with this development. → The deployment of renewable energy technologies required for climate change mitigation is likely to lead to intensifying conflicts over land-use. → For this deployment to be successful, institutions and processes must be able to integrate and consider trade-offs related to goals and interests at different scales of decision making.

  2. Frontier flair - one good turn deserves another in northeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1998-01-01

    Some evidence of the easing of tensions between the oil and gas industry and native host communities in northeastern British Columbia have been reported. While native communities continue to expect a high standard of corporate citizenship in terms of environmental concerns and reclamation of land to its natural state after industry activity ceases, they show greater willingness to allow exploration and drilling on native lands. In another demonstration of this 'live and let live' philosophy labour authorities and the Petroleum Services Association of Canada and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers jointly persuaded the B.C. Legislature to reserve the decision on ending the variance from the letter of overtime provisions in the B.C. Labour Code that would have made oilfield work prohibitively expensive. In yet another action, industry and local governments joined forces to demand a share of the industrial property taxes for local governments for infrastructure development, instead of all of it going to the provincial government. Progress is slow, but there is evidence of good will, or at least a recognition of interdependence and mutual concerns on both sides

  3. Perinatal care in British Columbia: Diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardyment, A. F.; Manning, R. Elizabeth; Kinnis, Claire

    1974-01-01

    We undertook to measure standards of perinatal care in British Columbia by studying the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn as the sample situation. Our data show that many isoimmunized pregnant women are delivered in hospitals that have infrequent experience with this problem, and by physicians who have little experience with this disease. The physician referral pattern, in regard to maternal isoimmunization, indicated that the more severely affected patients were managed by specialists, particularly those attached to teaching hospitals. However, 25% of the infants treated by exchange transfusion were managed by nonspecialists in nonteaching hospitals. Hospital record search, used as a method of medical audit and as a source of data for comparison with physician reports, did not result in dependable or complete information. Rates of disagreement between items from two data sources, physician report and hospital record, were frequently very high. Our experience suggests that comparison of these two data sources is not an ideal method of assessment of quality of care. A smaller caseload of isoimmunized pregnant women will result from the present prevention program. Nevertheless, cases will continue to occur. Our work supports the conclusion that a program of continuing education covering the diagnosis and management of hemolytic disease of the newborn is still necessary. PMID:4213290

  4. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Entanglement in and ingestion of synthetic marine debris is increasingly recognized worldwide as an important stressor for marine wildlife, including marine mammals. Studying its impact on wildlife populations is complicated by the inherently cryptic nature of the problem. The coastal waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada provide important habitat for marine mammal species, many of which have unfavorable conservation status in the US and Canada. As a priority-setting exercise, we used data from systematic line-transect surveys and spatial modeling methods to map at-sea distribution of debris and 11 marine mammal species in BC waters, and to identify areas of overlap. We estimated abundance of 36,000 (CIs: 23,000-56,600) pieces of marine debris in the region. Areas of overlap were often far removed from urban centers, suggesting that the extent of marine mammal-debris interactions would be underestimated from opportunistic sightings and stranding records, and that high-overlap areas should be prioritized by stranding response networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae).

  6. Barriers to the development of forest carbon offsetting: Insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson St-Laurent, Guillaume; Hagerman, Shannon; Hoberg, George

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the provision of economic incentives through carbon financing and carbon offsetting has been central to efforts at forest carbon mitigation. However, notwithstanding their potentially important roles in climate policy, forest carbon offsets face numerous barriers which have limited widespread implementation worldwide. This paper uses the case study of the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore the barriers associated with achieving widespread implementation of forest carbon offsets in the next several decades. Drawing on interviews with experts from government, non-governmental organizations, the private sector and First Nations, six main barriers are identified and discussed: (1) deficiencies of carbon markets, (2) limited economic benefits, (3) uncertain climate effectiveness, (4) negative public opinion, (5) limited and uncertain property rights, and (6) governance issues. While respondents from different sectors agreed on various points, divergence was also observed, notably on the trade-off between generating environmentally sound offsets and promoting cost-effective ways to achieve mitigation. We discuss these differences in the context of the goals and objectives of different actors, and offer insights for understanding the uptake (or not) of carbon offset policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Public Health's roles and limitations in advancing food security in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Barbara A; Lang, Tim M; Caraher, Martin J; Ostry, Aleck S

    2014-07-22

    This research analyzes the roles and limitations of Public Health in British Columbia in advancing food security through the integration of food security initiatives into its policies and programs. It asks the question, can Public Health advance food security? If so, how, and what are its limitations? This policy analysis merges findings from 38 key informant interviews conducted with government and civil society stakeholders involved in the development of food security initiatives, along with an examination of relevant documents. The Population Health Template is used to delineate and analyze Public Health roles in food security. Public Health was able to advance food security in some ways, such as the adoption of food security as a core public health program. Public Health's leadership role in food security is constrained by a restricted mandate, limited ability to collaborate across a wide range of sectors and levels, as well as internal conflict within Public Health between Food Security and Food Protection programs. Public Health has a role in advancing food security, but it also faces limitations. As the limitations are primarily systemic and institutional, recommendations to overcome them are not simple but, rather, require movement toward embracing the determinants of health and regulatory pluralism. The results also suggest that the historic role of Public Health in food security remains salient today.

  8. Phylogenetic diversification of Equisetum (Equisetales) as inferred from Lower Cretaceous species of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanich, Nicholas A; Rothwell, Gar W; Stockey, Ruth A

    2009-07-01

    Three types of anatomically preserved vegetative shoots with features that characterize crown group Equisetum have been discovered in Lower Cretaceous deposits (≈136 Ma) of British Columbia, Canada, suggesting the genus is much older than currently believed. Specimens include two types of aerial shoots described as E. haukeanum sp. nov. and E. vancouverense sp. nov. and one type of subterranean rhizome. Shoots are 1-2 mm in diameter, jointed, and in cross section have fluted stems with a hollow pith. Distinctive patterns of cortical sclerenchyma and different ridge morphologies characterize each shoot morphotype. Nodes display irregular branching, highly fused leaf sheaths, and a nodal diaphragm. The aerial stem morphospecies have vallecular canals on alternating radii with carinal canals of an equisetostele surrounded by only a few tracheids. No secondary tissues are produced. Bands of surficial stomata flank the furrows of one morphospecies. Rhizomes and aerial shoots are of a similar size, suggesting that the plants were equivalent in stature to the smallest living Equisetum species. These fossils augment our understanding of evolutionary transformations that led from Paleozoic Archaeocalamitaceae and Calamitaceae to crown group Equisetaceae, suggesting that the initial diversification of Equisetum began far earlier than suggested by molecular-clock-based estimates.

  9. TransCanada's Alberta hub : a great market for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined commercial gas transmission activities along TransCanada Pipelines' wholly owned regulated pipelines in western Canada, including the Alberta System and the British Columbia (BC) System. TransCanada Pipelines owns and operates 41,000 km of pipeline that transport 11.5 billion cubic feet of gas per day. TransCanada's efforts to improve Alberta System economics were described along with the services it has developed to better connect supply and improve market access. This presentation included several illustrations depicting North American gas supply and demand; frontier resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB); pipelines that accommodate northern gas; Alberta gas demand; and, Pacific gas demand; The integration of the Gas Transmission Northwest (GTN) System in the energy grid of western North America was also discussed. It was determined that production from the WCSB remains stable and supply from BC will remain a key growth area for the WCSB. In addition, enhancements to the Alberta Hub, facilitated by TransCanada's Nova Inventory Transfer, will provides a great market for BC gas. figs

  10. Distribution, genetic richness and phage sensitivity of Vibrio spp. from coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the distribution, susceptibility to viral infection and genetic diversity of Vibrio spp. in the coastal waters and sediments of British Columbia during summer (July and August). Abundances of presumptive Vibrio spp. ranged from 1.5 to 346 ml(-1) within the water column (1-291 m); whereas, abundances at the water-sediment interface were much higher (up to approximately 3 x 10(4)Vibrio spp. cc(-1)), and decreased with sediment depth (down to 30 cm). The genetic diversity of Vibrio spp. isolates was not tied to the location from which they originated and was only influenced in a minor way by the type of environment. However, the environment had a greater effect on phage-typing patterns. Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from environments with high abundances of cells (sediments and oysters) were generally more susceptible to viral infection than those from the water column which were highly resistant. Therefore, although Vibrio spp. were widespread in the areas investigated, the results show that there is segregation of bacterial host strains in different environments, under differing selection pressures, which ultimately will affect in situ phage production.

  11. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  12. Large bedrock slope failures in a British Columbia, Canada fjord: first documented submarine sackungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kim W.; Vaughn Barrie, J.

    2018-01-01

    Very large (>60×106 m3) sackungen or deep-seated gravitational slope deformations occur below sea level along a steep fjord wall in central Douglas Channel, British Columbia. The massive bedrock blocks were mobile between 13 and 11.5 thousand radiocarbon years BP (15,800 and 13,400 BP) immediately following deglaciation. Deformation of fjord sediments is apparent in sedimentary units overlying and adjacent to the blocks. Faults bound the edges of each block, cutting the glacial section but not the Holocene sediments. Retrogressive slides, small inset landslides as well as incipient and older slides are found on and around the large failure blocks. Lineations, fractures and faults parallel the coastline of Douglas Channel along the shoreline of the study area. Topographic data onshore indicate that faults and joints demarcate discrete rhomboid-shaped blocks which controlled the form, size and location of the sackungen. The described submarine sackungen share characteristic geomorphic features with many montane occurrences, such as uphill-facing scarps, foliated bedrock composition, largely vertical dislocation and a deglacial timing of development.

  13. Late Miocene mollusks from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Warren O.

    1978-01-01

    A fauna of bivalve mollusks, scattered gastropods, and an echinoid from exposures of the Skonun Formation in the northeastern part of Graham Island is indicative of an early late Miocene age and correlation with the provincial Wishkahan Stage. The molluscan assemblages are from the upper 600 of the 1800-m-thick marine and nonmarine formation, which appears to be entirely of late Miocene age. The Skonun Formation is the strandline fa.cies of marginal marine and nonmarine deposits of the northwestern part of the Queen Charlotte basin, a Nieogene embayment paralleling the modern mainland coast. The molluscan fauna and associated lignite beds are known from a few widely scattered outcrops; they are indicative of alternating marine and nonmarine to brackish-water environments in the upper part of the formation. The Skonun fauna occurs near the northern boundary of the Pacific Northwest Neogene molluscan province. It is the only marine Neogene molluscan fauna known from the British Columbia coast. The fauna has strong taxonomic ties with the fauna of the Empire Formation of southwestern Oregon and has several species in common with the upper Miocene of the Lituya district, southeastern Alaska, implying that these three faunas are coeval.

  14. 'Heated political dynamics exist ...': examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.

  15. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  16. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences between diploma and baccalaureate dental hygiene education in British Columbia: a qualitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunell, S; McFarlane, Rdd; Biggar, H C

    2017-08-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Health in Canada approved a new registration category for dental hygienists in 2012. This category included four abilities that registrants were required to demonstrate at a 4th-year baccalaureate degree level. To identify the differences, if any, between diploma and bachelor's degree education with regard to the 4 legislated abilities focused on the process of care for clients with complex needs and/or disabling conditions including client safety, referrals and interprofessional collaboration. Registrants who had entered practice with a diploma and then gained a baccalaureate degree were invited to participate in an online survey including closed- and open-ended questions. The study was a mixed-method design where the qualitative data were nested concurrently in the open-ended questions; the data were analysed through thematic analysis using grounded theory methods. Respondents (n = 123; 51%) indicated their client care had improved with baccalaureate education due to increased knowledge, increased understanding and increased abilities to make judgements with a particular emphasis on evidence-based decisions. These more advanced abilities provided them with increased confidence for taking action particularly in interprofessional contexts and increased the quality of their decision-making thus leading to better care for clients. Respondents described their dental hygiene services as generally being of a higher standard and specifically in the 4 legislated abilities as a direct result of baccalaureate education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dental caries disparities in early childhood: A study of kindergarten children in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Brenda T; Holley, Paul C; Louie, Amber M; Springinotic, Carla M

    2015-05-04

    The objective of this paper was to describe results of a public health-administered, provincial dental survey of children aged 4-6 years old in British Columbia, and assess the changes in rates of dental caries geographically and by neighbourhood socio-economic status between baseline (2006/07) and follow-up data collection (2009/10). The study design involved two retrospective cohorts of kindergarten children who received a public health-administered dental assessment in the years 2006/07 and 2009/10. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by an index created from Canadian Census and Tax Filer data sets. The dental outcomes included previous decay experience, untreated visible decay, and urgent treatment needs. The analysis comprised dental outcomes for 35,602 kindergarten children in 2006/07 and 35,215 children in 2009/10. There was a modest decrease in dental decay rates between surveys, with rates of decay experience - previous and untreated - of 38.9% and 36.7% respectively. However, there were disparities, with almost 50% of children with dental decay in the most socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, and approximately 30% with dental decay in the least disadvantaged areas. The kindergarten dental survey had extensive coverage, was at the population level, and enabled analysis of change in early childhood dental decay rates over time and by geography. Although overall rates improved, dental health inequalities persisted in both survey years at both regional and neighbourhood levels.

  19. Perspectives on community dental clinics and oral health inequities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bruce B; MacEntee, Michael I

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the expansion of community dental clinics to address oral health inequities in the province of British Columbia (BC) from the perspectives of dental professionals and allied service-providers. Sixty-three people participated in individual and group interviews with dentists (n=4), dental hygienists (n=30), dental clinic staff (n=17), and other health care and social service providers (n=12). We identified two service-models: a volunteer-charitable (VC) model typically operating part-time mostly to relieve pain and a not-for-profit (NFP) model open full-time usually within a community health centre with paid staff providing basic dental services. Community dental clinics are increasing in number to fill a gap in the oral health care of disadvantaged people in BC. Staff in these clinics raised questions indirectly about distributive justice and health care inequity by suggesting that the unmet dental need of vulnerable people requires political attention and that restricted dentistry for underserved communities is socially unacceptable.

  20. Impacts of the operation of existing hydroelectric developments on fishery resources in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of 46 hydroelectric dams and diversions in British Columbia are reviewed, and available information on the inland sport fish resources within and below the impoundments are summarized. The projects are collectively responsible for ca 95% of the electrical power used in the province. The characteristics detailed include water license and operational constraints, electrical generation, enhancement facilities, operational regime, physical and chemical environment, downstream system, sportfish populations, and recreational fishery. All the hydroelectric impoundments reviewed, with the possible exceptions of some small headponds, support sport fish populations. Recreational angling quality is considered good for about one quarter of impoundments for which information is available. Low population density is the dominant reason for poor angling quality. Drawdowns exceeding 10 m annually and/or low water retention times are significant impediments to sport fish stock densities. Recommended measures to improve sport fishery resources in and below hydroelectric impoundments include evaluation of the efficiency of ongoing compensation programs, improvement to impact assessment procedures to ensure adequate documentation of pre- and post-impoundment conditions, and enhancement of several systems through stock or nutritional supplementation. 161 refs., 95 figs., 9 tabs

  1. British Columbia Utilities Commission service plan 2004/2005 - 2006/2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The mandate of the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC) is to ensure that customers receive safe, reliable and non-discriminatory energy services at fair rates from the utilities. It must also ensure that the shareholders of the utilities have a reasonable opportunity to earn a fair return on the invested capital. This report describes the following six key areas that underlie the Commission's strategic planning for the next 3 years: (1) regulation of automobile insurance, (2) energy policy implementation, (3) natural gas commodity costs, (4) commercial unbundling and customer choice, (5) energy trade, and (6) benchmarking. The report also describes strategic issues with reference to priorities, shifts and risk management. Alignment with the government's strategic plan was also reviewed. The financial outlook for 2003/04 and 2006/07 shows that the Commission intends to fully recover costs from the utilities it regulates. The budget for 2003/04 has increased somewhat from the forecasted amount for the same period reported in the previous year's service plan. This is due to an expanded mandate. Forecast values for the 2004/05 and 2005/06 planning periods have decreased slightly compared to the previous year's plan. tabs., figs

  2. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  3. Microbial water quality communication: public and practitioner insights from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, G; Henrich, N; Holmes, B; Harris, L; Prystajecky, N

    2014-09-01

    This work examines the communication interactions of water suppliers and health authorities with the general public regarding microbial source water quality for recreational and drinking water. We compare current approaches to risk communication observable in British Columbia (BC), Canada, with best practices derived from the communications literature, finding significant gaps between theory and practice. By considering public views and government practices together, we identify key disconnects, leading to the conclusion that at present, neither the public's needs nor public health officials' goals are being met. We find: (1) there is a general lack of awareness and poor understanding by the public of microbial threats to water and the associated health implications; (2) the public often does not know where to find water quality information; (3) public information needs are not identified or met; (4) information sharing by authorities is predominantly one-way and reactive (crisis-oriented); and (5) the effectiveness of communications is not evaluated. There is a need for both improved public understanding of water quality-related risks, and new approaches to ensure information related to water quality reaches audiences. Overall, greater attention should be given to planning and goal setting related to microbial water risk communication.

  4. Application of CALPUFF to PM10 emissions from beehive burners in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccone, A.D. [Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Waddell, G. [Canadian Forest Products Ltd., Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The complex local topography of the Bulkley Valley in the British Columbia interior greatly influences the local meteorology and climatology. The communities of Smithers and Houston which are located in the valley are hosts to three mills which operate conical burners for waste disposal and which define the extent of airshed. The CALMET/CALPUFF modelling system was chosen as a means to evaluate the contribution of the burners to the local airshed. CALPUFF was chosen because of the combined conditions of complex terrain and low wind speed in the region. Since MM5 gridded meteorological data was available from the BC Ministry of Environment to initialize the wind fields for CALMET in 1995, modelling was conducted in that year. CALPUFF provided 24-hour PM10 ground level concentrations over a 54 km by 72 km range. This included monitoring stations in the airshed. The impact from the conical burners was found to be low compared to the monitoring data which was collected. However, it was determined that the model was able to describe hourly changes in ambient PM10 levels, which reflected the hourly monitoring station data. The region is now equipped with a modelling platform that can be used to help in air pollution source appointment as well as for the management general air quality.

  5. Sensitive clay landslide detection and characterization in and around Lakelse Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Marten; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Kwoll, Eva; Menounos, Brian; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Grenier, Alain; Wiebe, Kelsey

    2018-02-01

    The Lakelse Lake area in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, has a long history, and prehistory, of rapid sensitive clay landslides moving on very low gradients. However, until now, many landslides have gone undetected. We use an array of modern tools to identify hitherto unknown or poorly known landslide deposits, including acoustic subbottom profiles, multibeam sonar, and LiDAR. The combination of these methods reveals not only landslide deposits, but also geomorphic and sedimentologic structures that give clues about landslide type and mode of emplacement. LiDAR and bathymetric data reveal the areal extent of landslide deposits as well as the orientation of ridges that differentiate between spreading and flowing kinematics. The subbottom profiles show two-dimensional structures of disturbed landslide deposits, including horst and grabens indicative of landslides classified as spreads. A preliminary computer tomography (CT) scan of a sediment core confirms the structures of one subbottom profile. We also use archival data from the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure and resident interviews to better characterize historic landslides.

  6. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles microplastics are small, they are available to many filter-feeding organisms, which can then be consumed by higher trophic level organisms, including humans. This study documents the quantity of microplastics present in wild and cultured Manila clams (Venerupis philippinarum). Three active shellfish farms and three reference beaches (i.e., non-shellfish farm sites) in Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  7. The Effects of Disturbance History on Ground-Layer Plant Community Composition in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant communities are sensitive to perturbations and may display alternative recovery pathways depending on disturbance history. In sub-boreal lodgepole pine forests of central interior British Columbia, Canada, fire and logging are two widespread landscape disturbances that overlap in many regions. We asked whether cumulative, short-interval disturbance from logging and fire resulted in different ground-layer plant communities than resulted from fire alone. Using field-collected data, we compared the taxonomic composition and functional traits of 3-year old plant communities that were either harvested 6-to-13 years prior, or not harvested prior to being burned in a large stand-replacing fire. The taxonomic composition diverged between the two treatments, driven primarily by differences in a few key indicator species such as Petasites frigidus and Vaccinium membranaceum. Analysis of individual species’ morphological traits indicated that only a few species vary in size in relation to disturbance history. Our data suggest that a history of forest harvest leaves a subtle footprint on post-fire ground-layer plant communities at early stages of succession.

  8. Evaluation of a mobile diabetes care telemedicine clinic serving Aboriginal communities in Northern British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew J; Martin, David; Maberley, David; Dawson, Keith G; Seccombe, David W; Beattie, Joyce

    2004-01-01

    In British Columbia, Aboriginal diabetes prevalence, hospitalization and mortality rates are all more than twice as high as in the rest of the population. We describe and evaluate a program to improve access to diabetes care for Aboriginal people in northern communities. Cost-effectiveness evaluation. A diabetes nurse educator and an ophthalmic technician travel to Aboriginal reserves, offering people with diabetes services recommended in current clinical practice guidelines: retinopathy screening by digital retinal fundus photography, glaucoma screening by tonometry, point-of-care urine and blood testing to detect microalbuminuria and dyslipidemia and to measure glycated hemoglobin, foot examinations and foot care advice, blood pressure and height and weight measurement and diabetes care advice. Via electronic communication, an ophthalmologist and an endocrinologist in Vancouver review the findings and supervise the mobile clinic staff. During the first year, 25 clinics were held at 22 sites, examining 339 clients with diabetes. Exit surveys showed high levels of client satisfaction. Mean cost per client (Cdn dollars 1,231) was less than for the alternative, transporting clients to care in the nearest cities (Cdn dollars 1,437). The mobile clinic is cost-effective and improves access to the recommended standard of diabetes care.

  9. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  10. Satellite-derived aerosol radiative forcing from the 2004 British Columbia wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Leighton, H.

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia wildfires of 2004 was one of the largest wildfire events in the last ten years in Canada. Both the shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) are investigated using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Relationships between the radiative forcing fluxes (??F) and wildfire aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.55 ??m (??0.55) are deduced for both noontime instantaneous forcing and diurnally averaged forcing. The noontime averaged instantaneous shortwave and longwave smoke aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA are 45.8??27.5 W m-2 and -12.6??6.9 W m-2, respectively for a selected study area between 62??N and 68??N in latitude and 125??W and 145??W in longitude over three mainly clear-sky days (23-25 June). The derived diurnally averaged smoke aerosol shortwave radiative forcing is 19.9??12.1 W m-2 for a mean ??0.55 of 1.88??0.71 over the same time period. The derived ??F-?? relationship can be implemented in the radiation scheme used in regional climate models to assess the effect of wildfire aerosols.

  11. Remote Sensing Analysis of a Rapidly Eroding Sea Cliff at Point Grey, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, A. M.; Francioni, M.; Kremsater, R.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    A range of remote sensing tools can be used to document hazardous and sensitive environments. Presented at this time are the first results of an ongoing study of a rapidly eroding, steep sea cliff in Vancouver, British Columbia. The sea cliff is formed in a 70-m-thick sequence of outwash sands and silts (Quadra Sand) deposited during the early part of the last glaciation, known locally as the Fraser Glaciation. The sea cliff is unstable and retreating due to wave attack, groundwater seepage, and shallow-seated landslides. If no measures are taken to stem wave erosion, the sea cliff will likely retreat faster with rising seas over the remainder of this century. The beach below the cliff is a popular recreational location, thus a hard engineering solution to the erosion problem might be unacceptable to Vancouver residents. We have used conventional photogrammetry, structures from motion, thermal imaging, and terrestrial full waveform laser scanning to provide base-line spatial data for the most rapidly eroding section of the cliff. Here, we present some of our results and discuss the challenges that we faced in characterizing this large soil slope.

  12. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  13. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  14. Mercury in fish from the Pinchi Lake Region, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weech, S.A.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Elliott, J.E.; Cheng, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water, surface sediments, and <40 cm rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected from Pinchi Lake, British Columbia, and from several nearby reference lakes. Hg concentrations in sediment samples from Pinchi L. were highly elevated compared to sediments from reference lakes, especially in sites adjacent to and downstream of a former Hg mine. In both fish species examined, Hg concentration was positively related to age and/or fork length. In northern pikeminnow, Hg concentrations were also positively related to trophic level (δN). Hg concentrations in both fish species were highest in Pinchi L., and were higher in pikeminnow than in rainbow trout of similar size. Average Hg concentrations in small rainbow trout from all lakes, including Pinchi L., were lower than dietary levels reported to cause reproductive impairment in common loons (Gavia immer); however, Hg levels in small pikeminnow from Pinchi L. were sufficiently high to be of concern. The risk for Hg toxicity in the study area is greatest for animals that consume larger piscivorous fish such as larger northern pikeminnow or lake trout, which are known from previous studies to contain higher Hg concentrations

  15. Epidemiological investigation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in salt water net-pen reared Atlantic salmon in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Ribble, Carl S.; Stephen, Craig; Anderson, Eric; Kurath, Gael; Kent, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiological study of infectious hematopoietic necrosis viral disease (IHN) in farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia was conducted to better understand the management of this disease. The study consisted of a descriptive retrospective investigation of 18 IHN outbreaks on farms between 1992 and 1996, and a prospective surveillance program for the viral disease, after an area management plan was implemented to reduce the viral load around farms and farm-to-farm spread of the virus.

  16. The Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Prospective Cohort of Injection Drug Users in Vancouver, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Kuyper

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While several studies have reported on sexual risk behaviours and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among injection drug users (IDUs, there are fewer prospective studies that have been able to examine populations of IDUs with no history of STIs. Therefore, the authors examined prevalence, correlates and factors associated with time to first STI infection in a prospective cohort of IDUs in Vancouver, British Columbia.

  17. A Tale of Two Climate Policies: Political Economy of British Columbia's Carbon Tax and Clean Electricity Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Rhodes; Mark Jaccard

    2013-01-01

    In 2007-08, British Columbia implemented two significant climate policies: the first broadly based carbon tax and the first almost 100-percent "clean" electricity standard in North America. We describe the key design characteristics of these policies and analyse them against the criteria of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, economic efficiency, administrative feasibility, and public acceptance. We find that the clean electricity standard is estimated to reduce four to six times more ...

  18. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Hills, L.V.; Clague, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Charcoal fragments recovered from the Mazama air-fall tephra layer in cores from Dog and Cobb lakes, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, yielded accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 6720 ± 70 and 6760 ± 70 14 C years BP, respectively. These two new ages, together with other previously published radiocarbon ages on charcoal and twig fragments from Mazama air-fall deposits, indicate that the climatic eruption of Mount Mazama occurred 6730 ± 40 14 C years BP. (author)

  19. Variations in uranium and radioactivity levels in surface and ground water at selected sites in British Columbia, April 1980 - March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes field and analytical work carried out between April, 1980 and March, 1981 on a program to investigate uranium and radioactivity levels in potable surface and ground water in selected regions throughout British Columbia

  20. Minimum alcohol prices and outlet densities in British Columbia, Canada: estimated impacts on alcohol-attributable hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices were associated with reduced alcohol-attributable hospital admissions in British Columbia. The longitudinal panel study (2002-2009) incorporated minimum alcohol prices, density of alcohol outlets, and age- and gender-standardized rates of acute, chronic, and 100% alcohol-attributable admissions. We applied mixed-method regression models to data from 89 geographic areas of British Columbia across 32 time periods, adjusting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation, moving average effects, season, and a range of economic and social variables. A 10% increase in the average minimum price of all alcoholic beverages was associated with an 8.95% decrease in acute alcohol-attributable admissions and a 9.22% reduction in chronic alcohol-attributable admissions 2 years later. A Can$ 0.10 increase in average minimum price would prevent 166 acute admissions in the 1st year and 275 chronic admissions 2 years later. We also estimated significant, though smaller, adverse impacts of increased private liquor store density on hospital admission rates for all types of alcohol-attributable admissions. Significant health benefits were observed when minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia were increased. By contrast, adverse health outcomes were associated with an expansion of private liquor stores.

  1. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following a severe wildfire season in 2003, and several subsequent damaging debris flow and flood events, the British Columbia Forest Service developed a procedure for analysing risks to public safety and infrastructure from such events. At the same time, the Forest Service undertook a research program to determine the extent of post-wildfire hazards, and examine the hydrologic and geomorphic processes contributing to the hazards. The risk analysis procedure follows the Canadian Standards Association decision-making framework for risk management (which in turn is based on international standards). This has several steps: identification of risk, risk analysis and estimation, evaluation of risk tolerability, developing control or mitigation strategies, and acting on these strategies. The Forest Service procedure deals only with the first two steps. The results are passed on to authorities such as the Provincial Emergency Program and local government, who are responsible for evaluating risks, warning residents, and applying mitigation strategies if appropriate. The objective of the procedure is to identify and analyse risks to public safety and infrastructure. The procedure is loosely based on the BAER (burned area emergency response) program in the USA, with some important differences. Our procedure focuses on identifying risks and warning affected parties, not on mitigation activities such as broadcast erosion control measures. Partly this is due to limited staff and financial resources. Also, our procedure is not multi-agency, but is limited to wildfires on provincial forest land; in British Columbia about 95% of forest land is in the publicly-owned provincial forest. Each fire season, wildfires are screened by size and proximity to values at risk such as populated areas. For selected fires, when the fire is largely contained, the procedure begins with an aerial reconnaissance of the fire, and photography with a hand-held camera, which can be used to make a

  2. Does general surgery residency prepare surgeons for community practice in British Columbia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hamish

    2009-01-01

    Background Preparing surgeons for clinical practice is a challenging task for postgraduate training programs across Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single surgeon entering practice was adequately prepared by comparing the type and volume of surgical procedures experienced in the last 3 years of training with that in the first year of clinical practice. Methods During the last 3 years of general surgery training, I logged all procedures. In practice, the Medical Services Plan (MSP) of British Columbia tracks all procedures. Using MSP remittance reports, I compiled the procedures performed in my first year of practice. I totaled the number of procedures and broke them down into categories (general, colorectal, laparoscopic, endoscopic, hepatobiliary, oncologic, pediatric, thoracic, vascular and other). I then compared residency training with community practice. Results I logged a total of 1170 procedures in the last 3 years of residency. Of these, 452 were performed during community rotations. The procedures during residency could be broken down as follows: 392 general, 18 colorectal, 242 laparoscopic, 103 endoscopic, 85 hepatobiliary, 142 oncologic, 1 pediatric, 78 thoracic, 92 vascular and 17 other. I performed a total of 1440 procedures in the first year of practice. In practice the break down was 398 general, 15 colorectal, 101 laparoscopic, 654 endoscopic, 2 hepatobiliary, 77 oncologic, 10 pediatric, 0 thoracic, 70 vascular and 113 other. Conclusion On the whole, residency provided excellent preparation for clinical practice based on my experience. Areas of potential improvement included endoscopy, pediatric surgery and “other,” which comprised mostly hand surgery. PMID:19503663

  3. Treatment outcomes for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis under program conditions in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Kamila; Chiang, Leslie Y; Roth, David Z; Krajden, Mel; Tang, Patrick; Cook, Victoria J; Johnston, James C

    2017-09-04

    Every year, over 1 million people develop isoniazid (INH) resistant tuberculosis (TB). Yet, the optimal treatment regimen remains unclear. Given increasing prevalence, the clinical efficacy of regimens used by physicians is of interest. This study aims to examine treatment outcomes of INH resistant TB patients, treated under programmatic conditions in British Columbia, Canada. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed for cases of culture-confirmed INH mono-resistant TB reported to the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) from 2002 to 2014. Treatment regimens, patient and strain characteristics, and clinical outcomes were analysed. One hundred sixty five cases of INH mono-resistant TB were included in analysis and over 30 different treatment regimens were prescribed. Median treatment duration was 10.5 months (IQR 9-12 months) and treatment was extended beyond 12 months for 26 patients (15.8%). Fifty six patients (22.6%) experienced an adverse event that resulted in a drug regimen modification. Overall, 140 patients (84.8%) had a successful treatment outcome while 12 (7.2%) had an unsuccessful treatment outcome of failure (n = 2; 1.2%), relapse (n = 4; 2.4%) or all cause mortality (n = 6; 3.6%). Our treatment outcomes, while consistent with findings reported from other studies in high resource settings, raise concerns about current recommendations for INH resistant TB treatment. Only a small proportion of patients completed the recommended treatment regimens. High quality studies to confirm the effectiveness of standardized regimens are urgently needed, with special consideration given to trials utilizing fluoroquinolones.

  4. High frequency of intermediate alleles on Huntington disease-associated haplotypes in British Columbia's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaka, Alicia; Kay, Chris; Doty, Crystal N; Collins, Jennifer A; Tam, Natalie; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Intermediate alleles (27-35 CAG, IAs) for Huntington disease (HD) usually do not confer the disease phenotype but are prone to CAG repeat instability. Consequently, offspring are at-risk of inheriting an expanded allele in the HD range (≥36 CAG). IAs that expand into a new mutation have been hypothesized to be more susceptible to instability compared to IAs identified on the non-HD side of a family from the general population. Frequency estimates for IAs are limited and have largely been determined using clinical samples of HD or related disorders, which may result in an ascertainment bias. This study aimed to establish the frequency of IAs in a sample of a British Columbia's (B.C.) general population with no known association to HD and examine the haplotype of new mutation and general population IAs. CAG sizing was performed on 1,600 DNA samples from B.C.'s general population. Haplotypes were determined using 22 tagging SNPs across the HTT gene. 5.8% of individuals were found to have an IA, of which 60% were on HD-associated haplotypes. There was no difference in the haplotype distribution of new mutation and general population IAs. These findings suggest that IAs are relatively frequent in the general population and are often found on haplotypes associated with expanded CAG lengths. There is likely no difference in the propensity of new mutation and general population IAs to expand into the disease range given that they are both found on disease-associated haplotypes. These findings have important implications for clinical practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Andrea C.; Howard, A. Fuchsia; Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah; Hasan, Haroon; Goddard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB

  6. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Schultz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  7. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica A; Cloutier, Ryan N; Côté, Isabelle M

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides-a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates-began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  8. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  9. NEW HETTANGIAN AMMONITE FAUNAS AND A TRIASSIC - JURASSIC BOUNDARY SUCCESSION, FERNIE FORMATION, WILLISTON LAKE, BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSSELL HALL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new shoreline section on Peace Reach, Williston Lake, north-eastern British Columbia, provides continuous exposure through a Triassic-Jurassic boundary succession, with apparent stratigraphic continuity from the Pardonet Formation (Upper Norian into the overlying Fernie Formation (Hettangian and younger. These rocks are part of autochthonous North America, deposited along the western margin of the Jurassic craton. The section at Black Bear Ridge consists of 22 m of flaggy-bedded, brown-weathering siltstones and several thick, resistant siltstones, and contains calcareous concretions which have yielded most of the three-dimensional ammonites. While it is clear these ammonites represent parts of the lower, middle and upper Hettangian, the sequence of faunas differs somewhat from those reported from the Queen Charlotte Islands and Nevada. This is the first record of an extensive sequence of Hettangian strata and ammonite faunas in the Fernie Formation. Lower Hettangian faunas include poorly preserved, laterally flattened Psiloceras (P. majus, P. plicatum, P. cf. rectocostatum, P. cf. planocostatum, occurring throughout the lower part of the section from 3.0 to 8.3 m. At 9.5 m Waehneroceras appears, representing the middle Hettangian, followed by Sunrisites sunrisense at 10.8 m, and the first Schlotheimia at 13.3 m. A single large specimen of Alsatites liasicus is associated with these faunas. Beds above 13.3 m yield several species of Schlotheimia (S. angulata, S. angulata densicostata, S. cf. oxygonia, Kammerkarites frigga and Laqueoceras sp., indicating the lower parts of the upper Hettangian. Uppermost Hettangian faunas occur at the top of the exposed section in beds from 21.0 to 21.7 m, and include Badouxia (B. canadensis, B. striata, B. oregonensis and Pseudaetomoceras doetzkirchneri.

  10. Subtidal circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles G.; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Dosso, Stan

    2017-05-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in the fjord system that connects the town of Kitimat to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. A 200 m depth sill divides Douglas Channel into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected at three moorings deployed during 2013-2015. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from May/June to early September. A dense bottom layer with a thickness of 100 m that cascades through the system at the speed of 0.1-0.2 m s-1, which is consistent with gravity currents. Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill depth, and the observed landward net volume flux suggests that it is necessary to include the entire complex channel network to fully understand the estuarine circulation in the system. The influence of the wind forcing on the subtidal circulation is not only at the surface, but also at middepth. The along-channel wind dominates the surface current velocity fluctuations and the sea level response to the wind produces a velocity signal at 100-120 m in the counter-wind direction. Overall, the circulation in the seasonal and the meteorological bands is a mix of estuarine flow, direct wind-driven flow, and the barotropic and baroclinic responses to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind stress.

  11. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Exploring the strategies that midwives in British Columbia use to promote normal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M

    2017-06-05

    Rates of normal birth have been declining steadily over the past 20 years, despite the evidence of the benefits to mother and baby. This is most obvious in steadily increasing caesarean section rates across countries and studies of the factors involved suggest it may be more to do with the organization of maternity care and the preferences of healthcare providers than changes in maternal or demographic conditions. The proportion of women in British Columbia (BC) receiving care from a midwife continues to grow and there is a particular focus on promoting and supporting normal pregnancy and birth in the midwifery philosophy of care. In BC, women receiving care from a midwife are less likely to have a caesarean section and other birth interventions. An interpretive approach, based on interpretive phenomenology was used to explore the experiences of midwives in BC of normal birth and the strategies that they use to keep birth normal. Fourteen experienced midwives were purposively selected from across the range of practice, geographical, and rural/urban contexts to participate in depth interviews. Data were analyzed using Thematic Network Analysis. Seven key themes were identified in the data: working with women from the early pregnancy, informing choice, the birth environment, careful watching and waiting, managing early labour, helping the woman to cope with labour, and tools in the tool kit. Midwives in BC work closely with women from early pregnancy to prepare them for a normal birth, and as "instruments of care" they adopt a range of approaches to support women to achieve this. The emphasis on continuity of care in the BC model of midwifery care plays a vital role in this.

  13. The Cedar Project: mortality among young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Kate; Pearce, Margo E; Pooyak, Sherri; Zamar, David; Thomas, Vicky; Demerais, Lou; Christian, Wayne M; Henderson, Earl; Sharma, Richa; Blair, Alden H; Yoshida, Eric M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2017-11-06

    Young Indigenous people, particularly those involved in the child welfare system, those entrenched in substance use and those living with HIV or hepatitis C, are dying prematurely. We report mortality rates among young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia and explore predictors of mortality over time. We analyzed data collected every 6 months between 2003 and 2014 by the Cedar Project, a prospective cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver and Prince George, BC. We calculated age-standardized mortality ratios using Indigenous and Canadian reference populations. We identified predictors of mortality using time-dependent Cox proportional hazard regression. Among 610 participants, 40 died between 2003 and 2014, yielding a mortality rate of 670 per 100 000 person-years. Young Indigenous people who used drugs were 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.2-17.5) times more likely to die than all Canadians the same age and were 7.8 (95% CI 5.6-10.6) times more likely to die than Indigenous people with Status in BC. Young women and those using drugs by injection were most affected. The leading causes of death were overdose ( n = 15 [38%]), illness ( n = 11 [28%]) and suicide ( n = 5 [12%]). Predictors of mortality included having hepatitis C at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.76, 95% CI 1.47-5.16), previous attempted suicide (adjusted HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01-3.50) and recent overdose (adjusted HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.00-8.09). Young Indigenous people using drugs in BC are dying at an alarming rate, particularly young women and those using injection drugs. These deaths likely reflect complex intersections of historical and present-day injustices, substance use and barriers to care. © 2017 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  14. Outcomes in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: analysis of 107 patients treated in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Katharine H; Kahlon, Amrit; Skinnider, Brian F; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Sehn, Laurie H; Savage, Kerry J; Slack, Graham W; Shenkier, Tamara N; Klasa, Richard; Gerrie, Alina S; Villa, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) accounts for less than 2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We identified 107 cases diagnosed with SMZL between 1985 and 2012 from the British Columbia Cancer Agency Centre for Lymphoid Cancer and Lymphoma Pathology Databases. Patient characteristics were: median age 67 years (range 30-88), male 40%, stage IV 98%, splenomegaly 93%, bone marrow involvement 96%, peripheral blood involvement 87%. As initial treatment, 52 underwent splenectomy (10 with chemotherapy), 38 chemotherapy alone (21 chemoimmunotherapy containing rituximab, 1 rituximab alone), two antivirals for hepatitis C, and 15 were only observed. The 10-year overall survival for first-line splenectomy versus chemotherapy was 61% and 42%, respectively [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0·48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·26-0·88, P = 0·017]. The 10-year failure-free survival (FFS) after first-line splenectomy vs chemotherapy was 39% and 14%, respectively (HR 0·48, 95% CI 0·28-0·80, P = 0·004). Among the 38 patients who received first-line chemotherapy, FFS was similar between those receiving rituximab (n = 22) and those who did not (n = 16) (HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·31-1·34, P = 0·238). Fifteen patients transformed to aggressive lymphoma with median time to transformation of 3·5 years (range 6 months to 12 years) and the 10-year transformation rate was 18%. In conclusion, splenectomy remains a reasonable treatment for patients with SMZL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Climatic impacts on the runoff generation processes in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of future climate change on runoff generation processes in two southern British Columbia catchments was explored using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCMa1 to estimate future changes in precipitation, temperature and cloud cover while the U.B.C. Watershed Model was used to simulate discharges and quantify the separate runoff components, i.e. rainfall, snowmelt, glacier melt and groundwater. Changes, not only in precipitation and temperature but also in the spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation, cloud cover, glacier extension, altitude distribution of vegetation, vegetation biomass production and plant physiology were considered. The future climate of the catchments would be wetter and warmer than the present. In the maritime rain-fed catchment of the Upper Campbell, runoff from rainfall is the most significant source of flow for present and future climatic conditions in the autumn and winter whereas runoff from groundwater generates the flow in spring and summer, especially for the future climate scenario. The total runoff, under the future climatic conditions, would increase in the autumn and winter and decrease in spring and summer. In contrast, in the interior snow-covered Illecillewaet catchment, groundwater is the most significant runoff generation mechanism in the autumn and winter although, at present, significant flow is generated from snowmelt in spring and from glacier runoff in summer. In the future scenario, the contribution to flow from snowmelt would increase in winter and diminish in spring while the runoff from the glacier would remain unchanged; groundwater would then become the most significant source of runoff, which would peak earlier in the season. Keywords: climatic change, hydrological simulation, rainfall, snowmelt, runoff processes

  16. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in Northern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We defined patterns of habitat use and selection by female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Besa-Prophet watershed of northern British Columbia. We fitted 13 adult females with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars and monitored them between 2001 and 2004. We examined patterns of habitat selection by grizzly bears relative to topographical attributes and 3 potential surrogates of food availability: land-cover class, vegetation biomass or quality (as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and selection value for prey species themselves (moose [Alces alces], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Although vegetation biomass and quality, and selection values for prey were important in seasonal selection by some individual bears, land-cover class, elevation, aspect, and vegetation diversity most influenced patterns of habitat selection across grizzly bears, which rely on availability of plant foods and encounters with ungulate prey. Grizzly bears as a group avoided conifer stands and areas of low vegetation diversity, and selected for burned land-cover classes and high vegetation diversity across seasons. They also selected mid elevations from what was available within seasonal ranges. Quantifying relative use of different attributes helped place selection patterns within the context of the landscape. Grizzly bears used higher elevations (1,595??31 m SE) in spring and lower elevations (1,436??27 m) in fall; the range of average elevations used among individuals was highest (500 m) during the summer. During all seasons, grizzly bears most frequented aspects with high solar gain. Use was distributed across 10 land-cover classes and depended on season. Management and conservation actions must maintain a diverse habitat matrix distributed across a large elevational gradient to ensure persistence of grizzly bears as levels of human access increase in the northern Rocky Mountains

  17. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  18. Drug use and risk of bloodborne infections: a survey of female prisoners in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth Elwood; Gold, Fiona; Murphy, Wendy; Remple, Valencia; Berkowitz, Jonathan; Money, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians working in a women's prison in British Columbia observed hepatitis C sero-conversion among inmates, prompting this study to determine: the characteristics of women who do and do not report illicit drug use in prison; patterns of drug use inside prison; factors associated with illicit drug use that might contribute to bloodborne transmission inside prison. A cross-sectional observational data set was created using an anonymous 61-item self-administered survey. Eighty-three percent (104/126) of eligible inmates participated. Seventy-four percent (77/104) reported their current prison sentence was related to illicit drug use and 25% (26/104) reported their ethnicity as Aboriginal. Ninety-three percent (97/104) reported a prior history of illicit drug use, of whom 70% (68/97) reported a history of injection drug use. Thirty-six percent (37/104) reported illicit drug use in prison, and 21% (22/104) reported injection drug use in prison. Fifty-two percent (54/104) reported hepatitis C sero-positivity, and 8% (8/104) reported HIV sero-positivity. Of the 22 women who reported prison injection drug use, 91% (20/22) reported hepatitis C infection and 86% (19/22) reported injecting with shared needles inside prison, with or without bleach cleaning. Women were more likely to report illicit drug use in prison if they had had illegal sources of income prior to incarceration (p=0.0081, OR 3.19), had previously injected drugs (p=0.036, OR 2.97), and had first injected drugs at a friend's house (p=0.066, OR 2.70). The majority of women reporting prison injection drug use also reported hepatitis C sero-positivity and shared needle use. Canadian prisons are risk situations for transmission of bloodborne pathogens, and provide opportunities for harm reduction strategies.

  19. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Bilal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. Methods IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14. Fisher's exact and Pearson's χ2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. Results We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24% occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0% p = 0.015. Conclusion Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  20. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  1. British Columbia hydrogen and fuel cell strategy : an industry vision for our hydrogen future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-15

    British Columbia's strategy for global leadership in hydrogen fuel cell technology was outlined. It was suggested that hydrogen and fuel cells will power a significant portion of the province by 2020, and will be used in homes, businesses, industry and transportation. The following 3 streams of activity were identified as leading to the achievement of this vision: (1) a hydrogen highway of technology demonstrations in vehicles, refuelling facilities and stationary power systems in time for and building on the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, (2) the development of a globally leading sustainable energy technology cluster that delivers products and services as well as securing high-value jobs, and (3) the renewal of the province's resource heartlands to supply the fuel and knowledge base for hydrogen-based communities and industries, and clean hydrogen production and distribution. It was suggested that in order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the government should promote the hydrogen highway and obtain $135 million in funding from various sources. It was recommended that the BC government and members of industry should also work with the federal government and other provinces to make Canada an early adopter market. Creative markets for BC products and services both in Canada and abroad will be accomplished by global partnerships, collaboration with Alberta and the United States. It was suggested that in order to deploy clean energy technologies, BC must integrate their strategy into the province's long-term sustainable energy plan. It was concluded that the hydrogen and fuel cell cluster has already contributed to the economy through jobs, private sector investment and federal and provincial tax revenues. The technology cluster's revenues have been projected at $3 billion with a workforce of 10,000 people by 2010. The hydrogen economy will reduce provincial air emissions, improve public health, and support sustainable tourism

  2. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-03-16

    Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The hydrochemistry of high-elevation lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation lakes are sensitive to acidification from atmospheric deposition owing to their generally small catchment areas, thin soils and low bedrock weathering rates. The Georgia Basin, southwest British Columbia, Canada, receives atmospheric inputs from emissions originating in Vancouver, Victoria, and from marine traffic in the Strait of Georgia. There is growing concern on the influence of this air pollution on high-elevation systems in the region. Water chemistry and catchment characteristics were used to assess the sensitivity of 72 lakes in the Georgia Basin to acidic deposition. Twenty percent of the study lakes had pH levels less than 6, and acid neutralising capacity (ANC concentrations below 20 μeq L–1, which are key thresholds for biological sustainability. Base cation and trace metal concentrations were low, typical of the dilute nature of high-elevation lakes (median conductivity = 7.0 μS cm–1. Nonetheless, concentrations of trace metals (such as lead decreased with distance from major cities. The primary factors influencing the pH and ANC of surface waters were investigated using multiple linear regression; both ANC and pH were related to longitude and the proportion of the catchment dominated by ice and glaciers. Increasing sulphur deposition resulted in decreasing pH. The median critical load of acidity (sulphur for the study lakes was approximately 70 meq m–2 y–1; 18% of the lakes received sulphur deposition (range: 6-81 meq m–2 y–1 for the period 2005-2006 in excess of their critical load.

  4. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-04-14

    High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students' levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007-08 (N=513) and 2011-12 (N=490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools.

  5. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

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    Lorna J O'Brien

    Full Text Available Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia. With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length, has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain

  6. A synthesis of scale-dependent ecology of the endangered mountain caribou in British Columbia, Canada

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    Robert Serrouya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou that live in highprecipitation, mountainous ecosystems of southeastern British Columbia and northern Idaho. The distribution and abundance of these caribou have declined dramatically from historical figures. Results from many studies have indicated that mountain caribou rely on old conifer forests for several life-history requirements including an abundance of their primary winter food, arboreal lichen, and a scarcity of other ungulates and their predators. These old forests often have high timber value, and understanding mountain caribou ecology at a variety of spatial scales is thus required to develop effective conservation strategies. Here we summarize results of studies conducted at three different spatial scales ranging from broad limiting factors at the population level to studies describing the selection of feeding sites within seasonal home ranges of individuals. The goal of this multi-scale review is to provide a more complete picture of caribou ecology and to determine possible shifts in limiting factors across scales. Our review produced two important results. First, mountain caribou select old forests and old trees at all spatial scales, signifying their importance for foraging opportunities as well as conditions required to avoid alternate ungulates and their predators. Second, relationships differ across scales. For example, landscapes dominated by roads and edges negatively affect caribou survival, but appear to attract caribou during certain times of the year. This juxtaposition of fine-scale behaviour with broad-scale vulnerability to predation could only be identified through integrated multi-scale analyses of resource selection. Consequently we suggest that effective management strategies for endangered species require an integrative approach across multiple spatial scales to avoid a focus that may be too narrow to maintain viable

  7. PUBLIC ATTITUDES, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DESAPRIYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the ninth most common cause of premature death worldwide and the third most common cause of years lived with disability. Many early deaths are related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC's: each year, MVC's kill 1.2 million people (3,242 deaths/day and injure or disable 20–50 million more. The Global Burden of Disease Study, conducted in the early 1990s, predicted that traffic-related injuries will become the third largest contributor to global death and disability by the year 2020. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. The substantial effect of alcohol on road safety has long been recognized, and a variety of important initiatives to combat this problem have been introduced with some measurable success. Canadians have rated drinking and driving as one of the most important social issues facing them today, placing it ahead of other prominent issues, including health care, pollution, and the state of the economy. Two factors that have contributed strongly to motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in British Columbia (BC and Canada are alcohol-impaired driving and failure to use seat belts. Drivers who operated motor vehicles after drinking were less likely to wear seat belts, and so they continue to be a major traffic safety concern. When compared to restrained occupants, unrestrained occupants were almost 5 times more likely to die (Odds Ratios (OR 4.70, or be injured (OR 4.66. Fractures (OR 10.70, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.35–15.5, lacerations (OR 7.50, CI 5.55-10.15 bleeding (OR 7.14, CI 4.97–10.26 and concussions (OR 5.49, CI 2.71-11.12, were the more common types of injuries experienced by unrestrained occupants compared to the restrained occupants. Laws mandate the use of safety belts by motor vehicle occupants, and driving under the influence of alcohol is a generic term for a series of offences under the Canadian Criminal Code. Violation of

  8. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  9. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm -3 average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM 3 , PM 10 , and PM 20 , respectively. In addition, for PM 10 and PM 20 , concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm -3 . Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a

  10. Nitrate release from waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fazilatun N; Barbour, S Lee; Kennedy, C; Hendry, M Jim

    2017-12-15

    The origin, distribution and leaching of nitrate (NO 3 - ) from coal waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada were defined using chemical and NO 3 - isotope analyses (δ 15 N- and δ 18 O-NO 3 - ) of solids samples of pre- and post-blast waste rock and from thick (up to 180m) unsaturated waste rock dump profiles constructed between 1982 and 2012 as well as water samples collected from a rock drain located at the base of one dump and effluent from humidity cell (HC) and leach pad (LP) tests on waste rock. δ 15 N- and δ 18 O-NO 3 - values and NO 3 - concentrations of waste rock and rock drain waters confirmed the source of NO 3 - in the waste rock to be explosives and that limited to no denitrification occurs in the dump. The average mass of N released during blasting was estimated to be about 3-6% of the N in the explosives. NO 3 - concentrations in the fresh-blast waste rock and recently placed waste rock used for the HC and LP experiments were highly variable, ranging from below detection to 241mg/kg. The mean and median concentrations of these samples ranged from 10-30mg/kg. In this range of concentrations, the initial aqueous concentration of fresh-blasted waste rock could range from approximately 200-600mg NO 3 - -N/L. Flushing of NO 3 - from the HCs, LPs and a deep field profile was simulated using a scale dependent leaching efficiency (f) where f ranged from 5-15% for HCs, to 35-80% for the LPs, to 80-90% for the field profile. Our findings show aqueous phase NO 3 - from blasting residuals is present at highly variable initial concentrations in waste rock and the majority of this NO 3 - (>75%) should be flushed by recharging water during displacement of the first stored water volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  12. Evaluating uncertainties in modelling the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Siraj Ul; Déry, Stephen J.

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates predictive uncertainties in the snow hydrology of the Fraser River Basin (FRB) of British Columbia (BC), Canada, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model forced with several high-resolution gridded climate datasets. These datasets include the Canadian Precipitation Analysis and the thin-plate smoothing splines (ANUSPLIN), North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), University of Washington (UW) and Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) gridded products. Uncertainties are evaluated at different stages of the VIC implementation, starting with the driving datasets, optimization of model parameters, and model calibration during cool and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The inter-comparison of the forcing datasets (precipitation and air temperature) and their VIC simulations (snow water equivalent - SWE - and runoff) reveals widespread differences over the FRB, especially in mountainous regions. The ANUSPLIN precipitation shows a considerable dry bias in the Rocky Mountains, whereas the NARR winter air temperature is 2 °C warmer than the other datasets over most of the FRB. In the VIC simulations, the elevation-dependent changes in the maximum SWE (maxSWE) are more prominent at higher elevations of the Rocky Mountains, where the PCIC-VIC simulation accumulates too much SWE and ANUSPLIN-VIC yields an underestimation. Additionally, at each elevation range, the day of maxSWE varies from 10 to 20 days between the VIC simulations. The snow melting season begins early in the NARR-VIC simulation, whereas the PCIC-VIC simulation delays the melting, indicating seasonal uncertainty in SWE simulations. When compared with the observed runoff for the Fraser River main stem at Hope, BC, the ANUSPLIN-VIC simulation shows considerable underestimation of runoff throughout the water year owing to reduced precipitation in the ANUSPLIN forcing dataset. The NARR-VIC simulation yields more winter and spring runoff and earlier decline

  13. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  14. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks

  15. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  16. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data in southwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Sheri; Dosso, Stan E.; Cassidy, John F.

    2010-11-01

    ) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in Canada, to study the ability to recover an accurate VS profile in relatively deep and shallow geological settings on the Fraser River delta in Greater Vancouver and in Victoria, respectively. A well-resolved VS profile to at least 110 m depth is determined at the Fraser River delta site for a power-law gradient parametrization. At the Victoria site, a layer with low VS and a weak linear gradient is indicated to 15-18 m depth, above much higher velocity material. Invasive VS measurements from seismic cone penetration testing and/or surface-to-downhole methods are used to assess the reliability of the Bayesian microtremor inversion results, with excellent agreement obtained at both sites.

  17. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P.

    2011-12-01

    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  18. Biologically induced mineralization of dypingite by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipple Gregory M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study provides experimental evidence for biologically induced precipitation of magnesium carbonates, specifically dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O, by cyanobacteria from an alkaline wetland near Atlin, British Columbia. This wetland is part of a larger hydromagnesite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·4H2O playa. Abiotic and biotic processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment are compared. Results Field observations show that evaporation of wetland water produces carbonate films of nesquehonite (MgCO3·3H2O on the water surface and crusts on exposed surfaces. In contrast, benthic microbial mats possessing filamentous cyanobacteria (Lyngbya sp. contain platy dypingite (Mg5(CO34(OH2·5H2O and aragonite. Bulk carbonates in the benthic mats (δ13C avg. = 6.7%, δ18O avg. = 17.2% were isotopically distinguishable from abiotically formed nesquehonite (δ13C avg. = 9.3%, δ18O avg. = 24.9%. Field and laboratory experiments, which emulated natural conditions, were conducted to provide insight into the processes for magnesium carbonate precipitation in this environment. Field microcosm experiments included an abiotic control and two microbial systems, one containing ambient wetland water and one amended with nutrients to simulate eutrophic conditions. The abiotic control developed an extensive crust of nesquehonite on its bottom surface during which [Mg2+] decreased by 16.7% relative to the starting concentration. In the microbial systems, precipitation occurred within the mats and was not simply due to the capturing of mineral grains settling out of the water column. Magnesium concentrations decreased by 22.2% and 38.7% in the microbial systems, respectively. Laboratory experiments using natural waters from the Atlin site produced rosettes and flakey globular aggregates of dypingite precipitated in association with filamentous cyanobacteria dominated biofilms cultured from the site, whereas the abiotic control again precipitated

  19. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brigode

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy

  20. Life-cycle assessment of transportation biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction of forest residues in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuhao; Bi, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of abundantly available forest residues in British Columbia (BC) can potentially make great contributions to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. A life-cycle assessment was conducted to quantify the GHG emissions of a hypothetic 100 million liters per year HTL biofuel system in the Coast Region of BC. Three scenarios were defined and investigated, namely, supply of bulky forest residues for conversion in a central integrated refinery (Fr-CIR), HTL of forest residues to bio-oil in distributed biorefineries and subsequent upgrading in a central oil refinery (Bo-DBR), and densification of forest residues in distributed pellet plants and conversion in a central integrated refinery (Wp-CIR). The life-cycle GHG emissions of HTL biofuels is 20.5, 17.0, and 19.5 g CO 2 -eq/MJ for Fr-CIR, Bo-DBR, and Wp-CIR scenarios, respectively, corresponding to 78-82% reduction compared with petroleum fuels. The conversion stage dominates the total GHG emissions, making up more than 50%. The process emitting most GHGs over the life cycle of HTL biofuels is HTL buffer production. Transportation emission, accounting for 25% of Fr-CIR, can be lowered by 83% if forest residues are converted to bio-oil before transportation. When the credit from biochar applied for soil amendment is considered, a further reduction of 6.8 g CO 2 -eq/MJ can be achieved. Converting forest residues to bio-oil and wood pellets before transportation can significantly lower the transportation emission and contribute to a considerable reduction of the life-cycle GHG emissions. Process performance parameters (e.g., HTL energy requirement and biofuel yield) and the location specific parameter (e.g., electricity mix) have significant influence on the GHG emissions of HTL biofuels. Besides, the recycling of the HTL buffer needs to be investigated to further improve the environmental performance of HTL biofuels.

  1. Geomagnetic field for the past 5 Myr recorded in lava flows from British Columbia, Patagonia, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Victoria

    2005-11-01

    Paleosecular variation (PSV) and time averaged field (TAF) results recorded in lava flows younger than 5 million years are presented. The targeted areas of studies are several volcanic fields from British Columbia (mainly the Silverthrone, Garibaldi, and Wells Park volcanic fields), Southern Patagonia (the Pali-Aike volcanic field and Meseta Viscachas lavas), and Mexico (the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt and several volcanic areas in San Luis Potosi). The purpose of this investigation was to obtain high quality paleomagetic data suitable to test the presence or absence of permanent non dipolar components of the field that have been interpreted from studies carried out with less rigor. The mean directions in the areas of British Columbia and Patagonia (roughly at 50° N and 50° S latitude) coincide with the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) at these areas. The presence of a quadrupolar component of the field is difficult to discard because it is expected to produce only about 1° shallower inclinations. The mean direction in the area of Mexico coincides with a GAD plus a 5% quadrupole. The VGP scatter in the three areas of study coincides with Model G. The asymmetry between the northern and southern hemisphere of the present magnetic field and particularly the 20° inclination anomaly relative to GAD in Patagonia, are not observed in the paleomagnetic data obtained, implying that the present field configuration is relatively recent. The results confirm that axial components prevail in the time-averaged field.

  2. The relationship between minimum alcohol prices, outlet densities and alcohol-attributable deaths in British Columbia, 2002-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Stockwell, Tim; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William R; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane

    2013-06-01

    To investigate relationships between periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices, changing densities of liquor stores and alcohol-attributable (AA) deaths in British Columbia, Canada. Cross-section (16 geographic areas) versus time-series (32 annual quarters) panel analyses were conducted with AA deaths as dependent variables and price, outlet densities and socio-demographic characteristics as independent variables. Populations of 16 Health Service Delivery Areas in British Columbia, Canada. Age-sex-standardized rates of acute, chronic and wholly AA mortality; population densities of restaurants, bars, government and private liquor stores; minimum prices of alcohol in dollars per standard drink. A 10% increase in average minimum price for all alcoholic beverages was associated with a 31.72% [95% confidence interval (CI): ± 25.73%, P stores was associated with a 2.45% (95% CI: ± 2.39%, P stores were associated with increases in alcohol-attributable mortality. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People: The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,18961942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  4. Gender differences in early trauma and high-risk behaviors among street-entrenched youth in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Torchalla, Iris; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate gender differences among the street-entrenched youth in British Columbia in terms of their demographics, experiences of childhood maltreatment, mental health issues, and substance use behaviors. Data were derived from the BC Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus and the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC)-Health Chapter. Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Females (55%) outnumbered males and engaged in survival sex more frequently (17.8%; p=0.03). Males had greater substance abuse of alcohol (81.1%) and cannabis (89.2%). Depression (p=0.02) and psychosis (p=0.05) were more common among females, while panic disorder was more common among males (p=0.04). Rates of childhood trauma were similar across genders. Our findings reflect trends among youth where illicit drug use may be similar among genders while males may report increased alcohol and cannabis use, possibly as a means to self medicate their panic-related symptoms. In any case, this population of street entrenched-youth frequently experiences several significant problems ranging from childhood abuse to high rates of substance abuse and mental illnesses.

  5. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Reist, Dan; Macdonald, Scott; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD 10.55 million dollars. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty appointments in various departments at UVic. The Centre has two offices, an administration and research office in Victoria and a knowledge exchange unit in Vancouver. The two offices are collaborating on the implementation of CARBC's first 5-year plan which seeks to build capacity in British Columbia for integrated multi-disciplinary research and knowledge exchange in the areas substance use, addictions and harm reduction. Present challenges include losses to the endowment caused by the 2008/2009 economic crisis and difficulties negotiating faculty positions with the university administration. Despite these hurdles, to date each year has seen increased capacity for the Centre in terms of affiliated scientists, funding and staffing as well as output in terms of published reports, electronic resources and impacts on policy and practice. Areas of special research interest include: drug testing in the work-place, epidemiological monitoring, substance use and injury, pricing and taxation policies, privatization of liquor monopolies, polysubstance use, health determinants of indigenous peoples, street-involved youth and other vulnerable populations at risk of substance use problems. Further information about the Centre and its activities can be found on http://www.carbc.ca.

  6. Conservancies in Coastal British Columbia: A New Approach to Protected Areas in the Traditional Territories of First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stronghill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In British Columbia (BC, Canada, the provincial government and First Nations have recently created an innovative new form of collaboratively managed protected area. Designated as ′Conservancies′ under the BC Park Act or the Protected Areas of British Columbia Act, these protected areas are intended to provide a variety of sustainable uses, while maintaining biodiversity and recreational values and prohibiting large-scale commercial or industrial development. Conservancies evolved out of a desire to increase the protected area land base in the province, but also to accommodate traditional Aboriginal land uses and low-impact economic development. The Conservancy designation was created in 2006, and since then 156 Conservancies have been established in BC, covering a total of approximately 2,999,000 ha managed in collaboration with more than 30 First Nations. In this article, we describe the history and management framework of Conservancies, and compare the Conservancy model with international principles for governance of protected areas involving Indigenous people. Despite potential challenges involving integrated management, capacity, allocation of permits among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal users, and treaty negotiations, Conservancies appear to align well with international norms and offer a promising model for flexible protected areas.

  7. Anomalous Induced Seismicity due to Hydraulic Fracturing. Case of study in the Montney Formation, Northeast British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, M.; Bustin, A. M. M.; Johansen, K.; Bustin, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    One of our goals is to investigate the variables and processes controlling the anomalous induced seismicity and its associated ground motions, to better understand the anomalous induced seismicity (AIS) due to hydraulic fracturing in Northeast British Columbia. Our other main objective is to optimize-completions and well design. Although the vast majority of earthquakes that occur in the world each year have natural causes, some of these earthquakes and a number of lesser magnitude seismic events are induced by human activities. The recorded induced seismicity resulting from the fluid injection during hydraulic fracturing is generally small in magnitude (early earthquake detectors installed in BC schools for the Earthquake Early Warning System for British Columbia. We have developed a new technique for locating hypocenters and applied it to our dataset. The technique will enable near real-time event location, aiding in both mitigating induced events and adjusting completions to optimize the stimulation. Our hypocenter program assumes to consider a S wave speed, fitting the arrival times to the hypocenter, and using an "amoebae method" multivariate. We have used this method because it is well suited to minimizing of the chi-squared function of the arrival time deviation. We show some preliminary results on the Montney dataset.

  8. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  9. Conceptual modeling framework to support development of site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, Montana, U.S.A., and British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Karen E.; Naftz, David L.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey, working with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change Strategy, has developed a conceptual modeling framework that can be used to provide structured and scientifically based input to the Lake Koocanusa Monitoring and Research Working Group as they consider potential site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, a transboundary reservoir located in Montana and British Columbia. This report describes that modeling framework, provides an example of how it can be applied, and outlines possible next steps for implementing the framework.

  10. Addressing Youth Mental Health Issues in BC's K-12 Public Schools: A BCTF Submission. A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Children and Youth from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) has taken an active role in addressing both youth and teacher mental health issues in recent years, and will continue to do so. The BCTF is a participant in the British Columbia (BC) School-Based Mental Health Collaborative, has a web page with resources to support teachers in understanding mental…

  11. Proceedings of the 32. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : mine reclamation, biodiversity, and integrated land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, W.; Dixon, B.; Pomeroy, K.; Fraser, C.; Wambolt, T.; Freburg, M.; Dirom, G.; Riordan, B.; Veiga, M.; Howell, C.

    2008-01-01

    Mining operators in Canada are now aiming to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. Attempts to reduce impacts are now focusing on the use of appropriate soil and reforestation practices. This annual symposium provided a forum for the discussion of a wide variety of issues related to mine reclamation and land use in British Columbia (BC). The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed, and new remedial methods for soil conservation and reforestation were presented. Safety and sustainable habitat considerations were discussed. Land reclamation practices and new technologies developed in Western Australia and the Amazon were presented. The results of several bio- and geochemical studies conducted in BC were also presented. The conference featured 18 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Segmenting wine markets with diverse price functions: Evidence from California red and white wines sold in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Carew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous hedonic price studies on wine market segments, exploring diverse price functions, are constrained by pre-determined price breakpoints, the total number of segments, or both. Using British Columbia Liquor Distribution Branch (BCLDB retail price data of California red and white wines, this study adopts an endogenous approach to explore the total number of market segments and identify breakpoints in price dispersion simultaneously. Results show that red and white California wines are grouped into two (breaking at Can$14 per bottle and three (breaking at Can$16 and $30 per bottle price segments, respectively. Also, implicit prices of wine attributes such as grape variety and geographic origin differ for red and white wines across market segments.

  13. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  14. Politics and partnerships: challenges and rewards of partnerships in workplace health research in the healthcare sector of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Tomlin, Katrina; Sidebottom, Claire; Rideout, Karen; De Boer, Henrietre

    2004-01-01

    In British Columbia (BC), Canada, a partnership of researchers, healthcare employers, and healthcare unions reduced high injury rates through examining determinants of healthy workplaces and designing, implementing, and evaluating interventions. Over 51 million dollars (Canadian) was saved from the BC healthcare budget over two years, largely attributable to the collaborative effort. Challenges and rewards of the process were determined from interviews and workshops with researchers and community stakeholders, and by obtaining direct input to this report. Challenges included maintaining communication and trust between partners, preserving partnerships during restructuring and labor disputes, and maintaining involvement and support of front-line workers and senior management. As all partners recognized the importance of the research agenda, the stakeholders remained committed to working through the challenges, and have consequently achieved considerable success.

  15. Contrasting thermal and melting histories for segments of mantle lithosphere in the Nahlin ophiolite, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, Siobhan; Canil, Dante; Zagorevski, Alex

    2018-03-01

    The Permo-Triassic Nahlin ophiolite is the largest and best-preserved ophiolite in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia and Yukon, Canada. The ophiolite is well-exposed along its 150 km length with mantle segments divisible into the Hardluck and Menatatuline massifs. Both massifs comprise mostly depleted spinel harzburgite (exchange temperatures in the mantle of the ophiolite also change systematically along strike with the degree of partial melt depletion. The temperatures recorded by REE and Ca-Mg exchange between coexisting pyroxenes require markedly higher peak temperatures and cooling rates for the Menatatuline massif (1250 °C, 0.1-0.01 °C/year) compared to the Hardluck massif (rates controlled by presence or absence of a crustal section above the mantle lithosphere, or by rapid exhumation along a detachment.

  16. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  17. Report and recommendations in the matter of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and an inquiry into a Heritage Contract for British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's existing generation resources and regarding stepped rates and transmission access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, R.H.; Hall, K.L.; Bradley, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Under British Columbia's new energy plan, the BC Utilities Commission made recommendations on two main policy initiatives regarding regulation of BC Hydro. The first involved a Heritage Contract that would ensure any benefits attributable to the existing low-cost generation of BC Hydro would be secured for British Columbians. The Heritage Contract had the support of all participants. The proposal was based on the revenue required by Generation to meet the cost of supplying the energy of Heritage Resources to Distribution. The second recommendation involved a stepped rate structure for large commercial and industrial customers to encourage a more efficient use of energy resources and private investments in new generation. It also recommends concurrent implementation of time-of-use rates. BC Hydro had also proposed a significant change in the determination and disposition of Trade Income between BC Hydro and Powerex. The agreement stipulated that Trade Income would no longer include revenues from the sale of surplus power, except for profits realized by Powerex after paying BC Hydro an indexed price for surplus power. All Trade income up to $200 million would accrue to the ratepayers. This report presents 3 alternatives to the Trade Income proposal and several others recommendations dealing with transmission voltage customers and generation access, legislation, regulation and special directions. The report identified a schedule for implementation of retail access by the end of 2004. 9 appendices

  18. Temporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy in British Columbia, Canada, 2004-2013: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Metcalfe, Amy; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Routine surveillance of congenital anomalies has shown recent increases in ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the temporal trends in ankyloglossia and its surgical treatment (frenotomy). We conducted a population-based cohort study involving all live births in British Columbia from Apr. 1, 2004, to Mar. 31, 2014, with data obtained from the province's Perinatal Data Registry. Spatiotemporal trends in ankyloglossia and frenotomy, and associations with maternal and infant characteristics, were quantified using logistic regression analysis. There were 459 445 live births and 3022 cases of ankyloglossia between 2004 and 2013. The population incidence of ankyloglossia increased by 70% (rate ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.01), from 5.0 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 8.4 per 1000 in 2013. During the same period, the population rate of frenotomy increased by 89% (95% CI 52%-134%), from 2.8 per 1000 live births in 2004 to 5.3 per 1000 in 2013. The 2 regional health authorities with the lowest population rates of frenotomy (1.5 and 1.8 per 1000 live births) had the lowest rates of ankyloglossia and the lowest rates of frenotomy among cases with ankyloglossia, whereas the 2 regional health authorities with the highest population rates of frenotomy (5.2 and 5.3 per 1000 live births) had high rates of ankyloglossia and the highest rates of frenotomy among cases of ankyloglossia. Nulliparity, multiple birth, male infant sex, birth weight and year were independently associated with ankyloglossia. Large temporal increases and substantial spatial variations in ankyloglossia and frenotomy rates were observed that may indicate a diagnostic suspicion bias and increasing use of a potentially unnecessary surgical procedure among infants.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of paralytic shellfish toxins and their relationships with environmental variables in British Columbia, Canada from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, Stephen; Krstic, Nikolas; McIntyre, Lorraine; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Henderson, Sarah B

    2017-07-01

    Harmful algal blooms produce paralytic shellfish toxins that accumulate in the tissues of filter feeding shellfish. Ingestion of these toxic shellfish can cause a serious and potentially fatal condition known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The coast of British Columbia is routinely monitored for shellfish toxicity, and this study uses data from the monitoring program to identify spatiotemporal patterns in shellfish toxicity events and their relationships with environmental variables. The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium produces the most potent paralytic shellfish toxin, saxitoxin (STX). Data on all STX measurements were obtained from 49 different shellfish monitoring sites along the coast of British Columbia for 2002-2012, and monthly toxicity events were identified. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis to group sites that had events in similar areas with similar timing. Machine learning techniques were used to model the complex relationships between toxicity events and environmental variables in each group. The Strait of Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver Island had unique toxicity regimes. Out of the seven environmental variables used, toxicity in each cluster could be described by multivariable models including monthly sea surface temperature, air temperature, sea surface salinity, freshwater discharge, upwelling, and photosynthetically active radiation. The sea surface salinity and freshwater discharge variables produced the strongest univariate models for both geographic areas. Applying these methods in coastal regions could allow for the prediction of shellfish toxicity events by environmental conditions. This has the potential to optimize biotoxin monitoring, improve public health surveillance, and engage the shellfish industry in helping to reduce the risk of PSP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  1. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI disease diagnosed on a British Columbia salmon farm through a longitudinal farm study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Di Cicco

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI is an emerging disease of marine-farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar, first recognized in 1999 in Norway, and later also reported in Scotland and Chile. We undertook a longitudinal study involving health evaluation over an entire marine production cycle on one salmon farm in British Columbia (Canada. In previous production cycles at this farm site and others in the vicinity, cardiac lesions not linked to a specific infectious agent or disease were identified. Histologic assessments of both live and moribund fish samples collected at the farm during the longitudinal study documented at the population level the development, peak, and recovery phases of HSMI. The fish underwent histopathological evaluation of all tissues, Twort's Gram staining, immunohistochemistry, and molecular quantification in heart tissue of 44 agents known or suspected to cause disease in salmon. Our analysis showed evidence of HSMI histopathological lesions over an 11-month timespan, with the prevalence of lesions peaking at 80-100% in sampled fish, despite mild clinical signs with no associated elevation in mortalities reported at the farm level. Diffuse mononuclear inflammation and myodegeneration, consistent with HSMI, was the predominant histologic observation in affected heart and skeletal muscle. Infective agent monitoring identified three agents at high prevalence in salmon heart tissue, including Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, and parasites Paranucleospora theridion and Kudoa thyrsites. However, PRV alone was statistically correlated with the occurrence and severity of histopathological lesions in the heart. Immunohistochemical staining further localized PRV throughout HSMI development, with the virus found mainly within red blood cells in early cases, moving into the cardiomyocytes within or, more often, on the periphery of the inflammatory reaction during the peak disease, and reducing to low or undetectable levels later in

  2. A Risk-Based Characterization of Sediment Contamination by Legacy and Emergent Contaminants of Concern in Coastal British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2017-08-01

    Sediments have long been used to help describe pollution sources, contaminated sites, trends over time, and habitat quality for marine life. We collected surficial sediments from 12 sites at an average seawater depth of 25 m in three near-urban areas of the Salish Sea (British Columbia, Canada) to investigate habitat quality for marine life, including heavily contaminated killer whales. Samples were analyzed using high-resolution instrumentation for a wide variety of congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The top six contaminant classes detected in sediments were ∑PCB > ∑PBDE > ∑PCDD/F > DDT > ∑HBCDD > ∑PCN. Near-urban harbor sediments had up to three orders of magnitude higher concentrations of contaminants than more remote sites. With limited tools available to characterize biological risks associated with complex mixtures in the real world, we applied several available approaches to prioritize the pollutant found in our study: (1) sediment quality guidelines from the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment where available; (2) US NOAA effects range low and other international guidelines; (3) total TEQ for dioxin-like PCBs for the protection of mammals; and (4) the calculation of risk quotients. Our findings provide an indication of the state of contamination of coastal environments in British Columbia and guidance for chemical regulations and priority setting, as well as management actions including best-practices, dredging, disposal at sea, and source control. In this regard, the legacy PCB and the emergent PBDEs should command continued priority monitoring.

  3. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  4. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  5. Development over 25 years of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western redcedar planted at various spacings on a very good site in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Reukema; J. Harry G. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Results of five spacing trials on the University of British Columbia Research Forest, covering a range of plantation spacings from 1 to 5 meters, showed that choice of initial spacing is among the most important factors influencing bole and crown development and stand growth and yield. The trials include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi), western...

  6. Changes in per capita alcohol sales during the partial privatization of British Columbia's retail alcohol monopoly 2003-2008: a multi-level local area analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Macdonald, Scott; Pakula, Basia; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the independent effects on liquor sales of an increase in (a) the density of liquor outlets and (b) the proportion of liquor stores in private rather than government ownership in British Columbia between 2003/4 and 2007/8. The British Columbia Liquor Distribution Branch provided data on litres of ethanol sold through different types of outlets in 89 local health areas of the province by beverage type. Multi-level regression models were used to examine the relationship between per capita alcohol sales and outlet densities for different types of liquor outlet after adjusting for potential confounding social, economic and demographic factors as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. Liquor outlets in 89 local health areas of British Columbia, Canada. The number of private stores per 10,000 residents was associated significantly and positively with per capita sales of ethanol in beer, coolers, spirits and wine, while the reverse held for government liquor stores. Significant positive effects were also identified for the number of bars and restaurants per head of population. The percentage of liquor stores in private versus government ownership was also associated significantly with per capita alcohol sales when controlling for density of liquor stores and of on-premise outlets (P outlets between 2003/04 and 2007/08 in British Columbia has contributed to increased per capita sales of alcohol and hence possibly also to increased alcohol-related harm.

  7. Washington state--British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) : ITS-CVO border crossing deployment, evaluation draft report : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The Washington state-British Columbia international mobility and trade corridor (IMTC) ITS-CVO Border Crossing Deployment is allowing for the completion of a bi-national freight border crossing ITS system at the border, and is a follow-on effort t...

  8. Does Habitat Matter in an Urbanized Landscape? The Birds of the Garry Oak (Quercus garryana) Ecosystem of Southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Feldman; Pam G. Krannitz

    2005-01-01

    The Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystem was once a dominant habitat type on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, but urbanization has lead to massive habitat loss and fragmentation (Hebda 1993). Most bird species are expected to respond negatively to urbanization because of increased patch isolation, increased predation pressure, and negative edge...

  9. Get Heard: Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada, November 19, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the "Get Heard" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication, held in Castlegar, British Columbia, on November 19, 2005. The "Get Heard" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue was organized in partnership with the BC Rural Network (BCRN). This Network…

  10. "Sound Off": Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication. Rural Dialogue Summary Report (Vernon, British Columbia, Canada, January 14, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Rural Partnership, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of discussions that took place at the "Sound Off" Regional Rural Youth Dialogue on Employment, Education and Communication, held in Vernon, British Columbia, on January 14, 2006. This event was part of the Rural Dialogue, an ongoing, two-way discussion between the Government of Canada and Canadians from rural,…

  11. Issues Affecting Rural Communities (II). Proceedings of the International Conference [on] Rural Communities & Identities in the Global Millennium (Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada, May 1-5, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jim C., Ed.; Kitchenham, Andrew D., Ed.

    This proceedings of a conference held in May 2000 at Malaspina University-College (British Columbia) contains approximately 63 conference papers, abstracts of papers, and keynote speeches. The conference examined issues affecting rural communities, with major themes being rural education, health, human services, families, and the sustainability of…

  12. Trends in Syphilis Partner Notification Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men who Have Sex With Men in British Columbia, 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Andrew; Ogilvie, Gina; Montgomery, Carolyn; Makaroff, Sylvia; Holgerson, Natalie; Grennan, Troy; Gilbert, Mark; Wong, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Chart reviews of 350 randomly sampled syphilis cases of men who had sex with men in British Columbia from 2010 to 2013 revealed no change in the median number of partners per case, and an increasing proportion of partners notified by cases but fewer partners were known to be tested for syphilis.

  13. Kanada Shinbun (The Canada Daily News) and Nikkan Minshu (The Daily People) for 1941 on Microfilm: A Preservation Microfilming Project at the University of British Columbia Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnami, Tsuneharu

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Japanese-Canadian newspapers published in pre-WWII Vancouver. Describes the collection held by the University of British Columbia and the microfilming initiatives undertaken to preserve the collection. Specifications and information on availability of the microform editions are given. (JKP)

  14. There Are Doorways in These Huts: An Empirical Study of Educational Programs, Native Canadian Student Needs, and Institutional Effectiveness in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A study examined characteristics of Native Canadian educational programming that might influence Native student success at 27 colleges and universities in British Columbia and Ontario. Presence or absence of an advisory board composed of Native community members, numbers of Native faculty members, and how well institutional systems fit with Native…

  15. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.

    2012-01-01

    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  16. A cross-sectional evaluation examining the use of the Achilles tendinopathy toolkit by physiotherapists in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Allison M; Schneeberg, Amy; Huisman, Elise S; White, Lynita D; Kennedy, Carol; Levesque, Lenerdene A; Scott, Alex; Hoens, Alison M

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the awareness and use of the Achilles tendinopathy toolkit (ATT), a knowledge translation (KT) strategy supporting evidence-informed management of midportion Achilles Tendinopathy (AT), by British Columbian physiotherapists (PTs). Secondarily, to assess PTs strategies for AT management by examining the association between exploring the ATT and following best practice in clinical care as recommended by the ATT. Members of the Physiotherapy Association of British Columbia (BC) completed an online cross-sectional survey collecting information on demographics; awareness and exposure; perceptions, usability and applicability to clinical practice; knowledge; and attitudes. A clinical vignette assessed if respondents adhered to recommendations made by the ATT. Multi-variable logistic regression examined the association between exploring the ATT and following its recommendations. Of 238 participants, 81% (n = 154) were aware of the ATT and of those 53% (n = 81) explored its contents. Time was the most frequent barrier. Bi-variable analyses showed those who explored the ATT had over double the odds of following the best practice (odds ratio = OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval = 95% CI = 1.3-6.0). This did not remain significant in the final adjusted model (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 0.9-5.4). Evaluation of KT strategies is critical. This study revealed high awareness and moderate use of the ATT. Future work should consider the impact of toolkits on patient outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation A toolkit is a novel knowledge translation (KT) strategy designed to provide accessibleevidence-informed resources to facilitate best practice by clinicians. The evaluation of the Achilles tendinopathy toolkit (ATT) revealed favourable findingsregarding the impact of this KT strategy on the knowledge and attitudes of British Columbia(BC) PTs and the possibility of a positive impact on best practice in clinical care. This research suggests

  17. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, Robert; Gale, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures

  18. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions: Prevalence and associations among persons living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braitstein Paula

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To measure the prevalence of and associations among impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons living with HIV in British Columbia to inform support and care programs, policy and research. Methods A cross-sectional population-based sample of persons living with HIV in British Columbia was obtained through an anonymous survey sent to members of the British Columbia Persons With AIDS Society. The survey addressed the experience of physical and mental impairments, and the experience and level of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Associations were measured in three ways: 1 impact of types of impairment on social restriction; 2 impact of specific limitations on social restriction; and 3 independent association of overall impairments and limitations on restriction levels. Logistic regression was used to measure associations with social restriction, while ordinal logistic regression was used to measure associations with a three-category measure of restriction level. Results The survey was returned by 762 (50.5% of the BCPWA participants. Over ninety percent of the population experienced one or more impairments, with one-third reporting over ten. Prevalence of activity limitations and participation restrictions was 80.4% and 93.2%, respectively. The presence of social restrictions was most closely associated with mental function impairments (OR: 7.0 for impairment vs. no impairment; 95% CI: 4.7 – 10.4. All limitations were associated with social restriction. Among those with ≤ 200 CD4 cells/mm3, odds of being at a higher restriction level were lower among those on antiretrovirals (OR: 0.3 for antiretrovirals vs. no antiretrovirals; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9, while odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 3.6 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 0.9–14.2; OR: 24.7 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 4.9–125.0. Among those

  19. Terrestrial lichen response to partial cutting in lodgepole pine forests on caribou winter range in west-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In west-central British Columbia, terrestrial lichens located in older, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are important winter forage for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Clearcut harvesting effectively removes winter forage habitat for decades, so management approaches based on partial cutting were designed to maintain continuous lichen-bearing habitat for caribou. This study tested a group selection system, based on removal of 33% of the forest every 80 years in small openings (15 m diameter, and two irregular shelterwood treatments (whole-tree and stem-only harvesting methods where 50% of the stand area is cut every 70 years in 20 to 30 m diameter openings. The abundance of common terrestrial lichens among the partial cutting and no-harvest treatments was compared across five replicate blocks, pre-harvest (1995 and post-harvest (1998, 2000 and 2004. The initial loss of preferred forage lichens (Cladonia, Cladina, Cetraria and Stereocaulon was similar among harvesting treatments, but there was greater reduction in these lichens in the openings than in the residual forest. After eight years, forage lichens in the group selection treatment recovered to pre-harvest amounts, while lichen in the shelterwood treatments steadily increased from 49 to 57% in 1998 to about 70% of pre-harvest amounts in 2004. Although not part of the randomized block design, there was substantially less lichen in three adjacent clearcut blocks than in the partial cuts. Regression analysis pre- and post-harvest indicated that increased cover of trees, shrubs, herbs, woody debris and logging slash corresponded with decreased forage lichen abundance. In the short-term, forestry activities that minimize inputs of woody debris, control herb and shrub development, and moderate the changes in light and temperatures associated with canopy removal will lessen the impact on lichen. Implementation of stand level prescriptions is only one aspect of caribou habitat

  20. Lodgepole Pine Cambium (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats.): a springtime first peoples' food in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Megan; Turner, Nancy J; von Aderkas, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) is a tree species utilized for succulent edible cambium and secondary phloem in the spring by Interior First Peoples of the Pacific Northwest. In this article we present a nutritional analysis of this food based on a pooled sample of 17 trees harvested in the Chilcotin region of British Columbia. We also present enzymatic sugar analysis of raw, dried, and cooked lodgepole pine cambium harvested from the Chilcotin and Okanagan regions in British Columbia. In the discussion we interpret the nutrient values of raw lodgepole pine cambium in comparison to dried and cooked cambium, results from other nutritional studies of pine cambium, and nutrients in some other traditional and nontraditional foods.

  1. Peer engagement in harm reduction strategies and services: a critical case study and evaluation framework from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa M. Greer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging people with drug use experience, or ‘peers,’ in decision-making helps to ensure harm reduction services reflect current need. There is little published on the implementation, evaluation, and effectiveness of meaningful peer engagement. This paper aims to describe and evaluate peer engagement in British Columbia from 2010–2014. Methods A process evaluation framework specific to peer engagement was developed and used to assess progress made, lessons learned, and future opportunities under four domains: supportive environment, equitable participation, capacity building and empowerment, and improved programming and policy. The evaluation was conducted by reviewing primary and secondary qualitative data including focus groups, formal documents, and meeting minutes. Results Peer engagement was an iterative process that increased and improved over time as a consequence of reflexive learning. Practical ways to develop trust, redress power imbalances, and improve relationships were crosscutting themes. Lack of support, coordination, and building on existing capacity were factors that could undermine peer engagement. Peers involved across the province reviewed and provided feedback on these results. Conclusion Recommendations from this evaluation can be applied to other peer engagement initiatives in decision-making settings to improve relationships between peers and professionals and to ensure programs and policies are relevant and equitable.

  2. Effect of incentive payments on chronic disease management and health services use in British Columbia, Canada: Interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M Ruth; Law, Michael R; Peterson, Sandra; Garrison, Scott; Hurley, Jeremiah; Cheng, Lucy; McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2018-02-01

    We studied the effects of incentive payments to primary care physicians for the care of patients with diabetes, hypertension, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in British Columbia, Canada. We used linked administrative health data to examine monthly primary care visits, continuity of care, laboratory testing, pharmaceutical dispensing, hospitalizations, and total h ealth care spending. We examined periods two years before and two years after each incentive was introduced, and used segmented regression to assess whether there were changes in level or trend of outcome measures across all eligible patients following incentive introduction, relative to pre-intervention periods. We observed no increases in primary care visits or continuity of care after incentives were introduced. Rates of ACR testing and antihypertensive dispensing increased among patients with hypertension, but none of the other modest increases in laboratory testing or prescriptions dispensed reached statistical significance. Rates of hospitalizations for stroke and heart failure among patients with hypertension fell relative to pre-intervention patterns, while hospitalizations for COPD increased. Total hospitalizations and hospitalizations via the emergency department did not change. Health care spending increased for patients with hypertension. This large-scale incentive scheme for primary care physicians showed some positive effects for patients with hypertension, but we observe no similar changes in patient management, reductions in hospitalizations, or changes in spending for patients with diabetes and COPD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving gridded snow water equivalent products in British Columbia, Canada: multi-source data fusion by neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, Andrew M.; Hsieh, William W.; Cannon, Alex J.; Schnorbus, Markus A.

    2018-03-01

    Estimates of surface snow water equivalent (SWE) in mixed alpine environments with seasonal melts are particularly difficult in areas of high vegetation density, topographic relief, and snow accumulations. These three confounding factors dominate much of the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. An artificial neural network (ANN) was created using as predictors six gridded SWE products previously evaluated for BC. Relevant spatiotemporal covariates were also included as predictors, and observations from manual snow surveys at stations located throughout BC were used as target data. Mean absolute errors (MAEs) and interannual correlations for April surveys were found using cross-validation. The ANN using the three best-performing SWE products (ANN3) had the lowest mean station MAE across the province. ANN3 outperformed each product as well as product means and multiple linear regression (MLR) models in all of BC's five physiographic regions except for the BC Plains. Subsequent comparisons with predictions generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model found ANN3 to better estimate SWE over the VIC domain and within most regions. The superior performance of ANN3 over the individual products, product means, MLR, and VIC was found to be statistically significant across the province.

  4. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  5. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  6. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions

  7. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  8. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  9. Observations on Drivers and Dynamics of Environmental Policy Change: Insights from 150 Years of Forest Management in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Hagerman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and ecological elements of resource management systems co-adapt over time. In this paper, we examine the drivers of change in forest management policy in British Columbia since 1850. We asked: How has a set of system attributes changed over time, and what drivers contributed to change when it occurred? We simultaneously examined a set of three propositions relating to drivers and dynamics of policy change. We find that factors contributing to the level of impacts, like technology, changed substantially over time and had dramatic impacts. In partial contrast, the institutions used to exercise control (patterns of agency and governance remained the same until relatively recently. Other system attributes remained unchanged (e.g., the concept of ecosystems as stable entities that humans can manage and control. Substantive, decision-relevant uncertainties characterized all periods of management but did not act as a barrier to the adoption of new regimes at any time. Against this backdrop of constancy in some attributes, and change in others, a few exogenous drivers (e.g., technology, war, markets, legal decisions, ideas, and climate triggered episodic reexamination of guidelines for resource management. The implications of these findings for future policy change in this system are discussed.

  10. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  11. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-04-12

    It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n=364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374.

  12. The 1% of emergency room visits for non-traumatic dental conditions in British Columbia: Misconceptions about the numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondani, Mario; Ahmad, Syed H

    2017-09-14

    In Canada, about 1% of all emergency room (ER) visits in a given year are made by patients with a primary diagnosis of a non-traumatic, non-urgent and yet preventable condition, such as tooth decay. This percentage is typically dismissed as irrelevant. Using 2013-2014 British Columbia data on ER use from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, however, we argue that the 1% figure (and its associated cost) has to be considered beyond its percentage value. In 2013-2014 alone, 12 357 non-traumatic dental visits were made to ERs in BC representing 1% of the total number of ER visits at a cost of $154.8 million to the taxpayers (across Canada, all visits to ER cost $1.8 billion/year). But the vast majority of these dental visits are discharged while the oral problem likely persists, hence taxpayer dollars are wasted. The belief that these dental-related ER visits are insignificant within the total cost for the health care system is misleading: treatment is not given, the problem is not resolved, and yet there is a high cost to taxpayers and to the society at large. Public health resources should be reallocated.

  13. Self-Perceived Oral Health and Use of Dental Services by Pregnant Women in Surrey, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessani, Abbas; Laronde, Denise; Mathu-Muju, Kavita; Brondani, Mario A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the self-reported oral health status and needs and the patterns of use of dental services by a sample of pregnant women from diverse ethnic backgrounds in the city of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. A 34-item cross-sectional survey was administered to women enrolling in a prenatal program for 4 months in 2012/13. For data analysis, we used a 2-sample t test and tested categorical variables using a χ2 test. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio for the variables, self-reported oral health status and use of dental services. Of the 740 pregnant women who participated in this survey (87% of registrants), 30% were considered vulnerable because of inability to live within their household income, smoking status, self-reported depression, lack of dental insurance and time since last dental visit. Most respondents (84%) rated their oral health good or excellent. Almost half of the women had not visited a dental professional during the past year, while 23% saw a dental professional only for emergency purposes. Women with dental insurance were 6.6 times more likely to have visited a dental professional than those without insurance. Although most pregnant women considered dental care during pregnancy to be important, almost half had not visited a dental professional during the pregnancy.

  14. Distinguishing between natural and aquaculture-derived sediment concentrations of heavy metals in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, T.F.; Petersen, S.A.; Levings, C.D.; Martin, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Marine sediment samples were collected in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, to assess the use of a geochemical normalization technique in the identification of a chemical tracer of aquaculture waste material. Zinc and copper were suggested as tracers of feed pellets, while copper was considered an indicator of anti-foulant agents used on netpen systems. The sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, organic matter, water, trace-element, and free sulfide concentrations, and sediment grain-size distribution. Sediment texture analysis revealed a wide range of substrate types from sand to silty loam categories. Strong relationships between sediment texture, sediment porosity, and organic content were observed across both near-field and far-field stations. Excess zinc and copper sediment concentrations, identified using a lithium-normalization technique, were restricted to near-field sampling stations (0 and 30 m from netpen systems). The relationships between these metal tracers and organic content and sulfur concentrations were explored to account for variations in sediment concentrations of zinc and copper

  15. Identifying and Characterizing Important Trembling Aspen Competitors with Juvenile Lodgepole Pine in Three South-Central British Columbia Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Newsome

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical height ratios for predicting competition between trembling aspen and lodgepole pine were identified in six juvenile stands in three south-central British Columbia ecosystems. We used a series of regression analyses predicting pine stem diameter from the density of neighbouring aspen in successively shorter relative height classes to identify the aspen-pine height ratio that maximized R2. Critical height ratios varied widely among sites when stands were 8–12 years old but, by age 14–19, had converged at 1.25–1.5. Maximum R2 values at age 14–19 ranged from 13.4% to 69.8%, demonstrating that the importance of aspen competition varied widely across a relatively small geographic range. Logistic regression also indicated that the risk of poor pine vigour in the presence of aspen varied between sites. Generally, the degree of competition, risk to pine vigour, and size of individual aspen contributing to the models declined along a gradient of decreasing ecosystem productivity.

  16. Influence of salmonid aquaculture activities on a rock-cliff epifaunal community in Jervis Inlet, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, T F; Sterling, A M; Ou, M

    2018-02-01

    Benthic video surveys were carried out at two marine finfish aquaculture and associated reference sites in Jervis Inlet (JI), British Columbia. Substrate composition, epifaunal diversity, mat-forming taxa (primary indicators: opportunistic polychaete complexes (OPCs) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria) and waste pellets were quantitatively assessed. Hard-bottom substrates were dominated by rock wall, skeletal sponge matrix, graded bedrock, rock-veneer, and cobble. Aquaculture waste outputs (modelled depositional carbon fluxes and observations of waste feed/faecal pellets) were correlated with benthic organic enrichment indicators (OPC and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria). Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria varied in abundance up to a modelled depositional carbon flux of ~2gCm -2 day -1 where it sustained 50% areal coverage. Glass sponges revealed an inverse relationship with aquaculture waste outputs and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Plumose anemones and shrimp showed a low frequency of occurrence at reference sites; however, they were abundant within the near-field zone of the aquaculture sites associated with a higher modelled carbon flux. Future research should focus on the response of various taxa to depositional gradients and their potential role as secondary indicators of aquaculture activities associated with rock-cliff communities. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing functional similarity between a native and an alien slug in temperate rain forests of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of invasive alien species are greatest when they become dominant members of a community, introduce novel traits, and displace native species. Invasions by alien mollusks represent a novel context by which to compare trait differences between generalist native and introduced herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we determined the abundance, habitat, feeding preferences, as well as the metabolic rate of the native Pacific banana slug (Ariolimax columbianus and the alien black slug (Arion rufus in the coastal forests of British Columbia, Canada. Through a series of observational and experimental studies, we found that alien slugs are more abundant, differ in their habitat preferences, and consumed more fungi (mushrooms than native banana slugs. Conversely, in an enclosures experiment we found that herbivory damage by native slugs was higher compared to enclosures with alien only and control enclosures. Finally, metabolic rates were similar for both slug species. These results suggest that alien black slugs possess a suite of traits that make them functionally different from native banana slugs.

  18. A note on the market potential of low-volatile bituminous coal, Willow Creek property, northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Ryan; Ted Todoschuk; Bob Lane [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The international coking coal market is very competitive and is segmented into many non inter changeable coal products. Two products, that are more in demand than many are, low-volatile bituminous high rank coking coal for blends into coke ovens, and low-volatile bituminous coal for pulverization and injection into blast furnaces (PCI coal). The Willow Creek property contains coal that may be suitable for these two markets. The higher priced market is the low-volatile coking coal market where up to 30% of this coal can be added into coal blends for coke ovens. This is a higher priced market than the PCI market and it is advantageous for mines if possible to switch from the low-volatile PCI market to the low-volatile coking coal market. Low-volatile coking coal is also in short supply as reserves in the US and other countries are running out. This note looks at the possible use of 7 Seam from the Willow Creek property in northeastern British Columbia as a low-volatile component in a standard coke oven blend. The Willow Creek property is located 40 kilometres west of Chetwynd and overlies seams in the Gething Formation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. A clonal outbreak of tuberculosis in a homeless population in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J M; Hiscoe, L; Pollock, S L; Hasselback, P; Gardy, J L; Parker, R

    2015-11-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) case was reported May 2008 in Kelowna, British Columbia, leading to a multi-year outbreak in homeless persons. The epidemiological characteristics and social networks of cases are described. Outbreak-related cases were identified from epidemiological information in medical records and from genotyping of TB isolates. Social network information from case interviews were used to identify potential locations of TB transmission, where symptom screening and tuberculin skin testing was conducted. Fifty-two cases that were predominantly male (47/52), Canadian-born (44/50), and were homeless or associated with homeless individuals (42/52) were reported from May 2008 to May 2014. Many isolates (40/49) had partial resistance to isoniazid. Transmission primarily occurred at two homeless shelters, with potential further transmission at sites visited by the general population. TB outbreaks in homeless populations can occur in small, low-incidence cities. Social network information helped prioritize sites for TB screening, thereby improving detection of persons with TB disease or latent infection for treatment.

  20. The distribution of animal antimicrobials in British Columbia for over-the-counter and veterinary sales, 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Brian R

    2018-03-01

    Canadian Animal Health Institute (CAHI) data are used for provincial, national, and international comparisons of Canadian animal antimicrobial use. The objectives of this paper were to: i) use CAHI and British Columbia (BC) antimicrobial distribution data to group BC antimicrobial sales into the following BC retail distribution channels: over-the-counter retail outlets, livestock and poultry feed mills, aquaculture feed mills, livestock and poultry veterinarians, and companion animal veterinarians; and ii) to validate the CAHI BC distribution data and BC's antimicrobial distribution data from 2012 to 2014. Annual total antimicrobial distribution and distribution by antimicrobial class were presented for each distribution channel. The distribution of medically important antimicrobials for production animals was validated, the distribution of ionophores was not. A lack of data precluded any attempt to validate the distribution of antimicrobials for companion animals. Each distribution channel typically experienced substantial fluctuations in total antimicrobial use and use by antibiotic class at least once over the 3-year period. The validated data are useful for evidence-based analysis of a proposed Canadian policy requiring a veterinary prescription for all medically important antimicrobials.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of listeria species in facilities producing ready-to-eat foods in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; McIntyre, Lorraine F; Henderson, Sarah B; Kosatsky, Tom

    2012-02-01

    In British Columbia (BC), Canada, food processing facilities licensed under provincial authority are not required to sample for Listeria monocytogenes in food products or processing environments. In 2009, we conducted a survey of dairy, fish, and meat facilities under BC authority to estimate the prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods and production environments. From August to October, 250 RTE food samples and 258 swabs from the food processing environments of 43 facilities were collected. Standard culture methods were applied to both food samples and swabs. Of swabs collected from all 258 environmental surfaces, 15% were positive for Listeria spp. Significantly (P, 0.001) more fish facilities than dairy and meat facilities had food contact surfaces contaminated with Listeria spp. L. monocytogenes was found in RTE foods from fish facilities alone (5 of 12); in all five of the fish facilities with contaminated product, one or more environmental swabs were also positive for L. monocytogenes. The results suggest that while control of L. monocytogenes in BC-inspected dairy and meat facilities is effective in limiting food contamination, there is a need for provincial inspectors to initiate improved monitoring and management of contamination by L. monocytogenes in RTE fish processing facilities.

  2. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses.

  3. Doctors and dying declarations: the role of the state in abortion regulation in British Columbia, 1917-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, S

    1996-05-01

    In Canada, the history of state regulation of abortion is underexamined, leaving the general impression that the state played a secondary role to that of the medical profession in attempting to enforce the federal anti-abortion law. Studies have focused on "regular" physicians as a regulator of abortion to such an extent that the state's involvement in this process has been largely neglected or obscured. In contrast, this study highlights the actions taken by lower-level state agencies, namely, the Coroner's Inquisition and municipal and provincial police, to enforce the federal abortion law in British Columbia. The study examines the records of the inquests held into the deaths of 34 women from illegal abortion and offers three main observations. First, state agencies consistently sought information about abortionists and the circumstances surrounding the abortions from the women in hospital, their families, lovers, and doctors. Especially important is how authorities routinely attempted to extract dying declarations from the ill women. Second, while it is clear doctors participated in the investigative process, the records suggest they were often ambivalent or reluctant to do so. Finally, this study concludes that many of the actors involved in these events resisted the authorities' attempts to enforce the law, some successfully, thereby effectively undermining state regulatory practices as a result.

  4. Colonization and decomposition of salal (Gaultheria shallon) leaf litter by saprobic fungi in successional forests on coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osono, Takashi; Iwamoto, Susumu; Trofymow, John A

    2008-06-01

    The colonization of leaf litter by saprobic fungi was studied in old-growth and post-harvest successional Douglas-fir forests on southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia. This study focused on leaf litter of salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.), a dominant understory shrub in all stands. Salal litter is characterized by the occurrence of bleached portions attributable to fungal colonization of the litter and to the variable decomposition of recalcitrant compounds, such as lignin. Analyses of proximate chemical fractions, fungal assemblages on the bleached leaf area, and pure culture decomposition assays indicated that Marasmius sp. and Coccomyces sp. were responsible for rapid decomposition and bleaching of salal leaf litter. The bleached area accounted for 17%-22% of total area of salal leaf litter collected in immature (40-60 years old), mature (85-105 years old), and old-growth (more than 290 years old) stands, but for only 2% in regeneration (5-15 years old) stands. The reduction of bleached leaf area occupied by Marasmius sp. and Coccomyces sp. in regeneration stands could be due to the changes in microenvironmental conditions on the forest floor, in litter quality, or in food-web structure in soils. The decrease of fungi able to decay recalcitrant compounds may lead to a reduction of salal decomposition rates in clear-cut sites that would persist until canopy closure occurs.

  5. The perceived implications of an outsourcing model on governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  6. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The construction of the gang in British Columbia : Mafioso, gangster, or thug? An examination of the uniqueness of the BC gangster phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Keiron

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the structure, demographics, and history of gangs in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through a social constructionist lens. The purpose of this research is for the reader to consider the current state of gangs in BC as inherently different from other places in the world, to assist in understanding why there may be misconceptions, and to promote the research and implementation of more appropriate context-specific interventions. Building on previous work conducted as a Vanco...

  8. “They Know, But Do Not Tell”: Examining the Link Between Animal Cruelty and Other Criminal Offences in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Jessica Marie

    2016-01-01

    Animal cruelty is a significantly under researched topic in Criminology. An exploratory study was undertaken to determine whether there is a link between cruelty offences and other crimes in British Columbia (BC). Data were compiled using open source websites to identify convicted animal cruelty offenders and examine any further criminal convictions. Using the frameworks of the graduation hypothesis and generalized deviance theory, criminal offending patterns and timing of offences were analy...

  9. Associations of antimicrobial uses with antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between antimicrobial use and other management practices in pigs and antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli recovered from feces of weaner and finisher pigs on 39 purposefully selected farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and 8 in British Columbia. Antimicrobials (n = 13), most frequently penicillins and tetracycline, were administered to different age groups of pigs on study farms through various routes of administration. Logistic regression wa...

  10. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population biology and future management: proceedings of the International Sockeye Salmon Symposium--Sockeye '85, held at Nanaimo, British Columbia, November 19-22, 1985

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, H. D; Wood, Christopher Charles; Margolis, L

    1987-01-01

    Contents: 1) Distribution and abundance of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka); 2) Alternative juvenile life histories of sockeye salmon and their contribution to production in the Stikine River, northern British Columbia...

  11. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  12. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  13. Missed opportunities: childhood learning disabilities as early indicators of risk among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle Louise; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Frankish, Charles James; Somers, Julian M

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that early-learning problems and poor academic achievement adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes; however, these indicators have received scant attention among homeless adults. This study examines self-reported learning disabilities (LD) in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, mental and substance use disorders, physical health, and service utilisation in a sample of homeless adults with current mental illness. This study was conducted using the baseline sample from a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were sampled from the community in Vancouver, British Columbia. The total sample included 497 adult participants who met criteria for absolute homelessness or precarious housing and a current mental disorder based on a structured diagnostic interview. Learning disabilities in childhood were assessed by asking adult participants whether they thought they had an LD in childhood and if anyone had told them they had an LD. Only participants who responded positively to both questions (n=133) were included in the analyses. Primary outcomes include current mental disorders, substance use disorders, physical health, service utilisation and duration of homelessness. In multivariable regression models, self-reported LD during childhood independently predicted self-reported educational attainment and lifetime duration of homelessness as well as a range of mental health, physical health and substance use problems, but did not predict reported health or justice service utilisation. Childhood learning problems are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and long histories of homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that adverse childhood events are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, including substance abuse. TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial has been registered with the International

  14. Physical and Mental Health Issues among Homeless Youth in British Columbia, Canada: Are they Different from Older Homeless Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Linden, Isabelle; Krausz, Michael Reinhardt

    2014-09-01

    Youth homelessness is on the rise in North America, yet this vulnerable population is rarely studied and compared with adults. This paper aimed to study the homeless youth and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the adult homeless population. It also aimed to describe the youth homeless population and their significant co-morbidities. DATA WAS DERIVED FROM THE BC HEALTH OF THE HOMELESS STUDY (BCHOHS), CARRIED OUT IN THREE CITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA: the large urban centre Vancouver (n=250); the mid-sized city and capital of the province Victoria (n=150). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Youth constituted 16.5% (n=82) of the homeless population. Compared to the adult homeless, the homeless youth were more often female (55%), were Aboriginal (47.6%), had greater substance abuse of alcohol (70.7%), amphetamines (8.5%) and cannabis (75.6%). A lower prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (0.2%) and psychotic disorders (13.4%) was also observed. The prevalence of traumatic experiences, other psychiatric disorders and physical illnesses were similar between the adult and homeless youth. Homeless youth have high rates of physical and psychiatric comorbidity, similar to the adult homeless, despite being 20 years younger. An urgent need for interventions that go beyond the standardized ones being offered to homeless populations as a whole, and to derive specific strategies that target this vulnerable population is required.

  15. Intentional injury among the indigenous and total populations in British Columbia, Canada: trends over time and ecological analyses of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Mariana; Lalonde, Christopher E; McCormick, Rod

    2017-08-08

    Our objective was to explore intentional injury disparity between Indigenous populations and the total population in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We focus on hospitalizations, including both self-inflicted injuries and injuries inflicted by others. We used data from BC's universal health care insurance plan, 1991 to 2010, linked to Vital Statistics databases. Indigenous people were identified through the insurance premium group, and birth and death records. Place of residence was identified through postal code. We calculated crude hospitalization incidence rates and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization, standardized by gender, 5-year age group, and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA). With HSDA populations as the units of observation, linear regression was used to test hypothesized associations of Indigenous ethnicity, geographic, and socio-economic characteristics with SRR of injury. During the period 1991-2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for intentional injuries was 8.4 per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.3 to 8.5) for the total BC population, compared to 45.3 per 10,000 (95% CI: 44.5 to 46.1) for the Indigenous population. For both populations, risk declined over the period for injuries self-inflicted and inflicted by others. The linear regression model predicts that the off-reserve Indigenous population will have SRR of intentional injury 3.98 greater, and the on-reserve Indigenous population 4.17, greater than the total population. The final model was an excellent fit (R 2  = 0.912, F = 177.632, p Indigenous ethnicity. The observation of substantially declining rates of intentional injury for both the Indigenous and total BC populations is off-set by the high disparity in risk between the two populations, which will likely continue until Canada reduces disparity with respect to discriminatory practices, and physical, social, and economic conditions.

  16. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sexspecific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion. While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  17. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  18. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  19. Use of pooling and outpatient laboratory specimens in an anonymous seroprevalence survey of HIV infection in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, C H; Strathdee, S A; Le, T; Sutherland, D; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T

    1995-08-01

    To conduct an anonymous HIV seroprevalence survey to establish a baseline estimate of HIV seroprevalence in a general population; to evaluate serum pooling and alternative testing strategies as cost-saving measures. Prospective anonymous HIV seroprevalence study using outpatient laboratory specimens. Two large non-hospital-associated outpatient chemistry testing laboratories in the major population centers in British Columbia, Canada. PATIENTS AND SERA: Leftover sera received for chemistry screen testing in outpatient laboratories were provided to the study after chemistry testing was completed. Those from patients aged or = 55 years were excluded. Patient identifiers were erased from samples. Sera were pooled 10:1 and tested by viral lysate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from HIV-positive pools were tested individually. All individual HIV-positive specimens were retested for verification of positivity using a recombinant protein ELISA. HIV seroprevalence rates were stratified by sex, age group, and geographic area; and costs of pooling and alternative algorithm strategy were compared with those of conventional methods. A total of 80,238 sera were collected from 66,658 individuals (53% women, 47% men). Of these, 276 men (88.3 per 10,000) and 24 women (6.8 per 10,000) were HIV-seropositive. The highest rates were in those aged 30-34 years, for both men and women. Using pooling and non-Western blot verification saved US$2.07 per specimen, or 80% of the cost for conventional testing. The anonymous outpatient laboratory setting is practicable to obtain a reasonable estimate of HIV seroprevalence rates in a general population. Such studies can be made cost-effective by pooling sera and using alternative confirmatory strategies.

  20. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO 4 2- in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Food sales outlets, food availability, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Martin, Carla; Ostry, Aleck S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number and types of different food sales outlets, the types of foods offered for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy implementation in schools in British Columbia. We also directly measured the number and types of snack foods available for sale in each vending machine at each school. Based on a thorough literature review and guided by an expert panel of nutritionists, we developed an instrument to measure the quantity and types of foods offered for sale in vending machines, the types of food for sale in all school food outlets, and the extent of nutrition policy development. The survey response rate was approximately 70%. Approximately 60% of surveyed schools had a permanent food sales outlet. Snack and beverage vending machines were most common in secondary schools, while tuck shops and food-based fundraisers were more common in elementary schools. While few snack vending machines were present in elementary schools, tuck shops stocked items commonly found in snack machines. Approximately 25% of schools had a formal group responsible for nutrition. These schools were more likely to have nutrition policies in place. "Junk" foods were widely available in elementary, middle, and secondary schools through a variety of outlets. Although snack machines are virtually absent in elementary schools, tuck shops and school fundraisers sell foods usually found in snack machines, largely cancelling the positive effect of the absence of snack machines in these schools. Schools with a group responsible for nutrition appear to have a positive impact on nutrition policy implementation.

  2. Designation, diligence and drift: understanding laboratory expenditure increases in British Columbia, 1996/97 to 2005/06

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthan Saskia N

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory testing is one of the fastest growing areas of health services spending in Canada. We examine the extent to which increases in laboratory expenditures might be explained by testing that is consistent with guidelines for the management of chronic conditions, by analyzing fee-for-service physician payment data in British Columbia from 1996/97 and 2005/06. Method We used direct standardization to quantify the effect on laboratory expenditures from changes in: fee levels; population growth; population aging; treatment prevalence; expenditure on recommended tests for those conditions; and expenditure on other tests. The chronic conditions selected were those with guidelines containing laboratory recommendations developed by the BC Guidelines and Protocol Advisory Committee: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and dementia. Result Laboratory service expenditures increased by $98 million in 2005/06 compared to 1996/97, or 3.6% per year after controlling for population growth and aging. Testing consistent with guideline-recommended care for chronic conditions explained one-third (1.2% per year of this growth. Changes in treatment prevalence were just as important, contributing 1.5% per year. Hypertension was the most common condition, but renal failure and dementia showed the largest changes in prevalence over time. Changes in other laboratory expenditure including for those without chronic conditions accounted for the remaining 0.9% growth per year. Conclusion Increases in treatment prevalence were the largest driver of laboratory cost increases between 1996/97 and 2005/06. There are several possible contributors to increasing treatment prevalence, all of which can be expected to continue to put pressure on health care expenditures.

  3. History of foster care among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia: a precursor to trajectories of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2015-02-26

    It is well documented that a disproportionate number of homeless adults have childhood histories of foster care placement(s). This study examines the relationship between foster care placement as a predictor of adult substance use disorders (including frequency, severity and type), mental illness, vocational functioning, service use and duration of homelessness among a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. We hypothesize that a history of foster care predicts earlier, more severe and more frequent substance use, multiple mental disorder diagnoses, discontinuous work history, and longer durations of homelessness. This study was conducted using baseline data from two randomized controlled trials in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who responded to a series of questions pertaining to out-of-home care at 12 months follow-up (n = 442). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; vocational functioning; and service use. In multivariable regression models, a history of foster care placement independently predicted incomplete high school, duration of homelessness, discontinuous work history, less severe types of mental illness, multiple mental disorders, early initiation of drug and/or alcohol use, and daily drug use. This is the first Canadian study to investigate the relationship between a history of foster care and current substance use among homeless adults with mental illness, controlling for several other potential confounding factors. It is important to screen homeless youth who exit foster care for substance use, and to provide integrated treatment for concurrent disorders to homeless youth and adults who have both psychiatric and substance use problems. Both trials are registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and were assigned ISRCTN57595077 (Vancouver At Home Study: Housing First plus

  4. The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Fault Zone - Geomorphology of a submarine transform fault, offshore British Columbia and southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M. A. L.; Barrie, V.; Greene, H. G.; Brothers, D. S.; Conway, K.; Conrad, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-FW) Fault Zone is the Pacific - North America transform plate boundary and is clearly seen for over 900 km on the seabed as a linear and continuous feature from offshore central Haida Gwaii, British Columbia to Icy Point, Alaska. Recently (July - September 2017) collected multibeam bathymetry, seismic-reflection profiles and sediment cores provide evidence for the continuous strike-slip morphology along the continental shelfbreak and upper slope, including a linear fault valley, offset submarine canyons and gullies, and right-step offsets (pull apart basins). South of central Haida Gwaii, the QC-FW is represented by several NW-SE to N-S trending faults to the southern end of the islands. Adjacent to the fault at the southern extreme and offshore Dixon Entrance (Canada/US boundary) are 400 to 600 m high mud volcanos in 1000 to 1600 m water depth that have plumes extending up 700 m into the water column and contain extensive carbonate crusts and chemosynthetic communities within the craters. In addition, gas plumes have been identified that appear to be directly associated with the fault zone. Surficial Quaternary sediments within and adjacent to the central and southern fault date either to the deglaciation of this region of the Pacific north coast (16,000 years BP) or to the last interstadial period ( 40,000 years BP). Sediment accumulation is minimal and the sediments cored are primarily hard-packed dense sands that appear to have been transported along the fault valley. The majority of the right-lateral slip along the entire QC-FW appears to be accommodated by the single fault north of the convergence at its southern most extent.

  5. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  6. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  7. Optimal electricity system planning in a large hydro jurisdiction: Will British Columbia soon become a major importer of electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Rowe, Andrew; Wild, Peter; Pitt, Lawrence; Sopinka, Amy; Pedersen, Tom F.

    2013-01-01

    An energy-system model incorporating generation, transmission and integrated management of hydroelectric reservoirs in British Columbia (BC) is used to explore approaches to meeting load projections to 2040. The model includes electricity trade between BC, Alberta and the US, the influence of a carbon emissions tax, contributions from the aging gas-fired Burrard Thermal plant and production from a proposed dam called “Site C” on the Peace River in northern BC. Model results suggest: If load increases as anticipated at 1.4%/year, BC will need to import significant amounts of electricity within two decades. Operating the Burrard plant at full capacity to 2025 and bringing Site C on line in 2020 delays the need to import by only 6 years, while realizing net electricity export sales of $5.9 billion by 2040. Bringing Site C on line but imposing a tax of $30/t of CO 2 emitted on gas-fired generation causes immediate closure of the Burrard plant on economic grounds and reduces net export revenue to $0.63 billion by 2040. BC has options, however, including demand side management and development of additional generation capacity. In the absence of these measures, imported power may be more significant in BC's electricity future. - Highlights: ► Within two decades, BC will need to import substantial power to meet demand. ► Operating Burrard Thermal and the Site C dam will delay imports by only 6 years. ► A $30/t CO 2 tax causes closure of the Burrard Thermal plant on economic grounds. ► Closure of Burrard Thermal reduces export revenue to BC by at least $5B by 2040

  8. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC.We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account.The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered when studying variations in the use of

  9. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  10. Influences of demographic characteristics, attitudes, and preferences of consumers on table egg consumption in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaei, M; Wiseman, K; Cheng, K M

    2011-05-01

    In addition to regular (white and brown) eggs, alternative types of table eggs (e.g., free-run, free-range, organic) are available in the Canadian market, and their market growth rate has been high during the last decade in British Columbia (BC). The objective of our research was to identify associations between consumers' attitudes, preferences, and demographic characteristics with their consumption of different types of table eggs. An online survey was conducted in June 2009 to gather information from adult BC residents. Sixty-eight percent of the 1,027 randomly selected subjects completed the survey. Our survey indicated that the consumption of cage-free specialty eggs (free-run, free-range, and organic) has strongly increased in BC to 32.9% free-range eggs, 11.93% organic eggs, and 7.6% free-run eggs in 2009 compared with a Print Measurement Bureau consumer survey that showed combined 8% consumption of cage-free specialty eggs in 2007. Results of our survey indicated that, compared with consumers of white regular eggs, consumers of free-range eggs came from smaller households and had a higher education level and income. These consumers indicated that factors of health, nutritional value, environmental issues, and animal welfare were important in egg type selection. Although most consumers rated the specialty eggs as having a higher nutritional value than white regular eggs, price became the most important deciding factor for those consumers who selected white regular eggs. Our findings indicate that increased consumption and increased differentiation exist in the table egg market and this in turn provides support for more research to increase the efficiency of cage-free egg production systems and for better consumer education.

  11. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change.

  12. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC.We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews.Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence.Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  13. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  14. Designation, diligence and drift: understanding laboratory expenditure increases in British Columbia, 1996/97 to 2005/06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Saskia N; Peterson, Sandra; Lavergne, Ruth; Barer, Morris L; McGrail, Kimberlyn M

    2012-12-21

    Laboratory testing is one of the fastest growing areas of health services spending in Canada. We examine the extent to which increases in laboratory expenditures might be explained by testing that is consistent with guidelines for the management of chronic conditions, by analyzing fee-for-service physician payment data in British Columbia from 1996/97 and 2005/06. We used direct standardization to quantify the effect on laboratory expenditures from changes in: fee levels; population growth; population aging; treatment prevalence; expenditure on recommended tests for those conditions; and expenditure on other tests. The chronic conditions selected were those with guidelines containing laboratory recommendations developed by the BC Guidelines and Protocol Advisory Committee: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and dementia. Laboratory service expenditures increased by $98 million in 2005/06 compared to 1996/97, or 3.6% per year after controlling for population growth and aging. Testing consistent with guideline-recommended care for chronic conditions explained one-third (1.2% per year) of this growth. Changes in treatment prevalence were just as important, contributing 1.5% per year. Hypertension was the most common condition, but renal failure and dementia showed the largest changes in prevalence over time. Changes in other laboratory expenditure including for those without chronic conditions accounted for the remaining 0.9% growth per year. Increases in treatment prevalence were the largest driver of laboratory cost increases between 1996/97 and 2005/06. There are several possible contributors to increasing treatment prevalence, all of which can be expected to continue to put pressure on health care expenditures.

  15. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  16. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The prognostic effect of ethnicity for gastric and esophageal cancer: the population-based experience in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Amil M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric and esophageal cancers are among the most lethal human malignancies. Their epidemiology is geographically diverse. This study compares the survival of gastric and esophageal cancer patients among several ethnic groups including Chinese, South Asians, Iranians and Others in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods Data were obtained from the population-based BC Cancer Registry for patients diagnosed with invasive esophageal and gastric cancer between 1984 and 2006. The ethnicity of patients was estimated according to their names and categorized as Chinese, South Asian, Iranian or Other. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of ethnicity adjusted for patient sex and age, disease histology, tumor location, disease stage and treatment. Results The survival of gastric cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups. Chinese patients showed better survival compared to others in univariate and multivariate analysis. The survival of esophageal cancer patients was significantly different among ethnic groups when the data was analyzed by a univariate test (p = 0.029, but not in the Cox multivariate model adjusted for other patient and prognostic factors. Conclusions Ethnicity may represent underlying genetic factors. Such factors could influence host-tumor interactions by altering the tumor's etiology and therefore its chance of spreading. Alternatively, genetic factors may determine response to treatments. Finally, ethnicity may represent non-genetic factors that affect survival. Differences in survival by ethnicity support the importance of ethnicity as a prognostic factor, and may provide clues for the future identification of genetic or lifestyle factors that underlie these observations.

  18. The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify trends and assess changes in food insecurity among subgroups differentiated by main source of income and housing tenure. Models were run against overall food insecurity, moderate and severe food insecurity, and severe food insecurity to explore whether the impact of policy changes differed by severity of food insecurity. Overall food insecurity rose significantly among households in BC between 2005 and 2012. Following the increase in social assistance benefits, overall food insecurity and moderate and severe food insecurity declined among households on social assistance, but severe food insecurity remained unchanged. We could discern no effect of the RAP on any measure of food insecurity among renter households. Our findings indicate the sensitivity of food insecurity among social assistance recipients to improvements in income and highlight the importance of examining severity of food insecurity when assessing the effects of policy interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiologic and Genotypic Review of Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms in British Columbia, Canada, between 2008 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekirov, Inna; Croxen, Matthew A.; Ng, Corrinne; Azana, Robert; Chang, Yin; Mataseje, Laura; Boyd, David; Mangat, Chand; Mack, Benjamin; Tadros, Manal; Brodkin, Elizabeth; Kibsey, Pamela; Stefanovic, Aleksandra; Champagne, Sylvie; Mulvey, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) are a serious emerging problem for health care facilities worldwide. Owing to their resistance to most antimicrobial therapies, CPOs are difficult to treat and pose a challenge for infection prevention and control. Since 2010, lab-based surveillance for CPOs and PCR-based testing were implemented in British Columbia (BC), Canada. A review of CPOs in BC from 2008 to March 2014 was done to characterize the resistance mechanisms and possible clonal strain transmission and to compare pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) as molecular typing tools. During this study period, a total of 177 CPO cases were identified. Patient demographics and travel history were reviewed, and a descriptive analysis was carried out. PFGE profiles, MLST, and plasmid RFLP analysis for a subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter species isolates were obtained and analyzed. Our findings demonstrate that CPOs have been increasing in number in BC over time, from 1 isolate/year retrospectively identified in 2008 and 2009 to 82 isolates in 2013 and 30 isolates in the first quarter of 2014. Overall, K. pneumoniae isolates lack clonality, although some seemingly related clusters have been found. Plasmid analysis showed evidence of the spread of plasmids carrying carbapenemase-encoding genes between the examined isolates. Analysis of Enterobacter cloacae isolates revealed a more clonal nature of these CPOs in BC. The presence of related clusters provides evidence of interpatient organism transmission both within and between institutions. Although in our study, NDM-harboring E. cloacae isolates appeared to spread clonally, the spread of carbapenem resistance in K. pneumoniae seems to be plasmid mediated. PMID:26607987

  20. Prescribed burning in the North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  1. Seasonal dynamics of tetracycline resistance gene transport in the Sumas River agricultural watershed of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Patricia L; Knapp, Charles W; Hall, Kenneth J; Graham, David W

    2018-07-01

    Environmental transport of contaminants that can influence the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an important concern in the management of ecological and human health risks. Agricultural regions are locales where practices linked to food crop and livestock production can introduce contaminants that could alter the selective pressures for the development of antibiotic resistance in microbiota. This is important in regions where the use of animal manure or municipal biosolids as waste and/or fertilizer could influence selection for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species. To investigate the environmental transport of contaminants that could lead to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, a watershed with one of the highest levels of intensity of agricultural activity in Canada was studied; the Sumas River located 60 km east of Vancouver, British Columbia. This two-year assessment monitored four selected tetracycline resistance genes (tet(O), tet(M), tet(Q), tet(W)) and water quality parameters (temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids, nitrate, phosphate and chloride) at eight locations across the watershed. The tetracycline resistance genes (Tc r ) abundances in the Sumas River network ranged between 1.47 × 10 2 and 3.49 × 10 4  copies/mL and ranged between 2.3 and 6.9 copies/mL in a control stream (located far from agricultural activities) for the duration of the study. Further, Tc r abundances that were detected in the wet season months ranged between 1.3 × 10 3 and 2.29 × 10 4  copies/mL compared with dry season months (ranging between 0.6 and 31.2 copies/mL). Highest transport rates between 1.67 × 10 11 and 1.16 × 10 12  copies/s were observed in November 2005 during periods of high rainfall. The study showed that elevated concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes in the order of 10 2 -10 4  copies/mL can move through stream networks in an

  2. An overview of the British Columbia Glomerulonephritis network and registry: integrating knowledge generation and translation within a single framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Sean; Beaulieu, Monica; Gill, Jagbir; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Reich, Heather; Levin, Adeera

    2013-10-29

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a group of rare kidney diseases with a substantial health burden and high risk of progression to end-stage renal disease. Research in GN has been limited by poor availability of large comprehensive registries. Substantial variations in access to and administration of treatment and outcomes in GN have been described. Leveraging provincial resources and existing infrastructure, the British Columbia (BC) GN Network is an initiative which serves to combine research and clinical care objectives. The goal of the BC GN Network is to coordinate and improve health care, including robust data capture, on all patients with GN in BC, a Canadian province of over 4.6 million people. This provincial initiative will serve as a model for Canadian or other national and international endeavours. The BC Provincial Renal Agency (BCPRA) is the provincial governmental agency responsible for health delivery for all kidney patients in BC. The BC GN Network has been created by the BCPRA to ensure high quality and equitable access to care for all patients with GN and is a platform for evidence based clinical care programs and associated health policy. All patients with biopsy-proven GN are registered at the time of kidney biopsy into the BCPRA provincial database of kidney disease patients, forming the BC GN Registry. Thereafter, all laboratory results and renal related outcomes are captured automatically. Histology data and core clinical variables are entered into the database. Additional linkages between the GN Registry and administrative databases ensure robust capture of medications, hospital admissions, health care utilization, comorbidities, cancer and cardiac outcomes, and vital statistics. The BC GN Network and Registry is a unique model in that it combines robust data capture, data linkages, and health care delivery and evaluation into one integrated system. This model utilizes existing health infrastructure to prospectively capture population level data

  3. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  4. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  6. Aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and flatfish health in the Kitimat marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lyndal L; Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Mark S; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Buzitis, Jon; Collier, Tracy K

    2015-04-15

    From 2000-2004 a monitoring study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of aluminum smelter-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the health of fish in the marine waters of Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada. These waters are part of the historical fishing grounds of the Haisla First Nation, and since the 1950s the Alcan Primary Metal Company has operated an aluminum smelter at the head of the Kitimat Arm embayment. As a result, adjacent marine and estuarine sediments have been severely contaminated with a mixture of smelter-associated PAHs in the range of 10,000-100,000 ng/g dry wt. These concentrations are above those shown to cause adverse effects in fish exposed to PAHs in urban estuaries, but it was uncertain whether comparable effects would be seen at the Kitimat site due to limited bioavailability of smelter-derived PAHs. Over the 5-year study we conducted biennial collections of adult English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and sediment samples at the corresponding capture sites. Various tissue samples (e.g. liver, kidney, gonad, stomach contents) and bile were taken from each animal to determine levels of exposure and biological effects, and compare the uptake and toxicity of smelter-derived PAHs with urban mixtures of PAHs. Results showed significant intersite differences in concentrations of PAHs. Sole collected at sites nearest the smelter showed increased PAH exposure, as well as significantly higher prevalences of PAH-associated liver disease, compared to sites within Kitimat Arm that were more distant from the smelter. However, measures of PAH exposure (e.g., bile metabolites) were surprisingly high in sole from the reference sites outside of Kitimat Arm, though sediment and dietary PAHs at these sites were low, and fish from the areas showed no biological injury. PAH uptake, exposure, and biological effects in Kitimat English sole were relatively lower when compared to English sole collected from urban sites contaminated with PAH mixtures from

  7. The impact of mountaintop mining with valley fills on runoff timing and pathways, Elk Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) has been a major contributor to the global increase in surface mining over the last 30 years. It is especially widespread throughout central Appalachia and the Elk Valley, British Columbia. This form of mining operation strips upper elevations of vegetation and soil, explosives are used to break up rocks to access buried coal, and waste-rock (spoil) is pushed into adjacent valleys where it buries existing streams. While considerable research on downstream water quality impacts has been conducted, there is limited information on the changes in physical hydrology and predominant runoff pathways in catchments affected by MTM/VF. As part of a larger program assessing elevated levels of Se in the Elk Valley, this study documents the impact of coal spoils on runoff response and flow pathways using two adjacent catchments, each approximately 10 km2 in size. One catchment has 180 x109 m3 of spoil covering about 40% of its surface area (West Line Creek - WLC), while the other is devoid of any spoil cover (Dry Creek - DC). Each of these watersheds has had hydrometric stations operating since 2011, where concurrent measurements of specific conductance are conducted at 15-minute intervals. Stable isotopes of 2H and 18O were collected using a series of precipitation gauges as of May 2012. In addition, stable isotopes, major ions and DOC have been monitored at the outlet daily over the same time period, with higher recording frequencies during precipitation events. Preliminary results indicate that flows in WLC are less flashy with more gradual hydrograph responses and recessions than DC due to the large storage capacity of spoils. However, there is little impact of spoils on overall discharge volumes on a seasonal or annual basis. Two-component hydrograph separation using stable isotopes suggests that greater portions of stream water are derived from 'old water' in the spoil-affected catchment. More notably, coal spoils have a major

  8. Changes in the characteristics and levels of comorbidity among new patients into methadone maintenance treatment program in British Columbia during its expansion period from 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Behnam; Nosyk, Bohdan; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C; Anis, Aslam

    2013-06-01

    We described the changing characteristics and comorbidity levels of new patients into Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in British Columbia, Canada, during its expansion period of 1998-2006. Analyses used administrative data. Generalized regression models were applied using Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Chronic Disease Score (CDS) as outcomes. 12,615 individuals initiated MMT during 1998-2006, while their odds of having moderate CCI (1 ≤ CCI ≤ 4) and mean CDS increased by 60% and 11%, respectively, after adjusting for confounders. MMT entrants were presented with progressively higher levels of comorbidity, independent of other characteristics. Future MMT policies should address higher levels of comorbidity among new patients.

  9. Implementing information technology to improve workplace health: a web-based information needs assessment of managers in Fraser Health, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jag S; Anderson, Keith; Keen, Dave; Yassi, Annalee

    2005-01-01

    A web-based questionnaire-survey was administered primarily to determine what information is useful to managers in Fraser Health, of British Columbia to support decision-making for workplace health and safety. The results indicated that managers prefer electronic quarterly reports, with targets, goals, and historical trends rated as "very important." Over 85.7% "agree" that if information was readily available in the "most beneficial" format, they would be able to improve workplace health. Recommendations include that managers be presented with clear and concise workplace health reports that facilitate analysis for decision-making.

  10. Use of major ion and stable isotope geochemistry to delineate natural and anthropogenic sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Kettle River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, Leslie; Hutcheon, Ian; Mayer, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    The Kettle River Basin in South central British Columbia (Canada) is under increasing anthropogenic pressures affecting both water quantity and quality of surface waters and aquifers. We investigated water quality and sources and processes influencing NO3- and SO42- in the Kettle River Basin using a combination of chemical and isotopic techniques. The dominant water type in the Kettle River Basin is Ca-HCO3 with surface waters having total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations of Kettle River Basin. The presented data will serve as an excellent baseline against which future impacts can be assessed.

  11. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and sources of nitrate in lowland glacial aquifers of Whatcom County, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Kahle, Sue C.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water is an important source of domestic, municipal, and irrigation water supply throughout the Fraser-Whatcom Lowland, particularly for the 225-square mile agricultural area surrounding the Whatcom County communities of Lynden, Everson, Nooksack, and Sumas and the British Columbia communities of Abbotsford and Aldergrove. Population growth and developing ground-water-quality problems have increased the demand for additional sources of ground water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Whatcom County Planning Department, collected water-level, lithologic, and water-quality data from 608 wells during 1990-92 to complete a regional appraisal of the ground-water system.

  12. Climate Change Impacts to Hydro Power Reservoir Systems in British Columbia, Canada: Modelling, Validation and Projection of Historic and Future Streamflow and Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Schnorbus, M.; Werner, A. T.; Berland, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The British Columbia Hydro Electric Corporation (BC Hydro) has a mandate to provide clean, renewable and reliable sources of hydro-electric power into the future, hence managing those resources in the context of climate change will be an important component of reservoir operational planning in British Columbia. The Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (www.PacificClimate.org) has implemented the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model parameterized at 1/16th degree (~32 km2) to provide BC Hydro with future projections of changes to streamflow and snowpack to the 2050s. The headwaters of the Peace, Columbia, and Campbell River basins were selected for study; the Upper Peace River basin (101,000 km2) is a snowmelt-dominated watershed, and the Upper Columbia River Basin (104,000 km2) has a mixed snowmelt-glacier melt runoff regime, with glacier runoff contributing up to 15 to 20% of late summer discharge. The Upper Campbell River watershed (1,200 km2) has a mixed rainfall and snowmelt (hybrid) hydrologic regime. The model has been calibrated using historical streamflow observations and validated against these observations, as well as automated snow pillow measurements. Future streamflow changes are estimated based on eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the CMIP3 suite, downscaled using the Bias Correction Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, run under three emissions scenarios (A2, A1B and B1; A1B is specifically reported on herein). Climate impacts by the 2050s in the three watersheds illustrate an increase in annual average temperature and precipitation ranging between +2.2°C to +2.8°C and +2% to +10% depending on basin, and an annual change in streamflow of -1% to +12% for the three watersheds. Changes are more profound on the seasonal time-scale and differ across basins. Summer streamflow in the Upper Campbell River watershed is projected to decline by -60%, where as the Upper Peace and Columbia systems are projected to decline by -25% and -22

  13. Characterization of Clostridium difficile Strains in British Columbia, Canada: A Shift from NAP1 Majority (2008 to Novel Strain Types (2013 in One Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha N. Jassem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness. Epidemic NAP1 strains contain toxins A and B, a deletion in repressor tcdC, and a binary toxin. Objectives. To determine the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in British Columbia and compare between two time points in one region. Methods. C. difficile isolates from hospital and community laboratories (2008 and one Island Health hospital laboratory (2013 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, toxin possession, tcdC genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results. In 2008, 42.7% of isolates had NAP1 designation. Hospital-collected isolates were associated with older patients and more NAP1 types. Unlike other isolates, most NAP1 isolates possessed binary toxin and a 19 bp loss in tcdC. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. A 2013 follow-up revealed a 28.9% decrease in NAP1 isolates and 20.0% increase in isolates without NAP designation in one region. Then, community-associated cases were seen in younger patients, while NAP types were evenly distributed. Isolates without NAP designation did not cluster with a PFGE pattern or ribotype. Conclusions. Evaluation of C. difficile infections within British Columbia revealed demographic associations, epidemiological shifts, and characteristics of strain types. Continuous surveillance of C. difficile will enable detection of emerging strains.

  14. "A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People": The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,1896-1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  15. Discovery of modern (post-1850 CE) lavas in south-central British Columbia, Canada: Origin from coal fires or intraplate volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canil, Dante; Mihalynuk, Mitch; Lacourse, Terri

    2018-01-01

    We describe three unusual lavas in the Northern Cordillera in south-central British Columbia, Canada, occurring as spatter, scoria and blocks over small 400 m2 areas. The lavas coat and weld cobbles and pebbles in glacial till and are vesicular and glassy with microlites of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, and xenocrysts of quartz, feldspar or clinopyroxene. Chemically the lavas are basaltic trachyandesite (55-61 wt% SiO2) with trace element patterns similar to average British Columbia upper crust, except for having higher V and lower Zr, Hf, Nb, Th and U. Melting experiments and plagioclase-melt thermometry on the glasses, and phase equilibrium in simple systems, require liquidus temperatures of 1150-1300 °C. Interaction of the liquids with carbonaceous matter at low pressure formed Fe metal spherules and SiC. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal and dendrochronology show the lavas are modern, emplaced in the last 120 years. The similar bulk composition of these lavas to several other Quaternary-aged volcanic centers in the North American Cordillera, some of which show recent seismic activity, could suggest a possible tectonic origin, but the deposits are unusually small and show no central vent for emplacement. Conversely, the balance of evidence would suggest an origin from coal fires or hot gas venting, but is less consistent with the observed calc- and per-alkaline lava compositions, and the lack of known local coal-bearing strata as a heat source. Other anthropogenic origins for the lavas are considered less plausible.

  16. Outcrop analysis of trace fossil assemblages in the Toad Formation (Triassic), SE Yukon Territory : implications for hydrocarbon exploration in NE British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, R.B.; Zonneveld, J.P.; Utting, J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Hydrocarbon producing strata is often characterized by trace fossil assemblages, but trace fossils are not always available for core-based sub surfaces. Therefore, it is a good idea to integrate outcrop and subsurface ichnological studies to make better use of subsurface data. Strata of the Lower Triassic Toad Formation in the southeastern region of the Yukon Territory consists of inter bedded shale, siltstone, and sandstone. The rocks contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved trace fossils. Five facies associations have been recognized within the stratigraphic sequence. They reveal that the rocks were deposited on a wave-dominated shelf. In distal shelf facies, the trace fossil diversity is low, but is moderate to high in offshore to shoreface strata. The most common ichno fossils are burrow networks and simple infaunal burrows. Arthropods make up much of the ichno fauna. It was noted that the sediments and trace fossil assemblages of the Toad Formation in the La Biche River area are similar to the gas producing strata of the Montney Formation of northeastern British Columbia. The Yukon succession can potentially be used to model that of British Columbia.

  17. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of rainfall and stemflow peak intensities and infiltration patterns for a mature coastal forest in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena

    2017-04-01

    Most studies on stemflow have focused on the amount of stemflow in different forests or for different rainfall events. So far, few studies have looked at how stemflow intensity varies during rainfall events and how peak stemflow intensities compare to peak rainfall intensities. High stemflow intensities at the base of the tree, where roots and other preferential flow pathways are prevalent, may lead to faster and deeper infiltration of stemflow than rainfall and thus affect soil moisture dynamics and potentially also subsurface stormflow generation. We measured stemflow intensities for three Western hemlock, two Western red cedar, two Douglas-fir and one Birch tree in a mature coniferous forest in coastal British Columbia to determine how stemflow intensities were related to rainfall intensity. We sprayed a blue dye tracer on two Western hemlock trees (29 and 52 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) to determine how stemflow water flows through the soil and to what depth it infiltrates. We also applied the blue dye tracer to an area between the trees to compare infiltration of stemflow with rainfall. Stemflow increased linearly with event total precipitation for all trees. The larger trees almost exclusively had funneling ratios (i.e. the volume of stemflow per unit basal area divided by the rainfall) smaller than one, regardless of species and event size. The funneling ratios for the small trees were generally larger for larger events (up to a funneling ratio of 20) but there was considerable scatter in this relation. Trees with a DBH basal area of the study site, contributed 72% of the estimated total stemflow amount. Stemflow intensities (volume of stemflow per unit basal area per hour) often increased in a stepwise manner. When there were two precipitation bursts, stemflow intensity was usually highest during the second precipitation burst. However, when there were several hours of very low rainfall intensity between consecutive precipitation bursts, stemflow

  19. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  20. An Examination of the Application of Professional Reliance To Management of Karst Resources In British Columbia (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Carolyn L.; Griffiths, Paul A.

    2010-05-01

    British Columbia (BC), Canada's most ecologically diverse province, is home to some of the nation's finest karst resources. Many of these are in forested settings, and are often associated with special/unique natural attributes ranging from geomorphology to hydrology, biology and ecology. Karst management in BC forests was shaped initially by concerns for caves and their recreation management, but as of 1997 there was a significant shift to an ecosystem approach to management of karst and cave resources. This new management approach was supported in due course by standards and guidelines for karst assessment and management. The approach also recognized the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this type of work and the frequent need to engage professionals with specialized knowledge of karst, and its natural and cultural resource values. In 2004, the BC Government introduced the Forest and Range Practices Act, a new results-based regulatory framework for forest practices. Government orders made pursuant to regulations under the Act identify categories of karst terrain and associated resource features that must be protected from the potentially damaging effects of roadbuilding and road maintenance, timber harvesting, and silviculture activities. In support of a general shift toward more results-based regulation and "freedom to manage" forest resources, it was argued that the forestry sector and its professionals are qualified, and competent enough, to formulate strategies for protecting and managing forest resources (including karst) without as much government oversight. As a result, forest tenure holders and their professionals are now responsible for assessing protected categories of karst resource features and developing and applying appropriate forest practices for them. Where knowledge beyond the area of forest professionals' expertise is required, the knowledge gaps are to be addressed by hiring suitably qualified professional consultants for advice and

  1. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  2. Near-Real-Time Surveillance of Illnesses Related to Shellfish Consumption in British Columbia: Analysis of Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Victoria; McIntyre, Lorraine; Kent, Debra; Leong, Dennis; Henderson, Sarah B

    2018-02-23

    Data from poison centers have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade, there has been an increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) is one of five such services in Canada, and it is the only one nested within a public health agency. This study aimed to demonstrate how DPIC data are used for routine public health surveillance in near-real-time using the case study of its alerting system for illness related to consumption of shellfish (ASIRCS). Every hour, a connection is opened between the WBM software Visual Dotlab Enterprise, which holds the DPIC database, and the R statistical computing environment. This platform is used to extract, clean, and merge all necessary raw data tables into a single data file. ASIRCS automatically and retrospectively scans a 24-hour window within the data file for new cases related to illnesses from shellfish consumption. Detected cases are queried using a list of attributes: the caller location, exposure type, reasons for the exposure, and a list of keywords searched in the clinical notes. The alert generates a report that is tailored to the needs of food safety specialists, who then assess and respond to detected cases. The ASIRCS system alerted on 79 cases between January 2015 and December 2016, and retrospective analysis found 11 cases that were missed. All cases were reviewed by food safety specialists, and 58% (46/79) were referred to designated regional health authority contacts for follow-up. Of the 42% (33/79) cases that were not referred to health authorities, some were

  3. Retrospective Review of Pediatric and Adult Autoimmune Hepatitis in Two Quaternary Care Centres in British Columbia: Increased Prevalence Seen in British Columbia’S First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry V Chung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been previously reported that British Columbia’s (BC’s First Nations (Aboriginal community has an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatological conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and primary biliary cirrhosis. The researchers hypothesized that this community may also be at increased risk for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH.

  4. Biology and conservation of the common murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural history and population trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management.Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western Ecological Research Center

  5. Sociodemographic associations of the dietary proportion of ultra-processed foods in First Nations peoples in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Alberta and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, Malek; Johnson-Down, Louise; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sadik, Tonio; Chan, Hing Man; Willows, Noreen

    2017-12-18

    We investigated the food types consumed by 3276 First Nations citizens from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study (FNFNES) living on-reserve in Canada. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were classified into NOVA categories: fresh or minimally processed foods (MPF), processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods (UPF). Individuals were classified as traditional food (TF) eaters if they ate MPF of their First Nations culture. UPF accounted for 54.0% of energy intake; 23% of participants ate TF. Increasing age and household size, living in British Columbia and TF eating were associated with a lower intake of energy from UPF. Eating TF appeared to be protective against intake of UPF.

  6. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Implications of ammonia emissions for fine aerosol formation and visibility impairment. A case study from the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Ammonia enhances atmospheric aerosol formation and, once in the aerosol form, enhances the light extinction characteristics of those aerosols. In this paper, an ammonia emissions inventory is developed for the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV) of British Columbia and used in conjunction with ambient...... ammonia and ammonium measurements to explain: (i) the observed temporal and spatial variability of fine inorganic aerosol composition and concentrations in the valley, and (ii) the severity and spatial variability of visibility degradation in the LFV. It is proposed here that advection of urban emissions...... of nitrogen and sulphur oxides over agricultural areas in the eastern and central valley with higher ammonia emissions favours subsequent ammonium nitrate and sulphate formation. This leads to higher fine mass concentrations and lowest visibility in the predominantly agricultural regions of the valley. (C...

  8. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  9. Framing Indigenous–Settler Relations within British Columbia's Modern Treaty Context: A Discourse Analysis of the Maa-nulth Treaty in Mainstream Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sloan Morgan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Media plays an integral role in (reproducing our social construction of reality. When viewed in light of Canada’s colonial legacy, media’s power has undoubtedly been implicated in circumscribing Indigenous peoples and Indigenous–settler relations. Employing a discourse analysis of mainstream media covering the recent (2011 implementation of a comprehensive land claims agreement in British Columbia, this study investigates how media has framed contemporary Indigenous–settler relations within the Canadian state. Findings indicate that mainstream media predominantly relies on stereotypes of Indigenous peoples and tends to neglect historical and current political complexities, thereby perpetuating stagnant Indigenous–settler relations. Concluding with empirically derived recommendations, this article points to education reform to create more robust mainstream media able to address stagnated (reconstructions of Indigenous–settler relations.

  10. Surgical block scheduling in a system of hospitals: an application to resource and wait list management in a British Columbia health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibáñez, Pablo; Begen, Mehmet; Atkins, Derek

    2007-09-01

    Scheduling surgical specialties in a medical facility is a very complex process. The choice of schedules and resource availability impact directly on the number of patients treated by specialty, cancellations, wait times, and the overall performance of the system. In this paper we present a system-wide model developed to allow management to explore tradeoffs between OR availability, bed capacity, surgeons' booking privileges, and wait lists. We developed a mixed integer programming model to schedule surgical blocks for each specialty into ORs and applied it to the hospitals in a British Columbia Health Authority, considering OR time availability and post-surgical resource constraints. The results offer promising insights into resource optimization and wait list management, showing that without increasing post-surgical resources hospitals could handle more cases by scheduling specialties differently.

  11. Clones or clans: the genetic structure of a deep-sea sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus, in unique sponge reefs of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel R; Davis, Corey S; Leys, Sally P

    2017-02-01

    Understanding patterns of reproduction, dispersal and recruitment in deep-sea communities is increasingly important with the need to manage resource extraction and conserve species diversity. Glass sponges are usually found in deep water (>1000 m) worldwide but form kilometre-long reefs on the continental shelf of British Columbia and Alaska that are under threat from trawling and resource exploration. Due to their deep-water habitat, larvae have not yet been found and the level of genetic connectivity between reefs and nonreef communities is unknown. The genetic structure of Aphrocallistes vastus, the primary reef-building species in the Strait of Georgia (SoG) British Columbia, was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Pairwise comparisons of multilocus genotypes were used to assess whether sexual reproduction is common. Structure was examined 1) between individuals in reefs, 2) between reefs and 3) between sites in and outside the SoG. Sixty-seven SNPs were genotyped in 91 samples from areas in and around the SoG, including four sponge reefs and nearby nonreef sites. The results show that sponge reefs are formed through sexual reproduction. Within a reef and across the SoG basin, the genetic distance between individuals does not vary with geographic distance (r = -0.005 to 0.014), but populations within the SoG basin are genetically distinct from populations in Barkley Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Population structure was seen across all sample sites (global F ST  = 0.248), especially between SoG and non-SoG locations (average pairwise F ST  = 0.251). Our results suggest that genetic mixing occurs across sponge reefs via larvae that disperse widely. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A vision for growing a world-class power technology cluster in a smart, sustainable British Columbia : full report to the Premier's Technology Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedaly, M.

    2005-03-01

    This report presents a framework for power technology in British Columbia and the development of new sources of energy while ensuring the sustainable economic growth. It also explores the opportunities present in the power technology sector. A definition of the power technology industry was provided, and market drivers were identified, describing the region's competitive advantage and assets. Five market opportunities were introduced, comprising the report's targeted innovation strategy: remote power solutions; sustainable urban practices; smart transport; smart grid; and large scale clean green power production. An outline of the current energy market in British Columbia was presented with details of research and development in renewable energy sources. Global power demands were also outlined. A regional action plan was presented in order to develop the power technology cluster. Leadership strategies were presented, with economic development goals and working teams geared towards an implementation resource plan. A commercialization strategy was suggested in order to address local demand, commercialization funds, and increasing access and resources. A growth strategy was also presented to assist in the development of access to world markets, create partnerships and assist in branding and collaborations with industry and government. An innovation strategy was outlined, with the aim of developing research initiatives, support centres in key market and technology areas and connecting existing efforts in basic sciences to power technology applications. It was concluded that in order to achieve full implementation of these strategies, a short term task force is necessary to shape overall plans. Additionally, an ongoing vision team, working groups and coordination is necessary to implement overall strategies and subcomponents. Appendices were included with reference to each of the five market opportunities presented in the report. 58 refs

  13. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services for the South Asian population in Surrey, British Columbia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K; Ho, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for immigrant populations. However, the results

  14. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  15. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-02-11

    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  16. Characterization of Four Novel Bacteriophages Isolated from British Columbia for Control of Non-typhoidal Salmonella in Vitro and on Sprouting Alfalfa Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa sprouts have been linked to numerous North American outbreaks of Salmonella in recent years. Conventionally, treatments involving chlorine, heat, and irradiation are used for alfalfa seed sanitation. However, such treatments may be highly variable in their efficacy for pathogen control and/or detrimental to sprout quality, therefore negatively perceived by consumers advocating for natural alternatives. The usage of bacteriophages for pathogen control in sprouts has been previously explored, although with conflicting and inconsistent results. Lytic phages, viral predators of bacteria, represent an attractive approach as they provide several advantages compared to conventional treatments, such as their high specificity for bacterial targets and their ubiquity in nature. In this study, four Salmonella phages were isolated from British Columbia, Canada and characterized with respect to host range, burst size, latent period, and environmental stability to assess their potential to control Salmonella. Phage isolate SI1 showed the greatest host range, highest burst size and shortest latent period, greatest stability across all pH and temperatures and was the most effective in control of S. Enteritidis in vitro. Therefore, SI1 was chosen for treatment of sprouting alfalfa seeds artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis with a multiplicity of infection (MOI of ∼110 PFU/CFU. A significant (p < 0.05 reduction of 38.3 ± 3.0% of viable Salmonella cells was observed following two h of phage treatment. On days two to six of the sprouting process, reductions of Salmonella were also observed, but were not significant compared to the control (p > 0.05. It was further demonstrated that the sprout yield was not significantly (p > 0.05 affected by phage treatment. These results highlight the potential of phages recovered from the British Columbia environment for use as biocontrol agents against Salmonella, although differing efficacies in vitro was

  17. Assessing the Effects of Participant Preference and Demographics in the Usage of Web-based Survey Questionnaires by Women Attending Screening Mammography in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlikotic, Rebecca; Parker, Brent; Rajapakshe, Rasika

    2016-03-22

    Increased usage of Internet applications has allowed for the collection of patient reported outcomes (PROs) and other health data through Web-based communication and questionnaires. While these Web platforms allow for increased speed and scope of communication delivery, there are certain limitations associated with this technology, as survey mode preferences vary across demographic groups. To investigate the impact of demographic factors and participant preferences on the use of a Web-based questionnaire in comparison with more traditional methods (mail and phone) for women participating in screening mammography in British Columbia, Canada. A sample of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) participated in a breast cancer risk assessment project. The study questionnaire was administered through one of three modes (ie, telephone, mail, or website platform). Survey mode preferences and actual methods of response were analyzed for participants recruited from Victoria General Hospital. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the association of demographic factors (ie, age, education level, and ethnicity) with certain survey response types. A total of 1192 women successfully completed the study questionnaire at Victoria General Hospital. Mail was stated as the most preferred survey mode (509/1192, 42.70%), followed by website platform (422/1192, 35.40%), and telephone (147/1192, 12.33%). Over 80% (955/1192) of participants completed the questionnaire in the mode previously specified as their most preferred; mail was the most common method of response (688/1192, 57.72%). Mail was also the most preferred type of questionnaire response method when participants responded in a mode other than their original preference. The average age of participants who responded via the Web-based platform (age 52.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 52.1-53.7) was significantly lower than those who used mail and telephone methods

  18. Regional reconstruction of subglacial hydrology and glaciodynamic behaviour along the southern margin of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet in British Columbia, Canada and northern Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesemann, Jerome-Etienne; Brennand, Tracy A.

    2009-11-01

    Subglacial landsystems in and around Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada are investigated in order to evaluate landscape development, subglacial hydrology and Cordilleran Ice Sheet dynamics along its southern margin. Major landscape elements include drumlin swarms and tunnel valleys. Drumlins are composed of bedrock, diamicton and glaciofluvial sediments; their form truncates the substrate. Tunnel valleys of various scales (km to 100s km length), incised into bedrock and sediment, exhibit convex longitudinal profiles, and truncate drumlin swarms. Okanagan Valley is the largest tunnel valley in the area and is eroded >300 m below sea level. Over 600 m of Late Wisconsin-age sediments, consisting of a fining-up sequence of cobble gravel, sand and silt fill Okanagan Valley. Landform-substrate relationships, landform associations, and sedimentary sequences are incompatible with prevailing explanations of landsystem development centred mainly on deforming beds. They are best explained by meltwater erosion and deposition during ice sheet underbursts. During the Late-Wisconsin glaciation, Okanagan Valley functioned as part of a subglacial lake spanning multiple connected valleys (few 100s km) of southern British Columbia. Subglacial lake development started either as glaciers advanced over a pre-existing sub-aerial lake (catch lake) or by incremental production and storage of basal meltwater. High geothermal heat flux, geothermal springs and/or subglacial volcanic eruptions contributed to ice melt, and may have triggered, along with priming from supraglacial lakes, subglacial lake drainage. During the underburst(s), sheetflows eroded drumlins in corridors and channelized flows eroded tunnel valleys. Progressive flow channelization focused flows toward major bedrock valleys. In Okanagan Valley, most of the pre-glacial and early-glacial sediment fill was removed. A fining-up sequence of boulder gravel and sand was deposited during waning stages of the underburst(s) and

  19. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services for the South Asian population in Surrey, British Columbia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K.; Ho, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    Background: British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. Methods: We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Results: Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Interpretation: Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for

  20. Maternal and newborn outcomes after a prior cesarean birth by planned mode of delivery and history of prior vaginal birth in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Janssen, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As rates for cesarean births continue to rise, more women are faced with the choice to plan a vaginal or a repeat cesarean birth after a previous cesarean. The objective of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to compare the safety of planned vaginal birth with cesarean birth after 1-2 previous cesarean sections. We identified singleton term births in British Columbia from 2000 to 2008 using data from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Women carrying a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term (37-41 weeks of gestation completed) with 1-2 prior cesarean births were included. Those with gestational hypertension, pre-existing diabetes and cardiac disease were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were classified as either life-threatening or non-life threatening. We compared outcomes among women with none versus at least 1 previous vaginal birth, by planned method of delivery. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for composite outcomes using Poisson regression. Of the 33 812 women in the sample, 5406 had a history of vaginal delivery and 28 406 did not. The composite risk for life-threatening maternal outcomes was elevated among women planning vaginal compared with cesarean birth both with and without a prior vaginal birth (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.52) and (2.52, 95% CI 2.04-3.11). Absolute differences (attributable risk [AR]) were 1.01% and 1.31% respectively. Non-life threatening maternal outcomes were decreased among women planning a vaginal birth if they had had at least 1 prior vaginal delivery (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.77; AR 1.17%). The composite risk of intrapartum stillbirth, neonatal death or life-threatening neonatal outcomes did not differ among women planning vaginal or cesarean birth with a prior vaginal delivery and non-life threatening neonatal outcomes were decreased, (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.86); AR 1.92%). After 1 or 2 previous cesarean births, risks for adverse outcomes between planned

  1. Ft Nelson, Muskwa Apt, British Columbia, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-17

    AD-AIAO 21 AIR FORCE NVIRONMENTAL TECHICAL APPLICATIOS CENTER-. ETC F/G /?,FT NELSON. MUSKA AP . BRITISH COLOMBIA. CANADA. REVI O LNI l-FJAN 2 I JAN...oo ; aC ,9g 9L.5 9 95.7 9e.o 97.) s 98. 3 99.4 99. 1 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 > 2,:) 1 5, 92 ;) 9 5 , Obo 97,. 9?,1 98.3 99.4 .99, 99.9 99.9 .9 fi., TOTAL...010. 14 9 i---- ----- I ell I_ .--_ll ii- _K 1__ 0 0< We B.- 930 ~ ~ -- 9- -- Elw..() Zx _ ’o No. Obo . Mean No. of Hour...0Ith Temper..... Dre.H .- O l

  2. Spatio-temporal and species-specific variation in PBDE levels/patterns in British Columbia's coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, Michael G.; Fernandez, Marc P.; Hickman, Zachary L.

    2006-01-01

    Congener-specific levels of PBDEs were measured in the livers and some muscle tissues of Dungeness crab (Cancer magister), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) and spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Highest concentrations (1200-560 ng/g lipid) were found in crab collected near heavily urbanized areas (pop. ∼0.3-1.8 million), followed by moderate levels at pulp/paper mills sites (∼150 ng/g), and lowest levels occurred in areas that were somewhat removed from industrial/populated areas (<24 ng/g). Temporal increases in total PBDEs and particularly in BDE-47 for Dungeness crab collected near pulp and paper and urbanized areas between 1994 and 2000 were observed. These correspond to Canadian and worldwide trends seen for PBDEs in biota. English sole and dogfish showed a pattern similar to that of the Columbia River whitefish samples, which corresponded closely to the patterns in the 'penta' commercial mixture. Conversely, Dungeness crab were enriched in lower chlorinated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47 and BDE-49, compared to the fish and shark species from BC. - PBDEs in biota and sediments from the West Coast of Canada reflect temporal, species-specific and geographic distributions

  3. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Fang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.

  4. Population health effects of air quality changes due to forest fires in British Columbia in 2003 : estimates from physician-billing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.; Copes, R.; Fisk, R.; Joy, R.; Chan, K.; Brauer, M.

    2006-03-15

    Forest fires near population centres in 2003 have had a significant economic impact on some communities in British Columbia. This abstract presented details of a study investigating the associations between particulate matter levels and physician visits in the Kelowna and Kamloops regions. Measurements of 24 hour averages of particulate matter were obtained from the monitoring network of the BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection and used to define weeks where forest fires resulted in increases in ambient PM. Weekly rates of physician visits for respiratory, cardiovascular and mental illnesses were obtained and compared for 2003, and aggregates of the 10 previous years. Results indicated that both the Kelowna and Kamloops regions experienced 5 weeks of elevated 24 hour PM levels. In the Kelowna region, increases in physician visits for respiratory diseases of between 46 and 78 per cent above 10 year mean rates were observed for 3 weeks during the forest fire period. Similar effects were not observed in Kamloops. Effects on visits for cardiovascular diseases or mental disorders were not observed in either community. It was concluded that the forest fire smoke and resultant particulate matter was associated with an excess of respiratory complaints in Kelowna area residents.

  5. Striving for Sustainability and Resilience in the Face of Unprecedented Change: The Case of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Burton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive insect outbreak in the public forests of central British Columbia (Canada poses a serious challenge for sustainable forest management planning. Tree mortality caused by natural disturbances has always been a part of wild and managed forests, but climate change is accentuating the uncertainty around such losses. Policy responses to accelerate overall timber harvesting levels to prevent further tree mortality and to aggressively salvage value from dead wood before it deteriorates can be disruptive and even counter-productive in the long run. Current alternatives are to strategically redirect existing timber harvesting quotas to the most vulnerable areas, minimize overall uplifts in cutting activity, prolong the period over which harvested timber can be processed, avoid the harvesting of mixed species stands or those with good advance regeneration, employ more partial cutting or “selective logging” techniques, and relax standards for acceptable species and inter-tree spacing during post-disturbance stand recovery. At the same time, careful attention to species composition and evolving landscape risk profiles may facilitate adaptation to anticipated climate change and reduce vulnerability to future disturbances. Harvest levels must be set conservatively over the full planning horizon if it is important to assure continuity of the timber supply with few disruptions to regional socio-economics and less stress to ecosystems. Broader lessons in sustainability include the option to emphasize persistence, continuity and flexibility over the long term, though at the expense of maximized production and full resource utilization in the short term.

  6. Aquatic impacts of an environmental disaster in a relatively pristine watershed: the breach of the Mount Polley Mine tailings impoundment, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Albers, Sam

    2015-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids), in addition to eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek, were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a large plume of fine-grained sediment (d50 of ca. 1 µm) moved both up-lake towards important salmon spawning areas and down-lake into Quesnel River, which in turn flows into the Fraser River. This movement of the sediment plume is controlled by the physical limnology of the lake, especially seiche events. Samples of lake water and sediment samples taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of metals and other elements, which may have important implications for the ecosystem in this watershed (>11,000 km2). This presentation describes the failure and presents preliminary findings of the aquatic impacts of this environmental disaster.

  7. The effect of exposure to farmed salmon on piscine orthoreovirus infection and fitness in wild Pacific salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Morton

    Full Text Available The disease Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI is causing substantial economic losses to the Norwegian salmon farming industry where the causative agent, piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, is reportedly spreading from farmed to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with as yet undetermined impacts. To assess if PRV infection is epidemiologically linked between wild and farmed salmon in the eastern Pacific, wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp. from regions designated as high or low exposure to salmon farms and farmed Atlantic salmon reared in British Columbia (BC were tested for PRV. The proportion of PRV infection in wild fish was related to exposure to salmon farms (p = 0.0097. PRV was detected in: 95% of farmed Atlantic salmon, 37-45% of wild salmon from regions highly exposed to salmon farms and 5% of wild salmon from the regions furthest from salmon farms. The proportion of PRV infection was also significantly lower (p = 0.0008 where wild salmon had been challenged by an arduous return migration into high-elevation spawning habitat. Inter-annual PRV infection declined in both wild and farmed salmon from 2012-2013 (p ≤ 0.002. These results suggest that PRV transfer is occurring from farmed Atlantic salmon to wild Pacific salmon, that infection in farmed salmon may be influencing infection rates in wild salmon, and that this may pose a risk of reduced fitness in wild salmon impacting their survival and reproduction.

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, K.

    2000-05-01

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  9. Theories of the deep: combining salience and network analyses to produce mental model visualizations of a coastal British Columbia food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Levine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arriving at shared mental models among multiple stakeholder groups can be crucial for successful management of contested social-ecological systems (SES. Academia can help by first eliciting stakeholders' initial, often tacit, beliefs about a SES, and representing them in useful ways. We demonstrate a new recombination of techniques for this purpose, focusing specifically on tacit beliefs about food webs. Our approach combines freelisting and sorting techniques, salience analysis, and ultimately network analysis, to produce accessible visualizations of aggregate mental models that can then be used to facilitate discussion or generate further hypotheses about cognitive drivers of conflict. The case study we draw upon to demonstrate this technique is Clayoquot Sound UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. There, an immanent upsurge in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris population, which competes with humans for shellfish, has produced tension among government managers, and both First Nations and non-First Nations residents. Our approach helps explain this tension by visually highlighting which trophic relationships appear most cognitively salient among the lay public. We also include speculative representations of models held by managers, and pairs of contrasting demographic subgroups, to further demonstrate potential uses of the method.

  10. A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  11. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  12. An information guide on pursuing biomass energy opportunities and technologies in British Columbia for First Nations, small communities, municipalities and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-07

    The province of British Columbia (BC) has committed to maintaining a share of at least 90 per cent of its electricity generation from clean and renewable energy sources. It has also mandated that all new facilities will have net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass is a carbon neutral renewable resource and can make a significant contribution towards this goal. Biomass can also support energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals in the fields of heat and transportation fuels. The purpose of this primer was to assist stakeholders in small communities, Aboriginal groups, municipalities and industry in developing and pursuing bioenergy options in BC. The primer provided an overview of bioenergy in BC and examined local considerations such as bioenergy feedstocks; transport of bioenergy; comparison of options; and potential applications. The primer also provided a technology review of anaerobic digestion; combustion, gasification and pyrolysis; pelletization of wood; high-temperature gasification of MSW and biomass; lignocellulosic ethanol; and biodiesel or sundiesel. Funding sources such as private financing, grants, and additional income and incentives were also presented along with a discussion on grid connection and power sales issues. 12 refs., 19 tabs., 21 figs.

  13. An information guide on pursuing biomass energy opportunities and technologies in British Columbia : for First Nations, small communities, municipalities and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-31

    Biomass is an important renewable energy source that can support energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals in the fields of heat and transportation fuels. The purpose of this document was to help stakeholders in small communities, Aboriginal groups, municipalities and industry develop and pursue bioenergy options in British Columbia (BC). Specifically, the intent of the document was to help stakeholders identify bioenergy options and technologies suitable for the biomass resource and bioenergy markets available to them; identify potential hurdles and requirements related to each of the technologies described; learn about ways to finance a bioenergy project; understand the steps involved in the development of a project; and identify technology providers in Canada. The document provided an overview of bioenergy in BC and discussed local considerations; bioenergy feedstocks and evaluating assets and defining products; transport; comparison; and potential applications. The document also presented a technology review and comparison, including anaerobic digestion; combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis; pelletization of wood; high-temperature gasification of MSW and biomass; lignocellulosic ethanol and biodiesel. Funding sources and grid connection and power sales were also addressed. Last, the document discussed the feasibility of developing a biomass energy project in BC. Consultants and technology vendors were identified along with additional literature and information. 12 refs., 18 tabs., 23 figs.

  14. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  16. A health and nutritional evaluation of changes in agriculture in the past quarter century in British Columbia: implications for food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Aleck; Morrison, Kathryn

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists' advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  17. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in British Columbia following implementation of an infant immunization program: increases in herd immunity and replacement disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vanita; Naus, Monika; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Martin, Irene; Patrick, David M

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, British Columbia (BC) introduced a universal heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) program for infants, and in 2007 revised the recommended schedule from four doses to three doses. We describe trends in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in association with these program changes. All confirmed cases are reported to the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) using a standardized data collection process; isolates are forwarded to the BCCDC Public Health and Reference Microbiology Laboratory for serotyping and to the National Reference Laboratory for confirmation. Upon implementation of the reduced dose program in 2007, additional epidemiological data, including immunization history, were collected for children 16 years of age, herd immunity is evident and decreasing trends of PCV-7 serotypes continued even after the dose reduction program was introduced. However, gains in disease reduction were offset by increases in replacement serotypes, particularly among the over-65 age group. This has resulted in no net change in adult IPD rates. The implementation of the PCV-7 program has changed the epidemiology of IPD in BC through direct effects of the vaccine, herd immunity and serotype replacement. The introduction of a three-dose schedule was not associated with an excess of vaccine failures.

  18. Red fish up the river : a report on the former Coquitlam salmon migrations and the hydro-electric developments at Coquitlam Lake, British Columbia, pre-1914

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koop, W.

    2001-01-01

    BC Hydro commits $1.5 million annually to its Bridge Coastal Fish and Wildlife Restoration Program (BCRP) to support eligible fish and wildlife projects within the Bridge River/Coastal Generation Area which includes the Fraser Valley, Vancouver, Island, Coastal, Bridge River and Shuswap. This report was prepared for the Kwikwetlem Nation in reference to the Coquitlam/Buntzen Water Use Plan, the second of 32 proposed public reviews of hydroelectric complexes in British Columbia. The Coquitlam River flows through territory of the Kwikwetlem Nation who, historically, depended on sockeye salmon for their sustenance, trade, economy and culture. The BCRP is helping the Kwikwetlem to construct a salmon spawning channel in a former branch of the Coquitlam River near their reserves. This report compliments their project and is based on historic information on the disruption of former salmon migrations in the Coquitlam River system and the decision-making processes surrounding hydroelectric complex constructed by the Vancouver Power Company between 1903 and 1913. refs., figs

  19. Reconstruction of cyclical and abrupt changes in northeastern Pacific precipitation during the Late Holocene based on marine sediments preserved in Effingham Inlet, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimore, A.; Thomson, R.; Enkin, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate interpretation of paleoenvironmental time series requires the reliable chronological control now provided by an age-model of a 40 m long marine sediment core raised from Effingham Inlet in Barkley Sound, British Columbia in 2002 (Core MD02-2494). The Late-Pleistocene to Holocene age model provides detailed annual to decadal resolution of the timing of proxy paleoenvironmental indicators preserved in the core based on 46 radiocarbon dates and the presence of the Mazama Ash. Also determined is the timing of instantaneous depositional events related to seismic activity along the Cascadia subduction zone. A frequency-time analysis of the grey scale of sediment x-rays from the calibrated core, which represent the volume and timing of precipitation events in area over the past 6,000 years, show cyclical as well as abrupt “regime change” controls on the northeast Pacific and climate system. This time series, combined with a time series derived from the core using a geochemical reconstruction of Pacific decadal variability, now provide a quantitative means of comparing the marine paleoenvironmental record of ocean and climate conditions of the B.C. coast to other time series of Holocene northeastern Pacific paleoenvironmental indicators.

  20. Monitoring rainwater and seaweed reveals the presence of (131)I in southwest and central British Columbia, Canada following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, A; Starosta, K; Andreoiu, C; Ashley, R; Barton, A; Brodovitch, J-C; Brown, M; Domingo, T; Janusson, C; Kucera, H; Myrtle, K; Riddell, D; Scheel, K; Salomon, A; Voss, P

    2013-10-01

    Detailed analysis of (131)I levels in rainwater and in three species of seaweed (Fucus distichus Linnaeus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Pyropia fallax) collected in southwest British Columbia and Bella Bella, B.C., Canada was performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011. Maximum (131)I activity was found to be 5.8(7) Bq/L in rainwater collected at the campus of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. nine days after the accident. Concomitantly, maximum observed activity in the brown seaweed F. distichus Linnaeus was observed to be 130(7) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected in North Vancouver 11 days following the accident and 67(6) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected from the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island 17 days following the accident. The (131)I activity in seaweed samples collected in southwest B.C. following the Fukushima accident was an order of magnitude less than what was observed following Chernobyl. Iodine-131 activity in F. distichus Linnaeus remained detectable for 60 days following the accident and was detectable in each seaweed species collected. The Germanium Detector for Elemental Analysis and Radioactivity Studies (GEARS) was modeled using the Geant4 software package and developed as an analytical tool by the Nuclear Science group in the Simon Fraser University Department of Chemistry for the purpose of these measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hacettepe, British Columbia ve Simon Frazer Üniversitelerinde Belge Yönetimi Uygulamalarının Karşılaştırmalı Analizi / Comperative Analysis of the Records Management Practices at Hacettepe, British Columbia and Simon Fraser Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Külcü

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Çalışmada Hacettepe Üniversitesi’nde belge yönetimi programlarının geliştirilmesi sürecinde kullanılmak üzere, Kanada ve Türkiye üniversitelerinde belge işlemlerine yönelik uygulamaların karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Türkiye’de üniversitelerde belge ve arşiv uygulamalarını yönelik idari koşullar, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Beytepe Yerleşkesi örneğinde değerlendirilmiştir. Uluslararası örnek olarak Kanada üniversite sistemi içerisinde yer alan British Columbia ve Simon Fraser Üniversitelerinde belge ve arşiv uygulamalarına ilişkin koşullar, Hacettepe Üniversiesi ile karşılaştırmak üzere incelenmiştir. [English abstract]Basic aim of this study is to compare the practices of the records processes in the universities between Canada and Turkey, which may then be used to develop records management programs for Hacettepe University. The administrative condition of the records management practices in Turkish universities has been evaluated on the illustrative example of Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus. Furthermore, as an international example, necessary information about records and archival practices has been gathered from the University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University, in order to prepare a basis for comparison with that of the Hacettepe University.

  2. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Friele, P.; Allstadt, K.; Roberts, N.; Evans, S. G.; Delaney, K. B.; Roche, D.; Clague, J. J.; Jakob, M.

    2012-05-01

    A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s-1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km) and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km), where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn-Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H) to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L) to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle) of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British Columbia and Washington State with the initial impact, the debris flow

  3. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Guthrie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s−1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km, where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn–Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British

  4. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  5. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina; Anderson, Maureen; Marra, Fawziah; McNeil, Shelly; Pielak, Karen; Dawar, Meena; McIvor, Marilyn; Ehlen, Thomas; Dobson, Simon; Money, Deborah; Patrick, David M; Naus, Monika

    2010-05-04

    Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s) against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1) of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7) consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9) consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%), advice from a physician (8.7%), and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%). The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%), preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%), and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%). In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine in a

  6. The redistributive effect of the move from age-based to income-based prescription drug coverage in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Gillian E; Morgan, Steve; Barer, Morris; Reid, Robert J

    2011-07-01

    To explore the redistributive impact of two different pharmaceutical financing policies (age-based versus income-based pharmacare) on the distribution of income in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Using household-level data on all payments that are used to finance prescription drugs in B.C. (including taxation and private payments), we performed a redistributive analysis to indicate how much income inequality in the province changed as a result of payments made for prescription drugs. We also illustrated changes in vertical equity (different treatment according to ability-to-pay) and horizontal equity (equals, according to ability-to-pay, being treated equally) between the two years separately through a pre-post policy examination. We found that payments made to finance prescription drugs increased overall income inequality in the province. This negative impact was larger after the move to income-based pharmacare. Our results also show increasing horizontal inequity after the policy change, and suggest that the increased reliance on out-of-pocket payments was a major source of the negative impact on the B.C.'s overall income distribution. We also show that the consequences of the move to income-based pharmacare would have been less severe had the level of public financing not decreased substantially between the two years. The increase in income inequality in B.C. following the policy change was an unintended consequence of the move to income-based pharmacare. This finding is worth consideration as countries and jurisdictions weigh pharmaceutical policy alternatives. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High levels of opioid analgesic co-prescription among methadone maintenance treatment clients in British Columbia, Canada: results from a population-level retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Fischer, Benedikt; Sun, Huiying; Marsh, David C; Kerr, Thomas; Rehm, Juergen T; Anis, Aslam H

    2014-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription opioids (PO) has increased dramatically in North America. Special consideration for PO prescription is required for individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Our objective is to describe the prevalence and correlates of PO use among British Columbia (BC) MMT clients from 1996 to 2007. This study was based on a linked, population-level medication dispensation database. All individuals receiving 30 days of continuous MMT for opioid dependence were included in the study. Key measurements included the proportion of clients receiving >7 days of a PO other than methadone during MMT from 1996 to 2007. Factors independently associated with PO co-prescription during MMT were assessed using generalized linear mixed effects regression. 16,248 individuals with 27,919 MMT episodes at least 30 days in duration were identified for the study period. Among them, 5,552 individuals (34.2%) received a total of 290,543 PO co-prescriptions during MMT. The majority (74.3%) of all PO dispensations >7 days originated from non-MMT physicians. The number of PO prescriptions per person-year nearly doubled between 1996 and 2006, driven by increases in morphine, hydromorphone and oxycodone dispensations. PO co-prescription was positively associated with female gender, older age, higher levels of medical co-morbidity as well as higher MMT dosage, adherence, and retention. A large proportion of MMT clients in BC received co-occurring PO prescriptions, often from physicians and pharmacies not delivering MMT. Experimental evidence for the treatment of pain in MMT clients is required to guide clinical practice. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Generation of felsic rocks of bimodal volcanic suites from thinned and rifted continental margins: Geochemical and Nd, Sr, Pb-isotopic evidence from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Hamilton, Tark S.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The compositionally bimodal volcanic rocks of the Eocene-Miocene Masset Formation from Queen Charlotte basin, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada, underlie an area greater than 5000 km2 where their exposed sections are up to 1.6 km thick. The suite of mafic and felsic rocks (dacites and rhyolites) that erupted closely spaced in time, in both submarine and subaerial conditions, was associated with significant crustal extension and thin continental crust ( 19-24 km thick), with volcanism persisting for 35 Ma (from 46 to 11 Ma). Predominant mafic types (mafic:felsic 2:1) are moderately enriched mid-ocean-ridge-like basalts that were derived by a partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source. Felsic rocks are plagioclase-phyric, two pyroxene-bearing, mainly peraluminous types which have Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic compositions overlapping those of basalts including high positive ƐNd(t) values (up to >+6). The chondrite-normalized REE patterns show light REE enrichment but flat heavy REE along with a variable negative Eu anomaly. Mineralogy, major and trace elements, Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic data and model calculations using MELTS are consistent with a derivation of felsic rocks from the basalts by fractional crystallization. The intercalation of basaltic and felsic rocks suggests the existence of separate, simultaneously active plumbing and feeder systems and relatively stable magma chamber(s) to generate large volumes of differentiated felsic magmas by fractional crystallization. The Masset rocks provide an example for the generation of felsic magmas of bimodal volcanic suites during rifting along a thinned continental margin. Appendix 1b Representative analyses of minerals of the Masset Formation felsic rocks

  9. Protective measures and human antibody response during an avian influenza H7N3 outbreak in poultry in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Danuta M; Li, Yan; Tweed, S Aleina; Tam, Theresa W S; Petric, Martin; David, Samara T; Marra, Fawziah; Bastien, Nathalie; Lee, Sandra W; Krajden, Mel; Brunham, Robert C

    2007-01-02

    In 2004 an outbreak of avian influenza of the H7N3 subtype occurred among poultry in British Columbia, Canada. We report compliance with recommended protective measures and associated human infections during this outbreak. We sought voluntary participation by anyone (cullers, farmers and their families) involved in efforts to control the poultry outbreak. Recruitment was by advertisements at the worker deployment site, in local media and through newsletters sent directly to farmers. Sera were tested for antibody to H7N3 by microneutralization assay. A subset of 16 sera (including convalescent sera from 2 unprotected workers with conjunctivitis from whom virus had been isolated) was further tested by Western blot and routine and modified hemagglutination inhibition assays. A total of 167 people (20% to 25% of all workers) participated between May 7 and July 26, 2004. Of these, 19 had experienced influenza-like illness and 21 had experienced red or watery eyes. There was no significant association between illness reports and exposure to infected birds. Among 65 people who entered barns with infected birds, 55 (85%) had received influenza vaccine, 48 (74%) had received oseltamivir, and 55 (85%), 54 (83%) and 36 (55%) reported always wearing gloves, mask or goggles, respectively. Antibody to the H7 subtype was not detected in any sera. During the BC outbreak, compliance with recommended protective measures, especially goggles, was incomplete. Multiple back-up precautions, including oseltamivir prophylaxis, may prevent human infections and should be readily accessible and consistently used by those involved in the control of future outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry. Localized human avian influenza infections may not result in serologic response despite confirmed viral detection and culture.

  10. Marine Sediment-Derived Streptomyces Bacteria from British Columbia, Canada Are a Promising Microbiota Resource for the Discovery of Antimicrobial Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Williams, David E.; Wang, Xiao Ling; Centko, Ryan; Chen, Jessie; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Streptomyces from terrestrial sources have been the focus of intensive research for the last four decades because of their prolific production of chemically diverse and biologically important compounds. However, metabolite research from this ecological niche had declined significantly in the past years because of the rediscovery of the same bioactive compounds and redundancy of the sample strains. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria have become the latest hot spot as new source for unique and biologically active compounds. Here, we investigated the marine sediments collected in the temperate cold waters from British Columbia, Canada as a valuable source for new groups of marine-derived Streptomyces with antimicrobial activities. We performed culture dependent isolation from 49 marine sediments samples and obtained 186 Streptomyces isolates, 47 of which exhibited antimicrobial activities. Phylogenetic analyses of the active isolates resulted in the identification of four different clusters of bioactive Streptomyces including a cluster with isolates that appear to represent novel species. Moreover, we explored whether these marine-derived Streptomyces produce new secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Chemical analyses revealed structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including four new antibacterial novobiocin analogues. We conducted structure-activity relationships (SAR) studies of these novobiocin analogues against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, we revealed the importance of carbamoyl and OMe moieties at positions 3” and 4” of novobiose as well as the hydrogen substituent at position 5 of hydroxybenzoate ring for the anti-MRSA activity. Changes in the substituents at these positions dramatically impede or completely eliminate the inhibitory activity of novobiocins against MRSA. PMID:24130838

  11. Marine sediment-derived Streptomyces bacteria from British Columbia, Canada are a promising microbiota resource for the discovery of antimicrobial natural products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralyn S Dalisay

    Full Text Available Representatives of the genus Streptomyces from terrestrial sources have been the focus of intensive research for the last four decades because of their prolific production of chemically diverse and biologically important compounds. However, metabolite research from this ecological niche had declined significantly in the past years because of the rediscovery of the same bioactive compounds and redundancy of the sample strains. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria have become the latest hot spot as new source for unique and biologically active compounds. Here, we investigated the marine sediments collected in the temperate cold waters from British Columbia, Canada as a valuable source for new groups of marine-derived Streptomyces with antimicrobial activities. We performed culture dependent isolation from 49 marine sediments samples and obtained 186 Streptomyces isolates, 47 of which exhibited antimicrobial activities. Phylogenetic analyses of the active isolates resulted in the identification of four different clusters of bioactive Streptomyces including a cluster with isolates that appear to represent novel species. Moreover, we explored whether these marine-derived Streptomyces produce new secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Chemical analyses revealed structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including four new antibacterial novobiocin analogues. We conducted structure-activity relationships (SAR studies of these novobiocin analogues against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In this study, we revealed the importance of carbamoyl and OMe moieties at positions 3" and 4" of novobiose as well as the hydrogen substituent at position 5 of hydroxybenzoate ring for the anti-MRSA activity. Changes in the substituents at these positions dramatically impede or completely eliminate the inhibitory activity of novobiocins against MRSA.

  12. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an agricultural watershed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha; Bartlett, Karen H; Bowie, William R; Hall, Eric R

    2013-01-15

    This study examined the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 isolated from water, sediment and biofilms in an intensive agricultural watershed (Elk Creek, British Columbia) between 2005 and 2007. It also examined physical and chemical water parameters associated with antibiotic resistance. Broth microdilution techniques were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for E. coli (n=214) and E. coli O157 (n=27) recovered isolates for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin and tetracycline. Both E. coli and E. coli O157 isolates showed highest frequency of resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin and nalidixic acid; respectively. For E. coli, the highest frequency of resistance was observed at the most agriculturally-impacted site, while the lowest frequency of resistance was found at the headwaters. Sediment and river rock biofilms were the most likely to be associated with resistant E. coli, while water was the least likely. While seasonality (wet versus dry) had no relationship with resistance frequency, length of biofilm colonization of the substratum in the aquatic environment only affected resistance frequency to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that water depth, nutrient concentrations, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity had statistically significant associations with frequency of E. coli resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, ampicillin and tetracycline. The results indicate that antibiotic resistant E. coli and E. coli O157 were prevalent in an agricultural stream. Since E. coli is adept at horizontal gene transfer and prevalent in biofilms and sediment, where ample opportunities for genetic exchange with potential environmental pathogens present themselves, resistant isolates may present a risk to ecosystem, wildlife and public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M. Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. Methods We identified Aboriginal people through BC’s universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. Results During the period 1991–2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, ppopulation per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Conclusions Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of culturally relevant injury prevention interventions

  14. Modelling the Impacts of Changing Land Cover/Land Use and Climate on Flooding in the Elk River Watershed, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; Hopkinson, C.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk River is a mountain watershed located along the eastern border of British Columbia, Canada. The Elk River is confined by railway bridges, roads, and urban areas. Flooding has been a concern in the valley for more than a century. The most recent major flood event occurred in 2013 affecting several communities. River modifications such as riprapped dykes, channelization, and dredging have occurred in an attempt to reduce inundation, with limited success. Significant changes in land cover/land use (LCLU) such as natural state to urban, forestry practices, and mining from underground to mountaintop/valley fill have changed terrain and ground surfaces thereby altering water infiltration and runoff processes in the watershed. Future climate change in this region is expected to alter air temperature and precipitation as well as produce an earlier seasonal spring freshet potentially impacting future flood events. The objective of this research is to model historical and future hydrological conditions to identify flood frequency and risk under a range of climate and LCLU change scenarios in the Elk River watershed. Historic remote sensing data, forest management plans, and mining industry production/post-mining reclamation plans will be used to create a predictive past and future LCLU time series. A range of future air temperature and precipitation scenarios will be developed based on accepted Global Climate Modelling (GCM) research to examine how the hydrometeorological conditions may be altered under a range of future climate scenarios. The GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model will be used to simulate climate and LCLU to assess historic and potential future flood frequency and magnitude. Results will be used to create innovative flood mitigation, adaptation, and management strategies for the Elk River with the intent of being wildlife friendly and non-destructive to ecosystems and habitats for native species.

  15. Muted response of fine-grained sediment to a wildfire in British Columbia: the role of landscape disturbances and driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, P. N.; Giles, T. R.; Blake, W. H.; Petticrew, E. L.; Bol, R.

    2012-04-01

    In August 2003 a severe wildfire burnt the majority of Fishtrap Creek, a 170 km2 watershed near the city of Kamloops in central British Columbia. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of the wildfire on the amount and composition of fine sediment delivery and transport in the system and to see if the wildfire altered the main sources of sediment. In addition, the findings are compared with that of a nearby watershed, Jamieson Creek, with similar characteristics that was unburnt. In both watersheds, suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes were determined using ISCO automatic water samplers. Changes in sediment sources were determined by collecting bulk sediment and source material samples, and by analysing these samples for a range of properties, including environmental radionuclides and C and N isotopes. Results suggest that following the wildfire there was no major response in fine sediment delivery and transport in Fishtrap Creek, when compared to Jamieson Creek, although there were noticeable differences in the composition of the fine sediment transported and stored in the channel bed. This muted response may be due to the fairly low rainfall amounts in the period immediately following the wildfire. Environmental fallout radionuclides (caesium-137 and unsupported lead-210) showed that there was limited increase (bank) sources of sediment. Recent changes in sediment fluxes and sediment sources relate more to bank erosion processes, probably due to loss of root strength and cohesion. The results suggest that in some situations wildfire may not produce the dramatic increases in hillslope erosion and sediment transport often documented in other watersheds. In Fishtrap Creek, channel bank erosion appears to be important in supplying fine material to the channel and this suggests that attention should be directed at managing the riparian zone in watersheds affected by wildfires.

  16. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  17. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; George, M Anne; Jin, Andrew; Amram, Ofer; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Christopher E

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC): total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities. We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression. During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83); and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07) among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, ppopulation per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed. Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions and implementation of culturally relevant injury prevention interventions are needed.

  18. Relationship between Travel Time from Home to a Regional Sleep Apnea Clinic in British Columbia, Canada, and the Severity of Obstructive Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A J M Hirsch; Amram, Ofer; Tavakoli, Hamid; Almeida, Fernanda R; Hamoda, Mona; Ayas, Najib T

    2016-05-01

    In the majority of people with obstructive sleep apnea, the disorder remains undiagnosed. This may be partly a result of inadequate access to diagnostic sleep services. We thus hypothesized that even modest travel times to a sleep clinic may delay diagnosis and reduce detection of milder disease. We sought to determine whether travel time between an individual's home and a sleep clinic is associated with sleep apnea severity at presentation. We recruited patients referred for suspected sleep apnea to the University of British Columbia Hospital Sleep Clinic between May 2003 and July 2011. The patient's place of residence was geocoded at the postal code level. Travel times between the population-weighted dissemination areas for each patient and the sleep clinic were calculated using ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA) network analyst and the Origin-Destination matrix function. All patients underwent full polysomnography. There were 1,275 patients; 69% were male, the mean age was 58 years. (SD = 11.9), and the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 22 per hour (SD = 21.6). In the univariate model, travel time was a significant predictor of obstructive sleep apnea severity (P = 0.02). After controlling for confounders including sex, age, obesity, and education, travel time remained a significant predictor of sleep apnea severity (P travel time was associated with an increase in the apnea-hypopnea index of 1.4 events per hour. For reasons that remain to be determined, travel times are associated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea at presentation to a sleep clinic. If the results can be verified at other centers, this may help guide the geographic distribution of sleep centers within a health care system.

  19. Trends in care processes and survival following prehospital resuscitation improvement initiatives for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in British Columbia, 2006-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Brian; Kawano, Takahisa; Dick, William; Straight, Ronald; Connolly, Helen; Schlamp, Robert; Scheuermeyer, Frank X; Fordyce, Christopher B; Barbic, David; Tallon, John; Christenson, Jim

    2018-04-01

    British Columbia (BC) Emergency Health Services implemented a strategy to improve outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), focusing on paramedic-led high-quality on-scene resuscitation. We measured changes in care metrics and survival trends. This was a post-hoc study of prospectively identified consecutive non-traumatic ambulance-treated adult OHCAs from 2006 to 2016 within BC's four metropolitan areas. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge; we also described available favourable neurological outcomes (mRS ≤3). We tested the significance of year-by-year trends in baseline characteristics, and calculated risk-adjusted survival rates using multivariable Poisson regression. We included 15 145 patients. In univariate analyses there were significant increases in bystander CPR, chest compression fraction, advanced life support attendance, duration of resuscitation until advanced airway placement, duration of resuscitation until termination, and overall scene time. There was a significant decrease in initial shockable rhythms, bystander witnessed arrests, and transports initiated prior to ROSC. Survival and the proportion of survivors with favourable neurological outcomes increased significantly. In adjusted analyses, there was an improvement in return of spontaneous circulation (risk-adjusted rate 41% in 2006 to 51% in 2016; adjusted rate ratio per year 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p trend) and survival at hospital discharge (risk-adjusted rate 8.6% in 2006 to 16% in 2016; adjusted rate ratio per year 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, p trend). From 2006 to 2016 BC's provincial ambulance system prioritized paramedic-led on-scene resuscitation, during which time there were significant improvements in patient outcomes. Our data may assist other systems, providing a model for prehospital resuscitation quality improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnitude-frequency and Spatial Distribution of Rockfalls in the White Canyon, British Columbia using Terrestrial LiDAR and Microseismic Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation corridors built along natural slopes are subject to frequent rockfall hazards, which can disrupt service and cause damage to infrastructure. Many of these areas exist along the Fraser-Thompson corridor of the CN rail line in Southern British Columbia, particularly in the White Canyon area near Lytton. Here the rail track is situated between the 500 m high slopes and the river, for 2.4 km. The frequency-magnitude relationship between these events and the percentage of rockfalls making it to track level are important components of hazard assessment for these slopes. Traditional methods of collecting rockfall data in this area involve visual inspection by maintenance personnel, however this is an onerous task for such a large slope with frequent rockfall activity, and therefore the rockfall record for this area is often lacking data. Since 2012, high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) data has been collected for the White Canyon area and analysis of change from sequential LiDAR scans provides detailed data that can't be obtained from traditional rockfall databases, including the magnitude and spatial distribution of rockfall events. While the LiDAR change detection can be useful in identifying rockfall volumes and source zones, it can be difficult to determine the end location of each rockfall and the exact timing of events, as scan data is usually collected over a period of several months. Recently, a microseismic monitoring system has been deployed over a section of the railway track and data is available on time and location of impact at the track level, which permits assessment of the number of rockfalls traversing the whole slope down to track level. This, in combination with data on rockfall magnitudes and source zones obtained from the LiDAR change detection can provide useful information for management of tracks in these hazardous settings and also provides data for calibration of rockfall modelling.

  1. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jin

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls.We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression.During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94. Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07. Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment.Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall

  2. Hospitalizations due to unintentional transport injuries among Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: Incidence, changes over time and ecological analysis of risk markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Indigenous people have disproportionately higher rates of transport injuries. We examined disparities in injury-related hospitalizations resulting from transport incidents for three population groups in British Columbia (BC: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve populations. We also examined sociodemographic, geographic and ethnic risk markers for disparities.We identified Aboriginal people through BC's universal health care insurance plan insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We calculated crude incidence rate and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization for unintentional transport injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA, relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics of Aboriginal communities with SRR of transport injury by multivariable linear regression.During the period 1991-2010, the SRR for the off-reserve Aboriginal population was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.71 to 1.83; and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.93 to 2.07 among those living on-reserve. Decline in crude rate and SRRs was observed over this period among both the Aboriginal and total populations of BC, but was proportionally greater among the Aboriginal population. The best-fitting multivariable risk marker model was an excellent fit (R2 = 0.912, p<0.001, predicted SRRs very close to observed values, and retained the following terms: urban residence, population per room, proportion of the population with a high school certificate, proportion of the population employed; and multiplicative interactions of Aboriginal ethnicity with population per room and proportion of the population employed.Disparities in risk of hospitalization due to unintentional transport injury have narrowed. Aboriginal ethnicity modifies the effects of socioeconomic risk factors. Continued improvement of socioeconomic conditions

  3. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W.; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Background The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Methods The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Results Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90–100%). Conclusion Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV

  4. Targeting screening and social marketing to increase detection of acute HIV infection in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Robert, Wayne; Doupe, Glenn; Krajden, Mel; Rekart, Michael

    2013-10-23

    The contribution of acute HIV infection (AHI) to transmission is widely recognized, and increasing AHI diagnosis capacity can enhance HIV prevention through subsequent behavior change or intervention. We examined the impact of targeted pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and social marketing to increase AHI diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vancouver. Observational study. We implemented pooled NAAT following negative third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for males above 18 years in six clinics accessed by MSM, accompanied by two social marketing campaigns developed by a community gay men's health organization. We compared test volume and diagnosis rates for pre-implementation (April 2006-March 2009) and post-implementation (April 2009-March 2012) periods. After implementation, we used linear regression to examine quarterly trends and calculated diagnostic yield. After implementation, the AHI diagnosis rate significantly increased from 1.03 to 1.84 per 1000 tests, as did quarterly HIV test volumes and acute to non-acute diagnosis ratio. Of the 217 new HIV diagnoses after implementation, 54 (24.9%) were AHIs (25 detected by pooled NAAT only) for an increased diagnostic yield of 11.5%. The average number of prior negative HIV tests (past 2 years) increased significantly for newly diagnosed MSM at the six study clinics compared to other newly diagnosed MSM in British Columbia, per quarter. Targeted implementation of pooled NAAT at clinics accessed by MSM is effective in increasing AHI diagnoses compared to third-generation EIA testing. Social marketing campaigns accompanying pooled NAAT implementation may contribute to increasing AHI diagnoses and frequency of HIV testing.

  5. Long length scales of element transport during reaction texture development in orthoamphibole-cordierite gneiss: Thor-Odin dome, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Eric T.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2012-02-01

    First-order factors controlling the textural and chemical evolution of metamorphic rocks are bulk composition and pressure-temperature-time ( P- T- t) path. Although it is common to assume that major element bulk composition does not change during regional metamorphism, rocks with reaction textures such as corona structures record evidence for major changes in effective bulk composition (EBC) and therefore provide significant insight into the scale, pathways, and mechanisms of element transport during metamorphism. Quantifying changes in EBC is essential for petrologic applications such as calculation of phase diagrams (pseudosections). The progressive growth of complex corona structures on garnet and Al2SiO5 porphyroblasts in orthoamphibole-cordierite gneiss Thor-Odin dome (British Columbia, Canada) reduced the EBC volume of the rock during metamorphism and therefore had a dramatic effect on the evolution of the stable mineral assemblage. These rocks contain a chemical and textural record of metamorphic reactions and preserve 3D networks (reaction pathways) connecting corona structures. These coronal networks record long (>cm) length scales of localized element transport during metamorphism. P- T, T- X, and P- X pseudosections are used to investigate the control of effective bulk composition on phase assemblage evolution. Despite textural complexity and evidence for disequilibrium, mineral assemblages and compositions were successfully modeled and peak metamorphic conditions estimated at 750°C and 9 kbar. These results illustrate how textural and chemical changes during metamorphism can be evaluated using an integrated petrographic and pseudosection approach, highlight the importance of effective bulk composition choice for application of phase equilibria methods in metamorphic rocks, and show how corona structures can be used to understand the scale of compositional change and element transport during metamorphism.

  6. A qualitative study of the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of people exposed to diesel exhaust at the workplace in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Pui

    Full Text Available To identify exposure-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of individuals occupationally exposed to diesel exhaust (DE; to reveal strengths, knowledge gaps and misperceptions therein.A Mental Models approach was used to gather information about current scientific understanding of DE exposure hazards and the ways in which exposure can be reduced. Thirty individuals in British Columbia who were regularly exposed to occupational DE were interviewed. The audio was recorded and transcribed. Data was grouped together and examined to draw out themes around DE awareness, hazard assessment and risk reduction behaviors. These themes were then compared and contrasted with existing grey and research literature in order to reveal strengths, gaps and misperceptions regarding DE exposure.Study participants were aware and concerned about their exposure to DE but had incomplete and sometimes incorrect understanding of exposure pathways, health effects, and effective strategies to reduce their exposures. The perceived likelihood of exposure to DE was significantly greater compared to that of other work hazards (p<0.01, whereas the difference for their perceived severity of consequences was not significant. There was no universally perceived main source of information regarding DE, and participants generally distrusted sources of information based on their past experience with the source. Most of the actions that were taken to address DE exposure fell into the area of administrative controls such as being aware of sources of DE and avoiding these sources.This study of the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of those occupationally exposed to DE found, most notably, that more education and training and the creation of a health effects inventory regarding DE exposure were desired.

  7. Reproductive success and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of resident great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1977 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Elliott, J.E.; Butler, R.W.; Wilson, L.K.

    2003-01-01

    Human disturbance and loss of nesting habitat were more important factors than chlorinated hydrocarbons in changing heron reproductive success. - Over the period 1977-2000, eggs of Pacific great blue heron (Ardea herodias fannini) were collected from 23 colonies along the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of OC pesticides in eggs declined sharply in the late 1970s, after which there were minimal changes. The sums of PCB congeners were not reduced appreciably during the 1980s and 1990s, but Aroclor 1260 concentrations suggested a sharp decline in PCB contamination of eggs in the late 1970s, similar to that shown for OC pesticides. Eggs collected along or near the Fraser River delta showed higher levels of most pesticides compared to other monitored colonies. Although the delta lands support a long-standing agricultural economy, the primary factors influencing OC levels in the delta colonies were thought to be driven by estuarine processes. We suggest two possible influencing factors were: 1) a greater rate of bioaccumulation in the estuary due to the deposition of particulates collected over a vast area encompassed by the Fraser River watershed; or 2) a higher rate of biomagnification in the estuary due to species differences at lower trophic levels of the heron food chain. Eggs from urban colonies contained higher levels of PCBs. The congener pattern was not clearly different from that observed in less contaminated eggs from rural and pulp mill-influenced colonies, except that colonies in Vancouver had greater proportions of PCB-66, suggesting a local source of Aroclor 1242. Productivity in the coastal heron colonies was highly variable over the period of study, with 71% of recorded colony-wide reproductive failures occurring in colonies near pulp mills. However, the predominant factors influencing reproductive success were probably disturbance

  8. Asthma in British Columbia: Are we finally breathing easier? A population-based study of the burden of disease over 14 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardal, Stan; Smith, Anne; Luo, Hao Allan; Zhang, Tingting; Groeneweg, Gabriella; Jimenez Mendez, Ricardo; Goldman, Ran; Carleton, Bruce C

    2017-04-01

    Asthma presents a significant global burden, but whether the incidence and prevalence of asthma is rising is still debated. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of asthma in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and characterize associated health services utilization. We extracted data from provincial administrative hospitalization, medical services, and prescription drug databases for patients aged 5 to 55 years, during 1996 to 2009 having ≥270 MSP registration days and meeting asthma definition of: ≥1 hospital admissions with asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥2 physician visits for asthma as the principal diagnosis, or ≥3 asthma drug dispensings. Regression models were used to test change in asthma incidence and prevalence, and use of various health care services, such as physician and emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. 379,950 patients met the study criteria. The prevalence (2.6%) and incidence (0.7%) of asthma was relatively stable over the study period. There was a decline in proportion of patients visiting family practitioners (FP) (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.90-0.94), specialists (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.58-0.62), using ED services (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.30-0.32) and hospitalizations (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.31-0.37). Regional differences were noted, with lower rates of FP and specialist visits and higher rates of ED visits for asthma in rural versus urban areas. In BC, the incidence and prevalence of asthma has remained stable over 14 years. Although health service utilization declined, there is variation between rural and urban regions.

  9. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  10. Analysis of air quality at Osoyoos, British Columbia border air quality station (Nov 2004 - Sep 2006) : an analysis of trans-boundary air pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyn, S.; Hay, J.; Vingarzan, R.; Farris, S.

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the border air quality study, under the Canada-United States (US) international airshed strategy, was to assess the transboundary transport of air pollutants between the US and Canada. This report presented an analysis of pollutants in ambient air and assessed their most likely source location and transport direction. The pollutants of most interest were fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone (O 3 ) due to their association with human health effects. The data analyzed in this report represent just under two years of meteorological, air quality, and traffic volume data. Data was collected at the Osoyoos Canada customs site from November 2004 to September 2006. Osoyoos is located at the southern Canadian extreme of the Okanagan Valley in British Columbia. The report provided data summaries and discussed meteorology and elevated concentration conditions of PM 2.5 ; O 3 ; nitric oxide (NO); nitrogen; and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ). Next, the report provided a multi-pollutant analysis as well as an episode analysis consisting of 4 case studies. The report also included an analysis of transboundary pollutant transport such as a wind sector analysis of pollutant concentration and comparison with modeled transport. Last, the report provided a summary and a discussion of policy implications. It was concluded that US-Canada transboundary transport of pollutants occurs through the Okanagan Valley in which the Osoyoos Canada Customs border air quality station is located. The study recommended further investigation of air parcel trajectories and synoptic-scale conditions leading to elevated O 3 concentrations, as well as the collection of at least 3 full years worth of PM 2.5 and O 3 data to calculate and measure against Canada-wide standards/US national ambient air quality objectives. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Taphonomy of Early Triassic fish fossils of the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member of the Sulphur Mountain Formation near Wapiti Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taphonomy of fishes living in lacustrine environments has been extensively studied in both the laboratory and the fossil record; the taphonomy of marine fishes, however, is poorly known. Triassic marine fishes with heavy ganoid and cosmoid scales, which provided protection from rapid taphonomic loss, offer a means to examine marine fish taphonomy in the fossil record. Four genera of Early Triassic fishes (the ray-finned actinopterygians Albertonia, Bobasatrania, Boreosomus, and the lobe-finned coelacanth (sarcopterygian, Whiteia from the Wapiti Lake, British Columbia locality of the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation were examined in order to gain a better understanding of the taphonomy of fish in marine environments, determine ambient environmental conditions in the region during the Early Triassic, and ascertain the habitat and mode of life of the fish. Results indicate that environmental conditions that contributed to the preservation of the fossil fishes of the current study included deposition in deep, quiet waters, which reduced the odds of disarticulation, colder waters under higher pressure, which slowed decay and limited postmortem floatation, and waters that were anoxic, which discouraged predators and scavengers. In addition, the thickness of the primitive ganoid and cosmoid scales of the fossil fishes also increased their preservation potential. Taphonomic, physiological and environmental indicators suggest that Whiteia, Albertonia, and possibly Bobasatrania lived in deep, cold waters near the oxygen minimum zone, while Boreosomus lived higher in the water column. While the anatomical and physiological characteristics of modern fishes will likely continue to inhibit marine taphonomy studies, examination of ancient fish, particularly those with ganoid or cosmoid scales, may provide future avenues of research to gain a better understanding of marine fish taphonomy and provide a powerful tool to examine ancient fish behavior

  12. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  13. Women’s Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women’s health care (WHC utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01. In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95% CI = 0.14 (0.04–0.54, who used illicit drugs (AOR (95% CI = 0.42 (0.19–0.92 and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95% CI = 0.97 (0.95–0.99, were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women’s holistic health.

  14. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC): Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Naveed Zafar; Kuo, Margot; Chong, Mei; Yu, Amanda; Alvarez, Maria; Cook, Darrel; Armour, Rosemary; Aiken, Ciaran; Li, Karen; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed Ali; Woods, Ryan; Godfrey, David; Wong, Jason; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Krajden, Mel

    2016-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV) epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV), HIV or active tuberculosis (TB) in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992) of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals. Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54%) were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%). Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  15. Estimated protective effectiveness of intramuscular immune serum globulin post-exposure prophylaxis during a measles outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Mark; Murti, Michelle; Fung, Christina; Hemming, Felicity; Loadman, Susan; Stam, Robert; Van Buynder, Paul; Lem, Marcus

    2017-05-09

    Intramuscular Immune Serum Globulin (IM ISG) is recommended as post-measles exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when administered within 6days of initial exposure, with variable effectiveness in preventing measles disease. Effectiveness of IM ISG PEP in preventing clinical measles was assessed during a 2014 measles outbreak among a religious-affiliated community in British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-five self-reporting measles susceptible contacts were offered exclusively IM ISG PEP within an eligibility period best surmised to be within 6days of initial measles case exposure. Clinical outcome of IM ISG PEP recipients was determined by selective active surveillance and case self-reporting. IM ISG PEP failure was defined as onset of a measles-like rash 8-21days post-IM ISG PEP. Post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody level was tested in 8 recipients. Factors associated with measles disease were analyzed. Seventeen of 55 IM ISG PEP recipients developed clinically consistent measles in the following 8-21days, corresponding to an estimated crude protective effectiveness of 69%. In school aged children 5-18years, among whom potential exposure intensity and immune status confounders were considered less likely, estimated IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness was 50%. Age measles in bivariate analysis (p=0.0217). Among 8 tested contacts of 17 considered IM ISG PEP failures, post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody levels (mean 16.3days (range 16-17days) post-PEP) were all measles disease within 8-21days post-ISG administration was 69%. Accuracy of this estimated protective effectiveness is vulnerable to assumptions and uncertainties in ascertaining exposure details and pre-exposure immune status. Increasing the Canadian recommended measles IM ISG PEP dose from 0.25 to 0.5ml/kg (up to 15ml maximum volume) may increase protective effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  17. North Central regional environmental characterization report: executive summary - final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the States within the North Central Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  18. Application and validation of case-finding algorithms for identifying individuals with human immunodeficiency virus from administrative data in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Nosyk

    Full Text Available To define a population-level cohort of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the province of British Columbia from available registries and administrative datasets using a validated case-finding algorithm.Individuals were identified for possible cohort inclusion from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (CfE drug treatment program (antiretroviral therapy and laboratory testing datasets (plasma viral load (pVL and CD4 diagnostic test results, the BC Centre for Disease Control (CDC provincial HIV surveillance database (positive HIV tests, as well as databases held by the BC Ministry of Health (MoH; the Discharge Abstract Database (hospitalizations, the Medical Services Plan (physician billing and PharmaNet databases (additional HIV-related medications. A validated case-finding algorithm was applied to distinguish true HIV cases from those likely to have been misclassified. The sensitivity of the algorithms was assessed as the proportion of confirmed cases (those with records in the CfE, CDC and MoH databases positively identified by each algorithm. A priori hypotheses were generated and tested to verify excluded cases.A total of 25,673 individuals were identified as having at least one HIV-related health record. Among 9,454 unconfirmed cases, the selected case-finding algorithm identified 849 individuals believed to be HIV-positive. The sensitivity of this algorithm among confirmed cases was 88%. Those excluded from the cohort were more likely to be female (44.4% vs. 22.5%; p<0.01, had a lower mortality rate (2.18 per 100 person years (100PY vs. 3.14/100PY; p<0.01, and had lower median rates of health service utilization (days of medications dispensed: 9745/100PY vs. 10266/100PY; p<0.01; days of inpatient care: 29/100PY vs. 98/100PY; p<0.01; physician billings: 602/100PY vs. 2,056/100PY; p<0.01.The application of validated case-finding algorithms and subsequent hypothesis testing provided a strong framework for

  19. How do preferential flow features connect? Combining tracers and excavation to examine hillslope flow pathways on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. E.; Weiler, M.

    2005-12-01

    Preferential flow is a complex process that influences water flow and solute transport in soils at different scales. Many studies have advanced our understanding about the physical structures of preferential pathways and their effects on water flow and solute transport at the column and plot scale. However, we still know very little about how preferential flow features connect over large distances and how they influence water flow and solute transport at the hillslope and catchment scale. Working in a forested watershed on northeast Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, we conducted several artificial tracer experiments under natural and steady state flow conditions to investigate how water and solutes move through a hillslope section above a road cutbank. After these ``black-box'' tracer experiments we applied a blue food dye and excavated the hillslope to visualize the stained flow pathways. Under natural conditions two of the largest preferential features transmitted water at rates up to 30 liters/min. When a NaCl tracer was applied 12 m upslope of the road cutbank one soil pipe transmitted 97% of the recovered tracer during two large storms. When tracer was applied 30 m upslope of the road a more diffused response was observed. For the steady-state conditions we pumped water into trenches excavated at 12 m and 30 m above the road and then applied NaCl during constant outflow. Pumping water into the 12 m trench produced flow from only two preferential features, but a response in all preferential features was observed when water was pumped into the 30 m trench. The detailed excavations showed that the largest preferential feature was connected to the lower trench by large soil pipes at the interface of the organic and mineral soil horizons that were connected by flow through the organic soil. Other cross sections between 12 and 30 m upslope revealed concentrated flow through coarse mineral soil, diffused flow through mineral and organic soil, flow along

  20. Impact of Using Audit Data to Improve the Evidence-Based Use of Single-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Robert A.; Tiwana, Manpreet; Barnes, Mark; Cai, Eric; McGahan, Colleen; Roden, Kelsey; Yurkowski, Emily; Gentles, Quinn; French, John; Halperin, Ross; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of a population-based intervention to increase the consistency and use of single-fraction radiation therapy (SFRT) for bone metastases. Methods and Materials: In 2012, an audit of radiation therapy prescriptions for bone metastases in British Columbia identified significant interphysician and -center (26%-73%) variation in the use of SFRT. Anonymous physician-level and identifiable regional cancer center SFRT use data were presented to all radiation oncologists, together with published guidelines, meta-analyses, and recommendations from practice leaders. The use of SFRT for bone metastases from 2007 through 2011 was compared with use of SFRT in 2013, to assess the impact of the audit and educational intervention. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the usage of SFRT and the timing of the radiation while controlling for potentially confounding variables. Physician and center were included as group effects to account for the clustered structure of the data. Results: A total of 16,898 courses of RT were delivered from 2007 through 2011, and 3200 courses were delivered in 2013. The rates of SFRT use in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013 were 50.5%, 50.9%, 48.3%, 48.5%, 48.0%, and 59.7%, respectively (P<.001). Use of SFRT increased in each of 5 regional centers: A: 26% to 32%; B: 36% to 56%; C: 39% to 57%; D: 49% to 56%; and E: 73% to 85.0%. Use of SFRT was more consistent; 3 of 5 centers used SFRT for 56% to 57% of bone metastases RT courses. The regression analysis showed strong evidence that the usage of SFRT increased after the 2012 intervention (odds ratio 2.27, 95% confidence interval 2.06-2.50, P<.0001). Conclusion: Assessed on a population basis, an audit-based intervention increased utilization of SFRT for bone metastases. The intervention reversed a trend to decreasing SFRT use, reduced costs, and improved patient convenience. This suggests that dissemination of programmatic quality

  1. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  2. Gender inequities in quality of care among HIV-positive individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in British Columbia, Canada (2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Carter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We measured gender differences in "Quality of Care" (QOC during the first year after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and investigated factors associated with poorer QOC among women. DESIGN: QOC was estimated using the Programmatic Compliance Score (PCS, a validated metric associated with all-cause mortality, among all patients (≥19 years who initiated ART in British Columbia, Canada (2000-2010. METHODS: PCS includes six indicators of non-compliance with treatment initiation guidelines at baseline (not having drug resistance testing before treatment; starting on a non-recommended regimen; starting therapy at CD4<200 cells/mm3 and during first-year follow-up (receiving <3 CD4 tests; receiving <3 viral load tests; not achieving viral suppression within six months. Summary scores range from 0-6; higher scores indicate poorer QOC. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to measure if female gender was an independent predictor of poorer QOC and factors associated with poorer QOC among women. RESULTS: QOC was determined for 3,642 patients (20% women. At baseline: 42% of women (34% men did not have resistance testing before treatment; 17% of women (9% men started on a non-recommended regimen (all p<0.001. At follow-up: 17% of women (11% men received <3 CD4; 17% of women (11% men received <3 VL; 50% of women (41% men did not achieve viral suppression (all p<0.001. Overall, QOC was better among men (mean PSC = 1.54 (SD = 1.30 compared with women (mean = 1.89 (SD = 1.37; p<0.001. In the multivariable model, female gender (AOR = 1.16 [95% CI: 0.99-1.35]; p = 0.062 remained associated with poorer QOC after covariate adjustment. Among women, those with injection drug use history, of Aboriginal ancestry, from Vancouver Island, and who initiated ART in earlier years were more likely to have poorer QOC. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer QOC among women, especially from marginalized communities, demands that barriers

  3. Income inequities in end-of-life health care spending in British Columbia, Canada: A cross-sectional analysis, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Gillian E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the income-related inequalities and inequities - the inequalities that remain after accounting for differences in health need - in expenditure on fully publicly covered (hospital and ambulatory and partially publicly covered (prescription drugs services for those in their last year of life in the province of British Columbia (B.C., Canada. We focused on a decedent population for three reasons: to minimize unmeasured need differences among our cohort and therefore isolate income effects; to explore inequities for a high-spending window of health care use; and, because previous studies have found conflicting relationships between income and decedent health care spending, to further quantify this relationship. Methods We used linked administrative databases to describe spending on health services by income for all 58,820 deaths of B.C. residents 65 and older from 2004 to 2006. Regression analyses examined the association between income and health care spending, adjusting for age, sex, health status, cause of death, and other relevant factors. We then used concentration indexes to measure both inequalities and inequities separately for three key types of services. Analyses were also run separately for men and women. Results On average, per capita expenditure on acute health care in the last year of life was $20,705 (CDN2006. In need-adjusted regression analyses, we found decedents in the highest income quintile had 11% lower hospital expenditures, 15% higher specialist expenditures and 23% higher prescription drug expenditures than decedents in the lowest income quintile. Concentration index analysis suggested that spending for all types of care was concentrated among those with higher income before adjusting for need. Need-adjusted equity results mirrored regression findings and suggested patterns of inequities that were more pronounced among male decedents than females. Conclusions Despite the

  4. Return-to-work for multiple jobholders with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder: A population-based, matched cohort in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Esther T; Koehoorn, Mieke; McLeod, Christopher B

    2018-01-01

    Multiple jobholders (MJHs) have a higher risk of injury compared to single jobholders (SJHs), but it is unknown if return-to-work (RTW) after a work injury is affected by multiple jobholding. This study examined the association between multiple versus single jobholding and time to RTW for workers with a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). We used administrative workers' compensation data to identify injured workers with an accepted MSD lost-time claim between 2010-2014 in British Columbia, Canada (n = 125,639 SJHs and 9,029 MJHs). The outcome was days until RTW during twelve months after the first day of time-loss. The MJH and SJH cohorts were balanced using coarsened exact matching that yielded a final matched cohort of 8,389 MJHs and 8,389 SJHs. The outcome was estimated with Cox regression, using piecewise models, and the hazard ratios were stratified by type of MSD, a serious injury indicator, gender, weekly workdays preceding MSD, and wage categories. MJHs were less likely to RTW compared to SJHs within the first six months after the first time-loss day, with greater and longer lasting effects for males, workers with a serious injury, and a higher wage. No difference between MJHs and SJHs was found for workers who had a six- or seven-day work week preceding MSD, for workers with dislocations, and for workers who were still off work after six months. Overall, MJHs with a workweek of maximum five days are disadvantaged compared to SJHs in terms of RTW following a work-related MSD within the first six months after the first time-loss day. This difference might be caused by more precarious job contracts for MJHs that challenges RTW because of lack of support for modified work, higher workload, and reduced likelihood that MJHs file a workers' compensation claim. Despite adjusting for type of MSD, severity of injury and occupation, the differences persisted for the vast majority of the study sample.

  5. Development of visibility forecasting modelling framework for the lower fraser valley of British Columbia using Canada's regional air quality deterministic prediction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Rita; Teakles, Andrew; Baik, Jonathan; Vingarzan, Roxanne; Jones, Keith

    2018-01-17

    Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modelling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia. A baseline model (GM-IMPROVE) was constructed using the revised IMPROVE algorithm based on unprocessed forecasts from the RAQDPS. Three additional prototypes (UMOS-HYB, GM-MLR, GM-RF) were also developed and assessed for forecast performance of up to 48 hour lead time during various air quality and meteorological conditions. Forecast performance was assessed by examining their ability to provide both numerical and categorical forecasts in the form of 1-hr total extinction and Visual Air Quality Ratings (VAQR), respectively. While GM-IMPROVE generally overestimated extinction over twofold, it had skill in forecasting the relative species contribution to visibility impairment, including ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. Both statistical prototypes, GM-MLR and GM-RF, performed well in forecasting 1-hr extinction during daylight hours, with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.59 to 0.77. UMOS-HYB, a prototype based on post-processed air quality forecasts without additional statistical modelling, provided reasonable forecasts during most daylight hours. In terms of categorical forecasts, the best prototype was approximately 75 to 87% correct, when forecasting for a condensed three-category VAQR. A case study, focusing on a poor visual air quality yet low Air Quality Health Index episode

  6. Essential drugs in primary health centres of north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the availability of essential drugs and the perceptions of clients on drugs situation in the primary health centres of Tafa Local Government Area, north central Nigeria. Checklist consisting ofminimum drugs expected in a generic primary health centre developed by the National Primary Health Care Development ...

  7. Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central Nigerian centre. ... The causes of PSAEs vary worldwide, and the management is challenging, often with unimaginably poor outcome if not carefully handled. The aim of this ... Keywords: abdominal emergencies, acute abdomen, children, morbidity, mortality ...

  8. Endometrial pathology in a teaching hospital in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a 5 year histopathological survey of endometrial biopsies seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital , Ilorin, North Central Nigeria from January 1st 1997 to December 31st 2001. It aimed at identifying the morphological patterns of endometrial disorders, prevalence of these disorders and the ...

  9. Predicting Suitable Field Workdays for Soil Tillage in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simulation model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for tillage operations in North Central Nigeria. Predictions were made from a computer model which simulates daily soil moisture in the top 30 cm of soil depth using 6 years of daily meteorological records. The model was tested and validated by ...

  10. Obstetric outcome in grandmultipara in Bida, North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the striking differences in obstetric parameters between booked and unbooked grandmultiparous patients in a tertiary hospital in North Central Nigeria. Methods: A total of 160 booked grandmultiparous patients who attended at least 6 sessions of antenatal clinic were compared with 160 unbooked ...

  11. Veneer-log production and receipts, North Central Region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Jr. Ginnaty

    1972-01-01

    The 1970 Lake States veneer-log production and mill receipts were 34.4 and 37.0 million board feet, respectively. The Central States produced 23.5 million board feet and received 30.0 million board feet of veneer logs. Veneer-log production and mill receipts dropped substantially throughout the north central region from 1968.

  12. World and experiences of AIDS orphans in north central Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, van der M.

    2007-01-01

    How do young AIDS orphans deal with the loss of their parents and their changed circumstances? This thesis discusses the social environment, experiences and perceptions of fourteen orphans in north central Namibia. The author followed the children for five months from September 2003 until March

  13. Wildfire atlas of the northeastern and north central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; Von J. Johnson; William A. Main

    1975-01-01

    Describes patterns of forest fire activity across the northeastern and north central United States. Gives average dates of greening ad curing of herbaceous plants, medium size of fires in various fuels, and annual profiles of peak fire activity. It also examines combinations of major fire cause and day-of-week activity.

  14. Medicolegal autopsies in North Central Nigeria | Mandong | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern and the causes of deaths reported to the coroner for medicolegal autopsies in North Central Nigeria. Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria between January1996 to December 2003. Subjects: Autopsies reports of 279 subjects ...

  15. Trypanosomosis in hunting dogs in kaduna, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A parasitological survey of hunting dogs during the month of August, peak of rainy season, was carried out in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria using the standard trypanosome detection techniques and concentration methods. This was with the view of assessing the socio-economic importance and public health implications ...

  16. Growing a professional network to over 3000 members in less than 4 years: evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia's virtual nursing health services research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Noreen; Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-02-21

    Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals' use of a network designed to increase nurses' interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. "InspireNet", a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network's virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members' database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times each. At the time of writing, 21 research teams

  17. A 7600-year high-resolution record of hydroclimate variability from oxygen isotopes in authigenic carbonate lake sediment: Cleland Lake, southeastern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, D. P.; Steinman, B. A.; Abbott, M. B.; Ortiz, J. D.; Stansell, N.; Cwiklik, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Cleland Lake (50.83° N, 116.39°W, 1126 m asl, 0.24 km2) is a small closed-basin lake located in semi-arid southeastern British Columbia. The lake-water is sensitive to regional hydroclimate conditions, because water losses through evaporation often exceed precipitation amounts in the summer, contributing to variations in lake-levels and δ18O. Over the last four years, Cleland Lake exhibited visible inter-annual lake-level changes, suggesting that the hydrologic balance of the lake is sensitive to short-term variability related to precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance. Water from nearby streams and lakes were measured for δ18O and δD to estimate a local meteoric water line (LMWL) and local evaporation line. Cleland Lake water isotopes plot to the right of the LMWL at more positive δ18O and δD values than most regional lakes. This indicates that evaporation is an important pathway for water loss. Carbonate minerals precipitate in Cleland Lake, incorporating δ18O into mineral lattices that are preserved within fine (mm-scale) laminations in the lake. To provide a longer-term record of P/E balance, we retrieved a 2.5-m sediment core from the anoxic basin of Cleland Lake and dated the record using 210Pb, 137Cs, eleven 14C dates, and two tephra layers (i.e. Mt. St. Helens Wn and Mazama). We isolated and analyzed 2,246 sediment samples of authigenic carbonates (< 63 μm) every ~1 mm over the 7,600-year record for an average resolution of 3 years to document past changes in lake-water δ18O to make inferences regarding past lake-catchment hydrologic balance. The Cleland Lake sediments contain average δ18O values of -6.5‰ from 7600 to 2900 yr BP. Starting around 2900 yr BP, the δ18O exhibit a -8‰ excursion, followed by more negative (-8.2‰ on average) and variable δ18O, until a rapid shift to more positive values around 2200 yr BP. This is interpreted to be an exceptionally wet period when the lake sustained overflowing conditions. From ~2100 yr BP until

  18. Investigation of groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    aquifers of the basement complex rocks of north central. Nigeria are ... Complex areas in the north and south of the River Benue. The elongated .... Industrial Estate. 10. 6. 0.60. 45.10. 270.60. 08.49008. 07.70197. Moderate. 12. Lafia road. 84. 52. 0.62. 6.20. 322.40. 08.56592. 07.79809. Moderate. 13. UniAgric road. 31. 30.

  19. Pleistocene glaciers, lakes, and floods in north-central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Kelsey, Harvey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Methow, Chelan, Wenatchee, and other terrane blocks accreted in late Mesozoic to Eocene times. Methow valley is excavated in an exotic terrane of folded Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks faulted between crystalline blocks. Repeated floods of Columbia River Basalt about 16 Ma drowned a backarc basin to the southeast. Cirques, aretes, and U-shaped hanging troughs brand the Methow, Skagit, and Chelan headwaters. The Late Wisconsin Cordilleran icesheet beveled the alpine topography and deposited drift. Cordilleran ice flowed into the heads of Methow tributaries and overflowed from Skagit tributaries to greatly augment Chelan trough's glacier. Joined Okanogan and Methow ice flowed down Columbia valley and up lower Chelan trough. This tongue met the icesheet tongue flowing southeast down Chelan valley. Successively lower ice-marginal channels and kame terraces show that the icesheet withered away largely by downwasting. Immense late Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula occasionally swept the Chelan-Vantage reach of Columbia valley by different routes. The earliest debacles, nearly 19,000 cal yr BP (by radiocarbon methods), raged 335 m deep down the Columbia and built high Pangborn bar at Wenatchee. As Cordilleran ice blocked the northwest of Columbia valley, several giant floods descended Moses Coulee and backflooded up the Columbia. As advancing ice then blocked Moses Coulee, Grand Coulee to Quincy basin became the westmost floodway. From Quincy basin many Missoula floods backflowed 50 km upvalley past Wenatchee 18,000 to 15,500 years ago. Receding ice dammed glacial Lake Columbia centuries more--till it burst about 15,000 years ago. After Glacier Peak ashfall about 13,600 years ago, smaller great flood(s) swept down the Columbia from glacial Lake Kootenay in British Columbia. A cache of huge fluted Clovis points had been laid atop Pangborn bar (East Wenatchee) after the Glacier Peak ashfall. Clovis people came two and a half millennia after the last

  20. Systematic status of wild Canis in North-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nowak, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Skulls of wild Canis collected 2003–2004 in north-central Texas are morphometrically similar to a series taken there and in nearby areas in 1964–1971, which was considered to represent a population of Coyotes (C. latrans) modified through introgression from Red Wolves (C. rufus). A few of the new specimens closely resemble small examples of Red Wolves. Such affinity is supported by authoritative examination of living and videotaped animals. The persistence of influence of Red Wolves, long after presumed extirpation through hybridization and human persecution, may be relevant to wolf conservation.

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2010 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (34th, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, May 21-25, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims…

  2. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  3. Organization of the Integrated Photonics Topical Meeting Held in Victoria, British Columbia on 30 March-1 April 1998. Technical Digest Series. Volume 4. Postconference Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-22

    proposed an athermal waveguide𔃻] in which the optical path length is independent of ambient temperature. The authers have realized the athermal...purl from the British Council / Ministe- rio de Fdiicaeion y Cultura de Espana, Accioues Infegradas OCCULT project. The work of P.S.Spencer and

  4. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Donna; Aherne, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l.) were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influe...

  5. Geothermal gradient drilling, north-central Cascades of Oregon, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W.

    1980-01-01

    A geothermal gradient drilling program was conducted on the western flank of the north-central Cascade Mountains in Oregon. Six wells were drilled during this program, although in effect seven were drilled, as two wells were drilled at site 3, the second well, however, actually going to a lesser depth than the first. Three of the wells (3, 4, and 5) were drilled in areas which topographically are subject to strong throughflows of ground water. None of these wells reached the regional water table, and all showed essentially isothermal geothermal gradients. The single well which was started essentially at the water table (well 6) shows a linear temperature rise with depth essentially from the top of the well bore. Well No. 2 shows an isothermal gradient down to the level of the regional water table and then shows a linear gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km from the regional water table to total depth.

  6. Biogenic hydrocarbon emission estimates for North Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Wade Strange, I.; Allen, D.T. [University of Texas at Austin (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Estes, M. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States); Yarwood, G. [ENVIRON International Corporation, Novato, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were estimated for a 37 county region in North Central Texas. The estimates were based on several sources of land use/land cover data that were combined using geographical information systems. Field studies were performed to collect species and tree diameter distribution data. These data were used to estimate biomass densities and species distributions for each of the land use and cover classifications. VOC emissions estimates for the domain were produced using the new land use/land cover data and a biogenic emissions model. These emissions were more spatially resolved and a factor of 2 greater in magnitude than those calculated based on the biogenic emissions landuse database (BELD) commonly used in biogenic emissions models. (author)

  7. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented

  8. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  9. Revised draft: North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  10. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  11. Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. and Podocotyle sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from the deep waters off Oregon and British Columbia with an updated key to the species of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 and checklist of parasites from Lycodes cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Racz, Gabor R; Gardner, Scott L

    2017-06-01

    Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200-800 m depths in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and an egg size of 68-80 μm × 30-46 μm. A single specimen of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Plagioporinae) is also described from the intestine of an individual Coryphaenoides sp. (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) collected at 2,800 m depth off Oregon. A listing of parasites from the bigfin eelpout as well as observations of parasite diversity within relevant hosts are offered, new host and locality records are noted, and a brief discussion of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 in the deep sea is presented taking note of the low level of host specificity recorded (i.e. spp. of Pseudopecoelus are now known to parasitize deep-water fish from at least 20 piscine families). A new dichotomous key to the 39 recognized species of Pseudopecoelus is introduced.

  12. Application of reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infrared analysis to the study of coal macerals: An example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique for analyzing the distribution of functional groups in coal macerals is discussed. High quality of spectra, comparable to those obtained using other FTIR techniques (KBr pellet and transmission micro-FTIR), indicate this technique can be applied to characterizing functional groups under most conditions. The ease of sample preparation, the potential to analyze large intact samples, and ability to characterize organic matter in areas as small as 20 ??m are the main advantages of reflectance micro-FTIR. The quantitative aspects of reflectance micro-FTIR require further study. The examples from the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia show that at high volatile bituminous rank, reflectance micro-FTIR provides valuable information on the character of aliphatic chains of vitrinite and liptinite macerals. Because the character of aliphatic chains influences bond disassociation energies, such information is useful from a hydrocarbon generation viewpoint. In medium volatile bituminous coal liptinite macerals are usually not detectable but this technique can be used to study the degree of oxidation and reactivity of vitrinite and semifusinite.

  13. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  14. Occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine sediments along the shoreline of Douglas Channel to Hecate Strait in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Laforest, Sonia; Lambert, Patrick; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Shah, Keval; Landriault, Mike; Goldthorp, Michael

    2017-09-15

    The occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone along the northern British shoreline were evaluated based on analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, petroleum related biomarkers such as terpanes and steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including non-alkylated and alkylated homologues (APAHs). The TPH levels, n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers and PAHs in all the sampling sites, except for Masset Harbor/York Point at Gil Island were low, without obvious unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and petroleum contamination input. Specifically, n-alkanes showed a major terrestrial plants input; PAHs with abundant non-alkylated PAHs but minor APAHs showed a major pyrogenic input. However, obvious petroleum-derived hydrocarbons have impacted Masset Harbor. A historical petroleum input was found in York Point at Gil Island, due to the presence of the low level of petroleum biomarkers. Ecological assessment of 13 non-alkylated PAHs in Masset Harbor indicated no potential toxicity to the benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  16. Heat flow in the north-central Colorado Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodell, J.M.; Chapman, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    We report new heat flow measurements at 25 evenly distributed sites in the north-central Colorado Plateau. Heat flow values computed for these new sites and one previously published site range from 43 to 116 mW m -2 but fall into the following district subsets related to physiographic and tectonic elements within the Plateau: (1) heat flow of 51 mW m -2 (12 sites; s.d. 6) in the San Rafael Swell and Green River Desert which constitute the core of the Colorado Plateau at this latitude, (2) heat flows of 69 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 10) in successive parallel north-south bands approaching the Wasatch Plateau to the west but still 80 km east of the Basin and Range physiographic boundary, (3) heat flow of 64 mW m -2 (5 sites; s.d. 2) along the Salt Anticline trend which strikes northwest in the region of Moab, Utah. Heat flow results for the entire Colorado Plateau have been reexamined in view of our new results, and the overall pattern supports the concept of a low heat flow 'thermal interior' for the plateau surrounded by a periphery some 100 km wide having substantially higher heat flow. Average heat flow in the thermal interior is about 60 mW m -2 compared to 80--90 mW m -2 in the periphery. This regional heat flow pattern supports a model of tertiary lithospheric thinning under the Colorado Plateau whereby the plateau is still in transient thermal response and a 15--20 m.y. lag between uplift and corresponding surface heat flow anomaly is to be expected. The position of the heat flow transition between our interior and peripheral regions in the northwest plateau is roughly consistent with lateral warming and weakening of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere initiated at the Basin and Range boundary some 20 m.y. ago

  17. The roles of national and provincial diagnostic laboratories in the eradication of highly pathogenic H7N3 avian influenza virus from the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, John; Robinson, John; Hooper-McGrevy, Kathleen; Wright, Peter; Kitching, Paul; Handel, Katherine; Copps, John; Ridd, Deidre; Kehler, Helen; Hills, Kevin; Cottam-Birt, Colleen

    2007-03-01

    In February 2004 a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak erupted in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The index farm was a chicken broiler breeder operation comprising two flocks, 24 and 52 wk of age. Birds in the older flock presented with a mild drop in egg production and a small increase in