WorldWideScience

Sample records for north yemen

  1. Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Philip S.

    The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

  2. Pemphigus in North-Western Yemen: A therapeutic study of 75 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Mishri Lal

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pemphigus, though not documented, seems to be quite high in Yemen. There is no universal consensus on the treatment of this disease. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of different therapeutic regimens used in patients of pemphigus in North-Western Yemen. Seventy-five Yemeni patients (39 males and 36 females) were included. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, histopathology and the Tzanck test. Results of treatment with these different therapeutic regimens were compared: (1) dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP), (2) dexamethasone pulse with oral azathioprine, (3) oral prednisolone with azathioprine, (4) oral prednisolone with oral cyclophosphamide, and (5) prednisolone monotherapy. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was diagnosed in 46 patients, pemphigus foliaceus (PF) in 23, pemphigus vegetans (PVEG) in 5 and pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) in one. Among the 16 patients who received regular DCP therapy, 13 were in remission for 6 months to 11 years without medications (phase 4). Remission without pharmacotherapy could not be achieved with the other regimens and steroid-induced side-effects appeared to be more than with DCP. Immunofluorescence was not available to confirm the diagnosis of pemphigus. Randomization was not done. The DCP regimen seemed to be superior to the other regimens used.

  3. Natural radioactivity in the volcanic field north of Sana'a, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, E.E.; El-Mageed, A.I.; EI-Kamel, A.H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.

    2011-01-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in rocks and soil of 32 samples collected from locations at North Sana'a in Yemen was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in rocks and soils samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined and expressed in Bq kg -1 . The results showed that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of 21.79 ± 3.1, 19.5 ± 2.6 and 399.3 ± 16 Bq kg -1 , respectively, for rocks. For soil, the corresponding values were 48.2 ± 4.4, 41.7 ± 4.5 and 939.1 ± 36 Bq kg -1 . Also, the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature. (author)

  4. [South] Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The population of Yemen stood at 2.02 million in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 2.9%. The infant mortality rate is 137/1000; life expectancy is 46 years. The literacy rate is 32%. The work force of 410,000 is distributed as follows: agriculture and fisheries, 43.8%; industry and commerce, 28%; and services, 28%. In 1984, the gross national product in Yemen was US$1130 million, with an average real growth rate of 7.4% in 1973-83. In 1978, the 3 political parties were amalgamated into the Yemen Socialist Party, which became the only legal party. Until 1982, economic policy was focused on infrastructure development and agricultural self-sufficiency; since that time, there have been efforts to discover and produce oil. Most of the people of Yemen are subsistence farmers or nomadic herders.

  5. The War for Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    coalition in Yemen with vital approaches that can speed recovery and stability. As Sun Tzu taught, we must know the enemy and know ourselves, and that...Iranian control, and work for stability in Yemen and use that as lessons for the region. AU/ACSC/J WATSON/AY16 17 Bibliography AlAhmad, Safa

  6. Gender and Transport in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Case Studies from the West Bank and Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Mobility is a major factor of access to economic resources, education, health, and other key elements influencing women's empowerment. In the Middle East and North Africa's countries, like in many other developing economies, women's mobility is constrained not only by the limited, sometimes unaffordable transport supply but also by social and cultural factors that frame women's access to t...

  7. Energy security in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosyan, Emil

    2009-09-01

    Yemen, situated in the Arab world, has considerable energy resources. However, its history of repeated revolts, civil wars and terrorism and also the presence of the Wahabi movement and al Qaeda in the country constitute security issues for the energy industry and its infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact level on the security of the energy sector in Yemen and the effect that the threats to that sector could have on global energy security. Analyses of the political environment, the security threats and the measures taken to respond to these threats have been carried out. Results showed that Yemen's resources are depleting and that the government is having trouble containing the escalation of conflicts; this situation could lead to Yemen's political collapse which could have an important impact on global energy security.

  8. Yemen: a new oil frontier or a flashpoint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent oil discoveries in the newly merged country of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) should have brought economic security to a country struggling to introduce multi-party democracy. International oil companies such as BP, Elf and Total, while keen to invest in this exciting new prospect for petroleum production, are, however, wary due to border disputes, possibly leading to military conflict between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The oil finds have been in the disputed Hadramaut region and desert areas of the Southern Arabian basin where borders have never been defined. Early settlement of this dispute could benefit both countries economically and in terms of industrial development. (UK)

  9. IDRC in Yemen

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nearby gardens. With better irrigation, the gardeners are producing enough food for themselves and for sale, boost- ... and rulers are keen to win over tribal leaders, who wield considerable influence among the people. Researchers are exploring how tribalism influences the political system in. Yemen. They are studying the ...

  10. Deconstructing Salafism in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnefoy, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In the middle east, Salafism has gained prominence during the last two decades. This is especially true in countries such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia where a political version of Salafism, often labeled sahwa, emerged as a significant social movement. In Yemen, however, the main Salafist trend is characterized by an apparently apolitical stance (...).

  11. Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    The government of the Yemen Arab Republic does not have a population policy, but promotes family planning for health reasons since one of its goals is to reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity. The 2nd 5-Year Plan (1982-86) aims for increased gross domestic product and per capita income, regional development, infrastructure development, job creation, and human resources mobilization. The population increased from 4.8 million in 1970 to 5.8 million in 1980 and is projected to reach 6.5 million by 1985 (indicating a 2.4% growth rate from 1980-1985). Life expectancy is 44 years for both sexes; infant mortality now stands at a high 156/1000 due largely to early marriage and little maternal care. The government concentrates on improving health care, mainly through its national health plans, by emphasizing immunization, education, and training doctors abroad. Current total fertility is 6.7, the birth rate is 48.5/1000, and the average age at marriage for girls is 13. Contraceptives and sterilization are available; abortion for contraceptive purposes is illegal. Up to 30% of Yemen's labor force may have emigrated to neighboring Gulf states and Saudi Arabia. The shortage in labor is partially made up by immigrants from the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, but the government still considers emigration too high since many of those who leave are the most skilled. There is no policy on international migration, due to the great value of remittances, but the government would like to encourage return migration. Yemen's urban population increased from 1.9% in 1950 to 15.3% in 1980. 4/5 of the population live in 5 of Yemen's 10 governorates. The government's policy seeks to strengthen the agricultural sector, improve living quality in rural areas, build up a balanced regional infrastructure, and establish more educational opportunities in small cities and villages.

  12. Esophageal cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah S; Aulaqi, Saleh M

    2014-03-01

    To document the age and gender distribution, histopathologic type as well as grading characteristics of Esophageal Cancer (EC) in Yemen. A case series. Department of Pathology, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen, from January 2005 to December 2011. Three hundred twenty five cases of EC were included for review. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and the cases were categorized into Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Out of the 325 EC cases, 163 (50%) were SCC (females 67%, males 33%) and 158 (49%) were ADC (females 30%, males 70%). The rest of the cases were 2 adenosquamous carcinoma and 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The mean age, for SCC was 60 years while the mean age for ADC was 65 years. The peak incidence for SCC was found in the age groups of fifth and sixth decades for females and in fifth and seventh decades for males. The maximum number of patients with ADC was seen in sixth and seventh decades for both gender. Well-differentiated histological grading accounted for 247 (77%) for both genders and types. The moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated accounted, for 17% and 6% respectively. The EC in Yemen had a predominance of SCC in female patients and predominance of ADC in male patients which was usually of a well-differentiated grade.

  13. Esophageal cancer in yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samawi, A.S.A.; Aulaqi, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    To document the age and gender distribution, histopathologic type as well as grading characteristics of Esophageal Cancer (EC) in Yemen. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen, from January 2005 to December 2011. Methodology: Three hundred twenty five cases of EC were included for review. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and the cases were categorized into Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Results: Out of the 325 EC cases, 163 (50%) were SCC (females 67%, males 33%) and 158 (49%) were ADC (females 30%, males 70%). The rest of the cases were 2 adenosquamous carcinoma and 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The mean age, for SCC was 60 years while the mean age for ADC was 65 years. The peak incidence for SCC was found in the age groups of fifth and sixth decades for females and in fifth and seventh decades for males. The maximum number of patients with ADC was seen in sixth and seventh decades for both gender. Well-differentiated histological grading accounted for 247 (77%) for both genders and types. The moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated accounted, for 17% and 6% respectively. Conclusion: The EC in Yemen had a predominance of SCC in female patients and predominance of ADC in male patients which was usually of a well-differentiated grade. (author)

  14. Yemen Policy Note 1 : A Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Yemen is subjected to a deepening conflict with an uncertain outlook for peace. The conflict in Yemen began in 2014 and escalated in early 2015 when the Houthi militias and their allied forces occupied large parts of the country and putting in jeopardy the then existing transition process that had been established in late 2011. Yemen has witnessed cycles of violence and civil war since bec...

  15. Yemen: Preventing the Next Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    the AQAP “regional franchise .”8 Since its founding, AQAP has taken the lead on offensive terror operations against the US mainland and against US...their ground water supply by replacing food crops with the water intensive narcotic plant Qat.21 Recent estimates place the unemployment rate in Yemen...population.103 Should the Yemeni military disintegrate, the social and economic impact would be crippling given the current 35% unemployment rate.104

  16. Yemens udfordringer - nationalt, regionalt og internationalt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jørgen Bæk

    2010-01-01

    En kort diskussion af de vanskeligheder Yemen står over for i forhold til al-Qaida i foråret 2010 Udgivelsesdato: marts......En kort diskussion af de vanskeligheder Yemen står over for i forhold til al-Qaida i foråret 2010 Udgivelsesdato: marts...

  17. Somalia-Yemen links: refugees and returnees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimuna Mohamud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of Yemeni refugees in Somalia are extensively based on the social networks and cultural linkages that exist between the Horn of Africa and Yemen. Meanwhile, Somali refugees returning from Yemen need to find safer areas within Somalia. 

  18. Achieving the MDGs in Yemen. An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Batuly, Abdulmajeed; Al-Hawri, Mohamed; Cicowiez, Martin; Lofgren, Hans; Pournik, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Once the current political crisis in Yemen has been resolved, it will be ever more urgent to speed up progress, including Millennium Development Goal (MDG) achievements. Drawing on simulations with the Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS), a model for strategy analysis, and a linked microsimulation model, this paper addresses Yemen's MDG challenges. A first simulation set considers scaled-u...

  19. The young child in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, A

    1974-01-01

    4 surveys were undertaken in Yemen through interviews with women in their homes in an effort to obtain information on the sociological and psychological aspects of young children and their mothers, the conditions of working mothers with young children, and traditional midwives and midwifery practices. The survey on child socialization and upbringing included 30 families. The survey on working mothers included 54 women selected at random among more than 300 women employed in a textile factory. 40 midwives were also interviewed; most were of the traditional type but the group also included 6 with 4 years of nursing school training and some hospital and midwifery experience. Focus is on ecological and economic background; social organization; housing, water supply and sanitation; the role of women; family planning; pregnancy and delivery; infant feeding and care; childhood; attitude of parents to education; weaning foods; swaddling babies; working mothers; health conditions and services; education; and the future for families in Yemen. There is a marked preference for sons in Yemen which is explained by the patriarchal character of the society and the place of defense in tribal unity and integration. Childbearing and rearing are heavy physical burdens for women. Among the families interviewed, 70% of the mothers did not want more children after the 4th child. During pregnancy mothers did not receive supplementary nutrition nor did they change their pattern of work or take any other special precautions. The social environment for child bearing is favorable, but conditions of delivery are primitive and even dangerous in the event of complications.

  20. Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, Iman Ali

    2013-12-01

    Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer Yemen, from 1997 to 2006. The results showed a total of 483 childhood cancers 5 years. An interesting comparison was the preponderance of non-Hodgkins's lymphoma over Hodgkin's disease (1.6:1) stronger in female (3:1) than male (1.25:1). Medulloblastoma was the most common CNS tumour followed by astrocytoma, an infrequent finding in childhood cancer. Osteosarcoma was the most frequent bone tumour (male:female ratio of 1.8:1). A female preponderance was noticed in chondrosarcoma that was not yet documented. The blastoma group was common in younger age group. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma predominated in female while neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcomas in male. It is concluded that there is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Aden when compared with developed countries. It may explained by the fact that a large number of childhood cancers remain undiagnosed due to limitations of diagnostic facilities or under registration. Central paediatric hospitals should be provided with essential diagnostic and therapeutic services that should be freely available to all children with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Eye Care Services in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh A. Al-Akily; Mutahar Y. Al-Shaer; Mahfouth A. Bamashmus; Abdulmoghni O. Al-Barrag; Tawfik K. Alkhatib; Hisham A. Al-Akhlee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to undertake an analysis of the eye care services situation in Yemen and to assess ophthalmic human resources, eye units’ ownership and ophthalmic equipments. Methods: Eye care providers were surveyed by a standardized questionnaire which was sent to the 184 eye units in governmental, university, military, private and charity clinics and hospitals in Yemen and covered the period between 01 January to 31 December 2012. The questionnaire determined l...

  2. Health and Dietary Diversity in Yemen | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Review report : health and dietary diversity in Yemen; traditional Yemeni rural diets and local food systems: enhancing contributions to health and environment. Études. Estimation genetic variation in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces in Yemen : a thesis. Rapports. Health and dietary diversity in Yemen : traditional Yemeni ...

  3. Yemen: oil and politics mix explosively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Oil is an inflammatory issue in the Yemen - literally as well as figuratively. Saboteurs are repeatedly attacking the oil pipeline to the Red Sea, most recently producing impressive pyrotechnics, and also highlighting their bargaining power vis-a-vis the central government. The political impact is no less impressive - Yemen's oil income is seen to be upsetting the political balance in the Arabian Peninsula, to the detriment of the Saudis. Each million dollars collected from oil by the central government in Sana'a dilutes the influence of Saudi money amongst the tribes in the provinces, so that ''oil'' in the Yemen is as important to Riyadh as it is to Sana'a, in spite of the relatively small volumes. (author)

  4. Total's LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author)

  5. Cataract surgical rate in Yemen: 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A. Al-Akily

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: CSR has increased in Yemen in the recent years but is still below the target suggested by WHO. There is need to increase the cataract surgical rate in Yemen mainly in rural areas. Inadequate number of eye surgeons, limited accessibility of cataract surgical services in rural areas and the affordability of surgery to large sections of society are major constraints that have to be addressed. The information from this study will help and enable Ministry of Health and other eye care providers to more equitably disperse trained ophthalmic personnel and eye units in Yemeni governorates.

  6. The socio-economic impact of the involuntary mass return to Yemen in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hear, N

    1994-01-01

    800,000 Yemen nationals were forced to leave Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other countries in the region during the Gulf War. Their mass return to Yemen followed immediately after reunification of North and South Yemen. Analysis reveals that the term "migrant worker" is a misnomer and obscures the variations in wealth, residence, and status. Returnees had variable lengths of stay abroad, number of dependents or family members abroad or at home, types of occupation, ownership of assets, frequency of visits to the community of origin, and remittances. The range of long-term migrants included wealthy merchants and bankers, middle level service and retail workers, and poor workers in the informal sector. The common thread is that all suffered some decline in standard of living. The return was less disruptive for short-term migrants. Some long-term residents no longer had social and economic ties to Yemen, and some had no experience living in Yemen. About 33% were estimated to be without ties to home communities. The decline in remittances from abroad affected foreign exchange receipts. The country shifted from labor scarcity to unemployment conditions. The infrastructure in housing, education, and social services was strained. The one-time influx of capital was short-lived. Returnees comprised about 7% of the total population. The feared upheaval politically and economically did not occur. Suggested improvements for future mass resettlement include offering shanty dwellers a supplemental feeding program, a means of obtaining secure housing, and increased infrastructure. The long-term benefits of encouraging a return to agriculture should have been more widely promoted.

  7. Yemen: A Different Political Paradigm in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    diasporas. In similar fashion , the Sunni tribes on the fringe of the Rub al-Khali in eastern Yemen and the Hadramawt have a close affinity with not...Ronald Robinson and John Gallagher, Africa and Victorians : The Climax of Impe- rialism on the Dark Continent (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1961), 1-26

  8. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, N A; Mahdy, M A K; Lim, Y A L; Xiao, L; Mahmud, R

    2013-05-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals and has a worldwide distribution. The parasite has a unique epidemiology in Middle Eastern countries where the IId subtype family of Cryptosporidium parvum dominates. However, there has been no information on Cryptosporidium species in Yemen. Thus, this study was conducted in Yemen to examine the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtype families. Fecal samples were collected from 335 patients who attended hospitals in Sana'a city. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR and sequence analysis of the 18 s rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis subtypes were identified based on sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Out of 335 samples, 33 (9.9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of them, 97% were identified as C. parvum whilst 1 case (3%) was caused by C. hominis. All 7 C. parvum isolates subtyped belonged to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype. The common occurrence of the zoonotic IIa subtype family of C. parvum highlights the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Yemen. However, this postulation needs confirmation with future molecular epidemiological studies of cryptosporidiosis in both humans and animals in Yemen.

  9. English Teaching Profile: Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A description of the role and status of the English language in the Yemen Arab Republic begins with a general statement concerning the distribution of English speakers and the use of English language materials. Subsequent sections outline: (1) the use and status of English within the educational system at all levels, including teacher education;…

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohindra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic-event probabilistic seismic hazard model, which can be used further for estimates of seismic loss and seismic risk analysis, has been developed for the territory of Yemen. An updated composite earthquake catalogue has been compiled using the databases from two basic sources and several research publications. The spatial distribution of earthquakes from the catalogue was used to define and characterize the regional earthquake source zones for Yemen. To capture all possible scenarios in the seismic hazard model, a stochastic event set has been created consisting of 15,986 events generated from 1,583 fault segments in the delineated seismic source zones. Distribution of horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA was calculated for all stochastic events considering epistemic uncertainty in ground-motion modeling using three suitable ground motion-prediction relationships, which were applied with equal weight. The probabilistic seismic hazard maps were created showing PGA and MSK seismic intensity at 10% and 50% probability of exceedance in 50 years, considering local soil site conditions. The resulting PGA for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years (return period 475 years ranges from 0.2 g to 0.3 g in western Yemen and generally is less than 0.05 g across central and eastern Yemen. The largest contributors to Yemen’s seismic hazard are the events from the West Arabian Shield seismic zone.

  11. Language Institutes in Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    A study investigated the characteristics of 14 second language institutes available to adults in Sana'a (Yemen), an area in which second language instruction has historically been difficult to obtain. Data were gathered through interviews and observation. It was found that seven of the institutions offer English instruction, and five offer Arabic…

  12. Inclusive Service Delivery : Yemen Policy Note 4

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing conflict in Yemen has led to substantial destruction of physical infrastructure and significant disruptions in public services, livelihoods, income and well-being of individuals and households throughout the country. With little signs of the conflict abating,innovative options are now being explored to rehabilitate infrastructure and restore services during and immediately afte...

  13. Working Children and Educational Inclusion in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Yemen has a very high number of working children, employed in a variety of occupations, ranging from street vending to guards on farms, and domestic labour. Including these children in formal education is a major challenge facing the Republic, which has one of the lowest rates of female participation in primary education in the…

  14. Electricity in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKie, Alan

    1999-06-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The Market Private; Power politics: the role of the private sector; Resource base and power options; Finance: Putting together the deal; Regional integration private; Iran; Israel; Jordan; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey Private North Africa; Algeria; Egypt Private; Libya; Morocco; Tunisia GCC and Yemen; Bahrain; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; United Emirates; Yemen Private. (Author)

  15. The challenges of pharmacy education in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed

    2014-10-15

    Pharmacy education in Yemen has faced many challenges since its introduction in the 1980s. Most Yemeni pharmacy schools, especially private ones, are experiencing difficulties in providing the right quality and quantity of clinical educational experiences. Most of these challenges are imbedded in a teaching style and curricula that have failed to respond to the needs of the community and country. The slow shift from traditional drug-dispensing to a patient-centered or focused approach in pharmacy practice requires a fundamental change in the roles and responsibilities of both policymakers and educators. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss the challenges facing the pharmacy education in Yemen; (2) to provided recommendations to overcome challenges.

  16. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  17. Climate Change And Hydrologic Instability In Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.; Funk, C. C.; McNally, A.; Shukla, S.

    2015-12-01

    Yemen is one of the most food insecure nations in the world. Its agriculture is strongly dependent on soil moisture that is heavily influenced by surface temperature and annual precipitation. We examine observations of rainfall and surface temperature and find that the rainfall, which exhibits strong interannual variability, has seen a moderate downward trend over the last 35 years while surface temperature has seen a very significant rise over the same period. Yemen has high vulnerability and low resilience to these climate changes stemming from many geopolitical and socioeconomic factors. The threshold of resilience has been crossed as Yemen is embroiled in chaos and conflict. We examine the relationship between climate change and agricultural and water insecurity using observed data and the Noah land surface model. We further used atmospheric reanalyses to explore the atmospheric teleconnections that affect the anomalous regional circulation. According to these investigations the robust surface temperature increase over recent decades, expected to continue under climate change, has strongly depleted the soil moisture. This drying of the soil exacerbated the acute hydrologic insecurity in Yemen, stemming predominantly from unsustainable groundwater use, and was likely a contributing factor to the ongoing conflict. We show that during naturally occurring dry years and under climate change this region experiences anomalous dry air advection from the northeast and that these regional circulation changes appear to be linked to tropical sea-surface temperature forcing and to the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude circulation. These results are an important example of the emerging influence of climate change in hydrologically insecure regions.

  18. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naela A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Xiao, Lihua; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2013-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in Yemen with infection rates ranging from 18% to 27%. To date, there has been no genotyping study to provide a better understanding of the transmission dynamic. This study was conducted to genotype and subtype G. duodenalis in Yemen. Stool samples were collected from 503 Yemeni outpatients between 1 and 80 years old, including 219 males and 284 females. Giardia cysts were detected via microscopy after the formal-ether concentration. Genotyping of Giardia was carried out using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA and b-giardin genes. Of the 89 microscopy-positive Giardia samples, 65 were successfully sequenced, of which 66% (43 of 65) were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A and 34% (22 of 65) as assemblage B. Further subtyping analysis based on b-giardin gene identified the presence of subtypes A2 and A3, which belong to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII. Data of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission played a potential role in the transmission of giardiasis in the community. However, further genotyping and subtyping studies of specimens from humans and animals living in the same households are needed for a more definitive understanding of giardiasis transmission in Yemen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N12009 in Yemen - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kohlani Abdulhakeem

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the influenza season of 2007-08, oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1 viruses emerged in several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Despite substantial prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses, few data are available on the clinical profile of subjects infected with these viruses. Objectives: to describe the first oseltamivir-resistant (H1N1 influenza virus pandemic 2009 from the Eastern Mediterranean Region including Yemen and to determine the evidence by clinical presentation of children infected with these oseltamivir - resistant viruses. Methodology History, physical examination and laboratory investigations including Complete Blood Count, chest x-ray, blood cultures, CSF examination, LFTs, RFTs, blood for sugar, H1N1 test and oseltamivir resistance test. Results Nasal swabs indicated positivity on both H1N1 test and the RNP gene (Human R Nase P gene that serves as internal positive control for Human RNA. Both clinical specimens presented the mutation S31N in the M2 gene associated with resistance to adamantanes and H274Y in NA gene associated with resistance to oseltamivir. This was the first diagnosed case of resistance to oseltamivir in Yemen and also it is the first reported case of oseltamivir resistance virus in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Conclusion The pattern of resistance found in the oseltamivir resistant isolate collected from Yemen is the same as has been reported elsewhere in other WHO regions. Clinical description and outcomes are not different from what is described elsewhere.

  20. Naval Blockade and the Humanitarian Crisis in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.D.

    A Saudi Arabia-led coalition is supporting the Yemeni Government with military means against the Houthis in Yemen. Part of those military operations are naval operations off the coast of Yemen that aim to stop the influx of weapons meant for the Houthis. It is viewed that these naval enforcement

  1. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  2. Development of petroleum sector and prospects in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saidi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that there appears to be Anemendous potential for future development in Yemen's petroleum sector. This projection is based on the significant events and changes which mark the evolution of Yemen's petroleum industry. These events and changes are detailed in this paper

  3. The Republic of Yemen - Economic Growth : Sources, Constraints and Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic sec...

  4. Development of small-scale fisheries in Yemen: An exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, A.; Haese, D' M.F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Yemen is one of the poorest countries in the world. The development of its fishery sector is increasingly being mentioned as a source of livelihood creation. The aims of this paper are to: (a) provide an overview of the institutional environment in which small-scale fishermen in Yemen operate; (b)

  5. Thyroid Diseases among Patients from Hadhramout Province, Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the histopathological pattern of thyroid diseases among patients in Hadhramout Province, Yemen. Materials and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted at Ibn Sina Central Teaching Hospital, in Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen between January 2007 and December 2012.

  6. 78 FR 28465 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... May 13, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Yemen On May 16, 2012, by... of the Government of Yemen and others that threatened Yemen's peace, security, and stability... Yemen and those in opposition to it, which provided for a peaceful transition of power that meets the...

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  9. Challenges in renal transplantation in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nono, Ibrahiem H; Telha, Khaled A; Al-Alimy, Gamil M; Ghilan, Abdulilah M; Abu Asba, Nagieb W; Al-Zkri, Abdo M; Al-Adimi, Abdulilah M; Al-Ba'adani, Tawfiq H

    2015-02-16

    Background Renal replacement therapy was first introduced in Yemen in 1978 in the form of hemodialysis. Twenty years later, the first renal transplantation was performed. Kidney transplantations were started in socially and financially challenging circumstances in Yemen in 1998. A structured program was established and has been functioning regularly since 2005. A pediatric transplantation program was started in 2011. Material and Methods This was a prospective study of 181 transplants performed at the Urology and Nephrology Center between May 1998 and 2012. All transplants were from living related donors. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted initially of double therapy with steroid and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Subsequently, triple therapy with addition of a calcineurin inhibitor was introduced. Primary graft function was achieved in 176 (97.2%) recipients. Results Cold ischemia time was 48-68 min. Episodes of acute rejection in 12 patients were treated with high-dose steroids. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was used in cases of vascular or steroid-resistant rejection in 2 patients. The post-transplant complications, either surgical or medical, were comparable to those recorded in the literature. Conclusions Renal transplantation is a good achievement in our country. The patients and graft survival rates are comparable to other reports.

  10. Upgrading nuclear safety and security infrastructure in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahran, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999 the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Republic of Yemen was established with an emphasis on building Radiation Protection Infrastructure suitable for Yemen and in accordance with international standards. Since then, Yemen arguably has built one of the best such systems in the region if not in the world with respect to the country's needs. This system is going to be upgraded from Radiological Safety and Security system to a Nuclear Safety and Security system. This is to be done as a prerequisite to any further development in the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy, particularly Nuclear Power and Desalination. (author)

  11. Leishmaniasis in Yemen: a clinicoepidemiological study of leishmaniasis in central Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem in Yemen. This study was designed to identify clinical and epidemiological features of leishmaniasis in Yemen. The study was conducted at the Regional Leishmaniasis Control Center in central Yemen. Data sourced from the medical records of 152 patients with confirmed active leishmaniasis, managed during April-August 2013, were analyzed. A total of 94.1% of patients were rural residents. Al Bayda was the most endemic governorate (59.9%). Children represented the group at highest risk (57.2%), followed by adult females (32.9%); together these groups accounted for 90.1% of all patients. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was the most prevalent form (49.3%), followed by cutaneous leishmaniasis (47.4%), and visceral leishmaniasis (3.3%). The wet ulcer was the most common type of lesion (49.7%) and the single lesion (69.4%) represented the most common presentation. All patients were ignorant of the nature of the disease, and 55.9% had a history of using "popular" treatments. Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniases have significant endemicity in Yemen, especially in central areas. Al Bayda is the governorate with the highest endemicity, and rural children and women represent the populations at highest risk. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis seems to be the most prevalent form and a single wet ulcer is the most common presentation. Infected refugees may represent new foci for imported Leishmania species. Ecology, geography, climate change, cultural gender- and age-specific duties, urban night activities, and use of popular treatments are among proven risk factors. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Arab Spring National Dialogues in Tunisia and Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict societies are in a fragile state in which social cohesion needs to be gradually ... Tunisia's national dialogue has been more successful than Yemen's in ... topic, which followed a Canadian Policy Research Networks Roundtable on.

  13. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  14. Logistics in Yemen: Optimal Intermodal Frieght Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Najeeb Said AL-Shikh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major roads in Yemen are not paved and its population density is high in coastal areas, implementing the idea of intermodal transportation method all over the coastline will give the product industries a huge advantages, due to its attractive solutions to the poor transportation infrastructure and its extremely limited road transportation system. The transport of goods in Yemen depends heavily on road transport in the absence of rail transport and limited movement by air transport and its high cost, the private sector provides the bulk of land transport services (goods and has accompanied the performance of road transport activities in the absence of regulation and supervision. In this research paper the author intends to analyse and develop optimal intermodal freight transportation plans for product shipping in Yemen by using two modes of transport (truck, ship without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. Using intermodal transportation is vital for the product movement and supplies when single mode alternative becomes unusable or infeasible. The author intends to use quantitative research method, plan and execute fieldwork, collecting data form freight companies (truck, ship, local factories, Ministry of Transportation, etc. Compile preliminary maps of roads condition and population density. First the author intends to visit the Ministry of Transport to closely monitor the program and objectives of the Ministry and the secret of work and projects in which it is implemented and meet with its representative for the purpose of collecting data and evidence of the difficulties it faces in order to become familiar with it Comprehensively and directly on its problems and study the possible solutions. , the author will intend to visit Aden and Hodeida ports to view the service and facilities for a better understanding of the processes and to examine the availabilities of intermodal transportation freight and collect data of sea

  15. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Breisinger; Wilfried Engelke; Olivier Ecker

    2012-01-01

    Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for ...

  16. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better barley — together ... In Syria, for example, "host farmers" in nine communities were ... and Yemen, the same approach is being applied to research on lentils.

  17. 77 FR 39392 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Yemen AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... toward Yemen. Licenses or other approvals for exports or imports of defense articles and defense services destined for or originating in Yemen will be reviewed, and may be issued, on a case-by-case basis. DATES...

  18. ISSR-based analysis of genetic diversity among sorghum landraces growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basahi, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity among 15 genotypes of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] growing in some parts of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. A total of 92 alleles were amplified, with an average of 13 ISSR alleles per primer. Cluster analysis divided the 15 genotypes into two main groups. Group A consisted of five genotypes with white grains from Jazan and Abha with a similarity coefficient range of 0.527 to 0.818. Group B was comprised of 10 genotypes; two genotypes from Al-Qassim were clearly delimited from the remaining eight samples with a coefficient range from 0.709 to 0.490. The eight genotypes were divided into two clusters; one was comprised of landraces with dark grains from Abha in Saudi Arabia and Ab in Yemen, with a similarity coefficient range between 0.563 and 0.781, and the other cluster was differentiated into three white-colored-grain genotypes and one colored-grain genotype; all samples from North Yemen had a similarity coefficient range from 0.454 to 0.800. The current results encourage further collection and authentication of sorghum landraces in the gene banks of Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Yemen watched from cement plant construction work. Cement plant koji wo toshite mita Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, M [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-06-25

    Construction of a cement plant was planned at southern part of Yemen. This is a cement plant with annual production 500,000 tons. The term of work was from January, 1990 to February, 1993. The present paper describes an outline the construction of this Cement Plant, the nationality and living environment in Yemen, and construction equipment which was used. The construction work consisted of 113,000m[sup 3] of digging, 82,000m[sup 3] of backfilling, 66,100m[sup 3] of concreting, and 29,285m[sup 3] of asphalt pavement. Reinforcing steel weighing 6,400 tons and steel frame weighing 3,600 tons were totally used. Equipment weighing 7,912 tons and electric devices weighing 1,299 tons were totally installed. For this construction work, two crawler cranes, six hydraulic cranes, aggregate plant, concrete mixers, and construction equipment, such as bulldozers, shovels, and dumpers, were brought from Japan. 5 figs.

  20. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Conflict at Higher Education Institutions: Factors and Solutions for Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani; Sang, Guoyuan

    2018-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study focusing on reporting the dynamics that cause conflicts between academics and administrators in higher education in Yemen. Drawing upon a critical review of two policy documents, observational research and in-depth interviews with 59 administrators and academics, the article presents the key factors for conflict in…

  2. Date estimates for major mitochondrial haplogroups in Yemen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyas, D. N.; Černý, Viktor; Al-Meeri, A.; Mulligan, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 147, suppl. 54 (2012), s. 295 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American-Association of Physical Anthropologists /81./. 11.04.2012-14.04.2012, Portland] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeogenetics * Yemen Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  4. Histopathology of gastric cancer in Yemen: A seven years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a major contributor to the global burden of cancer morbidity and mortality. It is the fourth most commonly occurring worldwide. Objective: To describe the general pattern of primary GC in Yemen and compare the findings of patients' age, sex, histological type and degree of differentiation to ...

  5. The Implications of Unstable Yemen on Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    total illiteracy, overpopulation , poverty, and lawlessness draw quite a gloomy picture. Yemen has a rapidly growing population with limited resources...is a transit path for oil from the Arabian Gulf 21 and goods from Southeastern Asia . The piracy threat in the Gulf of Aden, along with terrorist

  6. From Somalia to Yemen: great dangers, few prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno (J H van Gemund

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of people are escaping conflict and poverty in Somalia and Ethiopia by making a hazardous journey across the Red Sea. Yemen, their initial destination, has signed the 195 1 Refugee Convention – unlike its Arabian peninsula neighbours – but this poorest of Arab states lacks the means to provide support.

  7. Groundwater Security in Yemen: Who is Accountable to Whom? - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen, Omar Bamaga and Adel Al-Weshali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The overuse of groundwater in Yemen is now recognized as a national security issue. Groundwater exploitation has increased rapidly over the last four decades. While this has boosted high value farming and created rural jobs, there are grave concerns whether agriculture is not bound for a potentially destabilizing setback. This paper discusses the emergence of local management rules – by water users themselves - and their interplay with formal state institutions. It argues that the existence of formal institutions - including the National Water Law – was more important than their actual almost non-existent implementation. Groundwater where managed is managed locally in Yemen – but in spite of this autonomy, the presence of the Water Law creates the context in which these otherwise contentious local rules develop. The implication is that further strengthening and promoting local regulation is the best option for groundwater management rather than refining and investing in national regulatory institutions.

  8. Canadian Occidental joins Hunt as Yemen oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, J.

    1994-01-01

    On 23 September 1993, the Canadian Occidental Petroleum Company initiated the export of 120,000 b/d (barrels a day) of low sulphur, medium gravity crude oil from its Masila Block concession in Yemen. The oil is transported from Masila via a pipeline built by CanOxy and its partners to a new terminal at Ash Shihr, near Mukalla, in the Gulf of Aden. CanOxy is the third operator oil company to produce oil commercially in Yemen. The first, the Hunt Oil Company, began production in December 1987 and its output now totals about 187,000 b/d. The second, Nimir Petroleum, a Saudi venture which took over the facilities developed in the 1980s by two Soviet companies, is currently producing about 10,000 b/d and expects to increase its output to 25,000 b/d during this year. (Author)

  9. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  10. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  11. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.

  12. Economic, Fiscal and Social Challenges in the Early Phase of a Post Conflict Yemen : Yemen Policy Note 2

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This note is a part of a series of policy notes prepared by the World Bank in anticipation of a post-conflict transition in Yemen. These notes aim to identify immediate priorities for stabilization, recovery and restoration of services and infrastructure in the aftermath of Yemen’s current conflict. A subset within these notes specifically focused on ways to restore service delivery in an ...

  13. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullin, Ayrat; Xu, Wenbin; Kosmicki, Maximillian; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-04-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking and the extent and magnitude of groundwater-related land subsidence has been poorly known. We used 13 ascending ALOS and 15 descending Envisat images to study land subsidence of several basins in Yemen, with a special focus on the Sana'a and Mabar basins. From multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometric analysis (persistent scatterers (PS) and small baseline subsets (SBAS)) we examined the spatio-temporal behavior of the subsidence induced by depletion of groundwater aquifer systems from November 2003 to February 2011. In the interferometric data processing, we carefully chose interferogram pairs to minimize spatial and temporal decorrelation, because of high subsidence rates and the type of land cover. Our results show that the spatial pattern of subsidence remained quite stable during the observation period in both the Sana'a and Mabar basins. In the Sana'a basin, the maximum subsidence rate exceeded 14 cm/year in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction between 2003 and 2008 in an agricultural area just north of Sana'a city, where water wells have been drying up according to the well data. The subsidence rate was lower in the urban areas, or approximately 1 cm/year, exhibiting annual variations. The main subsidence was found in the center and southern parts of the city, while deformation in the northern part is less obvious. For the Mabar basin, the subsidence rate exceeded 30 cm/year in the agricultural area north of the town of Mabar during 2007 - 2011. The southern part of the Mabar basin also experienced high subsidence rates, although somewhat lower than to the north. Excessive water pumping is the main cause of the ground subsidence and it has already led to extensive ground fracturing at the edge of some

  14. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullin, Ayrat

    2015-04-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking and the extent and magnitude of groundwater-related land subsidence has been poorly known. We used 13 ascending ALOS and 15 descending Envisat images to study land subsidence of several basins in Yemen, with a special focus on the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. From multitemporal synthetic aperture radar interferometric analysis (persistent scatterers (PS) and small baseline subsets (SBAS)) we examined the spatio-temporal behavior of the subsidence induced by depletion of groundwater aquifer systems from November 2003 to February 2011. In the interferometric data processing, we carefully chose interferogram pairs to minimize spatial and temporal decorrelation, because of high subsidence rates and the type of land cover. Our results show that the spatial pattern of subsidence remained quite stable during the observation period in both the Sana\\'a and Mabar basins. In the Sana\\'a basin, the maximum subsidence rate exceeded 14 cm/year in the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction between 2003 and 2008 in an agricultural area just north of Sana\\'a city, where water wells have been drying up according to the well data. The subsidence rate was lower in the urban areas, or approximately 1 cm/year, exhibiting annual variations. The main subsidence was found in the center and southern parts of the city, while deformation in the northern part is less obvious. For the Mabar basin, the subsidence rate exceeded 30 cm/year in the agricultural area north of the town of Mabar during 2007 - 2011. The southern part of the Mabar basin also experienced high subsidence rates, although somewhat lower than to the north. Excessive water pumping is the main cause of the ground subsidence and it has already led to extensive ground fracturing at the edge

  15. Co-circulation of Dengue and Chikungunya Viruses, Al Hudaydah, Yemen, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezza, Giovanni; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lista, Florigio

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 400 cases of dengue-like illness in persons hospitalized during an outbreak in Al Hudaydah, Yemen, in 2012. Overall, 116 dengue and 49 chikungunya cases were diagnosed. Dengue virus type 2 was the predominant serotype. The co-circulation of these viruses indicates that mosquitoborne infections represent a public health threat in Yemen.

  16. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8279] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen and I...

  17. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8466] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen, and I hereby...

  18. 77 FR 29533 - Blocking Property of Persons Threatening the Peace, Security, or Stability of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International... aspirations of the Yemeni people for change, and by obstructing the political process in Yemen. I further find..., which provides for a peaceful transition of power in Yemen, or that obstruct the political process in...

  19. Quality Education Improvement: Yemen and the Problem of the "Brain Drain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the problems that hinder improvement of the quality of education in Yemen, with a particular focus on higher education institutions. It discusses in particular the problem of the brain drain and why this phenomenon is occurring in Yemen. Semi-structured interviews with three professors at higher education…

  20. Economic Growth in the Republic of Yemen : Sources, Constraints, and Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic sec...

  1. The epidemiology, pathalogy, and management of goiter in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hureibi, Khalid A.; Abdulmughni, Yasser A.; Ghafoor, Mohammad A.; Al-Hureibi, Mohammed A.; Al-Hureibi, Yahia A.

    2004-01-01

    The total goitre rate in Yemen declined by half after the country adopted universal salt iodisation in 1995. We investigated the recent epidemiology, pathalogy, and management of goiter so as to evaluate changes since the initiation of salt iodisation programme. We also sought to determine the effect of new diagnostic tools in the pre-operative work-up of surgically treated patients. Data were collected from the records of 667 patients with goitre seen in Kuwait University Hospital between 1997 and 2001. Females constituted 92.5% (n=617) of the series. The mean age of all patients was 35.2+-11.58 years range (13 to 90 years). Most patients (93%) came from highland areas with an average altitude of 2000 to 2600 meters above sea level. The average duration since patients noticed swelling untill the diagnosis was made was about 4 years. Multinodular bilateral swelling was the most common clinical finding (44.9%), while solitary nodules constituted the least common (17.4%). The most common associated symptom was dyspnoea (20.5%). The most common histopathological finding was nodular and colloid goitre (62.8%), while malignancy accounted for 17.7%. Subtotal thyroidectomy was the most frequent procedure, and the most common postoperative complication was hypocalcaemia. Goitre is a national problem in Yemen. The late presentation, which may be important in malignant transformationof the thyroid gland, makes surgery inoperative. The salt iodisation programme has been associated with a decrease in the malignancy rate. Yemen is the great need of experienced cytologists and radiologists to increase the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Patients need to be educated about the importance of post-operative follow up. (author)

  2. Health in Yemen: losing ground in war time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Jumaan, Aisha O; Collison, Michael L; Daoud, Farah; Mokdad, Ali H

    2018-04-25

    The effect of the ongoing war in Yemen on maternal and child health (MCH) has not been comprehensively assessed. Providing a situational analysis at the governorate level is critical to assist in planning a response and allocating resources. We used multiple national- and governorate-level data sources to provide estimates of 12 relevant MCH indicators in 2016 around child vaccination, and child and maternal nutritional status, and the change in these estimates for the period 2013-2016 based on shock variables including change in gross domestic product, burden of airstrikes per 1000 population, change in access to untreated water sources and unimproved toilets, and change in wheat flour prices. We also used findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study. Vaccine coverage decreased for all antigens between 2013 and 2016 among children 12-23 months. The largest decrease, 36·4% for first-dose measles vaccine, was in Aden. Among children under the age of five, incidence of diarrhea was at 7·0 (5·5-8·9) episodes per person-year. The prevalence of moderate and severe child anemia ranged from 50·9% (24·9-73·1) in Sana'a City to 97·8% (94·1-99·2) in Shabwah in 2016. Prevalence of underweight among women of reproductive age ranged from 15·3% (8·1-24·6) in Sana'a city to 32·1% (24·1-39·7) in Hajjah, with a national average of 24·6% (18·7-31·5). The war and siege on Yemen has had a devastating impact on the health of women and children. Urgent efforts to secure food, essential medicines, antibiotics, deworming medicine, and hygiene kits, and cold chains for immunization are needed. Yemen is in dire need of clean water and proper sanitation to reduce the spread of disease, especially diarrhea.

  3. Lead levels in deciduous teeth of children in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    To determine lead exposure among children in Yemen a total of 280 shed deciduous whole teeth were collected from 269 children. Teeth were analyzed for lead concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (SP9 Philips) with electrothermal atomization. Children were between 5 and 15 years old. The study period extended from April 1999 to August 2000. The study showed that the overall mean tooth - lead level was 2.15 mg/g dry weight with a range of 0.05-30.4 mg/g dry weight. (author)

  4. Yemen - the next big player? [as an oil producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.

    1993-01-01

    1993 should be the year in which United Yemen finally starts to fulfil its potential as a significant oil producer. In recession for three years, the country desperately needs the revenues and has spared no effort in its attempt to provide the right financial climate within which international oil companies can operate. But the last three years, in terms of revenues from actual oil production, have been disastrous, with production from the much-touted Shabwa fields persistently deferred and with the overall climate for the oil industry clouded by a border dispute with Saudi Arabia that prompted at least one western major, BP, to suspend operations for a while. (author)

  5. Promoting Literacy and Protection with Solar Lamps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Farrell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By distributing solar lamps to vulnerable rural women in Yemen, we promoted enrollment in literacy programs, as well as reading among their children. We saw a number of secondary benefits as well: safer households where dangerous kerosene lamps were used less frequently in the evening; a number of livelihood activities - cooking, husbandry, handicrafts - continued safely into evening hours; children found it easier to work on their homework using the solar powered lamps; and children found it easier and safer to walk in dark, rural streets in the evening with the solar lamps slung around their necks.

  6. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  7. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan S Gondos

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT, which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%. The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  8. Urinary Tract Infection among Renal Transplant Recipients in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondos, Adnan S; Al-Moyed, Khaled A; Al-Robasi, Abdul Baki A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alyousefi, Naelah A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication following kidney transplantation (KT), which could result in losing the graft. This study aims to identify the prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen and to determine the predisposing factors associated with post renal transplantation UTI. A cross sectional study included of 150 patients, who underwent KT was conducted between June 2010 and January 2011. A Morning mid-stream urine specimen was collected for culture and antibiotic susceptibility test from each recipient. Bacterial UTI was found in 50 patients (33.3%). The prevalence among females 40.3% was higher than males 29%. The UTI was higher in the age group between 41-50 years with a percentage of 28% and this result was statistically significant. Predisposing factors as diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder and polycystic kidney showed significant association. High relative risks were found for polycystic kidney = 13.5 and neurogenic bladder = 13.5. The most prevalent bacteria to cause UTI was Escherichia coli represent 44%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus 34%. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against gram-negative isolates while Ciprofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In conclusion, there is high prevalence of bacterial UTI among KT recipients in Yemen. Diabetes mellitus, vesicoureteral reflux, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney and calculi were the main predisposing factors.

  9. Oral cancer: knowledge, practices and opinions of dentists in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

  10. Cholera: an overview with reference to the Yemen epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaan, Ali A

    2018-06-22

    Cholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae, primarily the V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in 95 000 deaths. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera epidemic in Yemen, linked to spread of V. cholerae O1 (Ogawa serotype), is associated with the ongoing war. This has devastated infrastructure and health services. The World Health Organization had estimated that 172 286 suspected cases arose between 27th April and 19th June 2017, including 1170 deaths. While there are three oral cholera vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization, there are issues surrounding vaccination campaigns in conflict situations, exacerbated by external factors such as a global vaccine shortage. Major movements of people complicates surveillance and administration of double doses of vaccines. Cholera therapy mainly depends on rehydration, with use of antibiotics in more severe infections. Concerns have arisen about the rise of antibiotic resistance in cholera, due to mobile genetic elements. In this review, we give an overview of cholera epidemiology, virulence, antibiotic resistance, therapy and vaccines, in the light of the ongoing epidemic in Yemen.

  11. Modeling the 2016-2017 Yemen Cholera Outbreak with the Impact of Limited Medical Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daihai; Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2018-05-01

    We present a mathematical model to investigate the transmission dynamics of the 2016-2017 Yemen Cholera Outbreak. Our model describes the interaction between the human hosts and the pathogenic bacteria, under the impact of limited medical resources. We fit our model to Yemen epidemic data published by the World Health Organization, at both the country and regional levels. We find that the Yemen cholera outbreak is shaped by the interplay of environmental, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. Our results suggest that improvement of the public health system and strategic implementation of control measures with respect to time and location are key to future cholera prevention and intervention in Yemen. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Rapid groundwater-related land subsidence in Yemen observed by multi-temporal InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Abdullin, Ayrat; Xu, Wenbin; Kosmicki,  Maximillian; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    Several basins in Yemen are suffering from a rapid drawdown of groundwater, which is the most important water source for agricultural irrigation, industry and domestic use. However, detailed geodetic measurements in the region have been lacking

  13. Accountants’ Perceptions on the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Absy, Mujeeb Saif Mohsen; Ismail, Ku Nor Izah Ku; Al-Dubai, Shehabaddin Abdullah A.

    2016-01-01

    Developments in the global capital market have made the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRSs) more significant than ever before. The purpose of this study is to examine the accountants’ perception of IFRSs adoption in Yemen. We also seek the accountants’ view on whether Yemen should adopt the IFRSs or not, and on the expected time taken to adopt the accounting standards. We also examine the difference in opinion between academicians and practitioners regarding the ado...

  14. Phylogeny of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses in Al Hudayda governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; El-Sawaf, Gamal; Faggioni, Giovanni; Vescio, Fenicia; Al Ameri, Ranya; De Santis, Riccardo; Helaly, Ghada; Pomponi, Alice; Metwally, Dalia; Fantini, Massimo; Qadi, Hussein; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Lista, Florigio; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Yemen, which is located in the southwestern end of the Arabian Peninsula, is one of countries most affected by recurrent epidemics caused by emerging vector-borne viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks have been reported with increasing frequency in several governorates since the year 2000, and the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been also responsible of large outbreaks and it is now a major public health problem in Yemen. We report the results of the phylogenetic analysis of DENV-2 and CHIKV isolates (NS1 and E1 genes, respectively) detected in an outbreak occurred in Al-Hudayda in 2012. Estimates of the introduction date of CHIKV and DENV-2, and the phylogeographic analysis of DENV-2 are also presented. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yemen isolates of DENV belonged to the lineage 2 Cosmopolitan subtype, whereas CHIKV isolates from Yemen belonged to the ECSA genotype. All the CHIKV isolates from Yemen were statistically supported and dated back to the year 2010 (95% HPD: 2009-2011); these sequences showed an alanine in the aminoacid position 226 of the E1 protein. Phylogeographic analysis of DENV-2 virus showed that cluster 1, which included Yemen isolates, dated back to 2003 Burkina Faso strains (95% HPD 1999-2007). The Yemen, cluster dated back to 2011 (95% HPD 2009-2012). Our study sheds light on the global spatiotemporal dynamics of DENV-2 and CHIKV in Yemen. This study reinforces both the need to monitor the spread of CHIKV and DENV, and to apply significant measures for vector control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Explaining Sectarian Violence in the Middle East: A Comparative Study of Bahrain and Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf, ed. Lawrence G. Potter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 144. 9 Khaled Fattah, “Yemen: Sectarianism...and the Politics of Regime Survival,” in Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf, ed. Lawrence G. Potter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014), 209...figures capable of instrumentalization (President Ali Abdullah Saleh in Yemen and King Hamad al-Khalifa in Bahrain). Both nations have had, and

  16. Effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on childhood malnutrition in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, T S

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on childhood malnutrition in Yemen. The three anthropometric indicators such as height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age are used to examine the nutritional status of children aged less 5 years in Yemen. The independent variables include background characteristics, behavioural risk factors and illness characteristics. Data for the study come the most recent Yemen Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative sample, conducted in Yemen in 1997. Logistic regression analysis is used to estimate the odds of being malnourished. The three anthropometric indicators show high to very high levels of child malnutrition in Yemen. The prevalence of stunting and underweight is so widespread that almost every other child under the age of 5 is either stunted or underweight. Social, economic and behavioural factors show very significant association with childhood malnutrition. The study results indicate the importance of social and behavioural factors in describing childhood malnutrition in Yemen. The study results will help develop nutritional and health promotion policies in order to improve childhood malnutrition in this country.

  17. Yemen in a Time of Cholera: Current Situation and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2018-03-19

    Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease. The provision of clean water and adequate sanitation is imperative as an effective long-term solution to prevent the further spread of this epidemic. Cholera vaccination campaigns should also be conducted as a preventive measure.

  18. Imaging characteristics of meningiomas in Yemen - impact of Khat abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alansi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial meningiomas are the most common tumor derived from non-neural epithelial tissues, accounting for 13% to 26% of all intracranial tumors. In Yemen, several epidemiological studies have showed an increasing rate of meningiomas during the last 15-20 years. This can be explained by the influence of specific epidemiological factors (racial, genetic, toxic, etc) as well as, noticeably improved diagnostic imaging. A specific risk factor for Yemeni sub-population groups is chronic use of Khat (Catha Edulis Forskal, CE ) - an amphetamine-like product, associated with a variety of serious health, social and economic problems. The present study analyzed the imaging characteristics of meningiomas in Yemeni patients, who systematically use CE, compared to those who never consume it.

  19. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  20. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  1. Denying Al Qaeda Safe Haven in a Weak State: An Analysis of U.S. Strategy in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    known prior to the three formative periods mentioned above. Yemen was not only an ancient crossroads for trade , but it was also a producer of...this zone was known to the Romans and later to European cartographers as Arabia Felix.”21 Despite the well traveled trade route and profitable coffee...121 Floor Beuming, “The Merger of the Dagger and the Rifle: Failing Intergration of Former South Yemen into the Unified Republic of Yemen,” quoted

  2. Low back pain among female nurses in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Ghilan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Low Back Pain (LBP among female nursing staff and explore the potential risk factors associated with LBP. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected female nurses using payroll as a sampling frame in all public hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured, pre-coded questionnaire that was available in Arabic and English. Weight and height of the nurses were measured using weight and height scales and body mass index was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with LBP. Results: Out of 696 female nurses selected, 687 (98.7% responded. The life-time, the 12-month and one-week prevalence rates of LBP among female nurses were 512 (74.5%; 95% CI: 71.1-77.7%, 411 (59.8%; 95% CI: 56.0-63.5% and 249 (36.2%; 95% CI: 32.6-39.9%, respectively. The prevalence was significantly lower in Indian nurses compared to other nurses. Three out of every 10 nurses with LBP had sick leave because of LBP in the last 12 months. Factors that showed significant association with LBP among nursing staff in the multivariate analysis were age, nationality, menstrual disorders and stress level at work. Conclusion: LBP is common among female nurses in Yemen. The role of menstrual disorders in developing LBP among female nurses seems to be important. Although sharing the same working conditions, Indian nurses were less likely to report LBP, which highlight the importance of cultural differences in willingness to report LBP.

  3. Primary Headache in Yemen: Prevalence and Common Medications Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Abdo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Primary headaches is a major medical concern in certain Arabic countries, for example Oman, Jordan, and Qatar. This study was aimed at increasing understanding of the prevalence of headache in Arabic countries and identifying common medications used for treatment because of the lack of research done in this field in Yemen. Methods. This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted by recruiting case-series of adults and elderly who have primary headache within the age group from 18 to 85 years. 12640 subjects received a simple explanation for the aim of the study as ethical issue. The subjects were allowed to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. The data were diagnosed according to the International Headache Society’s diagnostic criteria (2004. Results. The results showed that 76.5% of the primary headache is prevalent at least once per year, 27.1% of the tension type headache (TTH was the maximum percentage of type of headache, and 14.48% of the migraine headache (MH was the minimum percentage. On the other hand, the relationship between the primary headache and age of subjects was statistically significant (P0.05. In addition, 70.15% of the subjects said that headache attacks affected their activity of daily livings (ADL. 62.26% of the subjects used the medications without medical advice regarding their headache. 37.73% of the subjects relied on medical professionals (physicians and pharmacist regarding analgesics use. The most common agent used among the medications was paracetamol (38.4%. Others included ibuprofen, aspirin, diclofenac sodium, naproxen, mefenamic acid, ergotamine and (11.45% were unknown agents. Conclusion. We concluded that absence of health attention from the Yemeni Community and education from the health system in the country regarding analgesics use and their potential risk led to abuse of such medications and could be a reason beyond high prevalence of headache in Yemen.

  4. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  5. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  6. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  7. A Time to Enrol, a Time to Stop: Policies, Perceptions and Practices Influencing the Right to Educaion in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.M. Maas (Lucienne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to understand why some children in rural Yemen stop their basic schooling while others do not. Basic schooling is defined as nine grades of compulsory schooling in Yemen. All of the children in the study had access to basic resources such as nearby schools, female

  8. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  9. Measurement of radon concentration in Taiz city dwellings-yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Taher M.; Ahmed, Hayel A.; Ismail, Rokhsana M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon gas considered being a high part of natural radiation background. Emitting alpha particles; radon daughters may be deposited into the lungs and cause health hazards. For this reason, estimation of radon levels in dwellings was done in many countries. In our country, Radon group in the Department of physics, University of Aden has been studied radon level in Aden dwelling. The present study is about the radon level in Taiz City - Yemen. Passive diffusion dosimeters containing (SSNTD s ) Cr - 39 detectors were used in the present work. 125 dosimeters were distributed into dwellings of ten regions in Taiz City. Results obtained show that Rn 222 levels vary between 4 Bq/m 3 and 99 Bq/m 3 . The average concentration in Al-Hasseb district is 23 Bq/m 3 and in Algumhuri hospital district is 53 Bq/m 3 . In other regions it varies between the two values. Whereas the general average in the Taiz City is 34 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  10. The coastal fishes and fisheries of the Socotra Archipelago, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonz, Uwe; Lavergne, Edouard; Klaus, Rebecca; Krupp, Friedhelm; Aideed, Moteah Sheikh; Saeed, Fouad Naseeb

    2016-04-30

    The Socotra Archipelago is situated in the Gulf of Aden where tropical and "pseudo-temperate" conditions combine to create a unique marine ecosystem. The diversity, ecology, productivity and fisheries of the coastal fish assemblages are still relatively understudied and no update of the scientific knowledge existed. The islands support unique coastal and coral-associated fish assemblages in spite of the limited biogenic reef frameworks. Fish diversity is the highest among comparable Arabian eco-regions, and fish biomass productivity high too by Indian Ocean standards. The production of the once traditionally-managed small-scale fishery is severely declining and whether it is sustainable nowadays is extremely doubtful. At a time when Yemen is torn apart by a severe political and humanitarian crisis it is timely to review and update the current state of knowledge for scientists and managers, and thereby ease access to existing information, facilitating follow-on studies and evidence-based conservation and fisheries management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geographical and temporal changes of anthropometric traits in historical Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danubio, Maria Enrica; Milia, Nicola; Coppa, Alfredo; Rufo, Fabrizio; Sanna, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates secular changes of anthropometric variables among four geographic groups in historical Yemen, to evaluate possible regional differences in the evolution of living standards. Nineteen somatic and cephalic measures collected by Coon in 1939, and 8 anthropometric indices in 1244 Yemenite adult males were analyzed. The individuals were divided into 10-year age groups. Within-group variations were tested by One-way ANCOVA (age as covariate). ANCOVA (controlling for age), and Forward stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate and represent regional differences. ANCOVA and discriminant analysis confirmed and enhanced previous findings. At the time, the Yemenite population presented high intergroup heterogeneity. The highest mean values of height at all ages were found in the "mountain" region, which is characterized by very fertile soils and where, nowadays, most of the cereals and pulses are grown and where most livestock is raised. Within-group variations were limited and generally inconsistent in all geographic regions and concern vertical dimensions, but mean values of height never differed. The prolonged internal isolation of these groups resulted in significant regional morphometric differentiation. The main evidence comes from height which suggests that socioeconomic factors have played a role. Nevertheless, the possible better living conditions experienced by the "mountain" group, with the highest mean values of stature in all periods, did not allow the secular trend to take place in that region, too. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Dengue Outbreak in Hadramout, Yemen, 2010: An Epidemiological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouth, Abdulla Salim Bin; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Letson, G. William

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed surveillance data of a dengue outbreak (2010) reported to the Hadramout Health Office (Yemen) and retrospectively analyzed dengue-related epidemiological and entomological events reported in Hadramout from 2005 to 2009. A total of 630 immunoglobulin M (IgM) -confirmed dengue cases of 982 febrile cases was reported during the period from February to June of 2010; 12 cases died, giving case fatality a rate of 1.9%. Among febrile cases, the highest proportion of dengue cases (37.3%) was reported in the 15- to 24-year-old age group. The overall attack rate was 0.89/1,000. The average number of cases reported by month over the preceding 5-year period compared with the 2010 data is consistent with endemicity of dengue in the region and supports epidemic designation for the dengue activity in 2010. Recognition of endemic dengue transmission and potential for substantial dengue epidemics highlight the need for consistent laboratory-based surveillance that can support prevention and control activities accordingly. PMID:22665621

  13. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  14. The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children, Taiz District, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Al-Shamiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first work done on cryptosporidiosis among the children in Taiz, Yemen.Methods: A number of 712 samples were collected from children of different ages (ranging from 1 month to 12 years from Dec 2006 to Aug 2007. The collected samples were examined by Sheather's sugar floatation and Modified Ziehl- Neelsen stain as well as ELISA methods. The test results were statistically analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The overall positive percentage was 43.7%. The higher incidence (36.2 % was oc­curred in males while the lowest incidence (32.7 % was observed in females (r= 0.876; P= 0.001. The correlation between infected cases and the type of drinking water was r =0.121. Among the cases examined by ELISA (92 cases, 26.1 % were infected. The correlation be­tween seropositivity and gender was r= 0.652 (P=0.031.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant pathogen among children at Taiz. Fresh water supplies, education, eating habits and domestic animals are considered the main sources for transmission of cryptosporidiosis.

  15. Factors influencing consumer behaviour in market vegetables in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarish H. Al-Gahaifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to understand factors influencing consumer behaviour when buying vegetables in Republic of Yemen. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire administered through schools, universities, government offices, and markets from 13 provinces in 5 governorates. Random convenience sampling technique was used. Total sample comprised of 463 completed questionnaires which were used for analysis. The respondents were classified into five categories on the base of their monthly income, age, education, gender, and type of settlement. Authors present the factors that can influence significantly this behaviour, e.g. price, quality, the location of seller, habit, personal relationship between consumer and seller, occasions, discount, sorting, word-mouth, time of purchase, the way of products display, and recommendation of friends and families. From the obtained results, it is obvious that there was high influence on the behaviour of Yemeni consumer when buying vegetables for factors price, occasions, discontent, and time of purchase, while factors habit, display, sorting, and the location of seller suggests medium influence, and the influence was low for word-mouth.

  16. Translations on Near East and North Africa. Number 1593, New Valley Development Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-17

    People’s Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen _Persian Gulf Area Qatar _Saudi Arabia _Spanish North Africa Sudan _Sultanate of Oman _Syria...and organizing the drainage situation. We have acquired the use of the highest-quality pipe materials used in wells and a knowledge of aquifers . We

  17. Sedimentary Basins of the Republic of Yemen : Their Structural Evolution and Geological Characteristics Evolution structurelle et caractéristiques géologiques des bassins sédimentaires de la république du Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beydoun Z. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and evolution of the sedimentary basins of Yemen was, until recently, poorly understood as this was based entirely on surface geology and correlations of the older stratigraphic units which were exposed only in the deeply dissected bordering uplifts of the Gulf of Aden and Red Sea or the high plateau of the north west. Elsewhere cover by the tabular Tertiary sedimentary blanket and the Tertiary Volcanic Group lavas masked the major underlying pre-Cenozoic structural elements and sedimentary successions. Earlier attempts at the delineation of the country's structural framework were, thus, sketchy and/or only partially correct. The discovery of commercial oil and gas in several interior Mesozoic rift basins of Yemen in the late 1980s and in the early 1990s after unification of the former two Yemens, spured many oil companies to enter the exploration race and carry out detailed seismic surveys and intensive exploration drilling in many areas. This resulted in a rapid rise in overall new subsurface geological data acquisition and an increasingly clearer perception of the distribution, orientation and inception times of the main basins. No overall synthesis of results was, however, undertaken since each individual company was primarily concerned with its own concession area and its immediate surroundings. Recent studies involving the review, correlation and synthesis of the mass of new subsurface stratigraphic data in connection with standardisation of lithostratigraphic nomenclature in use in Yemen and its further formalisation in accordance with internationally accepted rules, have, perforce, required the establishment of an overall structural framework within which inter and intra-basinal stratigraphic correlation could be carried out. It is this new framework of depositional basins and interbasinal uplifts that is discussed here. The main Mesozoic basins are related to late Jurassic extension and rifting, principally involving

  18. Women's authority during childbirth and Safe Motherhood in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Annica; Noor-Aldin Alwazer, Fatoom A; Theorell, Töres

    2010-11-01

    In the effort to increase utilization of professional care during childbirth in low-income countries, few studies have taken a holistic approach to investigating women's perspective of safety and the link to perceived own authority at birth. The aim of the study was to examine women's authority at birth with reference to the intrapartum factors, the level of training of staff and the social and demographic background of women. A multistage (stratified-purposive-random) sampling process was used. We interviewed 220 women with childbirth experience in urban/rural Yemen. We performed bivariate chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. Women who had their questions answered and requests met during childbirth had 83% higher probability (95% CI 1.66-2.02) to perceive own authority. Women who reported skin-to-skin contact/newborn in arms had 28% higher (95% CI 1.03-1.59) and those who had more distant contact 15% lower (95% CI 0.75-0.95) probability. A graded negative association was found between the perceived authority of the woman in childbirth and the level of biomedical training of staff (pauthority at birth. This paper argues that supporting Yemeni women to exercise their own authority during childbirth would significantly facilitate their ability to give birth successfully and with personal satisfaction. In a country where women are routinely disempowered, their personal empowerment at birth is very important to them. Skilled birth assistants often, in women's perceptions, work against their personal power and authority, most especially MDs but also midwives. This failure results in women failing to seek medical care when needed. Supporting women to experience their own authority at birth would facilitate the accomplishment of both the Millennium Development Goals and those of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. We call for increased cooperation between modern and traditional methods of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unpacking Terrorism, Revolution and Insurgency in Yemen: Real and Imagined Threats to Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lewis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent months have seen a seeming escalation in the international threat posed by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP, a terrorist network that has taken Yemen as its regional base of operations. In light of recent attacks, and resulting embassy closures, Yemen is a rising priority in the Western-led War on Terror. However, this has resulted in a side-lining of other security threats in Yemen, which may cause serious challenges to the authority of the Yemeni Government. In reality, the role of AQAP has been heavily manipulated throughout Yemen’s contemporary history: this was most evident during the 2011 Arab Spring, when both sides in the conflict claimed that Al Qaeda operatives were working with members of the other. Two years later, the true nature of the AQAP threat in Yemen is rarely questioned by external observers, yet remains largely shrouded in mystery. There is a need for more critical approaches to the AQAP challenges, which take the broader context of Yemeni security into account.

  20. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  1. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  2. A Tragic Educational Experience: Academic Injustice in Higher Education Institutions in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the tragic educational experience of one Yemeni scholar who has been oppressed by the education policy that Yemeni university administrators are accustomed to implementing while employing candidates. The institutions of higher education in Yemen, with the absence of justice, have experienced major ordeals in improving the…

  3. A Field Guide for Continued Study of the Arabic Language in Yemen and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, David Lawrence

    A set of materials for independent study of Arabic is designed for Peace Corps volunteers working in Oman and Yemen who have had Arabic language training but need additional skills. It establishes guidelines for independent study and working with a tutor, helps check language performance, and provides grammatical information for reference. The…

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-08-25

    Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis. A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P Yemen was inadequate, and that this could be a challenging obstacle to the elimination of schistosomiasis in these communities. Besides the current mass drug administration, school and community-based health education regarding schistosomiasis is imperative among these communities to significantly reduce the transmission and morbidity of schistosomiasis.

  5. Impact of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon; Croken, Barbara; al Hamdani, Abdul Hakim; Jibran, Fatima; al Makhlafi, Saed

    Nearly a decade after ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), more information is needed about how it is being used to advance children's rights. The Yemen CRC Impact Study is part of the International CRC Impact Study, a project of Radda Barnen/Swedish Save the Children. The study's focus is on how and whether the Yemeni…

  6. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  7. New insights into the genetic diversity of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobiumin Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Webster, Bonnie L; Ngui, Romano; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2015-10-20

    Human schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of great importance that remains highly prevalent in Yemen, especially amongst rural communities. In order to investigate the genetic diversity of human Schistosoma species, a DNA barcoding study was conducted on S. mansoni and S. haematobium in Yemen. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect urine and faecal samples from 400 children from five provinces in Yemen. The samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma eggs. A partial fragment of the schistosome cox1 mitochondrial gene was analysed from each individual sample to evaluate the genetic diversity of the S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections. The data was also analysed together with previous published cox1 data for S. mansoni and S. haematobium from Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands. Overall, 31.8 % of participants were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either the urine or faeces (8.0 % S. mansoni and 22.5 % S. haematobium). Nineteen unique haplotypes of S. mansoni were detected and split into four lineages. Furthermore, nine unique haplotypes of S. haematobium were identified that could be split into two distinct groups. This study provides novel and interesting insights into the population diversity and structure of S. mansoni and S. haematobium in Yemen. The data adds to our understanding of the evolutionary history and phylogeography of these devastating parasites whilst the genetic information could support the control and monitoring of urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis in these endemic areas.

  8. Self-medication with antibiotics in Sana'a City, Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *For correspondence: Email: profyahaya@gmail.com; Tel: +60195515611 ... Conclusion: Self-medication with antibiotics is high among consumers in Sana'a City, ... UiTM university, health office in Sana'a City and ... safety of antibiotics. .... laws and policies in Yemen [18]. .... the authors named in this article and all liabilities.

  9. Dancing on the Heads of Snakes: An Intertextual Analysis of Political Metaphor in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuraiki, Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use and linguistic behavior of the "al-raqs ala ru'oos al-tha'abeen" "dancing on the heads of snakes" metaphor and metaphors about unity in pro-government and anti-government discourse in Yemen. It adopts an intertextual, discourse-based approach that, following Oakley and Coulson (2008),…

  10. The role of community centres in offering protection: UNHCR and Al Ghaith Association in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Martin-Achard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Community centres play an important role in offering protection for displaced communities, particularly for members of those communities who have specific needs. Somali refugees in Yemen formed the Al Ghaith Association and are now running their own community centres to support fellow refugees. Below, UNHCR and Al Ghaith discuss their approaches.

  11. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  12. The Al-Hiraak Movement in Yemen: A Study of the Implications of Federalization on a Secession Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    existence of the rump state is legitimately threatened either physically or economically by the secessionist region), soft paternalism (in which it is clear...late 18th century. Less than a century later, the United States engaged in a bloody civil war to prevent the southern states from leaving the union...Laden and his closest lieutenant in Yemen, Tariq al-Fadli, found safe haven in Yemen after leaving Afghanistan. President Saleh realizing that he may

  13. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  14. Risk factors of diarrhea in children under 5 years in Al-Mukalla, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahartha, Ali S; AlEzzi, Jalil I

    2015-06-01

    To assess the risk factors associated with diarrhea among children below 5-years-old in Mukalla, Yemen, and compare with other studies.   We conducted a case-control study on 200 children (100 cases and 100 controls) who attended the Maternity and Child Hospital, outpatient-clinics, and the Primary Health Care Centers in Al-Mukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen between February and April 2013.   We found that the significant risk factors associated with diarrhea were crowded housing (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; p=0.02; confidence interval [CI] 1.03-4.01), incomplete vaccination of the child (OR=2.02; p=0.027; CI: 1.08-3.8), and recurrent diarrheal illness during the last 3 months (OR=6.61; p=0.001; CI: 3.41-12.90).   Diarrheal diseases are strongly associated with incomplete vaccination, recurrent diarrheal disease, and crowded housing.

  15. Attitudes Toward Restricting the Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women Living With HIV Infection in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badahdah, Abdallah M

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has demonstrated the pervasive and destructive power of discrimination against people living with HIV, which limits their full and equal participation in society. This study surveyed 613 young adults from Yemen about their attitudes toward the sexual and reproductive rights of women living with HIV (WLWH). Among survey respondents, 80% believed that WLWH should be sterilized and not allowed to get married. Furthermore, 62% thought that WLWH should be forced to have abortions if they became pregnant. Men were more likely than women to impose restrictions on the sexual and reproductive rights of WLWH. HIV stigma predicted respondent attitudes toward WLWH, but religiosity and knowledge about HIV did not. The results of the study have implications for developing programs to protect and promote the rights of WLWH in Yemen. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Legal Framework of Franchise Agreement Compared to the Legislation Status in Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    رشاد نعمان العامري

    2017-01-01

    Franchise is a modern style created as a need for trade to increase projects size. It differs from the authorization to use the trademark because the latter only requires licensing of the licensee's trademark, unlike the Franchise contract, in which it goes beyond the need to convey technical knowledge from Franchisor to Franchisee. In Yemen, Franchise has not received any private legal legislation till the moment, necessitating applying contract articles, contracts general principles and som...

  18. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa; Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A.

    2013-11-01

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  19. Role of Integrated Outreach Activities in Improving Nutritional Status among Under-Five Children in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mudhwahi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to review the feasibility of scaling-up nutrition activities through integrated outreach activities to respond to development challenges. Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of current packages of outreach services during the period of 2006-2014 is the aim of this review for better access to basic and social services and economic opportunities in Yemen. The two components of health system performance are related to: (i) the levels of coverage for health interventions; and (ii) financial risk protection, with a focus on equity. In this sense, Yemen's intervention coverage indicators of the health-related MDGs, such as immunization, integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI), reproductive health (RH) and disease control including non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have shown good progress. Yet, malnutrition is still highly prevalent among under-five children in the country. Coverage indicators of the outreach approach in Yemen, which started in 2006, indicate a strong role of the integrated services in reaching under-five children of the most vulnerable communities with basic health services including preventive and curative ones. As well, these activities respond to the financial risk protection challenges with enhancing efficiency in the provision of health services. Considering that nutrition is part of the package of integrated outreach services, inter-related measures of universal coverage in Yemen are to be addressed together with setting the impact indicators for essential health services coverage targeting the neediest populations. Coverage of health services encompasses the full targeted population in the most malnutrition-affected areas, especially the west coast of the country, for intervention and for the age group these services are directed to.

  20. Palynological study of the genera Ruellia, Ecbolium, Asystasia, Blepharis and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hakimi, S. Anisa [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taiz University, Taiz (Yemen); Maideen, Haja; Latiff, A. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Pollen morphology of five genera of the family Acanthaceae, namely Ruellia, Blepharis, Asystasia, Ecbolium and Dicliptera (Acanthaceae) of Yemen has been examined using light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen descriptions were provided with two shapes distinguished, spheroidal and prolate. Most of the pollen grains were tricolporate amd psuedocolpi except those of Blepharis which are colpate. The surface is coarsely reticulate, in addition to the lumina that varies in size.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Yemen Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic occupies a part of the southern Arabian Shield and has been subject to considerable faulting and movement. As far as is known no uranium exploration has ever been undertaken or is presently contemplated in the country. Uranium could occur in the Shield rocks and conditions are right for calcrete type uranium deposits. The Speculative Potential may be in category 2, i.e. between 1000 and 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  2. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in chi...

  3. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  4. Plagiarism: A Shared Responsibility of All, Current Situation, and Future Actions in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthanna, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    As combating plagiarism is a shared responsibility of all, this article focuses on presenting the current situation of higher education in Yemen. The critical review of four implementable policy documents and interviews revealed the absence of research ethics code, research misconduct policy, and institutional policies in the country. This led to the presence of several acts of research dishonesty. The article concludes with an initiative for necessary future actions in the nation.

  5. Hydatid Disease in Yemeni Patients attending Public and Private Hospitals in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoury, Abdulbasit; El-Hamshary, Eman; Azazy, Ahmed; Hussein, Eman; Rayan, Hanan Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Hydatid disease is endemic and represents a major health problem in Yemen. The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of hydatidosis in patients attending Public and Private Hospitals at Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods 66 patients with hydatid disease were identified during the period from August 2006 to February 2007. Complete medical history for all CE patients were collected and analyzed. Results Among the 66 CE patients, 67% were females and 33% males. Liver was the most common involved organ. Single cyst was more frequently detected than multiple cysts and approximately 94% of the cysts were ≥5 cm. Moreover, Public hospitals were the main source of patients with CE disease. Conclusion Hydatidosis is still an endemic disease and an important health problem in Yemen which needs to be studied further. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of the disease is the first step for the control and prevention of the disease. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate the role of different intermediate hosts and genotypes of E. granulosus in humans and animals. PMID:22125707

  6. Hydatid Disease in Yemeni Patients attending Public and Private Hospitals in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbasit Alghoury

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hydatid disease is endemic and represents a major health problem in Yemen. The aim of this study is to determine the magnitude of the problem of hydatidosis in patients attending Public and Private Hospitals at Sana’a city, Yemen.Methods:66 patients with hydatid disease were identified during the period from August 2006 to February 2007. Complete medical history for all CE patients were collected and analyzed.Results: Among the 66 CE patients, 67% were females and 33% males. Liver was the most common involved organ. Single cyst was more frequently detected than multiple cysts and approximately 94% of the cysts were ≥5 cm. Moreover, Public hospitals were the main source of patients with CE disease.Conclusion: Hydatidosis is still an endemic disease and an important health problem in Yemen which needs to be studied further. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of the disease is the first step for the control and prevention of the disease. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate the role of different intermediate hosts and genotypes of E. granulosus in humans and animals.

  7. Skin Cancer: ClinicoPathological Study of 204 Patients in Southern Governorates of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZou, Amer Bin; Thabit, Mazen Abood Bin; AlSakkaf, Khalid Abdulla; Basaleem, Huda Omer

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is a group of heterogeneous malignancies, in general classified into nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma skin cancer (MSC). Incidences are high in many parts in the world with considerable geographical and racial variation. In the Yemen, there has been scarce information about skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and histological trend of skin cancer in Southern Governorates of Yemen. This retrospective study covered 204 cases of skin cancer at the Modern Histopathology Laboratory and Aden Cancer Registry and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Aden, for the period 20062013. Data were classified regarding different demographic and tumor related variables and analyzed using CanReg4 for cancer registry and SPSS (version 21). The commonest encountered skin cancer was NMSC (93.1%). Generally, skin cancer appears slightly more frequently in females than males with a 1:1.06 male: female ratio, with a mean age of 62.9 years. Slightly higher than onethird (36.3%) were from Aden governorate. The head and neck proved to be the most common site in both males and females (58%). Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common histological type of skin cancer (50.5%). Skin cancer is a common cancer in patients living in southern governorates of Yemen. The pattern appears nearly similar to the international figures with a low incidence of MSC.

  8. Estimating the tuberculosis burden in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A

    2013-04-01

    The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).

  9. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A knowledge survey among intensive care nurses in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayaghi, Khaled M

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate knowledge of nurses working in Yemen intensive care units (ICUs) on evidence-based strategies for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and to determine if there is any association between certain nurses` as well as workplaces` characteristics and the knowledge scores of nurses. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out in 37 ICUs of 23 hospitals in Sana`a city, Yemen. A self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire listing 15 evidence-based preventive strategies was distributed to all nurses and collected between December 2012 and February 2013. The results were analyzed and tabulated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 17. Three hundred and eighty-seven questionnaires were collected (response rate 75.4%). The nurses were most frequently correct (>60%) regarding regular oral care, semi-recumbent position, preventing unplanned extubation, emptying of condensate from ventilator tubing, daily sedation interruption and assessment of readiness for weaning, and endotracheal tubes with extra lumen for subglottic secretions drainage. Nurses had the least knowledge (Yemen ICUs.

  10. Reproductive strategies, karyology, parasites, and taxonomic status of Dugesia populations from Yemen (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Dugesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrath, Abdul Halim; Sluys, Ronald; Aldahmash, Waleed; Al-Razaki, Abdulkarim; Alwasel, Saleh

    2013-06-01

    We present new data on the distribution, reproductive strategies, karyology, and taxonomic status of populations of freshwater planarians from Yemen. Nine populations were sampled and significant differences in their reproductive strategies and karyology are reported. The present study presents the first fully documented record of a naturally sexual, diploid (2n = 18) population of a Dugesia species in the eastern part of the Afrotropical region. Morphological characters combined with karyological data suggest that these Dugesia populations from Yemen represent a new species, which is herein described as Dugesia arabica Harrath and Sluys, sp. nov. This new species is mainly distinguishable from other Dugesia species that are distributed exclusively in the Mediterranean basin and in the eastern part of the Afrotropical region by the presence of the following features: well-developed and cone-shaped penis papilla, housing an ejaculatory duct that runs ventrally and has a subterminal and ventral opening; a considerably expanded and folded section of the bursal canal at the level of the oviducal openings; absence of a layer of longitudinal muscles on the copulatory bursa and the bursal canal. Specimens from two populations from Yemen were infested with a gregarine Protozoon.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices regarding dengue fever in rural areas of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, Khaled G; Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Altaire, Abdulrahman; Alqadsi, Ala; Alariqi, Enas F; Hassaan, Maha

    2015-11-01

    In recent years there have been several reports of outbreaks of dengue fever (DF) in Yemen. This study aimed to describe the prevailing knowledge, attitude and preventive practices regarding DF, and to investigate the factors associated with poor preventive practices in rural areas of Yemen. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 804 randomly selected heads of household. A pretested, structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors independently associated with poor practice. Out of 804 participants, 753 (93.7%) were aware of the symptoms of DF and 671 (83.4%) knew that DF was transmitted by mosquito bites. Only 420 (52.2%) knew that direct person-to-person transmission was not possible. Furthermore, 205 (25.5%) thought that someone with DF should be avoided and 460 (57.2%) thought the elimination of breeding sites was the responsibility of health authorities. Poor knowledge of DF and a low level of education were significantly associated with poor preventive practices. In rural areas of Yemen, people have a vague understanding of DF transmission and a negative attitude towards preventative practices. Efforts should be made to correct misconceptions about transmission of the disease and to highlight the importance of community participation in control activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Isolated from Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Bin Shuaib, Naemah O. M.; Azazy, Ahmed A.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types. Conclusions/Significance The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person–to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL. PMID:20862227

  13. Age at marriage, contraceptive use and abortion in Yemen, 1991-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Sunil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the extent of influence of the three components of fertility, age at marriage, extent of modern contraceptive use and the level of abortion on fertility in the Republic of Yemen and to explore the impact of a selected set of demographic and socioeconomic variables on the three fertility components. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted in Yemen in 1991/1992 and 1997. The results from this study present empirical evidence of an onset of fertility decline in the Republic of Yemen. An important component of this decline is delayed age at marriage. There has been an increase in modem contraceptive use during the last decade. However, these methods are not widely used at early stages of family formation. The most common method of family limitation among women with large families is abortion. There has been very little change if any in the widespread occurrence of abortion during the last decade. There exist significant urban-rural differences in the levels of contraceptive use and abortion. Improvements in women's education and modern sector labor participation are crucial for increasing age at marriage, and level of contraceptive use and for reducing the prevailing level of abortion.

  14. Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attacked areas of Zaydi sacred geography, including mosques and Hashimi tombs . Likewise, over time, GoY forces have targeted moun- tainous areas...tribes in the north. Observers have noted that some Soviet-era assault rifles, pistols, and small-caliber mor- tars go back to the period of Egyptian ...both to one’s identity as a tribesman 26 Adra, in “Qabyala,” 188, notes cases where prorepublican qaba’ il fought with the royalists due to Egyptian

  15. Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Lahj Governorate, Yemen: baseline data and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance Michael L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is an investigation of anti-malarial molecular markers coupled with a therapeutic efficacy test of chloroquine (CQ against falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. The study was aimed at assessment of therapeutic response to CQ and elucidation of baseline information on molecular markers for Plasmodium falciparum resistance against CQ and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP. Methods Between 2002 and 2003 the field test was conducted according to the standard WHO protocol to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in 124 patients with falciparum malaria in an endemic area in Lahj Governorate in Yemen. Blood samples collected during this study were analysed for P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt-76 polymorphisms, mutation pfcrt-S163R and the antifolate resistance-associated mutations dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr-C59R and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps-K540E. Direct DNA sequencing of the pfcrt gene from three representative field samples was carried out after DNA amplification of the 13 exons of the pfcrt gene. Results Treatment failure was detected in 61% of the 122 cases that completed the 14-day follow-up. The prevalence of mutant pfcrt T76 was 98% in 112 amplified pre-treatment samples. The presence of pfcrt T76 was poorly predictive of in vivo CQ resistance (PPV = 61.8%, 95% CI = 52.7-70.9. The prevalence of dhfr Arg-59 mutation in 99 amplified samples was 5%, while the dhps Glu-540 was not detected in any of 119 amplified samples. Sequencing the pfcrt gene confirmed that Yemeni CQ resistant P. falciparum carry the old world (Asian and African CQ resistant haplotype CVIETSESI at positions 72,73,74,75,76,220,271, 326 and 371. Conclusion This is the first study to report baseline information on the characteristics and implications of anti-malarial drug resistance markers in Yemen. It is also the first report of the haplotype associated with CQR P. falciparum

  16. Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Lahj Governorate, Yemen: baseline data and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubjer, Reem A; Adeel, Ahmed A; Chance, Michael L; Hassan, Amir A

    2011-08-21

    This is an investigation of anti-malarial molecular markers coupled with a therapeutic efficacy test of chloroquine (CQ) against falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. The study was aimed at assessment of therapeutic response to CQ and elucidation of baseline information on molecular markers for Plasmodium falciparum resistance against CQ and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP). Between 2002 and 2003 the field test was conducted according to the standard WHO protocol to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in 124 patients with falciparum malaria in an endemic area in Lahj Governorate in Yemen. Blood samples collected during this study were analysed for P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt)-76 polymorphisms, mutation pfcrt-S163R and the antifolate resistance-associated mutations dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)-C59R and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps)-K540E. Direct DNA sequencing of the pfcrt gene from three representative field samples was carried out after DNA amplification of the 13 exons of the pfcrt gene. Treatment failure was detected in 61% of the 122 cases that completed the 14-day follow-up. The prevalence of mutant pfcrt T76 was 98% in 112 amplified pre-treatment samples. The presence of pfcrt T76 was poorly predictive of in vivo CQ resistance (PPV = 61.8%, 95% CI = 52.7-70.9). The prevalence of dhfr Arg-59 mutation in 99 amplified samples was 5%, while the dhps Glu-540 was not detected in any of 119 amplified samples. Sequencing the pfcrt gene confirmed that Yemeni CQ resistant P. falciparum carry the old world (Asian and African) CQ resistant haplotype CVIETSESI at positions 72,73,74,75,76,220,271, 326 and 371. This is the first study to report baseline information on the characteristics and implications of anti-malarial drug resistance markers in Yemen. It is also the first report of the haplotype associated with CQR P. falciparum parasites from Yemen. Mutant pfcrtT76 is highly prevalent but it

  17. English and Arabic Inscriptions in the Linguistic Landscape of Yemen: A Multilingual Writing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar A. H. Al-Athwary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the multilingual written texts of the signboards in the public space of Yemen. It attempts to apply Reh's (2004 typology of multilingual writing. Reh introduces four strategies of multilingualism: duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary. They refer to the arrangement of information in the inscriptions of multilingual signs in a given linguistic landscape (LL. To achieve this purpose, a data corpus of 755 multilingual signs in the LL of Yemen has been used, the majority of which are bilingual in Arabic and English. The analysis showed that all four strategies of duplicating, fragmentary, overlapping, and complementary multilingual writings were generally employed in Sana'a's LL. While overlapping and complementary multilingualism were totally absent in the top-down signs, duplicating and fragmentary multilingualism had much higher frequency over overlapping and complementary ones in bottom-up signs. Keeping in mind that speech community in Yemen is monolingual in Arabic, the absence or low frequency of overlapping, and complementary signs in both top-down and bottom-up levels can be explained by the fact that these two types of texts presuppose multilingual readers since knowledge of all the languages involved is necessary to understand the whole message. The model of writing mimicry system proposed by Sutherland (2015 is also examined. Writing mimicry system was found to be a salient feature of the public space of Yemen performing some specific functions; it is only used for advertising and promotional purposes rather than expressing the identity of ethnolinguistic minorities. The study also revealed that Sana'a multilingual LL is characterized by the use of Arabicised English, glocalisation and multifunctional signs, all of which are employed to serve a general purpose of promoting, and advertising commodities and showing modernity and success. Standard Arabic appears on almost all of both top

  18. Population Growth and Its Expression in Spatial Built-up Patterns: The Sana’a, Yemen Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Zeug

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of rapid global urbanisation, monitoring and mapping of urban and population growth is of great importance. Population growth in Sana’a was investigated for this reason. The capital of the Republic of Yemen is a rapidly growing middle sized city where the population doubles almost every ten years. Satellite data from four different sensors were used to explore urban growth in Sana’a between 1989 and 2007, assisted by topographic maps and cadastral vector data. The analysis was conducted by delineating the built-up areas from the various optical satellite data, applying a fuzzy-rule-based composition of anisotropic textural measures and interactive thresholding. The resulting datasets were used to analyse urban growth and changes in built-up density per district, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, using a geographic information system. The built-up area increased by 87 % between 1989 and 2007. Built-up density has increased in all areas, but particularly in the northern and southern suburban districts, also reflecting the natural barrier of surrounding mountain ranges. Based on long-term population figures, geometric population growth was assumed. This hypothesis was used together with census data for 1994 and 2004 to estimate population figures for 1989 and 2007, resulting in overall growth of about 240%. By joining population figures to district boundaries, the spatial patterns of population distribution and growth were examined. Further, urban built-up growth and population changes over time were brought into relation in order to investigate changes in population density per built-up area. Population densities increased in all districts, with the greatest density change in the peripheral areas towards the North. The results reflect the pressure on the city’s infrastructure and natural resources and could contribute to sustainable urban planning in the city of Sana’a.

  19. Higher Education in the Republic of Yemen: The University of Sana'a. Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Papers Series. Education and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan; Regel, Omporn L.

    This analytical report reviews higher education in Yemen, specifically at Yemen's national university, the University of Sana'a. It finds that university enrollment has been increasing very rapidly from 17,000 students in 1987 to a projected enrollment of 79,000 students by 2000. This explosive growth has resulted in overcrowded classrooms,…

  20. Morphological variation between isolates of the nematode Haemonchus contortus from sheep and goat populations in Malaysia and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamah, A A; Rahman, W A; Siti Azizah, M N

    2014-03-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic nematode parasite of sheep and goats. This work was conducted to investigate the population and host variations of the parasitic nematode H. contortus of sheep and goats from Malaysia and Yemen. Eight morphological characters were investigated, namely the total body length, cervical papillae, right spicule, left spicule, right barb, left barb, gubernaculum and cuticular ridge (synlophe) pattern. Statistical analysis showed the presence of morphological variation between populations of H. contortus from Malaysia and Yemen, with minor variation in the synlophe pattern of these isolates. Isolates from each country were grouped together in the scatterplots with no host isolation. Body, cervical papillae and spicule lengths were the most important characters that distinguished between populations of the two countries. This variation between Malaysia and Yemen may be attributed to geographical isolation and the possible presence of a different isolate of this worm in each country.

  1. Review of and contribution to the Stratigraphy of the Cenozoic Igneous Rocks in the Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nakhal, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Yemen the Cenozoic igneous rocks consists of intrusive and extrusive rocks with interlayered sediments, all of which are included within the Manakha Group (latest Cretaceous-Holocene). This group is subdivided into the Haraz Formation which includes the latest Cretaceous-Tertiary volcanics and the interlayered sediments, the Aden Formation which includes the Late Tertiary-Holocene volcanics, and the Bura Formations are introduced here as new units. The Haraz Formation replaces the informal names: Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Aden Trap Series, Yemen Volcanics and Adan Trap Series.The Adan Formation are a readaptation of the term Aden Vocanic Series. A startotype for the Aden Formation is designated in the Shuqra-Ahwar area. (author)

  2. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected

  3. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  4. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  5. Diversity and composition of estuarine and lagoonal fish assemblages of Socotra Island, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, E; Zajonz, U; Krupp, F; Naseeb, F; Aideed, M S

    2016-05-01

    Estuarine and lagoonal surveys of Socotra Island and selected sites on the Hadhramout coast of Yemen were conducted with the objective of documenting and analysing fish diversity and assemblage structure. A total of 74 species in 35 families were recorded, among which 65 species in 32 families were from Socotra and 20 species in 17 families were from mainland Yemen. Twenty-one species represent new faunal records for Socotra. Including historic records re-examined in this study, the total fish species richness of estuaries and lagoons of Socotra Island reaches 76, which is relatively high compared to species inventories of well-researched coastal estuaries in southern Africa. Five species dominate the occurrence and abundance frequencies: Terapon jarbua, Hyporhamphus sindensis, Aphanius dispar, Ambassis gymnocephala and Chelon macrolepis. Rarefaction and extrapolation analyses suggest that the actual number of fish species inhabiting some of those estuaries might be higher than the one observed. Thus, additional sampling at specific sites should be conducted to record other less conspicuous species. Ordination and multivariate analyses identified four main distinct assemblage clusters. Two groups are geographically well structured and represent northern Socotra and mainland Yemen, respectively. The other two assemblage groups tend to be determined to a greater extent by the synchrony between physical (e.g. estuary opening periods) and biological (e.g. spawning and recruitment periods) variables than by geographical location. Finally, the single intertidal lagoon of Socotra represents by itself a specific fish assemblage. The high proportion of economically important fish species (38) recorded underscores the paramount importance of these coastal water bodies as nursery sites, and for sustaining vital provisioning ecosystem services. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum and distribution of drug resistance haplotypes in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamidhi, Salama; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Hashami, Zainab; Al-Farsi, Hissa; Al-mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Idris, Mohamed A; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Babiker, Hamza A

    2013-07-15

    Despite evident success of malaria control in many sites in the Arabian Peninsula, malaria remains endemic in a few spots, in Yemen and south-west of Saudi Arabia. In addition to local transmission, imported malaria sustains an extra source of parasites that can challenge the strengths of local control strategies. This study examined the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen and mutations of drug resistant genes, to elucidate parasite structure and distribution of drug resistance genotypes in the region. Five polymorphic loci (MSP-2, Pfg377 and three microsatellites on chromosome 8) not involved in anti-malarial drug resistance, and four drug resistant genes (pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr and dhps) were genotyped in 108 P. falciparum isolates collected in three sites in Yemen: Dhamar, Hodeidah and Taiz. High diversity was seen in non-drug genes, pfg377 (He = 0.66), msp-2 (He = 0.80) and three microsatellites on chr 8, 7.7 kb (He = 0.88), 4.3 kb (He = 0.77) and 0.8 kb (He = 0.71). There was a high level of mixed-genotype infections (57%), with an average 1.8 genotypes per patient. No linkage disequilibrium was seen between drug resistant genes and the non-drug markers (p Yemen is indicative of a large parasite reservoir, which represents a challenge to control efforts. The presence of two distinct pfcrt genotype, CVIET and SVMNT, suggests that chloroquine resistance can possibly be related to a migratory path from Africa and Asia. The absence of the triple mutant dhfr genotype (IRN) and dhps mutations supports the use of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine as first-line therapy. However, the prevalent pfmdr1 genotype NFSND [21%] has previously been associated with tolerance/resistance response to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). Regular surveys are, therefore, important to monitor spread of pfmdr1 and dhfr mutations and response to ACT.

  7. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium contents of rock samples in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman Abdul-Hadi; Wedad Al-Qadhi; Enayat El-Zeen

    2011-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents in 16 different rock samples from various sites in Republic of Yemen were determined using three different techniques of analysis: γ-spectrometry, Instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The concentration range for thorium, uranium and potassium were found to be from 9,810 ± 272 to 3.6 ± 1.3 ppm, 1,072 ± 40 to 1.2 ± 0.7 ppm and 11 ± 1 to 0.26 ± 0.05%, respectively. (author)

  8. Science achievement of students in the Republic of Yemen and implications for improvement of science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nageeb Kassem

    The purpose of this study was to establish a research base from which strategies could be developed for improving science education in Yemen. The study measured the achievement in general science of Yemeni students attending primary, preparatory, and secondary schools, and their counterparts attending three- or five-year education programs in primary teacher training institutions. A sample of 1,984 students from six major cities in Yemen was given the Second International Science Study test in May 1988. Achievement scores of these selected groups were compared. The mean achievement in general science was 11.93 for science track students, 9.21 for three-year teacher training institution students, and 8.49 for five-year teacher training institution students. These mean scores were based on a total of 35 items. This low level of achievement was further verified by making comparisons of the achievement of selected groups from Yemeni high schools in six cities with each other. The following factors were measured in this study: location, grade level, gender and type of science program studied. Selected groups from Yemeni high schools were also compared to their peers in other nations. The researcher compared students of the science track and teacher training institutions to their counterparts in 13 nations and students of the literature track to their counterparts in eight nations. Fifth and ninth grade students' scores were compared with the scores of their counterparts in 15 and 17 nations respectively. In every comparison, every Yemeni group ranked at the bottom of the achievement list. (Jacobson W., & Doran, R. 1988) The outcomes of this research indicate the profound need for improving science programs in all grade levels in Yemen. The research recommendations for improvement in science education in Yemen fall into four areas: a change in attitudes toward education, a change in teacher education, a change in classroom conditions, and a change in educational

  9. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  10. Legal Framework of Franchise Agreement Compared to the Legislation Status in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رشاد نعمان العامري

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is a modern style created as a need for trade to increase projects size. It differs from the authorization to use the trademark because the latter only requires licensing of the licensee's trademark, unlike the Franchise contract, in which it goes beyond the need to convey technical knowledge from Franchisor to Franchisee. In Yemen, Franchise has not received any private legal legislation till the moment, necessitating applying contract articles, contracts general principles and some provisions embodied in the texts of other laws that are suitable to be applied to some of its issues and provisions, in addition to what is inspired by provisions in foreign laws. This study aimed to distinguish franchise agreement from similar contracts that have become common in the commercial field; to identify important legal and practical problems facing franchise agreement as well as suggest solutions to address such problems; and to propose regulatory principles that can be used by the Yemeni legislator in the future when enacting laws that govern franchise agreement. To achieve these objectives, the study followed a descriptive analytical method. The study concludes that the franchise agreement has not received any special legal legislation in Yemen so far; and also the franchise agreement is characterized by a complex nature and has special features. Keywords: Franchise, Trade mark, Technical knowledge, Franchisor, Franchisee.

  11. Patient satisfaction and loyalty to the private hospitals in Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbori, Ali; Ghani, Sirajoon Noor; Yadav, Hematram; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Su, Tin Tin

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate patients' satisfaction and loyalty to private hospitals and to identify factors influencing patient loyalty. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted between May and September of 2005. Sana'a, the capital city of the Republic of Yemen. Eight hundred and nineteen respondents who were admitted for at least 1 day in a private hospital within last 6 months from the date of interview. The scores on the modified SERVQUAL market research instrument including six domains (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and cost) that identify perceptions of service quality. In addition, the respondents were asked whether or not they would return to the same facility when they need future medical care (loyalty). Loyalty was higher among females [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44; P loyalty and, tangibility and responsiveness score. Improvements are required to achieve high-quality healthcare services in the private hospitals in Yemen and increase loyalty among patients. Findings from this study could inform private sector healthcare development in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of epilepsy among university students in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Bilguis; Saied, Khaled Ghilan; Sharaf Alddin, Reem; Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Lutf, Wesam; Al-Taiar, Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the knowledge and perceptions about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWEs) among university students in Yemen. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 1155 students. Approximately 23% thought that epilepsy is a form of insanity, and 18% thought that it is a form of mental retardation. About 22% and 10% believed that evil spirits and an evil eye cause epilepsy, respectively. Similarly, 12% believed that children with epilepsy (CWEs) should be isolated from other children, while 12% and 14% thought that PWEs should not get married and should not have children, respectively. Approximately 23% of the students would not allow their child to play with CWEs, and 37% would not employ PWEs in a clerical job. Furthermore, 64% of the students would not agree to marry PWEs. Some misconceptions were strongly linked to attitudes toward PWEs. In conclusion, the negative attitudes toward PWEs among university students in Yemen were slightly more common compared with other settings in the Middle East and showed significant differences between genders which may warrant consideration when designing educational campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enterobacteriaceae isolates carrying the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharout-Sait, Alima; Alsharapy, Samer-Ahmed; Brasme, Lucien; Touati, Abdelaziz; Kermas, Rachida; Bakour, Sofiane; Guillard, Thomas; de Champs, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Ten carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (eight Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and two Enterobacter cloacae) isolates from Yemen were investigated using in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phenotypic carbapenemase detection, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and replicon typing. Carbapenemase, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant genes were identified using PCR and sequencing. All of the 10 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to β-lactams, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole. Imipenem, doripenem and meropenem MICs ranged from 2 to >32 mg l(-1) and ertapenem MICs ranged from 6 to >32 mg l(-1). All of the K. pneumoniae isolates showed ESBL activity in phenotypic tests. Genes encoding blaNDM were detected in all strains. All K. pneumoniae strains produced CTX-M-15 ESBL and SHV β-lactamases. TEM-1 β-lactamase was detected in seven isolates. Nine isolates were qnr positive including QnrB1, QnrA1 and QnrS1, and six isolates produced AAC-6'-Ib-cr. MLST identified five different sequence types (STs): ST1399, ST147, ST29, ST405 and ST340. Replicon typing showed the presence of IncFII1K plasmids in four transformants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Yemen. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Water and Energy Services in Times of War _ The Political Crisis of Yemen, 2011 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklan, Musaed; de Fraiture, Charlotte; Hayde, Laszlo

    2017-04-01

    The current war in Yemen affects the lives of Yemenis, their properties, and basic needs. It has damaged many parts of fuel, electricity, water and sanitation systems. This paper investigates how this war has affected the main sources of energy and water, their availability and prices. Beside literature review and different documents collected from different related governmental sectors, a rapid assessment through field interviews was conducted to collect the primary data. The prices of petroleum products keep unstable and have increased by more than 10 times of pre-crisis costs. The water has become three to four times more expensive. The majority of families relied on the public electricity grids before the war was unleashed. At present, the public electricity and water systems serve less than 20% of urban and rural families. Solar energy has become the first energy source, whereas generators are considered to be the second main power supply. Additionally, rainwater started to be collected as a secondary water source. Many people are willing to continue using this new sources. The study verifies the importance renewable resources transition to achieve secure sustainable water and energy management. Not only in Yemen but also this lessons can be applied to other similar conditions countries in the Middle East, where Decision makers and researchers should give more attention.

  15. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Amen Ahmed; Hart, C Anthony; Sallam, Tallal A; Parry, Christopher M; Beeching, Nicholas J; Cuevas, Luis E

    2010-12-01

    The burden of hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E (HEV) infection is unknown in Aden, Yemen. This survey describes the prevalence of antibodies against HAV and HEV among individuals attending primary health care facilities in Aden, Yemen. Five hundred and thirty eight participants, stratified by age and district population size, were enrolled and screened for anti-HAV and 356 for anti-HEV antibodies. The age-standardized seroprevalence of antibodies was 86.6% (95% CI 83.7-89.5) for anti-HAV and 10.7% (95% CI 7.5-13.9) for anti-HEV. The prevalence of anti-HAV and anti-HEV ranged from 53% and 0% in infants to 100% and 15.3% in participants >18 years old, respectively (Phepatitis remains a major public health problem in Aden with trends of hyperendemicity for both infections. Priority should be given to improve water quality, sanitation coverage, and food hygiene and increase public health awareness concerning the risk of contracting infection. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibiotic use and knowledge in the community of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Tatyana; Al Warafi, Abdullah; Hussein Eltom, Elhassan; Tadjieva, Nigora; Kubena, Ales; Vlcek, Jiri

    2014-04-15

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics has resulted in a dramatic increase of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. We examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of antibiotic use in three Asian countries. A nationwide cross-sectional study of teachers in large cities of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Uzbekistan was conducted. A random sample of 1,200 teachers was selected in each country. Data were collected through a questionnaire-based survey and then analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. The prevalence of non-prescription antibiotic use ranged from 48% in Saudi Arabia to 78% in Yemen and Uzbekistan. Pharmacies were the main source of non-prescribed antibiotics. The most common reasons for antibiotic use were cough (40%) and influenza (34%). Forty-nine percent of respondents discontinued antibiotics when they felt better. Although awareness of the dangers of antibiotic use correlated inversely with self-medication, understanding of the appropriate use of antibiotics was limited. The prevalence of antibiotic self-medication in the educated adult population in the studied countries was found to be alarmingly high. Effective strategies involving regulatory enforcement prohibiting sales of antibiotics without prescription should be implemented along with educational interventions for health professionals and the public.

  17. An analytical framework for capacity development in EIA - The case of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, Louise van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Kolhoff, Arend; Runhaar, Hens A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Most countries worldwide nowadays apply Environmental Assessment (EA) as an ex ante tool to evaluate environmental impacts of policies, plans, programmes, and projects. However, the application and performance of EA differ significantly. Scientific analysis of how EA performs mainly focuses on two levels: the micro (or project) level and the macro (or system) level. Macro level analysis usually focuses on institutions for EA and the organisation of stakeholder interaction in EA. This article proposes a more comprehensive framework for analysing EA systems that combines other approaches with a capacity approach and an explicit consideration of the context in which EA systems are developed and performed. In order to illustrate the value of our framework, we apply it to the Republic of Yemen, where over the last decades many EA capacity development programmes have been executed; however, EA performance has not substantially improved. The Yemen case study illustrates that the capacity development approach allows an understanding of the historical process, the stakeholders, the knowledge component, and the material and technical aspects of EA, but perhaps more important is a systemic understanding of the outcomes: problems are not isolated, but influence and even maintain each other. In addition, by taking into account the context characteristics, our framework allows for the assessment of the feasibility of capacity development programmes that aim at improving EA system performance.

  18. Women's rights, a tourist boom, and the power of khat in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandela, P

    2000-04-22

    This article discusses the issues of women's rights, the tourism and the prevalent use of khat in Yemen, based on the author's experience. Widespread social and legal discrimination against women has resulted from the changes occurring in Yemen. This situation is exacerbated by the lack of action from the government, which has alarmed the women's organization. Despite exerted efforts by nongovernmental organizations in controlling this situation, programs continue to fail due to obstructions from government officials. In addition, the changes encountered by the country had resulted to a high profile of kidnapping tourists for the past years. The income from the tourism is too important to be jeopardized; thus the government provided an impetus for the development of the country's infrastructure. The intent of the government towards modernization, however, tends to be sapped by the extensive use of khat. The author states that unless substantial medical evidence is forthcoming about ill effects of the substance, significant impact on the widespread use of khat is unlikely.

  19. Reducing maternal mortality in Yemen: challenges and lessons learned from baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Al Rabee, Arwa; Bin Afif, Mohammed; Al Rukeimi, Abdullah

    2009-04-01

    The Yemen is a signatory of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and one of 10 countries chosen for the UN Millennium Project. However, recent MDG progress reviews show that it is unlikely that the maternal health goal will be reached by 2015 and Yemen still has an unacceptably high maternal mortality of 365 per 100000 live births. Because 82% of deaths happen intrapartum, the purpose of this needs assessment was to identify and prioritize constraints in delivery of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). Four district hospitals and 16 health centers in 8 districts were assessed for functional capacity in terms of infrastructure; availability of essential equipment and drugs; EmOC technical competency and training needs; and Health Management Information System. We found poor obstetric services in terms of structure (staffing pattern, equipment, and supplies) and process (knowledge and management skills). The data argue for strengthening the 4 interlinked health system elements-human resources, and access to, use, and quality of services. The Government must address each of these elements to meet the Safe Motherhood MDG.

  20. Effects of reproductive morbidity on women's lives and costs of accessing treatment in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejong, Jocelyn; Bahubaishi, Najia; Attal, Bothaina

    2012-12-01

    Research on the consequences of reproductive morbidity for women's lives and their economic and social roles is relatively under-developed. There is also a lack of consensus on appropriate conceptual frameworks to understand the social determinants of reproductive morbidity as well as their social and economic implications. We report here on an exploratory study in Yemen using quantitative (n=72 women) and qualitative methods (n=35 women), in 2005 and 2007 respectively, with women suffering from uterine prolapse, infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It explored women's views on how reproductive morbidity affected their lives, marital security and their households, and the burden of paying for treatment. We also interviewed six health professionals about women's health care-seeking for these conditions. Sixty per cent of women reported that treatment was not affordable, and 43% had to sell assets or take out a loan to pay for care. Prolapse and PID interfered particularly in subsistence and household activities while infertility created social pressure. Reproductive morbidity is not a priority in Yemen, given its multiple public health needs and low resources, but by failing to provide comprehensive and affordable services for women, the country incurs developmental losses. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Status of Quality Assurance and Accreditation Systems within Higher Education Institutions in the Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaam, Mahyoub Ali; Alhammadi, Abdullah Othman; Kwairan, Abdulwahab Awadh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the status of quality assurance and accreditation systems within higher education institutions in Yemen. The paper initially describes the stages of development and changes that have occurred in the field of quality and accreditation in Yemeni higher education. The paper shows that no formal…

  2. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  3. The Demand For, and Impact Of, Youth Internships: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Yemen. Policy Research Working Paper 7463

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David; Assaf, Nabila; Cusolito, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a youth internship program in the Republic of Yemen that provided firms with a 50 percent subsidy to hire recent graduates of universities and vocational schools. The first round of the program took place in 2014 and required both firms and youth to apply for the program. The paper examines the demand for such a program, and…

  4. The 1984 Literacy Campaign in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. A Case Study. Notes, Comments...No. 183.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Mohammed Saeed; Fisher, Nigel

    In 1984, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen undertook a nationwide literacy campaign, which mobilized the entire nation in an effort to reach an estimated 194,000 illiterate people, 77 percent of them women. The campaign plan demanded the full and active participation of formal school teachers and students at secondary level and above as…

  5. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  6. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  7. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  8. Will dragonblood survive the next period of climate change? Current and future potential distribution of Dracaena cinnabari (Socotra, Yemen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attorre, F.; Francesconi, F.; Taleb, N.; Scholte, P.; Saed, A.; Alfo, M.; Bruno, F.

    2007-01-01

    The potential impact of climate change on Dracaena cinnabari, a spectacular relict of the Mio-Pliocene Laurasian subtropical forest in Socotra (Yemen), was analysed. Current distribution, abundance and vertical structure of D. cinnabari populations were assessed with 74 plots in nine remnant areas.

  9. Comments on the Paper "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?" by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier in Earth Systems and Environment (Volume 1, December 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, Lesley

    2018-02-01

    This short note provides comments and a response to the paper published in Earth Systems and Environment by Albert Parker and Clifford D. Ollier (Volume 1, December 2017) entitled "Is the Sea Level Stable at Aden, Yemen?"

  10. Malaria in Hadhramout, a southeast province of Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-07-29

    Yemen is a Mediterranean country where 65% of its population is at risk of malaria, with 43% at high risk. Yemen is still in the control phase without sustainable reduction in the proportion of malaria cases. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in different districts in the southeast of the country to determine malaria prevalence and identify factors that impede progress of the elimination phase. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals aged 1-66 years. Plasmodium species were detected and identified by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. A household-based questionnaire was used to collect demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data. The overall prevalence of malaria was 18.8% with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant species (99.3%), with a low rate of Plasmodium vivax detected (0.7%). The infection rate was higher in Al-Raydah and Qusyer districts (21.8%) compared to Hajer district (11.8%). Fifty-two percent of the persons positive for Plasmodium were asymptomatic with low parasite density. The adults had a higher infection rate as compared to children. Univariate analysis identified those whose household's head are fishermen (OR = 11.3, 95% CI: 3.13-40.5) and farmers (OR = 4.84, 95% CI: 1.73-13.6) as high-risk groups. A higher number of positive smears were observed in people living in houses with uncemented brick walls (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.32-3.30), without access to toilets (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32), without a fridge (OR = 1. 6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30), or without TV (OR = 1. 6, (95% CI: 1.05-2.30). People living in houses with water collection points located less than 200 meters away were also at higher risk of acquiring malaria (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.05-2.30). Knowledge about the importance of using insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for prevention of malaria was 7% and 2%, respectively. Several environmental, socioeconomic

  11. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Impact on Organizational Performance in Pharmaceutical Industry in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مراد محمد النشمي

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at revealing the impact on transformational and transactional leadership in organizational performance of Pharmaceutical Industry in Yemen. The researchers have used descriptive analytical methods to answer the study questions and test the hypotheses. Questionnaire has been used for collecting quantitative data from the study sample which is a number of 227 middle and executive management in pharmaceutical companies. The study findings show that there is significant effect of all the dimensions of transformational and transactional leadership on organizational performance. Based on the regression analysis applied in the study, results indicated that transformational leadership is of the highest influencing variables on organizational performance. The study concluded that pharmaceutical companies adoption of modern leadership styles leads to distinguished performance. Keywords: Transformational leadership, Transactional leadership, Organizational performance, Pharmaceutical Industry.

  12. Pollen and Seed Morphology of Rhinacanthus Nees and Hypoestes Sol. ex R. Br. (Acanthaceae) of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hakimi, A.S.; Maideen, H.; Latiff, A.; Al-Hakimi, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollens and seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus collected from different field localities in Taiz and Soqotra Island, Yemen were investigated by using light and scanning electron microscopes. Pollen grains of Hypoestes were prolate in equatorial view, lobate trigonal to lobate circular in polar view whereas those of Rhinacanthus were sub spheroidal and rounded trigonal in polar view. The aperture was tricolporate and exine ornamentation was coarsely reticulate for all species in the two genera. Scanning electron microscopy and morphological observations showed that mature dry seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus have various sizes and shapes, the surface ornamentations observed were reticulate to cristate, an addition to the tuberculum and papillae. The three Hypoestes species differ in the seed structure which are useful for identification and their high structural diversity provides an important taxonomic value for species differentiation. (author)

  13. A humid early Holocene in Yemen interpreted from palaeoecology and taxonomy of freshwater ostracods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Munef; Frenzel, Peter; Keyser, Dietmar; Hussain, Fadhl; Abood, Abdulkareem; Sha'af, Abdulmajed; Alzara'e, Sadham; Alammari, Sakher

    2018-01-01

    Lake or marsh sediments in the Qa'a Jahran-Dhamār area indicate a period of higher moisture availability in the early Holocene of the highlands of Yemen. Forty-two marl-peat sediment samples from eight stratigraphic sections of that area have been collected and are examined for the first time for their ostracod associations. Eight species belonging to seven genera and four families are reported. Their ecological tolerances and preferences are used to investigate the climatic and environmental changes in the early to mid-Holocene. Our data are compared and correlated with previous archaeological results, particularly from the region of Qa'a Jahran (Dhamār) in the vicinity of the village of Beyt Nahmi. We conclude that the wettest period of the Holocene was from about 7900 to 7400 cal yr BP, when northwards incursion of the Indian Ocean Monsoon caused intensified monsoon precipitation over southern Arabia.

  14. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Assessment of radiation hazards a result of natural radioactivity in water from Abyan delta, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emran Eisa Saleh; Abdallah Ibrahim Abd El-Mageed; Hany El-Gamal; Maher Taher Hussien

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K measured in Groundwater collected from Abyan delta on Gulf of Aden in Yemen. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average activity concentrations were (1.71 ± 0.09 Bq l -1 ), (1.43 ± 0.05 Bq l -1 ) and (14.16 ± 0.45 Bq l -1 ) for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The annual effective doses mSv y -1 due to ingestion of 226 Ra and 232 Th for different age groups were also calculated. The results compared with the recommended value reported by World Health Organization. (author)

  16. The pattern and distribution of malignancies reported in Hadramout, Yemen -2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghouth, A.S.B.; Bafageer, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the pattern of malignancies among all patients with cancer recorded in Hadramout (East of Yemen) in 2006, and to explore the association with age, sex, and site of cancer. A retrospective descriptive study of all registered cancers (334) was carried out. Efforts were made to avoid case duplication. The neoplasms had been classified according to international classification of diseases for oncology. The cancers were more frequent in females (55%) than males (45%). The three most affected sites were digestive organs (20.35 %), breast (14.37 %), and haematopoietic system (11.98 %). In the paediatric group, haematopoietic system (leukaemia) was most common. Digestive organs in general, with breast in females, were the most frequent sites of malignancies. Colorectal cancers were the most common cancers in digestive organs (JPMA 59:774; 2009). (author)

  17. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of hypertension in Yemen: effects of urbanization and geographical area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Rapi, Stefano; Massetti, Luciano; Al-Hidabi, Dawood; Al Goshae, Husni

    2013-01-01

    Although globalization can contribute to increased blood pressure by spreading unhealthy behaviors, it also provides powerful means to tackle hypertension. The dissemination of information about and advice on cardiovascular prevention and facilitated contact with health services are valuable resources. To investigate the effects of urbanization, geographical area, and air temperature on hypertension burden and kidney damage, a survey was performed in 2008 with a door-to-door approach among urban and rural adult dwellers of three geographic areas (capital, inland, coast) of Yemen. Subjects (n=10 242) received two visits several days apart to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Proteinuria (dipstick test ⩾+1) was used as a marker of kidney damage. Prevalence rates were weighted to represent the Yemen population aged 15–69 years in 2008. Rates of hypertension and proteinuria progressively increased from the capital (6.4% 95% confidence level (CI) 5.8–7.0 and 5.1% 4.4–5.9, respectively), to inland areas (7.9% 7.0–8.7 and 6.1% 5.1–7.1), to the coastal area (10.1% 8.9–11.4 and 8.9% 7.3–10.4). When compared with urban dwellers, rural dwellers had similar hypertension prevalence (adjusted odds ratios (ORs) 1.03; 95% CI 0.91–1.17) but higher proteinuria rates (adjusted ORs 1.55; 1.31–1.85). Overall, home temperature was associated with a lower hypertension rate (adjusted OR 0.98; 0.96–0.99). This large population study reveals that the highest burden of hypertension and kidney damage is detectable in remote areas of the country. PMID:23486167

  19. Barriers to completing TB diagnosis in Yemen: services should respond to patients' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel M; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Yassin, Mohammed A; Cuevas, Luis E; Theobald, Sally J

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is a prerequisite for accessing specific treatment, yet one third of estimated new cases are missed worldwide by National Programmes. This study investigated economic, geographical, socio-cultural and health system factors hindering adults' attendance and completion of the TB diagnostic process in Yemen, to inform interventions designed to improve patient access to services. The study employed a mixed methods design comprising a cross-sectional survey and In-Depth-Interviews (IDIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among patients abandoning the diagnosis or registering for treatment. Adults with cough of ≥ 2 weeks attending a large governmental referral centre in Sana'a, Yemen, between 2009 and 2010, were eligible to participate. 497 and 446 (89.7%) participants were surveyed the first and second day of attending the services and 48 IDIs and 12 FGDs were also conducted. The majority of patients were disadvantaged and had poor literacy (61% illiterate), had travelled from rural areas (47%) and attended with companions (84%). Key barriers for attendance identified were clinic and transport costs (augmented by companions), distance from home, a preference for private services, strong social stigma and a lack of understanding of the diagnostic process. There were discrepancies between patient- and doctor-reported diagnosis and 46% of patients were unaware that TB treatment is free. Females faced more difficulties to attend than men. The laboratory practice of providing first-day negative smear results and making referrals to the private sector also discouraged patients from returning. Strategies to bring TB diagnostic services closer to communities and address the multiple barriers patients face to attend, will be important to increase access to TB diagnosis and care.

  20. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  1. Relationship between hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria in rural and urban households in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, P A; Bamoshmoosh, M; Rapi, S; Massetti, L; Bianchi, S; Al-Hidabi, D; Al Goshae, H

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available on the meanings of proteinuria in low-resource settings. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in Yemen on 10 242 subjects aged 15–69 years, stratified by age, gender and urban/rural residency. Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) of ⩾140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of ⩾90 mm Hg, and/or self-reported use of antihypertensive drugs; diabetes is diagnosed as fasting glucose of ⩾126 mg dl−1 or self-reported use of hypoglycaemic medications; proteinuria is defined as ⩾+1 at dipstick urinalysis. Odds ratios (ORs) for associations were determined by multivariable logistic regression models. Prevalence (weighted to the Yemen population aged 15–69 years) of hypertension, diabetes and proteinuria were 7.5, 3.7 and 5.1% in urban, and 7.8, 2.6 and 7.3% in rural locations, respectively. Proteinuria and hypertension were more prevalent among rural dwellers (adjusted ORs 1.56; 95% confidence limit (Cl) 1.31–1.86, and 1.23; 1.08–1.41, respectively), diabetes being less prevalent in rural areas (0.70; 0.58–0.85). Differently from hypertension and diabetes, proteinuria was inversely related with age. Most importantly, 4.6 and 6.1% of urban and rural dwellers, respectively, had proteinuria in the absence of hypertension and diabetes. The approach of considering kidney damage as a consequence of hypertension and diabetes might limit the effectiveness of prevention strategies in low-income countries. PMID:23514843

  2. Assessment of patient safety culture in primary care setting, Al-Mukala, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webair, Hana H; Al-Assani, Salwa S; Al-Haddad, Reema H; Al-Shaeeb, Wafa H; Bin Selm, Manal A; Alyamani, Abdulla S

    2015-10-13

    Patient safety culture in primary care is the first step to achieve high quality health care. This study aims to provide a baseline assessment of patient safety culture in primary care settings in Al-Mukala, Yemen as a first published study from a least developed country. A survey was conducted in primary healthcare centres and units in Al-Mukala District, Yemen. A comprehensive sample from the available 16 centres was included. An Arabic version of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed to all health workers (110). Participants were physicians, nurses and administrative staff. The response rate from the participating centres was 71 %. (N = 78). The percent positive responses of the items is equal to the percentage of participants who answered positively. Composite scores were calculated by averaging the percent positive response on the items within a dimension. Positive safety culture was defined as 60 % or more positive responses on items or dimensions. Patient safety culture was perceived to be generally positive with the exception of the dimensions of 'Communication openness', 'Work pressure and pace' and 'Patient care tracking/follow-up', as the percent positive response of these dimensions were 58, 57, and 52 % respectively. Overall, positive rating on quality and patient safety were low (49 and 46 % respectively). Although patient safety culture in Al-Mukala primary care setting is generally positive, patient safety and quality rating were fairly low. Implementation of a safety and quality management system in Al-Mukala primary care setting are paramount. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture (MOSPSC) for Al-Mukala primary care.

  3. Measures of Maternal Socioeconomic Status in Yemen and Association with Maternal and Child Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Abdullah N; Luoto, Riitta; Al Serouri, Abdul Wahed; Nwaru, Bright I; Mouniri, Halima

    2016-02-01

    Reliable measurement of socioeconomic status (SES) in health research requires extensive resources and can be challenging in low-income countries. We aimed to develop a set of maternal SES indices and investigate their associations with maternal and child health outcomes in rural Yemen. We applied factor analysis based on principal component analysis extraction to construct the SES indices by capturing household attributes for 7295 women of reproductive age. Data were collected from a sub-national household survey conducted in six rural districts in four Yemeni provinces in 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the associations between the SES indices and maternal mortality, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. Three SES indices (wealth, educational and housing quality) were extracted, which together explained 54 % of the total variation in SES. Factor scores were derived and categorized into tertiles. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, higher tertiles of all the indices were inversely associated with spontaneous abortion. Higher tertiles of wealth and educational indices were inversely associated with stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. None of the SES indices was strongly associated with maternal mortality. By subjecting a number of household attributes to factor analysis, we derived three SES indices (wealth, educational, and housing quality) that are useful for maternal and child health research in rural Yemen. The indices were worthwhile in predicting a number of maternal and child health outcomes. In low-income settings, failure to account for the multidimensionality of SES may underestimate the influence of SES on maternal and child health.

  4. [Evaluation of sputum smear examination--from the cases of Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, A

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of sputum smear examination was carried out with smear slides stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen method, which were collected from Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines. The smear slides were checked macroscopically and microscopically according to the following points: 1) smear area size, 2) thickness of smear, 3) evenness of smear, 4) decolorizing condition by Ziehl-Neelsen stain, 5) smear cleanliness, 6) presence of cells in sputum and 7) smear reading accuracy by cross-checking. As the result of smear slide evaluation, it was concluded that proper sputum specimens have been smeared but smears were generally too thin and contaminated with too many dirt . Agreement rate of the slide reading in Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines were 73%, 90% and 88% respectively. Disagreement cases were concentrated in the subtle number of acid-fast bacilli or (+/-) and (+) results. The cause of disagreement might be attributed to contamination with debris, deposit etc., which hindered reading or were misread as acid-fast bacilli. Some improvement should be considered to eliminate the dirt , such as filtration of carbol fuchsin solution, preparation of proper quantity of carbol fuchsin solution to be consumed within three months, mixing the fuchsin stock solution and 5% carbol solution just before use, rinsing the mouth before sputum collection, usage of clean sputum container and slides, and smearing and drying of the slides within clean environment. However, in many developing countries there are many difficulties for facilities, equipments, system and management. Some of these difficulties may be solved by the efforts of laboratory side but some are beyond the limits of their efforts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of hepatitis B virus in Aden, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amen Ahmed Bawazir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: There is little published data concerning hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in Aden and no data concerning risk factors for infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and risk factors for infection in Aden, Yemen. Methods: A prospective cross sectional survey of individuals attending primary health care facilities was stratified by age and population size. Five hundred and thirty five participants were interviewed and serum was screened for the presence of Immunoglobin G HBV core antibodies (antiHBc. AntiHBc positive participants were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. A case–control analysis of risk factors for HBV was undertaken comparing risk factors between antiHBc positive cases and seronegative controls. Results: The age-standardized seroprevalence for antiHBc was 16.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 13.1–19.3 and for HBsAg was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5–2.5. The seroprevalence of antiHBc and HBsAg was estimated to range from 5.5% and 0% in infants to 40% and 4.6% in adults, respectively (p 5–9 members, AOR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1–7.6 and ownership of a landline telephone (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3–5.8 were independent risk factors for HBV infection. Conclusions: HBV is still a public health problem in this community, with older individuals having much higher prevalence than younger generations. The results of this study would categorise Aden as a low HBV endemic zone. Perinatal transmission does not seem to be a major route of transmission. Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Seroepidemiology, Risk factors, Aden, Yemen

  6. Promoting gender parity in basic education: Lessons from a technical cooperation project in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-06-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrolment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls' Education (BRIDGE). Phase 1 of this project ran for three and a half years, piloting a participatory school management model supported by school grants in six districts of the Taiz Governorate in the Southwest of Yemen. To find out how successful this approach has been in a traditional society, the authors of this paper analysed the gender parity index (GPI) of the project's pilot schools. Based on data collected at three points in time (in the initial and final years of the project, and two years after the project's end), their findings suggest that interventions in school management which strongly emphasise girls' education can be effective in improving gender parity rather quickly, regardless of the schools' initial conditions. However, the authors also observe that the pilot schools' post-project performance in terms of gender parity is mixed. While the local government allocated budgets for school grants to all pilot schools even after the project's end, training and monitoring activities were cut back. The authors further observe that the variation in performance appears to be significantly correlated with school leaders' initial perceptions of gender equality and with the number of female teachers employed. These findings point to the importance of providing schools with continuous long-term guidance and of monitoring those which implement school improvement programmes.

  7. Algunos riesgos durante el embarazo en relación con la enfermedad periodontal y la caries dental en Yemen Some risks during pregnancy related to periodontal disease and dental cavities in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel de las Mercedes Bastarrechea Milián

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Yemen es un país con grandes diferencias regionales en su estructura social, económica y de alfabetización, lo cual se demuestra en los índices de mortalidad materna, mortalidad infantil y morbilidad de los niños menores de 5 años y las existentes necesidades para el cuidado de salud de su población. Teniendo en cuenta esta situación nos propusimos valorar cómo influyen en el estado de salud bucal de la embarazada algunos riesgos biosociales identificados en la bibliografía. Para ello se realizó un estudio analítico transversal y fueron estudiadas todas las embarazadas encontradas en el Al Wahdah Teaching Hospital y en el policlínico de atención prenatal de Kormarzar, ambos situados en la ciudad de Adén, Yemen, durante un período de 8 meses. Las gestantes fueron clasificadas según nivel de riesgo (alto, moderado y bajo y estos fueron relacionados con la presencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal.Yemen is a country with great regional differences in its social, economic and literacy structure, which is demonstrated in death mother mortality, children mortality of children aged younger than 5 and the present needs for health care of its population. Taking into account this situation our objective was to value how some biosocial risk factors identified in the bibliography may influence on the buccal health status in the pregnant. Thus, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted and also all pregnant seen in the Al Wahdah Teaching Hospital and in prenatal care polyclinic in Kormazar, both located in Aden city, Yemen during 8 months. Pregnants were classified according the risk level (high, moderate and low and these were related to presence of dental cavities and periodontal disease.

  8. Molecular characterization of cystic echinococcosis: First record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Abdel Aaty, Heba E; Ahmed, Mona A

    2015-12-01

    Few molecular studies have identified the current status of cystic echinococcosis in Egypt. The present study aimed to ascertain the genotype(s) of Echinococcus granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis in different Egyptian governorates (regions). Animal isolates were collected from 40 camels, 5 pigs and 44 sheep. 27 human isolates were included in the present study. Specific PCR was performed and followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and BLAST analysis.The sheep cysts were not hydatid cysts. G6 genotype (camel starin) predominates in human, camel and pig isolates. G7 genotype (pig strain) was detected in two human isolates and one pig isolate. G1 genotype (sheep strain) was detected in one human isolate from Yemen and in no animal isolates. This is the first record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

  9. Survey of chloroquine-resistant mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Hadhramout, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Yemen. More than 95% of the malaria cases are due to Plasmodium ‎falciparum‎. Recently in Yemen, the antimalarial treatment policy was changed from chloroquine (CQ) to artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs). However, CQ is still available and prescribed in the Yemeni market. The persistence of CQ resistance will be prolonged if the shift to ACT and the simultaneous withdrawal of CQ are not rigorously implemented. The aim of the current survey is to detect chloroquine-resistant mutations in P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 (pfmdr1) genes. These data will be important for future monitoring and assessment of antimalarial drug policy in Yemen. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals from different districts of the Hadhramout province, Yemen by house-to-house visit. Mutation-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to investigate the mutations in the pfmdr1(codons 86 and 1246) and pfcrt (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) genes. The overall prevalence of pfcrt mutations at codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 were 50.4%, 58.7%, 54.3% and 44.9%, respectively. All isolates had wild-type pfcrt 356 allele. The majority of pfmdr1 86 alleles (83.3%) and all pfmdr1 1246 alleles were wild type. There was no association between pfcrt mutations and symptomatology, gender and age groups. In conclusion, point mutations in codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 of pfcrt of P. falciparum are high suggesting a sustained high CQ resistance even after 4 years of shifting to ACTs. These findings warrant complete withdrawal of CQ use from the Yemeni market for P. falciparum and careful usage of CQ for treating Plasmodium vivax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Beach Sediments From Aden Coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Zahran, A.M.; A ASSUBAIHI, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of natural gamma emitting 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K radionuclides in beach sediments along Aden coast on Gulf of Aden, South of Yemen has been carried out using a NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometric technique. The mean activity concentrations of measured radionuclides were compared with other literature values. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index and representative level index were calculated and compared with internationally recommended values.

  11. Clinical Presentation, Management and Outcome of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Yemen: Data from GULF RACE - 2 Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Al-Motarreb; Abdulwahab, Al-Matry; Hesham, Al-Fakih; Nawar, Wather

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is increasing in Yemen in recent years and there are no data available on its short and long-term outcome. We evaluated the clinical pictures, management, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes of the ACS patients in Yemen. Design and Setting: A 9-month prospective, multi-center study conducted in 26 hospitals from 9 governorates. The study included 30-day and 1-year mortality follow-up. Patients and Methods: One thousand seven hundred and sixty one patients with ACS were collected prospectively during the 9-month period. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), including non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina were included. Conclusions: ACS patients in Yemen present at a relatively young age with high prevalence of Smoking, khat chewing and hypertension. STEMI patients present late, and their acute management is poor. In-hospital evidence-based medication rates are high, but coronary revascularization procedures were very low. In-hospital mortality was high and long-term mortality rates increased two folds compared with the in-hospital mortality. PMID:24695681

  12. Chikungunya outbreak in Al-Hudaydah, Yemen, 2011: epidemiological characterization and key lessons learned for early detection and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mnzava, Abraham; Mohareb, Emad; Zayed, Alia; Al Kohlani, Abdulhakeem; Thabet, Ahmed A K; El Bushra, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the occurrence of chikungunya fever in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). In January 2011, the Ministry of Public Health and Population (MoPH&P) of Yemen reported to WHO an increasing number of "dengue-like" acute febrile illnesses of unknown origin from one of its coastal governorates. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in Al-Hudaydah governorate between 23 and 26 January 2011 by a joint team of WHO, the MoPH&P of Yemen and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The investigation led to the detection of an outbreak of chikungunya in Yemen which was the first time ever from any of the 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO. Appropriate public health control measures were strengthened following the investigation, and the outbreak was contained. This paper provides a short description of the outbreak and its epidemiological characteristics and highlights the important lessons that were learned for early detection and control of chikungunya in countries where competent vectors for transmission of the virus exist. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Age at marriage, contraceptive use and abortion in Yemen, 1991-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper attempts to examine the extent of influence of the three componentsof fertility, age at marriage, extent of modern contraceptive use and the level ofabortion on fertility in the Republic of Yemen and to explore the impact of aselected set of demographic and socioeconomic variables on the three fertilitycomponents. This study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSconducted in Yemen in 1991/1992 and 1997. The results from this study presentempirical evidence of an onset of fertility decline in the Republic of Yemen. Animportant component of this decline is delayed age at marriage. There has beenan increase in modem contraceptive use during the last decade. However, thesemethods are not widely used at early stages of family formation. The mostcommon method of family limitation among women with large families isabortion. There has been very little change if any in the widespread occurrenceof abortion during the last decade. There exist significant urban-rural differencesin the levels of contraceptive use and abortion. Improvements in women'seducation and modern sector labor participation are crucial for increasing age atmarriage, and level of contraceptive use and for reducing the prevailing level ofabortion.FrenchCet article tente d’examiner la portée de l’influence de trois composantes de lafécondité, à savoir l’âge au mariage, la mesure dans laquelle les méthodes decontraception modernes sont utilisées et le taux d’avortements dans laRépublique du Yémen. L’article explore aussi l’impact d’un ensemble choisi devariables socio-économiques sur les trois composantes de fécondité. Cette étudeutilise les données provenant de Programmes d’enquêtes démographiques etsanitaires menés au Yémen en 1991-1992 et en 1997. Les résultats de cette étudeindiquent de façon empirique un début de baisse de fertilité dans la Républiquedu Yémen. Une composante importante de cette baisse est l

  14. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayeb M E; Al-Bar, Hussein M S; Azhar, Esam I; Kao, Moujahed; Alshoeb, Haj O; Bamoosa, Alabd R

    2013-03-14

    Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. From 15-17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al-Mukalla. It is important to use both IgM and NS1-antigen

  15. Outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by dengue virus type 3 in Al-Mukalla, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Investigations were conducted by the authors to explore an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) reported in 2010 from Al-Mukalla city, the capital of Hadramout in Yemen. Methods From 15–17 June 2010, the outbreak investigation period, specimens were obtained within 7 days after onset of illness of 18 acutely ill patients hospitalized with VHF and 15 household asymptomatic contacts of 6 acute cases. Additionally, 189 stored sera taken from acutely ill patients with suspected VHF hospitalized in the preceding 12 months were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Yemen. Thus, a total of 222 human specimens were collected; 207 specimens from acute cases and 15 specimens from contacts. All samples were tested with RT-PCR for dengue (DENV), Alkhumra (ALKV), Rift Valley Fever (RVFV), Yellow Fever (YFV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Samples were also tested for DENV IgM, IgG, and NS1-antigen. Medical records of patients were reviewed and demographic, clinical, and laboratory data was collected. Results Of 207 patients tested, 181 (87.4%) patients were confirmed to have acute dengue with positive dengue NS1-antigen (97 patients, 46.9%) and/or IgM (163 patients, 78.7%). Of the 181 patients with confirmed dengue, 100 (55.2%) patients were IgG-positive. DENV RNA was detected in 2 (1%) patients with acute symptoms; both samples were molecularly typed as DENV type 3. No other VHF viruses were detected. For the 15 contacts tested, RT-PCR tests for the five viruses were negative, one contact was dengue IgM positive, and another one was dengue IgG positive. Of the 181 confirmed dengue patients, 120 (66.3%) patients were males and the median age was 24 years. The most common manifestations included fever (100%), headache (94.5%), backache (93.4%), malaise (88.4%), arthralgia (85.1%), myalgia (82.3%), bone pain (77.9%), and leukopenia (76.2%). Two (1.1%) patients died. Conclusions DENV-3 was confirmed to be the cause of an outbreak of VHF in Al

  16. Lithospheric mantle evolution in the Afro-Arabian domain: Insights from Bir Ali mantle xenoliths (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgualdo, P.; Aviado, K.; Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Bryce, J. G.; Graham, D. W.; Natali, C.; Siena, F.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed petrological and geochemical investigations of an extensive sampling of mantle xenoliths from the Neogene-Quaternary Bir Ali diatreme (southern Yemen) indicate that the underlying lithospheric mantle consists predominantly of medium- to fine-grained (often foliated) spinel-peridotites (85-90%) and spinel-pyroxenites (10-15%) showing thermobarometric estimates in the P-T range of 0.9-2.0 GPa and 900-1150 °C. Peridotites, including lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites delineate continuous chemical, modal and mineralogical variations compatible with large extractions of basic melts occurring since the late Proterozoic (~ 2 Ga, according to Lu-Hf model ages). Pyroxenites may represent intrusions of subalkaline basic melts interacting and equilibrated with the host peridotite. Subsequent metasomatism has led to modal changes, with evidence of reaction patches and clinopyroxene and spinel destabilization, as well as formation of new phases (glass, amphibole and feldspar). These changes are accompanied by enrichment of the most incompatible elements and isotopic compositions. 143Nd/144Nd ranges from 0.51419 to 0.51209 (εNd from + 30.3 to - 10.5), 176Hf/177Hf from 0.28459 to 0.28239 (εHf from + 64.4 to - 13.6), and 208Pb/204Pb from 36.85 to 41.56, thus extending from the depleted mantle (DM) towards the enriched OIB mantle (EM and HIMU) components. 3He/4He (R/RA) ratios vary from 7.2 to 7.9 with He concentrations co-varying with the most incompatible element enrichment, in parallel with metasomatic effects. These metasomatic events, particularly effective in harzburgites and dunites, are attributable to the variable interaction with alkaline basic melts related to the general extensional and rifting regime affecting the East Africa-Arabian domain during the Cenozoic. In this respect, Bir Ali mantle xenoliths resemble those occurring along the Arabian margins and the East Africa Rift system, similarly affected by alkaline metasomatism, whereas they are

  17. Developing a Model for Forecasting Road Traffic Accident (RTA Fatalities in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fareed M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a model for forecasting RTA fatalities in Yemen. The yearly fatalities was modeled as the dependent variable, while the number of independent variables included the population, number of vehicles, GNP, GDP and Real GDP per capita. It was determined that all these variables are highly correlated with the correlation coefficient (r ≈ 0.9; in order to avoid multicollinearity in the model, a single variable with the highest r value was selected (real GDP per capita. A simple regression model was developed; the model was very good (R2=0.916; however, the residuals were serially correlated. The Prais-Winsten procedure was used to overcome this violation of the regression assumption. The data for a 20-year period from 1991-2010 were analyzed to build the model; the model was validated by using data for the years 2011-2013; the historical fit for the period 1991 - 2011 was very good. Also, the validation for 2011-2013 proved accurate.

  18. Developing a Model for Forecasting Road Traffic Accident (RTA) Fatalities in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Fareed M. A.; Abdo Saleh, Ali; Taijoobux, Aref; Ševrović, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a model for forecasting RTA fatalities in Yemen. The yearly fatalities was modeled as the dependent variable, while the number of independent variables included the population, number of vehicles, GNP, GDP and Real GDP per capita. It was determined that all these variables are highly correlated with the correlation coefficient (r ≈ 0.9); in order to avoid multicollinearity in the model, a single variable with the highest r value was selected (real GDP per capita). A simple regression model was developed; the model was very good (R2=0.916); however, the residuals were serially correlated. The Prais-Winsten procedure was used to overcome this violation of the regression assumption. The data for a 20-year period from 1991-2010 were analyzed to build the model; the model was validated by using data for the years 2011-2013; the historical fit for the period 1991 - 2011 was very good. Also, the validation for 2011-2013 proved accurate.

  19. Present Situation of the Internal Quantitative Efficiency of Sanhan Community College – the Republic of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zain Saleh AL Sadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to explore the present situation of the internal quantitative efficiency of Sanhan community college, and to identify the annual cost per student and material waste resulting from failure and dropout. The study depended primarily on the method of restructuring the study life in order to measure the internal efficiency of quantitative indicators for the college.  This was done by building the chart structure of student flow, which allows calculating success rate, failure rate, and the dropout rate for each batch. This enabled the researchers to calculate the indicators of internal quantity efficiency and its level. The study results revealed that the educational system in Sanhan Community college has not reached the required standard, which impacted  the internal quantitative efficiency. In addition, the proportion of quantitative loss resulting from students’ failure and dropout was (50%. Some recommendations were also proposed in order to raise the efficiency and effectiveness level so as to reach the desired standard. Keywords: Internal quantity efficiency, Sanhan Community College, Yemen.

  20. Fungal contamination and aflatoxins content of dry raisins fruits in Sanaa City, Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghalibi, S.M.; Battah, M.G.; Al-Zubairy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to study mycoflora and aflatoxin content of dry raisins in Yemen Republic. Thirty six raisins samples collected from different shops and markets in Sana'a city were analyzed mycologically for the presence of fungi. A total of forty eight species belonging to 20 genera were recovered from the analyzed raisins samples on three cultural media. Aspergillus was the most dominant genera on the three types of media, of which A. niger was the most common species. A. flavus was isolated in moderate, low and rare frequency on 1% and 20% sucrose Czapek's and Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Pencillium was isolated in moderate frequency on 1 and 20% sucrose Czapek's agar media, but in low frequency on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium. The raisin samples were analyzed for the presence of total aflatoxin using ELISA technique. The results revealed that 3 out of 7 samples of raisins analyzed were contaminated with total aflatoxin at levels raged from 2678.66 to 11556.88 ppt (ng Kg-1). (author)

  1. First Molecular Characterization of Leishmania Species Causing Visceral Leishmaniasis among Children in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved.

  2. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassim, Moath [Kyunghe Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kessel, David S. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value.

  3. Selection Methodology Approach to Preferable and Alternative Sites for the First NPP Project in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Moath; Kessel, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the methodology and results of the first siting study for the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Yemen. In this study it has been demonstrated that there are suitable sites for specific unit/units power of 1000 MWt (about 300 MWe) nuclear power plant. To perform the site selection, a systematic selection method was developed. The method uses site-specific data gathered by literature review and expert judgement to identify the most important site selection criteria. A two-step site selection process was used. Candidate sites were chosen that meet a subset of the selection criteria that form the most important system constraints. These candidate sites were then evaluated against the full set of selection criteria using the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). Candidate sites underwent a set of more specific siting criteria weighted by expert judgment to select preferable sites and alternatives using AHP method again. Expert Judgment method was used to rank and weight the importance of each criteria, then AHP method used to evaluate and weight the relation between criterion to criterion and between all criteria against the global weight. Then logical decision software was used to rank sites upon their weighting value

  4. Level of khat dependence, use patterns, and psychosocial correlates in Yemen: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Hoffman, Richard; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    Chronic khat use is associated with negative health consequences. However, no study has fully characterized individuals who are khat dependent. This paper examines socio-demographic and psychosocial correlates of adult khat dependence. A total of 270 khat users (129 women) in Yemen completed face-to-face interviews and provided demographic information and data on patterns of khat use, subjective mood, and sleep quality. The Severity of Dependence Scale-Khat (SDS-khat) was used to assess level of khat dependence. A series of analysis of variance was conducted. Khat users, on average, used khat for 5.2 hours a day (SD = 2.3) for 5.7 days a week (SD = 2.0). Individuals who screened positive for khat dependence reported longer duration of khat sessions per day, higher frequency of khat use per week, greater levels of negative mood and sleep disturbances, and were more likely to endorse physical symptoms after khat use (P < 0.05). Future research should elucidate mechanisms responsible for khat dependence symptomatology.

  5. Distribution and utilization of curative primary healthcare services in Lahej, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, A A; Bin Hawail, T S; Al-Sakkaf, K A Z; Basaleem, H O; Muhraz, A F; Al-Shehri, A M

    2013-09-01

    No evidence-based data exist on the availability, accessibility and utilization of healthcare services in Lahej Governorate, Yemen. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and utilization of curative services in primary healthcare units and centres in Lahej. Cross-sectional study (clustering sample). This study was conducted in three of the 15 districts in Lahej between December 2009 and August 2010. Household members were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine sociodemographic characteristics and types of healthcare services available in the area. The distribution of health centres, health units and hospitals did not match the size of the populations or areas of the districts included in this study. Geographical accessibility was the main obstacle to utilization. Factors associated with the utilization of curative services were significantly related to the time required to reach the nearest facility, seeking curative services during illness and awareness of the availability of health facilities (P < 0.01). There is an urgent need to look critically and scientifically at the distribution of healthcare services in the region in order to ensure accessibility and quality of services. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of the 2011 Revolution on Hospital Disaster Preparedness in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladhrai, Saleem Ahmed; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Alsabri, Mohammed; El-Bakri, Nahid Karrar; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    Hospitals are expected to serve the medical needs of casualties in the face of a disaster or other crisis, including man-made conflicts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the 2011 Yemeni revolution on hospital disaster preparedness in the capital city of Sana'a. The study was conducted in September 2011 and 2013. For evaluation purposes, the hospital emergency response checklist published by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used. Additional information was also obtained to determine what steps were being taken by hospital authorities to improve hospital preparedness. The study selected 11 hospitals. At the time of the first evaluation, 7 hospitals were rated "unacceptable" for level of preparedness and 4 were rated "insufficient," receiving a WHO checklist rating of 10 to 98. At the second evaluation, 5 hospitals were rated "unacceptable," 3 "insufficient," and 1 "effective," receiving a rating of 9 to 134. Unfortunately, this study shows that between 2011 and 2013, no significant progress was made in hospital disaster preparedness in Sana'a. In a disaster-prone country like Yemen, the current situation calls for drastic improvement. Health system authorities must take responsibility for issuing strategic plans as well as standards, guidelines, and procedures to improve hospital disaster preparedness.

  7. Natural radioactivity of ground water in some areas in Aden governorate South of Yemen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Zahran, A.M.; Abbady, A.A.; Ahmed, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K measured in groundwater samples collected from Aden governorate South of Yemen region using gamma spectroscopy. A total of 37 groundwater samples were collected from four areas in Aden governorate. The average activity concentrations for groundwater from Beer Ahmed area were 1.60 Bq/L, 1.25 Bq/L and 16.90 Bq/L for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K respectively and from Beer Fadle area were 1.45 Bq/L, 0.87 Bq/L and 19.8 Bq/L for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively, while that for groundwater samples from Daar-saad area were 1.27 Bq/L, 1.18 Bq/L and 18.28 Bq/L for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively and Al-Masabian area were 1.55 Bq/L, 1.421 Bq/L and 19.03 Bq/L for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K respectively. Furthermore, annual effective dose equivalent of ingestion of these waters was calculated. The results showed that the annual dose obtained in the present study was much higher than the recommended value (0.1 mSv/year) as reported by WHO. The results were compared with those for drinking water. (author)

  8. Prevalence of oro-dental anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, M; Baroudi, K

    2016-04-19

    Practitioners and policy-makers need information about the relative frequency of dental anomalies among children in their region. This study investigated the prevalence of different oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. A sample of 1000 private and public schoolchildren aged 4-12 years were examined by the same examiner using disposable tongue blades. The total prevalence of oral anomalies was 15.1%, most commonly in boys (male:female ratio 3.2:1) aged 7-12 years. The most prevalent dental anomaly related to hard tissues was tooth hypoplasia (2.8%), followed by hypocalcification (2.6%), then microdontia (0.5%), macrodontia (0.4%), hypodontia (0.4%), supernumerary teeth (0.3%), tooth transposition (0.3%), dental fusion (0.2%) and gemination (0.2%). The most prevalent soft tissues anomaly was fissured tongue (4.0%), followed by ankyloglossia (1.8%), geographic tongue (0.9%), macroglossia (0.4%) and hairy tongue (0.3%). Appropriate measures need to be taken early to mitigate the negative impact and later costs of treatment of anomalies.

  9. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunization coverage among children in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz Governorate, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ahmed Al-Rabeei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At least 2 million people die every year from diseases preventable by vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization. Objective: To assess the routine immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 month and to determine the reasons for unvaccinated. Methods: We conducted a community-based survey in Al-Taizyah district, Taiz governorate, Yemen. Information about vaccination status and related barriers was collected for 420 children from 1st March to 31st March 2012. Results: 49.8% of the children had vaccination cards. About 69.5% of the children were fully vaccinated by cards and by history, 15.5% were partially vaccinated and 15% not vaccinated. As a regards to crude vaccination coverage, 82.9% of children were received BCG vaccine. OPV1 vaccine was 82.6%. Pentavalent1 was 82.6%. Measles 1 represented for 71.7% and vitamin A1 was 46.4%. 91% was valid doses for OPV1 and 93% for pentavalent1. Only 76% of measles1 dose was valid. The high scores14% of drop-out rate was recorded between BCG and Measles. The main reasons for partially vaccinated and unvaccinated of children were the lack of information 61.7%. Conclusion: There is low vaccination coverage among children aged 12-23 months. There is a need to raise the awareness of community about vaccination and EPI services in Al-Taizyah district.

  11. Diesel Subsidies and Yemen Politics: Post-2011 Crises and their Impact on Groundwater Use and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Weshali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is the main source of agricultural and municipal water and contributes 70% of total water use in Yemen. All aquifers are depleting at a very high rate owing to combined effects of a host of socioeconomic, institutional and climate-change factors. The government policy on diesel subsidy was largely believed to be one of the significant factors which stimulated large-scale pumping of water for irrigating water-intensive cash crops such as qat, fruits, and vegetables. A rapid field assessment was conducted between June and December 2011 in six different regions of the country to analyse the impacts of the severe diesel crisis that accompanied the political turmoil of 2011 on groundwater use and agriculture. The study highlighted winners and losers in the process of adapting to diesel shortage and high diesel prices. Farmers’ responses differed according to their social status, financial resources, and farming systems. Poorly endowed households partially or completely abandoned agriculture. Others abandoned farming of irrigated cereals and fodder, but practised deficit irrigation of fruits and vegetables, thus halving the consumption of diesel. Crop yields dropped by 40-60% in all surveyed regions. The intra-governorate transport halt due to the sharp increase in transport cost caused prices at the farm gate to drop. Only those farmers who could absorb increases in diesel prices due to high return:cost ratios, higher drought tolerance, stable prices (qat, and access to alternative sources of water could cope with the diesel crisis.

  12. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’.

  13. Mass Claims in Land and Property Following the Arab Spring: Lessons from Yemen

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    Jon D Unruh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring uprisings have released a flood of land and property conflicts, brought about by decades of autocratic rule. Expropriations, corruption, poor performance of the rule of law, patronage and sectarian discrimination built up a wide variety of land and property transgressions over approximately 30 years. The result has been the creation of longstanding, acute grievances among large components of national populations who now seek to act on them. If new, transitional or reforming governments and their international partners fail to effectively attend to such grievances, the populations concerned may act on them in ways that detract from stability. This article critiques the case of Yemen, whose transitional government, with international support, initiated a land and property mass claims process in the South in order to address a primary grievance of the southern population as part of the National Dialogue transition. A series of techniques are described that would greatly improve the mass claims process once it inevitably recommences after the Houthi conflict comes to an end. These improvements would attach more importance to socio-political realities and how to quickly attend to them, as opposed to an over-reliance on specific legalities. Such an approach could have wider utility among Arab Spring states seeking to address similar land and property grievances.

  14. Intestinal parasitosis among Yemeni patients with cancer, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qobati, Salah A; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Zoa, Abdulla M Bin; Derhim, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The profile of intestinal parasitosis was assessed among patients on anticancer chemotherapy in Sana'a city, Yemen during the period from April to December 2011. A total of 206 patients (115 males & 91 females), aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 14.17 +/- 3.13 were subjected to stool examinations by different techniques. The overall rate of intestinal parasites was 63.1%. Cryptosporidium parvum was the highest (30.1%) followed by G. lamblia (18.0%) and then C. cayetanensis (5.3%). Blastocystis hominis and E. histolytica/dispar were detected in 4.9% & 2.4% respectively. E. coli, H. nana and A. lumbricoides were diagnosed in an equal of 1.5% and S. stercoralis was seen in one case only. The majority of infected patients suffered from diarrhea. They showed 4.64 risk of protozoan infections compared to those who passed formed stool with statistically significant difference. Diarrhea was associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (OR = 2.73 & 2.67 respectively). The risk of intestinal parasitosis neither differed significantly with patients' age nor sex.

  15. A Ten Year Descriptive Study of Adult Leukaemia at Al-Jomhori Teaching Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen

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    Jameel Al-Ghazaly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scarcity of data of the epidemiology of leukaemia in Arab countries including Yemen. Understanding patterns of leukaemia underpins epidemiology and can provide insight into disease etiology. The aim of this research is to determine the epidemiologic pattern of adult leukaemia in Yemen. Methods: The research is a descriptive cross-sectional study. We analyzed the data of 702 adult patients with leukaemia, who were newly diagnosed over a ten-year period between October 1999 and October 2009 at the referral haematology centre in Sana’a at Al-Jomhori Teaching Hospital, according to type of leukaemia, age, sex, geographic distribution and time of diagnosis. Results: Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML was found to be the most common (45.1% followed by Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML (26.5%, Acute Lymphoid Leukaemia (ALL (17.7% and Chronic Lymphoid Leukaemia (CLL (10.7%, respectively. There was an almost equal prevalence of AML and CML for males and females but males had significantly more cases of ALL and CLL (p =0.008. A significant variation in geographic pattern showed that the highest number of cases is seen the Central mountainous region and the least number of cases in the South-eastern region which is coastal and lowland (p<0.001. The seasonal variation showed that higher number of ALL cases was seen in the summer months (33% compared with other seasons (21% in the spring, 24.2% in autumn and 21.8% in winter. Conclusions: The pattern of adult leukaemia in Yemen is different from that seen in western countries which could be attributed to different environmental exposure. The geographic pattern indicates a possible role of certain environmental factors which warrant further investigations. The pattern of seasonal variation needs further studies for evaluating the seasonality.

  16. First Wave of the 2016-17 Cholera Outbreak in Hodeidah City, Yemen - ACF Experience and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Mathias; Suarez-Bustamante, Miguel; Soulier, Celine; Lesavre, Celine; Antoine, Caroline

    2017-10-13

    Although cases were reported only in 2010 and 2011, cholera is probably endemic in Yemen. In the context of a civil war, a cholera outbreak was declared in different parts of the country October 6th, 2016. This paper describes the ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city from October 28th, 2016 to February 28th, 2017 in order to add knowledge to this large outbreak. The ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city included a case management component and prevention measures in the community. In partnership with the Ministry of Public Health and Population of Yemen (MoPHP), the case management component included a Cholera Treatment Center (CTC) implemented in the Al Thoraw hospital, 11 Oral Rehydration Therapy Corners (ORTCs) and an active case finding system. In partnership with other stakeholders, prevention measures in the community, including access to safe water and hygiene promotion, were implemented in the most affected communities of the city. From October 28th, 2016 until February 28th, 2017, ACF provided care to 8,270 Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD) cases, of which 5,210 (63%) were suspected cholera cases, in the CTC and the 11 ORTCs implemented in Hodeidah city. The attack rate was higher among people living in Al Hali district, with a peak in November 2016. At the CTC, 8% of children under 5 years-old also presented with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). The Case-Fatality Rate (CFR) was low (0.07%) but 15% of admitted cases defaulted for cultural and security reasons. Environmental management lacked the information to appropriately target affected areas. Financial resources did not allow complete coverage of the city. Response to the first wave of a large cholera outbreak in Hodeidah city was successful in maintaining a CFR Yemen and its water infrastructure, much more efforts are needed to control the current outbreak resurgence.

  17. Successful Separationists in a Unity Fan Society: Al-Hirak Al-Janubi Social Movement in the Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Al-Janubi’s popularity and motivations. Jennifer Earl uses three key typology dimensions to categorize repression of a given movement. Those...use Earl’s typology of repression as an attempt to understand the effects on the relationship between the government and Al-Hirak Al-Janubi in Yemen...let him invest in Aden; then he would sell him the sea area to dump rocks onto it to make it suitable as a tourist site. Finally, he would sell him

  18. Health system functionality in a low-income country in the midst of conflict: the case of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirbi, Naseeb; Ismail, Sharif A

    2017-07-01

     Although the literature on effects of armed conflict on population health is extensive, detailed assessments of effects on public health 'systems' are few. This article aims to help address this deficit through the medium of a case study on Yemen, describing health system and health outcome performance prior to the internationalisation of the conflict there in March 2015, before assessing the impact of war on health system functionality since that time. Review of peer- and non-peer reviewed literature from 2005 to 2016 from academic sources, multilateral organizations, donors and governmental and non-governmental organizations, augmented by secondary data analysis. Despite significant health system weaknesses and structural vulnerabilities pre-conflict, there were important improvements in selected health outcome measures in Yemen up to early 2015 (life expectancy, and infant and maternal mortality, e.g.), partly driven by a fragile health sector that was heavily reliant on out-of-pocket expenditure, and hampered by weak service penetration especially in rural areas. High intensity conflict has resulted in rising mortality and injury rates since March 2015, the first decline in life expectancy and increase in child and maternal mortality in Yemen for some years, and worsening levels of malnutrition. Service delivery has become increasingly challenging in the context of a funding crisis, destruction of health facilities, widespread shortages of essential medicines and equipment across the country, and governance fragmentation. Conflict in Yemen has resulted in humanitarian disaster on a wide scale in a short period of time, and crippled an already weak health system. Important areas of uncertainty remain, however, including the scale of health worker flight, and the extent to which alternative providers have stepped in to fill widening service gaps as the conflict has unfolded. Planning for longer-term health system reconstruction should begin as soon as possible

  19. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence

    2013-06-01

    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  20. Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  1. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-01-01

    A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify ...

  2. Factores económicos y sociales relacionados con los indicadores de salud en la República de Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Gharama, Al-Rae; Más Bermejo, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    El sistema de salud en Yemen es una consolidación de 2 sistemas de salud (Norte y Sur). Estos servicios se ofrecen basados en 3 niveles: atención primaria de salud (unidades y centros), los servicios secundarios (distrito y hospitales del governorate) y la atención terciaria con los hospitales universitarios especializados. Los recursos humanos para la salud se encuentran por encima de 40 000 trabajadores. Los principales problemas de este sector en el país están relacionados con las enfermed...

  3. Evaluation of Health-Related Quality of Life among Tuberculosis Patients in Two Cities in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Ammar Ali Saleh; Khan, Amer Hayat; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Ahmad, Nafees; Anaam, Mohamed Saif

    2016-01-01

    The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) patients is important because it directly influences the outcome of TB patients in several aspects. The current study aims to evaluate and to find the factors influencing the HRQoL of TB patients in two major TB-prevalent cities (Taiz and Alhodidah) in Yemen. A prospective study was conducted, and all TB patients meeting the HRQoL criteria were asked to complete the HRQoL SF-36 survey. The records of TB patients were examined for disease confirmation, and a follow-up was consequently performed for patients during treatment between March 2013 and February 2014 in Taiz and Alhodidah Cities. HRQol scores were calculated by using QM scoring software version 4.5, in which the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) were obtained. The scores obtained between 47-53 normal based score (NBS) were considered equivalent to the US normal score. Low scores indicate the poor health situation of TB patients. A total of 243 TB patients enrolled in the study at the beginning of the treatment. A total of 235 and 197 TB patients completed the questionnaire at the end of the intensive phase (I.P.) and continuation phase (C.P.), respectively. The final dropout rate was 16.2%. The mean PCS and MCS scores at the beginning of treatment were low, thus showing the poor health situation of TB patients. The mean PCS scores at the beginning of treatment, end of I.P., and end of treatment were (36.1), (44.9), and (48), respectively. Moreover, the mean MCS score at the beginning of treatment, end of I.P., and end of treatment were (35.1), (42.2), and (44.3), respectively. The result shows that significant increases are observed at the end of I.P. for PCS and MCS because of the treatment and slight changes at the end of C.P. Despite this finding, the MCS score remains below the normal range (47), thus indicating a significant risk of depression among TB patients. Furthermore, general linear repeated measure

  4. Mujeres en la revolución yemení de 2011

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    Ewa K. Strzelecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La sociología de la revolución ha producido un corpus de conocimiento prodigioso, no obstante, aún es escasa la atención que se presta al análisis de género de los movimientos revolucionarios y de la formación de nuevos estados. El presente artículo pretende responder a este déficit, y visibilizar las dinámicas de género en la revolución yemení de 2011 y, en particular, prestar atención al significado de la participación de las mujeres. La pregunta central de esta investigación es: ¿qué diferencias y similitudes se han dado en la participación de las mujeres y de los hombres en la revolución yemení, y por qué? Tratando de responder a esta cuestión se argumenta que la lucha de las mujeres ha tenido una dimensión añadida y su objetivo ha sido de un doble alcance. Por un lado, sus demandas eran las mismas que las de los hombres, y se correspondían con las prioridades de la revolución, es decir, con el desmantelamiento del régimen y con las reformas del sistema político-social. Y, por otro lado, dadas sus experiencias específicas de opresión, las mujeres se han visto obligadas a responder contra la violencia y la discriminación de género. En consecuencia, su lucha ha implicado la articulación de unas aspiraciones emancipadoras y las demandas de mayores cuotas de derechos y de autonomía. The sociology of revolution has produced a prodigious body of knowledge. Nonetheless, there is still little attention paid to the gender analysis of revolutionary movements and of the building of new states. The present paper attempts to bridge this gap by portraying gender dynamics in the 2011 Yemeni revolution, in particular, by focussing on the significance of the involvement of women. The main research question is: what similarities and differences have been observed between women’s and men’s engagement within the Yemeni Revolution? And why? Answering these questions, it is argued that the women’s struggle has had an

  5. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children 12-23 months of age in Aden, Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda O. Basaleem; Khaled A. Al-Sakkaf; Khadijah Shamsuddin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the immunization status of children aged 12-23 months and its determinants in Aden, Yemen. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and July 2007 during which time mothers of 680 children from 37 randomly selected clusters in Aden, were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic profiles and children's immunization status was obtained. Immunization coverage of all officially provided vaccines was assessed. Analysis of association between immunization coverage and the socio-demographic characteristics were tested using logistic regression analysis with the immunization status as the dependent variable. We found that 83.1% had complete, 10.4% had partial, and 6.5% were never immunized. The immunization card retention rate was 84.9%. The immunization coverage was 92.9% for Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin, 89.6% for Oral Polio Vaccine-3, 86.6% for Diphtheria, Pertusis and Tetanus-3 and Hepatitis-B vaccination, and 89.1% for measles. Multivariate analysis showed that children with an immunization card (odds ratio [OR]=14.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.50-25.44) were more likely to have complete immunization, while children with older aged mothers (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.22-0.77) were more likely to have complete immunization. Despite the high immunization coverage, 16.9% of children did not have complete immunization, and this rate was lower among children of older mothers, and those who retained their immunization cards. Raising awareness of immunization and increasing access to health services must be strengthened (Author).

  6. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

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    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  7. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H

    2017-07-04

    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  9. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  10. Evaluation of Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine among Malnourished Children in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad A. A. Alssamei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the coverage rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine and to evaluate the immune response to HBV vaccine by measuring hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs among malnourished un-der-five-year old children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Yemen; Al-Sabeen Maternity and Child Hospital in Sana’a and the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital in Taiz city in the period from March 2014 to Dec. 2014. The target population was malnourished children aged from 6 to 59 months old with a histo-ry of three HBV vaccine doses in infancy. According to the World Health Organization’s definition of malnu-trition, 121 malnourished children were enrolled in the study. Data of malnourished children were collect-ed using a pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire. Two milliliters of venous blood were taken, and anti-HBs was then tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An anti-HBs level of at least 10 IU/L was considered a successful response to the vaccine. Results: The coverage rate of HBV vaccine among malnourished children was 89.3%, being higher among girls (52.1% than boys (37.2%. Response to HBV vaccine (≥10 IU/L was observed in 72.2% (78/108 of children while 27.8% (30/108 of children failed to respond to the vaccine, with a statistically significant difference (p <0.001. Conclusions: A good HBV vaccine coverage rate was found among malnourished Yemeni children, with a moderate rate of protection. Therefore, re-vaccination or administration of booster doses to a substantial proportion of vaccinated children should be considered.

  11. Environmental Aspects of the Accelerated Urbanization in Sana’a, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Alderwish

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From an environmental viewpoint, the prevailing health problems must be a “first priority” in all major development projects. Public water supply provides only 36% of domestic water. Disinfection of public water supply from the south well field is essential to avoid health problems. About 60% of the drinking water sold by ‘hygienic’ stations is of questionable quality. Expansion and upgrading in hospitals, pharmacies and industries (waste producers will have an immediate impact on the amount of hazardous waste that will have to be disposed of. To achieve a sustainable urban development and to avoid environment/resources degradation, care should be taken now to monitor and improve handling and management of hazardous waste. Initiating management programs for reducing or preventing the generation of waste during production processes or other operations would be the first step to an economically and environmentally sound way of dealing with hazardous wastes. As complete elimination cannot be realized, ways to recycle the wastes should be sought. Major air pollutants in Sana’a include dust and SPM, carbon monoxide, photochemical oxidants, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, sulfur oxides and hydrocarbons. The main sources of pollution in the cities are the mobile sources. The emissions of gases from oil consumption are exceeding the permissible level and it is essential that the gases be monitored, at least in the congested areas of the cities. Integration of environmental concerns with economic growth in Yemen should occur at the planning stage, adopting a positive approach and focusing on improvement in the health and welfare of the residents of the program area. Mitigating measures relating to the protection of the urban environment and improving public health must be primary objectives of EIA investigation for any upgrading project within urban areas and any other projects impacting on an urban environment.

  12. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia among University Students in Hodeida Province, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Al-alimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is one of the most common types of nutritional anemia in the worldwide and considered a major public health problem in developing countries especially in Yemen. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of IDA among apparently healthy Yemeni students at Hodeida University. Method. Five hundred blood samples (326 males and 174 females were collected randomly from medical students at Hodeida University. Participants were subjected to different tests including complete blood counts (CBC, serum ferritin (SF, serum iron (SI, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC. Moreover, a questionnaire was designed to collect demographics, food and drink habits, and socioeconomic status. Result. The overall prevalence of IDA was 30.4%  (n=152, of whom 54.00% were females (n=82 and 46.0% were males (n=70. Students aged 20–22 years were found more anemic with prevalence 59.2% than students aged 17–19 years (25.0% and 23–25 years (15.8%. Statistical analysis showed regularly having breakfast had significant (p < 0.001 role in preventing development of IDA compared with irregularly having breakfast. Infrequent consumption of vegetables/fruits; meat, fish, chicken; tea drinking; low household income; smoking and khat (Catha edulis chewing showed a significant role (p < 0.001 in provoking of IDA, whereas consumption of coffee and cola showed insignificant influence (p=0.585; p=0.513 on IDA. Conclusion. This study revealed that the majority of university students, especially females, have IDA that might become worse by malnutrition, lifestyle habits, and lack of awareness. Our results suggest that IDA can be prevented by providing proper knowledge on the healthful diet, improved lifestyle, and harmful effect of IDA to the students.

  13. Chemical compositions and characteristics of organic compounds in propolis from Yemen

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    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a gummy material made by honeybees for protecting their hives from bacteria and fungi. The main objective of this study is to determine the chemical compositions and concentrations of organic compounds in the extractable organic matter (EOM of propolis samples collected from four different regions in Yemen. The propolis samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. The results showed that the total extract yields ranged from 34% to 67% (mean = 55.5 ± 12.4%. The major compounds were triterpenoids (254 ± 188 mg g−1, mainly α-, β-amyryl and dammaradienyl acetates, n-alkenes (145 ± 89 mg g−1, n-alkanes (65 ± 29 mg g−1, n-alkanoic acids (40 ± 26 mg g−1, long chain wax esters (38 ± 25 mg g−1, n-alkanols (8 ± 3 mg g−1 and methyl n-alkanoates (6 ± 4 mg g−1. The variation in the propolis chemical compositions is apparently related to the different plant sources. The compounds of these propolis samples indicate that they are potential sources of natural bio-active compounds for biological and pharmacological applications.

  14. Physicians' perceptions of medical representative visits in Yemen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Areefi, Mahmoud Abdullah; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b Mohamed

    2013-08-20

    representatives to visit them and consider receiving free samples, gifts and various kinds of support as a normal practice. The findings provided insight into possible target areas for educational interventions concerning pharmaceutical marketing. Such a finding will provide the basis for policymakers in the public and private health sector in Yemen to develop a suitable policy and regulations in terms of drug promotion.

  15. Oral lesions and dental status among institutionalized orphans in Yemen: A matched case-control study

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    Sadeq Ali Al-Maweri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs and dental caries and to evaluate oral health practices among institutionalized orphan-children in Sana′a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: A sample of 202 institutionalized male-orphan-children in the main orphanage in Sana′a city, were matched to 202 non-orphan schoolchildren. Clinical examination included assessment of OMLs based on standard international diagnostic criteria and evaluation of dental status using the Decayed/decayed, Missed/missed and Filled/filled (DMFT/dmft index according to World Health Organization recommendations. Demographic data and oral hygiene practices were obtained by interviewing each subject using special questionnaire form. Results: Majority of children were in the 12-15 year age group. Nine types of lesions were reported among orphans; the most common lesions were fissured tongue (24.3%, herpes labialis (7.9% and traumatic ulcers (2.5%. The occurrence of herpes labialis was found to be significantly higher in orphans than in controls (P < 0.01. The prevalence of dental caries was insignificantly lower among the orphans (84.7% compared with the non-orphans (89.61%; P = 0.136. The mean dmft score was significantly lower in orphans than in controls (2.28 vs. 3.82; P = 0.001. Conclusions: The institutionalized children in this orphanage had a high prevalence of OMLs but low prevalence of dental caries, though they revealed poor oral hygiene practices. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health and oral health practices of children living in orphanages.

  16. Investigation of the potential of fogwater harvesting in the Western Mountainous parts of the Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, A.A.; Al-Jailani, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Yemen is located in an arid to semi-arid region. Rainfall rates range from none at certain parts of the country to about 400 mm/yr in its mountainous parts. Rainfall has been harvested and collected in cisterns existed in the mountainous region for generations. In the dry season (October-February) and after the stored water is consumed, people mainly women and children have to travel long distances down wadis to fetch water from the nearest water source which is often not suitable for human consumption. This is the case in the western mountainous region, namely Hajja Governorate, which heavily depends on rain water for drinking, animal watering, domestic uses and irrigation. However, during the dry season this region experiences foggy conditions. This has prompted conducting a fog collection field study in this region to investigate the potential of providing an alternative source for water supply during the dry season. The study consisted of installing 26 standard fog collectors (SFC) of one m2 of polypropylene mesh at 19 sites in Hajja and measuring the daily fog water amounts collected during the period from 1 January to 31 March, 2003. The results indicated that fog collectors located closest to the red sea with an elevation ranged between 2000-2200 meters above sea level and winds from the west direction have produced the highest water output, reaching a maximum of about 4.5 liters per square meter of mesh per day over the three winter months period. The conclusion drawn is that though this technique is cheap, simple and promising, more investigations are still needed on the various parameters contributing to fog collection, such as, relative humidity, temperature and SFCs technologies. (author)

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and parasites in symptomatic children examined for Helicobacter pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook A; Al-Zubairi, Lutf M; Sallam, Abdul K

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and parasites in symptomatic children examined for H. pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen. A record-based study was carried out at Specialized Sam Pediatric Center in Sana'a, Yemen for 3 years between 2011-2013. Out of the 43,200 patients seen for different causes through that period, 1008 (2.3%) (females: 675 [67%]; males: 333 [33%]) had gastric complaints, and were subjected to an examination of blood and stool for H. pylori and parasites. Data regarding age and gender was also collected. The age of the patients ranged from 3-15 years. The prevalence of H. pylori among children examined for H. pylori was 65%, 30% of them were males, and 35% were females (chi square [I2]=142, p<0.01]). The prevalence in the 6-8 years age group was 83%, and it was 52% in the age group of 12-15 years. The prevalence of giardiasis was 10%, and amoebiasis was 25%. Prevalence of H. pylori infection among children was high, and was more prevalent in the age group of 6-8 years than in the other age groups. Females were more affected than males. Parasites (amoebiasis and giardiasis) infestation was less prevalent.

  18. Viral infection and oral habits as risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasher, Akram T; Al-Hebshi, Nezar N; Al-Moayad, Ebtisam E; Suleiman, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    The role of qat chewing, tobacco (shammah) dipping, smoking, alcohol drinking, and oral viral infection as risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Yemen was assessed. A total of 60 cases of OSCC and 120 age- and gender-matched controls were analyzed with respect to demographic data, history of oral habits, and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16, HPV-18, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as determined by Taqman quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of the disease. Shammah use was the only risk factor for OSCC, with an odds ratio of 12.6 (CI, 3.3-48.2) and 39 (CI, 14-105) for the ex-users and current users, respectively. The association of shammah use alone with OSCC exceeded that of shammah use in combination with qat chewing, smoking, or both. EBV infection, smoking, and qat chewing showed no association with OSCC, while neither HPV-16 nor HPV-18 were detected in any sample. Shammah use is a major risk factor for oral cancer in Yemen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current knowledge of sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of northwestern Yemen and how it relates to leishmaniasis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sawaf, Bahira M; Kassem, Hala A; Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first entomological survey of the sand fly fauna in northwestern Yemen. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper traps and CDC light traps from Hajjah governorate, a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus due to Leishmania tropica. Six Phlebotomus species: P. alexandri, P. arabicus. P. bergeroti, P. orientalis, P. papatasi, P. sergenti and ten Sergentomyia species: S. africana, S. antennata, S. christophersi, S. dolichopa, S. dreyfussi, S. fallax, S. multidens, S. taizi, S. tiberiadis, S. yusafi were identified. P. alexandri was the most predominant Phlebotomus species and P. papatasi was a scarce species. S. fallax was the principal Sergentomyia species and S. dolichopa was the least species encountered. The diversity of the sand fly fauna within and among three altitudinal ranges using Simpson index and Jaccard's diversity coefficient respectively were measured. High species diversity was found in all altitude ranges. There seemed to be more association between sand fly fauna in higher altitudes with fauna from moderate altitudes. Sand fly seasonal activity showed a mono-modal trend in the lowland and a confluent bimodal trend in the highlands. Leishmania DNA could not be detected from 150 Phlebotomus females using PCR-RFLP. A possible zoonotic cutaneous transmission cycle due to Leishmania tropica in northwestern Yemen would involve P. arabicus as the sand fly vector and the rock hyrax as the reservoir host. The vector competence for P. alexandri as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Hajjah governorate is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinicoepidemiologic pattern of cutaneous leishmaniasis and molecular characterization of its causative agent in Hajjah governorate, northwest of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogalli, Nabil M; El Hossary, Shabaan S; Khatri, Mishri Lal; Mukred, Abdualdaim M; Kassem, Hala A; El Sawaf, Bahira M; Ramadan, Nadia F

    2016-11-01

    The clinicoepidemiologic profile of 143 cases (93 males and 50 females) with cutaneous leishmaniasis from 18 villages of Hajjah governorate, Yemen was studied. Dry-type lesions were seen in 98.6% and wet-type lesions in 1.4% of patients. Lesions were localized in all cases with different morphological patterns. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slit smears revealed amastigotes in 74.1% of patients with dry-type lesions and 0% in patients with wet-type lesions. The burden of the parasites in the lesions was high indicating active transmission of the disease. Most cases were from villages with moderate altitude range (8001-1600m). All age groups were affected, but most cases were seen in ages from 5 to 15 years. Leishmania species identification was done for all cases by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The biopsic material was scraped from both Giemsa-stained and methanol-fixed smears. The molecular characterization of Leishmania species revealed Leishmania tropica as the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Hajjah, Yemen. The risk factors associated with the transmission of the disease and recommendations for improving case detection were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of radio nuclides for some local foodstuffs in Republic of Yemen by using gamma rays spectral analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maqtary, K.; Murshid, M.; Bazohair, A.; Al-Zuhairy, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study is considered as the first research study on locally produced consumed food in the Republic of Yemen. The objective of this study is to measure concentration of radio nuclides 137 Cs and 40 K In food samples produced in Yemen. Twenty two local foodstuffs samples were collected from provinces. The mar IBB, Hudiadah and Lahj, due to the massive crops production. Gamma spectroscopy consist of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector with resolution of 2.11 KeV at 1332 ke v energy which related to 6 0Co isotope. The detector is interfaced to two amplifiers and multichannel analyzer (mca). the maximum concentration of 13C s was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj province 13± 1.5 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was found in wheat samples brought from Them ar province 2.5± 0.2 Bq/Kg. The maximum concentration of 4 0K was found in garden pea samples brought from Lahj. 1000±15 Bq/kg. The minimum concentration was in forage sorghum samples brought from Hudaidah 40±1.5 Bq/kg. The studies samples are radiological safe and okay for human consumption. (author)

  2. Basic Education for Girls in Yemen: Country Case Study and Analysis. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All (EFA) commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines provision of basic education (grades 1-9) in Yemen, focusing on obstacles to girls' education in rural areas. The report…

  3. Genetic variation of pfhrp2 in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Yemen and the performance of HRP2-based malaria rapid diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Jasari, Adel; Sady, Hany; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Ithoi, Init; Lau, Yee Ling; Fong, Mun Yik; Surin, Johari

    2015-07-22

    The genetic variation in the Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) gene that may compromise the use of pfhrp2-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of malaria was assessed in P. falciparum isolates from Yemen. This study was conducted in Hodeidah and Al-Mahwit governorates, Yemen. A total of 622 individuals with fever were examined for malaria by CareStart malaria HRP2-RDT and Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films. The Pfhrp2 gene was amplified and sequenced from 180 isolates, and subjected to amino acid repeat types analysis. A total of 188 (30.2%) participants were found positive for P. falciparum by the RDT. Overall, 12 different amino acid repeat types were identified in Yemeni isolates. Six repeat types were detected in all the isolates (100%) namely types 1, 2, 6, 7, 10 and 12 while types 9 and 11 were not detected in any of the isolates. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity of the used PfHRP2-based RDTs were high (90.5% and 96.1%, respectively). The present study provides data on the genetic variation within the pfhrp2 gene, and its potential impact on the PfHRP2-based RDTs commonly used in Yemen. CareStart Malaria HRP2-based RDT showed high sensitivity and specificity in endemic areas of Yemen.

  4. Improving the Quality of Basic Education for the Future Youth of Yemen Post Arab Spring. Global Economy & Development. Working Paper 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Takako; Kameyama, Yuriko

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the issue of the quality of education in Yemen. It uses micro-data from TIMSS and from surveys conducted in underserved rural areas, as well as macro-level policy information from the System Assessment for Better Education Results (SABER) database. The analysis indicates that the availability of teachers and resources at…

  5. The prevalence and degree of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to first-line antimalarial drugs: an in vitro study from a malaria endemic region in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shamahy, H.; Al-Harazy, Abdulilah Hussein; Harmal, Nabil S.; Al-Kabsi, Abdulgudos N.

    2007-01-01

    Unpublished studies on antimalarial drug efficacy have found low levels of chloroquine resistance in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the current prevalence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen to the main anti-malarial drugs and to determine the effective concentration (EC) values. The WHO standard protocol was used for the selection of subjects, collection of blood samples, culture techniques, examination of post-culture blood slides and interpretation of results. The in vitro micro-test Mark III was used for assessing susceptibility of P. falciparum isolates. The criteria for blood parasite density was met by 219 P. falciparum malaria patients. Chloroquine resistance was found in 47% of isolated P. falciparum schizonts. Mefloquine resistance was found in 5.2%. In addition, the EC50 and EC95 values in blood that inhibited schizont maturation in resistant isolates were higher than the normal therapeutic level for mefloquine. No resistance occurred against quinine or artemisinin, with no growth at the cut off level for quinine and inhibition at low concentrations of artemisinin. Our study confirmed the occurrence of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and a slow increase in the rate of this resistance will increase further and spread over all the foci of malaria in Yemen. The low rate of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum was lower than that reported in Africa or Southeast Asia, but is the first report of the mefloquine resistance in Yemen. Finally, the isolates were sensitive to low concentrations of quinine and artemisinin. (author)

  6. Telling Apart Ornithopod and Theropod Trackways : A Closer Look at a Large, Late Jurassic Tridactyl Dinosaur Trackway at Serwah, Republic of Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    A large bipedal tridactyl dinosaur trackway from the Late Jurassic of Serwah, near Madar, Arhab district, Republic of Yemen, has been attributed to an ornithopod trackmaker. As the distinction between theropod and ornithopod dinosaurs can pose a challenge, we present additional data to support and

  7. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minissale, Angelo; Mattash, Mohamed A.; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Al-Ganad, Ismail N.; Selmo, Enrico; Shawki, Nasr M.; Tedesco, Dario; Poreda, Robert; Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M.; Hazzae, Mohammad K.

    2007-01-01

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO 3 -composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO 2 deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO 2 also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO 2 infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO 2 -rich gas samples have a δ 13 C-CO 2 signature that falls in the range of mantle CO 2 (-3 13 C 3 He/ 4 He (1 a 2 -rich springs and also some mixed N 2 -CO 2 gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy in Yemen. Alternatively, they could be used as a source of energy for small-to-medium scale agriculture and/or industrial purposes. Moreover, most of the thermal water

  8. Thermal springs, fumaroles and gas vents of continental Yemen: Their relation with active tectonics, regional hydrology and the country's geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minissale, Angelo [CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: minissa@igg.cnr.it; Mattash, Mohamed A. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Vaselli, Orlando [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); CNR - Italian Council for Research, Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Florence, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Tassi, Franco [Department of Earth Sciences, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Al-Ganad, Ismail N. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Selmo, Enrico [Department of Earth Sciences, Parco Area delle Scienze 157A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Shawki, Nasr M. [Department of Geology, University of Ta' iz, P.O. Box 5679, Ta' iz (Yemen); Tedesco, Dario [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Poreda, Robert [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 227 Hutchinson Hall, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Ad-Dukhain, Abdassalam M. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen); Hazzae, Mohammad K. [Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey and Minerals Resources Board, P.O. Box 297, Sana' a (Yemen)

    2007-04-15

    Most thermal springs of continental Yemen (about 65 emergences at 48 sampling sites) and a couple of fumaroles and boiling water pools have been sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition in the liquid phase and the associated free-gas phase. Whatever the emergence, all the water discharges have an isotopic signature of meteoric origin. Springs seeping out from high altitudes in the central volcanic plateau show a prevalent Na-HCO{sub 3}-composition, clearly affected by an anomalous flux of deep CO{sub 2} deriving from active hydrothermal systems located in the Jurassic Amran Group limestone sequence and/or the Cretaceous Tawilah Group, likely underlying the 2000-3000 m thick volcanic suite. At lower elevations, CO{sub 2} also affects the composition of some springs emerging at the borders of the central volcanic plateau. Although mixing to a limited extent with organic CO{sub 2} infiltrating together with the meteoric recharge waters cannot be ruled out, all the CO{sub 2}-rich gas samples have a {delta} {sup 13}C-CO{sub 2} signature that falls in the range of mantle CO{sub 2} (-3 < {delta} {sup 13}C < -7 per mille V-PDB). The relatively high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He (1 < R/R {sub a} < 3.2) ratios measured in all the CO{sub 2}-rich springs and also some mixed N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas vents in the far east Hadramaut region support the presence of mantle magmas and related hydrothermal systems residing at the crust level in several areas of Yemen. This well agrees with the presence of Quaternary basaltic magmatic activity along the Gulf of Aden, as well as inside the central Yemen volcanic plateau. Presently, the thermal springs of Yemen are prevalently used for spas and/or bathing. Nevertheless, liquid- and gas-geothermometry and geological considerations suggest that there are at least three areas (Al Lisi, Al Makhaya and Damt) inside the Yemen volcanic plateau (around Dhamar) that may be promising prospects for the future development of geothermal energy

  9. Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Yemen: Role of adequate childcare provided by adults under conditions of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen.

  10. Geothermic Characters Of The Most Promising Geothermal Filed For Power Generation In Republic Of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kubati M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents geothermal exploration and their geothermometric characteristics in the western part of Yemen. Geologically this volcanic province totals areas approximately 45000 km2. Tectonically the study area is considered one of the most active in the Arabian Plate boundaries that affected by the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden as well as by the African rift valley. Extensive field work had been carried out to evaluate the geothermal characteristics of this area. Water and gas samples were collected from hundreds of thermal springs and shallow domestic wells and geochemically analyzed and reported. Temperatures and PH values range from 35 to 96.3 C and from 4.5 to 8.5 respectively. Deep geothermal gradient indicates that the geothermal gradients in the western part of the province Red Sea coast are relatively high up to 182 C at the depth of 3290 m. Volcanic units are affected by hydrothermal processes and became intensively altered. By applying geothermometric methods four geothermal fields have been primarily identified they are Al-Lisi and Isbil Dhamar province Al-Qafr Ibb province Damt Dhala province and the Red Sea coast geothermal fields and three water types were recognized which are Na-HCO3-Cl-S and Ca-Na-Cl and Na HCO3.Results from Al-Lisi and Isbil geothermal area are considered the most promising field. Geothermal detail studies have been achieves and location of the first geothermal exploration well is located in Al-Lisi and Isbil field.By applyig geophisical methods Iso- Resistivity contour mapsthese maps reflected high resistivity areas and low.Clearly shows the low resistivity values incentral and Western part of the study area about 11amp937mWhile up Resistivity values to the area in the eastern 600amp937m.Also through the use ofthe different current electrode spacing AB2 700 1000 1500 and 2000m.We find the low- Resistivity areas becoming more widespread and concentrated in the center of the study area and

  11. Entomological aspects and the role of human behaviour in malaria transmission in a highland region of the Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Harbach, Ralph E; Briscoe, Andrew G; Barnish, Guy; Azazy, Ahmed; McCall, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    The Republic of Yemen has the highest incidence of malaria in the Arabian Peninsula, yet little is known of its vectors or transmission dynamics. A 24-month study of the vectors and related epidemiological aspects of malaria transmission was conducted in two villages in the Taiz region in 2004-2005. Cross-sectional blood film surveys recorded an overall malaria infection rate of 15.3 % (250/1638), with highest rates exceeding 30 % in one village in May and December 2005. With one exception, Plasmodium malariae, all infections were P. falciparum. Seven Anopheles species were identified among 3407 anophelines collected indoors using light traps (LT) and pyrethrum knockdown catches (PKD): Anopheles arabiensis (86.9 %), An. sergentii (9 %), An. azaniae, An. dthali, An. pretoriensis, An. coustani and An. algeriensis. Sequences for the standard barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene confirmed the presence of two morphological forms of An. azaniae, the typical form and a previously unrecognized form not immediately identifiable as An. azaniae. ELISA detected Plasmodium sporozoites in 0.9 % of 2921 An. arabiensis (23 P. falciparum, two P. vivax) confirming this species as the primary malaria vector in Yemen. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites were detected in An. sergentii (2/295) and a single female of An. algeriensis, incriminating both species as malaria vectors for the first time in Yemen. A vector in both wet and dry seasons, An. arabiensis was predominantly anthropophilic (human blood index = 0.86) with an entomological inoculation rate of 1.58 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles sergentii fed on cattle (67.3 %) and humans (48.3; 20.7 % mixed both species), but only 14.7 % were found in PKDs, indicating predominantly exophilic behaviour. A GIS analysis of geographic and socio-economic parameters revealed that An. arabiensis were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in houses with televisions, most likely due to the popular evening habit of viewing television

  12. Communication dated 12 August 2005 received from the Resident Representative of Yemen to the Agency concerning a letter from the Secretary General of the League of Arab States to the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 12 August 2005 from the Resident Representative of Yemen attaching a letter dated 8 August 2005 from Mr. Amre Moussa, Secretary General of the League of Arab States, to the Director General. In the light of the request expressed by the Resident Representative of Yemen in his letter of 12 August 2005, his letter and the letter of the Secretary General of the League of Arab States are attached for the information of all Member States

  13. Experiencias de ortodoncistas sobre colaboración docente en la Universidad de Saná, República de Yemen Orthodontists Experiences on the teachers collaboration in Saná University, Republic of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cuan Corrales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan hechos importantes y transformaciones ocurridas en el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la Educación Superior desde el siglo XX, y la Colaboración Internacional de Cuba después del triunfo de la Revolución. Se relata la experiencia docente durante 7 años de profesoras especialistas en Ortodoncia, quienes representaron la Facultad de Estomatología de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas "Carlos J. Finlay" de Camagüey, en la Universidad de Saná en la República de Yemen. El reconocimiento por parte de estudiantes, profesores y evaluadores externos de otras universidades del mundo árabe, sobre la calidad de programas de la especialidad, introducción de formas de organización docentes y la metodología en las evaluaciones frecuentes es una muestra de la utilidad de la colaboración docente cubana en países hermanos.Important events and changes that occurred within the Public Health Ministry, the Higher Education from the 20th century, and the International Collaboration of Cuba after the Triumph of the Revolution are mentioned. The objective of the work is to expose the teaching experiences during the teaching of the undergraduate degree in Stomatology and contribution provided by two medical teachers from the Medical University "Carlos J. Finlay" of Camagüey in Sana'a University, Republic of Yemen during the international collaboration for 7 years. Recognition by students, faculty and external evaluators of other universities in the Arab world on the equality of programs of specialty, introduction of Teaching Organization Forms and the methodology in the frequent evaluations is an example of the usefulness of the Cuban educational collaboration in neighboring countries.

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality in the Al- Burayhi and Hedran sub-basin, Taiz, Yemen - A GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Ramzy; El Bakkali, Mohammed; Darwesh, Nabil; El Kharrim, Khadija; Belghyti, Driss

    2018-05-01

    In many parts of the world, groundwater sources are the single most important supply for the production of drinking water, particularly in areas with limited or polluted surface water sources. Fresh water has become a scarce commodity due to over exploitation and pollution of water. Many countries and international organizations, including Wolrd Health Organization, are seeking to promote people's access to safe drinking water. The situation in Yemen is no exception. Although we rely on groundwater significantly in our lives and our survival, we do not manage it in a way that ensures its sustainability and maintenance of pollution. The objective of this study is to determine the suitability of the groundwater in Al Burayhi and Hedran sub-basin (one of the sub-basins of the Upper Valley Rasyan) as a source of drinking water in the shade of the expected deterioration due to natural processes (water interaction with rocks, semi-dry climate) and human activities.

  15. Luminescence dating of flash flood deposits: a new approach for the chronological study of ancient irrigation perimeters in southern Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, S.; Lamothe, M.; Coque-Delhuille, B.

    1998-01-01

    This study is an attempt to assess the age of ancient irrigation silts from Southern Yemen using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the constituent K-feldspar grains. This OSL dating method is tested on the al-Haraja irrigation sequence (Wadi Bayhan) which overlies an archaeological occupation level previously dated at 2 203±123 years BP by 14 C. The OSL age estimates range between 2 097±177 years at the bottom of the sequence and 1 555±150 years at the top. This study demonstrates the potential of the luminescence dating method to provide chronological information on the deposition of ancient silts following irrigation in arid environment where 14 C datable material is rare. (authors)

  16. Factors Affecting Successful use of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Anemia in Patients on Hemodialysis: Experience in Hajjah Region, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Rohani Muhamed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo became an essential part of the treatment of anemia in patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF. Our experience at the Hajjah region, Yemen, confirms that the use of rHuEpo significantly increases the level of hemoglobin (HB and hematocrit (Hct, improves work tolerance and overall quality of life of patients on hemodialysis. The observable improvement occurred in 87.5% of patients. The most prominent factors that caused deterioration in the increment of HB and Hct were infection with malaria and chronic infection. Failure of patients′ compliance, largely due to lack of education, was another important factor effecting the results. Many of our patients did not understand the importance of diet and drug regime. It is very important to spend more time on educating such patients.

  17. High frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance marker (pfcrt T76 mutation) in Yemen: an urgent need to re-examine malaria drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azazy, Ahmed A; Fong, Mun Yik

    2011-05-27

    Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 511 participants from four governorates in Yemen. Blood samples were screened using microscopic and species-specific nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene to detect and identify Plasmodium species. Blood samples positive for P. falciparum were used for detecting the pfcrt T76 mutation using nested-PCR. The prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation was 81.5% (66 of 81 isolates). Coastal areas/foothills had higher prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation compared to highland areas (90.5% vs 71.8%) (p = 0.031). The pfcrt T76 mutation had a significant association with parasitaemia (p = 0.045). Univariate analysis shows a significant association of pfcrt T76 mutation with people aged > 10 years (OR = 9, 95% CI = 2.3 - 36.2, p = 0.001), low household income (OR = 5, 95% CI = 1.3 - 19.5, p = 0.027), no insecticide spray (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.16 - 11.86, p = 0.025) and not sleeping under insecticide treated nets (ITNs) (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.38 - 16.78, p = 0.01). Logistic regression model confirmed age > 10 years and low household income as predictors of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen P. falciparum isolates. The high prevalence of pfcrt T76 mutation in Yemen could be a predictive marker for the prevalence of P. falciparum CQR. This finding shows the necessity for an in-vivo therapeutic efficacy test for CQ. P. falciparum CQR should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria.

  18. Association between Shammah Use and Oral Leukoplakia-like Lesions among Adult Males in Dawan Valley, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah; Tin-Oo, Mon Mon; Sinor, Modh Zulkarnian; Alakhali, Mohammed Sultan

    2015-01-01

    Shammah is a traditional form of snuff dipping tobacco (a smokeless tobacco form) that is commonly used in Yemen. Oral mucosal changes due to the use of shammah can usually be observed in the mucosal surfaces that the product touches. The aim of this study was to determine the association between shammah use and oral leukoplakia-like lesions. Other associated factors were also determined. A cross sectional study was conducted on 346 randomly selected adult males. Multi-stage random sampling was used to select the study location. After completing the structured questionnaire interviews, all the participants underwent clinical exanimation for screening of oral leukoplakia-like lesions Clinical features of oral leukoplakia-like lesion were characterized based on the grades of Axell et al (1976). Univariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the potential associated factors. Out of 346 male participants aged 18 years and older, 68 (19.7%) reported being current shammah users. The multivariable analysis revealed that age, non-formal or primary level of education, former shammah user, current shammah user, and frequency of shammah use per day were statistically associated with the presence of oral leukoplakia-like lesions [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) : 1.01, 1.06; P= 0.006], (AOR= 8.65; 95% CI: 2.81, 26.57; P= 0.001), (AOR= 3.65; 95% CI: 1.40, 9.50; P= 0.008), (AOR= 12.99; 95% CI: 6.34, 26.59; P= 0.001), and (AOR= 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.36; P= 0.026), respectively. The results revealed oral leukoplakia-like lesions to be significantly associated with shammah use. Therefore, it is important to develop comprehensive shammah prevention programs in Yemen.

  19. Prevalence of Group A beta-haemolytic Streptococcus isolated from children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, I A; Munibari, A A; Alhilali, A M; Ismail, S M; Murshed, F M; Coulter, J B S; Cuevas, L E; Hart, C A; Brabin, B J; Parry, C M

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus (GAS) and non-GAS infections among children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen, to evaluate the value of a rapid diagnostic test and the McIsaac score for patient management in this setting and to determine the occurrence of emm genotypes among a subset of GAS isolated from children with acute pharyngotonsillitis and a history of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) or rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus infections in school-aged children with acute pharyngotonsillitis in Aden, Yemen, were diagnosed by a rapid GAS antigen detection test (RADT) and/or GAS culture from a throat swab. The RADT value and the McIsaac screening score for patient management were evaluated. The emm genotype of a subset of GAS isolates was determined. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus pharyngotonsillitis was diagnosed in 287/691 (41.5%; 95% CI 37.8-45.3) children. Group B, Group C and Group G beta-haemolytic streptococci were isolated from 4.3% children. The RADT had a sensitivity of 238/258 (92.2%) and specificity of 404/423 (95.5%) against GAS culture. A McIsaac score of ≥4 had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 82% for confirmed GAS infection. The emm genotypes in 21 GAS isolates from children with pharyngitis and a history of ARF and confirmed RHD were emm87 (11), emm12 (6), emm28 (3) and emm5 (1). This study demonstrates a very high prevalence of GAS infections in Yemeni children and the value of the RADT and the McIsaac score in this setting. More extensive emm genotyping is necessary to understand the local epidemiology of circulating strains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM and Associated Hearing Impairment Among School-aged Children in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Muftah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM is one of the leading causes of preventable disabling hearing impairment (DHI in developing countries. Early detection and management complements advances made in other survival programs, improves work capacity, and enhances learning opportunities for school children. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CSOM and associated DHI among school children aged six to 16 years in Socotra Island, Yemen. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional community-based survey, from 20 April 2011 to 20 June 2011. The study procedures involved completing a questionnaire, an otoscopic ear examination, an audiometric test of hearing, and tuning fork tests for the type of DHI. Results: A total of 686 children were interviewed and examined for CSOM and associated DHI of CSOM cases. The prevalence of CSOM was 7.4%, (95% CI 5.5–9.4. CSOM status was significantly associated with DHI (p=0.001, but no significant associations were found between demographic characteristics and CSOM status. Logistic regression identified four significant independent contributing factors: history of ear discharge in the last 12 months (odds ratio (OR 7.8, 95% CI 3.9–15.6; swimming in local pools (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.4–25.4; recurrent respiratory tract infection more than three times per year (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.5–11.0; and overcrowding with more than three families per house (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.7–11.5. . Conclusion: The burden of CSOM in the children studied indicates a high level of DHI in these communities within Yemen. A history of ear discharge, swimming in local pools, recurrent respiratory infections, and overcrowded housing were the strongest predictors for CSOM. There is a need for better ear care and screening programs for early detection and management of this disease.

  1. High efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations: artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel, Ahmed A; Saeed, Niaz Abdo; Aljasari, Adel; Almohager, Amar M; Galab, Mohamed H; AlMahdi, Amar; Mahammed, Mansor H; AlDarsi, Mohammed; Salaeah, Yahiya A; Atta, Hoda; Zamani, Ghasem; Warsame, Marian; Barrette, Amy; Mohammady, Hanan El; Nada, Rania A

    2015-11-14

    Artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) has been the first-line treatment and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) the second-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Yemen since 2005. This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs in sentinel sites in Yemen. Eight therapeutic efficacy studies were conducted in six sentinel sites during the period 2009-2013 in Yemen. Five studies were for the evaluation of AS + SP (total of 465 patients) and three studies (total of 268 patients) for the evaluation of AL. The studies were done according to standard WHO protocol 2009 with 28-day follow-up. In the evaluation of AS + SP, the PCR-corrected cure rate was 98 % (95 % CI 92.2-99.5 %) in one site and 100 % in all of the other four sites. In the sites where AL was evaluated, the PCR-corrected cure rate was 100 % in all the sites. All patients were negative for asexual parasitaemia on day 3 in both the AS + SP and the AL groups. There was a higher rate of clearance of gametocytaemia in the AL-treated group when compared with the AS + SP groups from day 7 onwards. AS + SP remains the effective drug for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Yemen. AL is also highly effective and can be an appropriate alternative to AS + SP for the treatment of falciparum malaria. AL demonstrated a higher efficacy in clearing microscopic gametocytaemia than AS + SP. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000696099.

  2. Impact of leishmaniasis in women: a practical review with an update on my ISD-supported initiative to combat leishmaniasis in Yemen (ELYP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al-Kamel, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigma is synonymous with leishmaniasis, an endemic deadly flesh-eating disease in Yemen that affects predominantly poor rural women and children. Women with leishmaniasis often present late and experience not only physical deformities and the risk of death, but also the painful stigma of the disease and its consequences, a similar situation to that of leprosy decades ago. The International Society of Dermatology–sponsored community dermatology project Eradication of Leishmaniasis from Yemen Project has made a difference in the leishmaniasis situation in Yemen and addressed its magnitude. The program eradicated leishmaniasis from some areas, dealt with and improved its alarming prevalence among children and women who are the neglected and highest risk groups, and solved some issues associated with poor access to proper drugs. Medicine donation has enabled women with leishmaniasis to freely receive medicine they otherwise would not have been able to afford, reduced their mortality and morbidity, and minimized the extensive impact the socio-aesthetic stigma has on their lives. Our cause has attracted local and global attention to these problematic issues.

  3. Frequencies distribution of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutant alleles associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum population from Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-12-22

    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen. Genomic DNA was extracted from dried blood spots of 137 P. falciparum isolates collected from a community-based study. DNA was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Sequences were analysed for mutations in Pfdhfr gene codons 51, 59, 108, and 164 and in Pfdhps gene codons 436, 437, and 540. A total of 128 and 114 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, respectively. Each Pfdhfr mutant allele (I51 and N108) in P. falciparum population had a frequency of 84%. Pfdhfr R59 mutant allele was detected in one isolate. Mutation at codon 437 (G437) in the Pfdhps gene was detected in 44.7% of falciparum malaria isolates. Frequencies of Pfdhfr double mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps triple mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164-S436G437K540) were 82.8 and 39.3%, respectively. One isolate harboured Pfdhfr triple mutant genotype (I51, R59, N108, I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple mutant genotype (I51R59N108I164-S436G437K540). High frequencies of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles and genotypes in P. falciparum population in Hadhramout, Yemen, highlight the risk of developing resistance for SP, the partner drug of AS, which subsequently will expose the parasite to AS monotherapy increasing then the

  4. Urban Chikungunya in the Middle East and North Africa: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Humphrey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA is not well characterized despite increasing recognition of its expanding infection and disease burden in recent years.Following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and reporting our findings following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed records describing the human prevalence and incidence, CHIKV prevalence/infection rates in vectors, outbreaks, and reported cases for CHIKV across the MENA region. We identified 29 human seroprevalence measures, one human incidence study, one study reporting CHIKV infection rates in Aedes, and nine outbreaks and case reports/series reported in the MENA from 1970-2015. Overall, anti-CHIKV antibody or reports of autochthonous transmission were identified from 10 of 23 countries in the MENA region (Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen, with seroprevalence measures among general populations (median 1.0%, range 0-43% and acute febrile illness populations (median 9.8%, range 0-30%. Sudan reported the highest number of studies (n = 11 and the highest seroprevalence among general populations (median 12%, range 0-43% and undifferentiated acute febrile illness populations (median 18%, range 10-23%. CHIKV outbreaks were reported from Djibouti, Pakistan, Sudan, and Yemen.Seroprevalence studies and outbreak reports suggest endemic transmission of urban cycle CHIKV in at least the Red Sea region and Pakistan. However, indications of seroprevalence despite a low quantity of CHIKV epidemiologic research from the region suggests that CHIKV transmission is currently underrecognized.

  5. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  6. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify its products that will help us to understand the corrosive factors and the degradation mechanisms , cleaning the group of coins from the superficial dirt and the corrosion products in order to discover as much as possible the surface topography, and to reveal the surfaces details , finally to establish them against further deterioration .To achieve that samples from the coins were examined by Metallographic Microscope {ME} , Scanning Electron Microscope {SEM}, the corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction{XRD} , and X-ray fluorescence { XRF} was used to determine the coins metallic constituents. Chemical cleaning was chosen for treating the coins and they were isolated to preserve them against further attack. After treatment and conservation, the coins figures and inscriptions that could be identified showed that this group of coins dates back to Umayyad period , exactly the reign of caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan{ 65- 86 A.H}{685-705A.D} and his descendants till 106 A.H. 

  7. I lære som Allahs ven: Selvets renselse på et islamisk universitet i Yemen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    ) and who by that presence directs other people to Islam. This article uncovers life and learning in a leading Islamic institution of learning and analyzes the processes of self- transformation and education that constitute the foundation for the rise of a walî. It is based on my work on the Bâ ́Alawî......Islamic education and existential learning is directed at purifying the self (nafs) and the cultivation of certitude (yaqîn). A central aspiration in the learning process is to become an intimate friend of Allah (a walî), who embodies the prophetic presence (istihdâr al-nûr al- muhammadiyya...... tradition, one of the most influential Islamic traditions of learning and self-cultivation in the present age, since 2006 and in particular on my visit to the Islamic university Dar al-Mustafa in Yemen during the summer and the fall of 2011. The paradoxical tension between Sufism’s ideal of ascetic...

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  9. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  10. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  11. Comportamiento de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas en el Hospital Universitario de Maabar, República de Yemen Behavior of the maxillofacial fractures in the Maabar's University Hospital, Yemen Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintana Díaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las fracturas maxilofaciales constituyen más del 50 % del total de fracturas, y en muchas ocasiones están asociadas a otras fracturas del cuerpo humano. Objetivos: estudiar el comportamiento de estas lesiones en el Hospital Universitario de Maabar, de la Universidad de Thamar (Yemen, determinar su relación con la edad, sexo, etiología y localización, y compararlo con los resultados de otros estudios realizados en Cuba y en otros países. Métodos: se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo retrospectivo de las fracturas maxilofaciales atendidas por la brigada de profesores cubanos en este hospital entre los años 2006 y 2009. Las variables estudiadas fueron: sexo, edad, causa de la fractura y región afectada, así como el tipo de fractura y los traumatismos asociados. Resultados: el sexo masculino fue mucho más afectado que el femenino. Los accidentes del tránsito fueron la causa más común (más del 50 % de los casos. La fractura nasal fue la más frecuente, y en más de 150 casos se detectaron traumatismos asociados, muchos muy graves, como fracturas de cráneo, de miembros y heridas de partes blandas. Conclusiones: se confirman los resultados que el sexo masculino es el más afectado, y que los accidentes del tránsito son la principal causa de fracturas en la cara. La fractura nasal es la más frecuente de todas las de los huesos faciales (más del 50 % de los casos, pero otros registran la mandíbula o la región zigomática como la zona más frecuente. Impresionaron las fracturas mandibulares en niños, lo cual no es frecuente en Cuba.Introduction: the maxillofacial fractures account for more than the 50 % of the total of fractures and often are associated with other fractures of the human body. Objectives: to study the behavior of these lesions in patients from the Maabar's University Hospital of the Thamar's University (Yemen, to determine its relation to age, sex, etiology and location and to compare it with

  12. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates carrying bla(OXA-23) carbapenemase and 16S rRNA methylase armA genes in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Sofiane; Alsharapy, Samer Ahmed; Touati, Abdelaziz; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular support of resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates collected from Yemen hospital. Three A. baumannii were isolated in February 2013 from three patients hospitalized at Al-Thawra University Hospital in Sana'a, Yemen. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion and E-test methods. Carbapenemase production was carried out by the modified Hodge test (MHT) and imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. Carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants were studied by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The epidemiological relatedness of the three strains was studied using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were resistant to almost all antibiotics tested with very high imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (>32, >256, and >32 mg/L, respectively). The microbiological tests showed that the three A. baumannii were MHT positive, besides, the activity of β-lactamases was not inhibited by EDTA. All the three isolates contained the naturally occurring bla(OXA-51)-like gene and the bla(OXA-23)-like carbapenemase-encoding gene. The 16S rRNA methylase armA gene was detected in the three isolates. In addition, screening for genes encoding the aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) demonstrated that one isolate contained the acetyltransferase gene aac(6')-Ib. Fluoroquinolone resistance was associated with a single mutation Ser83Leu in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene in all isolates. The MLST showed that the sequence type (ST) obtained corresponds to ST2 for the three strains. Here we report the first identification of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolates harboring the bla(OXA-23)-like gene, AMEs [aac(6')-Ib], and the 16S rRNA methylase (armA) in the Yemen hospital.

  13. Evaluating treatment outcomes and durations among cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Yemen: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Ammar Ali Saleh; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating outcomes after tuberculosis (TB) treatment can help identify the primary reasons for treatment success or failure. However, Yemen has a treatment success rate that remains below the World Health Organization's target. This study aimed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). Newly diagnosed cases of smear-positive pulmonary TB were prospectively followed at two centers (Taiz and Alhodidah, Yemen) between April 2014 and March 2015. Standardized forms were used to obtain information from the patients regarding their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment duration, and TB-related information. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors that were associated with unsuccessful treatment and prolonged treatment (>1 year). The study included data from 273 cases of newly diagnosed TB, with treatment being successful in 227 cases (83.1%) and unsuccessful in 46 cases (16.9%). Among the 46 patients with unsuccessful treatment, 29 patients (10.6%) stopped treatment, 6 patients (2.2%) transferred to another facility, 6 patients (2.2%) experienced treatment failure, and 5 patients (1.8%) died. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that unsuccessful treatment was associated with female sex, illiterate status, and the presence of comorbidities. Prolonged treatment durations were associated with living in a rural area, smoking, chewing khat, a cough that lasted for >3 weeks at the beginning of treatment, and bilateral cavities during radiography. These results confirm that the treatment success rate in Yemen is lower than the World Health Organization's target for smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Targeting the risk factors that we identified may help improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, it may not be prudent to re-treat patients using first-line TB drugs after an initial treatment failure.

  14. The reproductive season of scleractinian corals in Socotra, Yemen [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/36f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Baird

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining when corals reproduce has clear management and economic implications. Here we document the reproductive condition of corals in the genus Acropora on the island of Socotra in Yemen during February 2014. Twenty percent of colonies (n = 143 contained mature gametes and 28% had immature gametes indicating that spawning will occur in both February and March in 2014, confirming previous anecdotal reports of coral spawning at this time in Socotra. Acropora typically reproduce in synchrony with many other broadcast spawning scleractinian corals, and we therefore predict that many other species are reproductively active at this time of year.

  15. Intention to stay of nurses in current posts in difficult-to-staff areas of Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Murray, Susan F; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Abualrub, Raeda; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Clinton, Michael; Dumit, Nuhad Y

    2013-11-01

    The nursing workforce shortages in difficult-to-staff areas have implications not only for quality of care but also for population health outcomes. An understanding of attrition and of retention is important to inform policies on the nursing workforce. This paper draws on questionnaire survey data from nurses working in difficult-to-staff areas in four countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar). It aims to identify the specific and common factors associated with nurses' intention to stay in their current post for the coming 1-3 years in three countries with an internally trained nursing workforce and in a fourth where the workforce is externally recruited. Nurses working in 'difficult to staff' areas in Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar were surveyed. A conceptual model composed of 6 dimensions based on that of the World Health Organization was constructed with 'intent to stay' (Career Decisions) as the main outcome. Regression models were constructed for each of the dimensions in the conceptual model with 'intent to stay' as the dependent variable for each of the study countries. Subsequently, a collective model that combined Lebanon, Jordan and Yemen was constructed to identify common factors that are associated with intent to stay. Factors associated with intent to stay differed for study countries. Marriage was positively associated with intent to stay in Lebanon and Jordan whereas years of experience were positively significant for Lebanon and Yemen. Shorter commuting time was significantly associated with intent to stay in Jordan whereas a preference for village life was significant for Lebanon. Job satisfaction was significantly associated with intent to stay in all study countries. Nurses in Lebanon, Jordan and Qatar who indicated that they would choose nursing if they had the opportunity to choose a career all over again were significantly more likely to intend to stay in their current post. Studies of nurses working in

  16. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  17. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environs of Juban town in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M.; Saleh, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and the fallout of 137 Cs in rocks and soils samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were determined expressed in Bq/Kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4 Bq/kg, 127±6.7 Bq/kg and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4 Bq/kg, 121±6.6 Bq/kg and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7 Bq/kg, 109 ±5.5 Bq/kg and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg) and (32.1±3 Bq/kg, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone and sandstone rocks respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5 Bq/kg, 58.2±5.1 Bq/kg and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 Bq/kg to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature

  18. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections in pregnant women in Sana’a, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening for Hepatitis B and C during pregnancy may help to decide on appropriate antiviral therapy and the institution of steps to minimize vertical transmission to the newborn infants. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during November–December 2011 to investigate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for markers of HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibody among pregnant women at the Al-Thawra hospital in Sana’a, Yemen. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic obstetrics and medical data and sera were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Results Of the 400 pregnant women enrolled in the study, HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected in 43 (10.8%; 95% CI: 8.0–14.0%) and 34 (8.5%, 95% CI: 6.0–11.5%) women, respectively. None of the women were co-infected with HBV and HCV. Multivariate analysis showed that circumcision was significantly associated with HBsAg seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03), low parity (primigravidae and secundigravidae) and education below secondary level were significantly associated with anti- HCV seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03). No other sociodemographic or clinical characteristics (age, residence, history of home delivery, miscarriage, dental manipulation, surgery, and blood transfusion) were significantly associated with HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositivity. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that HBsAg and anti-HCV have high prevalence among pregnant women. PMID:23758990

  19. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M.; Saleh, I.I.

    2011-01-01

    The natural radioactivities of 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th and the fallout of 137 Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6±4, 127±6.7, and 1742.8±62 Bq/kg), (55±4, 121±6.6, and 2341±78 Bq/kg), (212.8±8.7, 109 ±5.5, and 32.4±4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1±3, 22.3±2.9 and 190.9±15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4±4.5, 58.2±5.1, and 822.7±31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of 137 Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1±0.1 to 23.2±1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  20. Assessment of natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels in rocks and soils in the environments of Juban town in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-mageed, A.I., E-mail: mageed39@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); El-Kamel, A.H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of science, Assiut University (Egypt); Abbady, A.; Harb, S.; Youssef, A.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, South Valley University (Egypt); Saleh, I.I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education-Toor Albaha, University of Aden (Yemen)

    2011-06-15

    The natural radioactivities of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 232}Th and the fallout of {sup 137}Cs in rock and soil samples collected around Juban town in Yemen (south west of Asia) were measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with specially designed shield. The average radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K were determined expressed in Bq/kg. The results show that these radionuclides were present in concentrations of (53.6{+-}4, 127{+-}6.7, and 1742.8{+-}62 Bq/kg), (55{+-}4, 121{+-}6.6, and 2341{+-}78 Bq/kg), (212.8{+-}8.7, 109 {+-}5.5, and 32.4{+-}4.7 Bq/kg), and (32.1{+-}3, 22.3{+-}2.9 and 190.9{+-}15 Bq/kg) for granite, gneiss, siltstone, and sandstone rocks, respectively. For soil the corresponding values were 44.4{+-}4.5, 58.2{+-}5.1, and 822.7{+-}31 Bq/kg. Low deposits of {sup 137}Cs were noted in investigation area, where the activity concentrations ranged from 0.1{+-}0.1 to 23.2{+-}1.2 Bq/kg. Also the radiological hazard of the natural radionuclides content, radium equivalent activity, total dose rates, external hazard index, and gamma activity concentration index of the (rocks/soils) samples in the area under consideration were calculated. The data were discussed and compared with those given in the literature.

  1. Coffee and qat on the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia – botanical, ethnobotanical and commercial observations made in Yemen 1762-1763

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    requested observations on the use of coffee, but otherwise Forsskål and Niebuhr’s studies of coffee and qat were made entirely on their own initiative. Now, 250 years after The Royal Danish expedition to Arabia, coffee has become one of the world’s most valuable trade commodities and qat has become a widely......In spite of widespread consumption of coffee in Europe at the time of the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia 1761-1767, little was known of the cultivation of coffee in Yemen and of the Arabian coffee export to Europe. Fresh leaves of qat were used as a stimulant on the Arabian Peninsula and in East...... Africa, but before the Royal Danish expedition to Arabia this plant was known in Europe only from secondary reports. Two members of the expedition, Carsten Niebuhr and Peter Forsskål, pioneered studies of coffee and qat in Yemen and of the Arabian coffee export. Linnaeus’ instructions for travellers...

  2. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High heterogeneity of malaria transmission and a large sub-patent and diverse reservoir of infection in Wusab As Safil district, Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jackie; Grignard, Lynn; Al-Eryani, Samira; Al-Selwei, Mustafa; Mnzava, Abraham; Al-Yarie, Hafed; Rand, Alison; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-04-08

    Yemen remains the country with the highest malaria transmission within the Arabian Peninsula and a source of imported cases to neighbouring countries. This study collected samples from individuals resident in a valley in Western Yemen as a baseline to examine infection prevalence for a future trial. As well as rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy, a filter paper blood spot was collected for molecular and serological analyses. Samples were collected from 2261 individuals from 12 clusters across a study area of approximately 100 km(2). Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence was 12.4, 11.1 and 19.6% by RDT, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. RDT and microscopy did not detect 45% of infections present, suggesting many infections were low-density. Infection prevalence and seroprevalence were highly heterogeneous between clusters, with evidence of higher exposure in clusters close to the wadi. The mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 2.3 and high heterozygosity and allelic richness were detected. This highly diverse parasite population suggests a high degree of transmissibility and coupled with the substantial proportion of low-density infections, may pose challenges for malaria control and elimination efforts.

  4. Comparative haematological parameters of HbAA and HbAS genotype children infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiti, Anisa H; Nsiah, Kwabena

    2014-04-01

    Sickle haemoglobin (HbS) is known to offer considerable protection against falciparum malaria. However, the mechanism of protection is not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigate how the presence of the sickle cell trait affects the haematological profile of AS persons with malaria, in comparison with similarly infected persons with HbAA. This study is based on the hypothesis that the sickle cell trait plays a protective role against malaria. Children from an endemic malaria transmission area in Yemen were enrolled in this study. Hematological parameters were estimated using manual methods, the percentage of parasite density on stained thin smear was calculated, haemoglobin genotypes were determined on paper electrophoresis, ferritin was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum iron and TIBC were assayed using spectrophotometer, transferrin saturation index was calculated by dividing serum iron by TIBC and expressing the result as a percentage. Haematological parameters were compared in HbAA- and HbAS-infected children. Falciparum malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in the blood smears of 62 children, 44 (55.7%) of AA and 18 (37.5%) AS, so there was higher prevalence in HbAA children (P = 0.047). Parasite density was lower in HbAS- than HbAA-infected children (P = 0.003). Anaemia was prominent in malaria-infected children, with high proportions of moderate and severe forms in HbAA (P = 0.001). The mean levels of haemoglobin, packed cell volume, reticulocyte count, platelets count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and serum iron were significantly lower while total leukocytes, immature granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin were significantly higher in HbAA-infected children than HbAS-infected children. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria caused more significant haematological alterations of HbAA children than HbAS. This study supports the observation that sickle cell trait

  5. Simulation of the mulltizones clastic reservoir: A case study of Upper Qishn Clastic Member, Masila Basin-Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mohamed; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Al Natifi, Ali; Fattah, Khaled Abdel; Lashin, Aref

    2017-06-01

    The Upper Qishn Clastic Member is one of the main oil-bearing reservoirs that are located at Masila Basin-Yemen. It produces oil from many zones with different reservoir properties. The aim of this study is to simulate and model the Qishn sandstone reservoir to provide more understanding of its properties. The available, core plugs, petrophysical, PVT, pressure and production datasets, as well as the seismic structural and geologic information, are all integrated and used in the simulation process. Eclipse simulator was used as a powerful tool for reservoir modeling. A simplified approach based on a pseudo steady-state productivity index and a material balance relationship between the aquifer pressure and the cumulative influx, is applied. The petrophysical properties of the Qishn sandstone reservoir are mainly investigated based on the well logging and core plug analyses. Three reservoir zones of good hydrocarbon potentiality are indicated and named from above to below as S1A, S1C and S2. Among of these zones, the S1A zone attains the best petrophysical and reservoir quality properties. It has an average hydrocarbon saturation of more than 65%, high effective porosity up to 20% and good permeability record (66 mD). The reservoir structure is represented by faulted anticline at the middle of the study with a down going decrease in geometry from S1A zone to S2 zone. It is limited by NE-SW and E-W bounding faults, with a weak aquifer connection from the east. The analysis of pressure and PVT data has revealed that the reservoir fluid type is dead oil with very low gas liquid ratio (GLR). The simulation results indicate heterogeneous reservoir associated with weak aquifer, supported by high initial water saturation and high water cut. Initial oil in place is estimated to be around 628 MM BBL, however, the oil recovery during the period of production is very low (<10%) because of the high water cut due to the fractures associated with many faults. Hence, secondary and

  6. Characterization of the Qishn sandstone reservoir, Masila Basin-Yemen, using an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Aref; Marta, Ebrahim Bin; Khamis, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This study presents an integrated petrophysical and seismic structural analysis that is carried out to evaluate the reservoir properties of Qishn sandstone as well as the entrapment style of the hydrocarbons at Sharyoof field, Sayun-Masila Basin that is located at the east central of Yemen. The reservoir rocks are dominated by clean porous and permeable sandstones zones usually intercalated with some clay stone interbeds. As identified from well logs, Qishn sandstone is classified into subunits (S1A, S1B, S1C and S2) with different reservoir characteristics and hydrocarbon potentiality. A number of qualitative and quantitative well logging analyses are used to characterize the different subunits of the Qishn reservoir and identify its hydrocarbon potentiality. Dia-porosity, M-N, Pickett, Buckles plots, petrophysical analogs and lateral distribution maps are used in the analysis. Shale volume, lithology, porosity, and fluid saturation are among the most important deduced parameters. The analysis revealed that S1A and S1C are the main hydrocarbon-bearing units. More specifically, S1A unit is the best, as it attains the most prolific hydrocarbon saturations (oil saturation "SH″ up to 65) and reservoir characteristics. An average petrophysical ranges of 4-21%, 16-23%, 11-19%, 0-65%, are detected for S1A unit, regarding shale volume, total and effective porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation, respectively. Meanwhile, S1B unit exhibits less reservoir characteristics (Vsh>30%, ϕEff<15% and SH< 15%). The lateral distribution maps revealed that most of the hydrocarbons (for S1A and S1C units) are indicated at the middle of the study area as NE-SW oriented closures. The analysis and interpretation of seismic data had clarified that the structure of study area is represented by a big middle horst bounded by a group of step-like normal faults at the extreme boundaries (faulted anticlinal-structure). In conclusion, the entrapment of the encountered hydrocarbon at Sharyoof oil

  7. Natural gas in the Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1997-02-01

    Natural Gas in the Middle East and North Africa gives an in-depth country-by-country survey of both the region's ambitious gas development plans and the problems it faces. It provides details of production costs, the extent and accessibility of gas reserves and the degree of host government support. The report addresses all the essential questions surrounding investment opportunities in this area and guides you through gas demand in the region. It also includes a detailed study of 11 major gas producing and consuming countries in the area, covering: Algeria; Egypt; Iran; Kuwait; Libya; Oman; Qatar; Saudia Arabia; Syria; UAE; Yemen. The report is divided into two sections for ease of use. The first section examines the demand factors for the region's gas exports, the second provides details of gas exploitation programmes in individual countries. The report also provides you with details of: gas reserves, production and use - a country-by-country review; maps of major pipelines - internal networks and export routes; growth in international gas trade; political and fiscal analysis - key to measuring investment risk and short- to medium-term political stability; and major limitations to the region's gas development - geography, political instability and US geopolitical influence in the region. (author)

  8. Centre-based statistics of cleft lip with/without alveolus and palate as well as cleft palate only patients in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Ahlam Hibatulla Ali; Abdo, Muhgat Ahmed Ali; Krentz, Helga; Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Gundlach, Karsten K H

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to report the types and patterns of cleft lip with/without cleft alveolus and palate as well as cleft palate only as seen in Aden, Yemen. Retrospective, centre-based study conducted at the Cleft Lip and Palate Centre, Aden University, Yemen. Statistical evaluation of the data from all cleft patients who were registered at or referred to this centre during the years 2005-2011. A total of 1110 cleft patients were seen during the period studied (2005-2011). Amongst these there were 183 (16.48%) with a cleft lip and 144 (12.98) with a cleft of lip and alveolus, 228 (20.54%) had a cleft palate, and 555 (50%) had a combination of cleft lip, alveolus, and palate. The clefts were found more often in males than in females (56.5% boys versus 43.5% girls). This difference was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.001). Statistically significant sex differences were also noted when evaluating the various cleft types. Isolated cleft palates were found most often in females. Among the cleft palate cases there were 102 (9.2%) with a cleft soft palate only. The ages of the patients were between one day and 40 years. Two hundred and one children (18%) had a positive family history of clefts. Among the risk factors considered in this study, consanguineous marriages among cousins were found most frequently (in 48% of the cases). In contrast to this, only 10% of the mothers had reported to have been taking medication directly prior to or during the first trimester of their pregnancy. On average the mothers were neither very young nor very old. The prevalence rate of orofacial cleft types among this Yemeni sample was similar to prevalence rates previously reported in white Caucasians. The present study did neither find many cases with medication before, nor during, pregnancy; there were few young or very old mothers; and the incidence of positive family histories was similar to those found in other studies on clefts. However, consanguineous marriages were

  9. Madbi Amran/Qishn total petroleum system of the Ma'Rib-Al Jawf/Shabwah, and Masila-Jeza basins, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first discovery of petroleum in Yemen in 1984, several recent advances have been made in the understanding of that countrys geologic history and petroleum systems. The total petroleum resource endowment for the combined petroleum provinces within Yemen, as estimated in the recent U.S. Geological Survey world assessment, ranks 51st in the world, exclusive of the United States, at 9.8 BBOE, which includes cumulative production and remaining reserves, as well as a mean estimate of undiscovered resources. Such undiscovered petroleum resources are about 2.7 billion barrels of oil, 17 trillion cubic feet (2.8 billion barrels of oil equivalent) of natural gas and 1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. A single total petroleum system, the Jurassic Madbi Amran/Qishn, dominates petroleum generation and production; it was formed in response to a Late Jurassic rifting event related to the separation of the Arabian Peninsula from the Gondwana supercontinent. This rifting resulted in the development of two petroleum-bearing sedimentary basins: (1) the western MaRibAl Jawf / Shabwah basin, and (2) the eastern Masila-Jeza basin. In both basins, petroleum source rocks of the Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) Madbi Formation generated hydrocarbons during Late Cretaceous time that migrated, mostly vertically, into Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs. In the western MaRibAl Jawf / Shabwah basin, the petroleum system is largely confined to syn-rift deposits, with reservoirs ranging from deep-water turbidites to continental clastics buried beneath a thick Upper Jurassic (Tithonian) salt. The salt initially deformed in Early Cretaceous time, and continued halokinesis resulted in salt diapirism and associated salt withdrawal during extension. The eastern Masila-Jeza basin contained similar early syn-rift deposits but received less clastic sediment during the Jurassic; however, no salt formed because the basin remained open to ocean circulation in the Late Jurassic. Thus, Madbi Formation

  10. Comparison of Smoking and Khat Chewing Habits between Medical and Non-Medical Female Students at UST, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubas, Mohammed Abdullah; Wadi, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide problem that kills millions of people. Women smoke much lower than males but the numbers of smoker women are growing up. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of smoking and khat chewing in medical and non-medical female students at University of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen. We used self-administrated questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data from a randomly selected sample of medical and non-medical female students of UST in 2012-2013. Overall, 480 students completed and returned the questionnaire, of them medical students represented 50% of them. The prevalence of smoking was significantly low among female medical students (P=0.045), however, not significantly difference was found between medical and non-medical female students in khat chewing habits (P=0.083). Non-smoker medical female students who tried smoking (45.6%) were significantly lower than non-medical students (54.4%), and curiosity was the main reason for trying smoking. Water pipe was the most common type of smoking among smoker students (78.6%). Out of 26 female students who smoke and chew khat, 18 students reported that they smoke more while they chew khat. Our study highlights the need for increased health education, awareness, and knowledge of the risks of smoking and particularly khat chewing to reduce these habits among female university students especially in non-medical female students.

  11. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  12. Assessment of metal contamination in water, sediment, and tissues of Arius thalassinus fish from the Red Sea coast of Yemen and the potential human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic, the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd in water, sediment, and some vital organs of sea catfish, Arius thalassinus collected from polluted and unpolluted sites, were determined. The risk of these metals to humans through fish consumption was then assessed. The results showed that the concentration order of metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The levels of studied metals in water, sediment, and fish tissues were significantly higher in the polluted site than those of the unpolluted site, with few exceptions. Linear correlation incorporating paired variables (water-sediment, water-fish, and fish-fish) exhibited several significant correlations indicating a common metal pollution. The risk assessment performed revealed that fish consumption was safe for consumers. This field investigation provides a baseline data on metal pollution in this region.

  13. Pre-existing oblique transfer zones and transfer/transform relationships in continental margins: New insights from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahsen, N.; Leroy, S.; Autin, J.; Razin, P.; d'Acremont, E.; Sloan, H.; Pik, R.; Ahmed, A.; Khanbari, K.

    2013-11-01

    Transfer zones are ubiquitous features in continental rifts and margins, as are transform faults in oceanic lithosphere. Here, we present a structural study of the Hadibo Transfer Zone (HTZ), located in Socotra Island (Yemen) in the southeastern Gulf of Aden. There, we interpret this continental transfer fault zone to represent a reactivated pre-existing structure. Its trend is oblique to the direction of divergence and it has been active from the early up to the latest stages of rifting. One of the main oceanic fracture zones (FZ), the Hadibo-Sharbithat FZ, is aligned with and appears to be an extension of the HTZ and is probably genetically linked to it. Comparing this setting with observations from other Afro-Arabian rifts as well as with passive margins worldwide, it appears that many continental transfer zones are reactivated pre-existing structures, oblique to divergence. We therefore establish a classification system for oceanic FZ based upon their relationship with syn-rift structures. Type 1 FZ form at syn-rift structures and are late syn-rift to early syn-OCT. Type 2 FZ form during the OCT formation and Type 3 FZ form within the oceanic domain, after the oceanic spreading onset. The latter are controlled by far-field forces, magmatic processes, spreading rates, and oceanic crust rheology.

  14. The Suitability of P. falciparum Merozoite Surface Proteins 1 and 2 as Genetic Markers for In Vivo Drug Trials in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abd, Nazeh M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M. Q.; Snounou, Georges; Abdul-Majid, Nazia B.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background The accuracy of the conclusions from in vivo efficacy anti-malarial drug trials depends on distinguishing between recrudescences and re-infections which is accomplished by genotyping genes coding P. falciparum merozoite surface 1 (MSP1) and MSP2. However, the reliability of the PCR analysis depends on the genetic markers’ allelic diversity and variant frequency. In this study the genetic diversity of the genes coding for MSP1 and MSP2 was obtained for P. falciparum parasites circulating in Yemen. Methods Blood samples were collected from 511 patients with fever and screened for malaria parasites using Giemsa-stained blood films. A total 74 samples were infected with P. falciparum, and the genetic diversity was assessed by nested PCR targeting Pfmsp1 (Block2) and Pfmsp2 (block 3). Results Overall, 58%, 28% and 54% of the isolates harboured parasites of the Pfmsp1 K1, MAD20 and RO33 allelic families, and 55% and 89% harboured those of the Pfmsp2 FC27 and 3D7 allelic families, respectively. For both genetic makers, the multiplicity of the infection (MOI) was significantly higher in the isolates from the foothills/coastland areas as compared to those from the highland (PYemen Pfmsp1 should not be used for PCR correction of in vivo clinical trials outcomes, and that caution should be exercised when employing Pfmsp2. PMID:23861823

  15. Determination of the Concentration of Radioactive Nuclides of Surface Soils of some Hadhramout's Valleys in Yemen Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazohair, A. O.; Bayashoot, A. K.; AL-Shamy, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this research five surface soil samples have been taken from some Hadhramout's valleys in Yemen (Khrid , Arf , Huwayrah , Buwaish, Khirba ) in the years from (1999) to (2002) and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The spectra of samples were measured using multichannel analyzer (MCA) that was connected with measurement system for this purpose.A high purity germanium(Hp Ge) detector with resolution of (2.11 keV) at gamma-line(1332 keV) of radioactive source(Co-60) used for detecting ( U 238 , Th 232 , K 40 , Cs 137 ) in the samples. The results showed that the average concentration of radioactive nuclides in the samples of uranium ranged from(37.56 Bq/Kg) to(46.58 Bq/Kg) and for thorium ranged from(37.93 Bq/Kg) to(47.28 Bq/Kg) and for potassium ranged from(347.57 Bq/Kg) to(850.10 Bq/Kg) and for cesium ranged from(6.94 Bq/Kg) to(15.86 Bq/Kg) and the measured precision of samples ranged from(4.71%) to (9.23%). (authors)

  16. The effect of traditional architecture elements on architectureal and planning forming develop and raise the efficency of using the traditional energy (study case Crater/Aden, Yemen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Wadee Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    This paper discuss the role of architecture in Center city-Aden, Republic of Yemen which has a historical traditional architecture which is a unique sample with many elements that make the building of this city as an effective helper in keeping the sources traditional energy. This architecture could be meritoriously described as courtyards, high ceiling for suitable air circling are used as well as the main building material used are local and environmental such as stones, wood and lime stone (Pumic). The research aim at studying and analyzing the planning forming and architectural specification of this city through studying some examples of its buildings to recognize the traditional building role in saving the traditional energy by studying the building material, ventilation system, orientation and opening, for using these elements to raise the efficiency of using the resources of traditional sources. The research is abbreviated to several results such as: 1. Urbanization planning side: a. Elements of urban planning represented in the mass and opening their environmental role. b. Method of forming the urban planning. c. Series in arrangement of elements of urban planning. 2. Architectural side: a. Ratio between solid and void. b. opening shapes. c. internal courtyards. d. Unique architectural elements (Mashrabiyas (Oriels), sky lines, opening covering...etc). e. Building material used . f. building construction methods. g. Kind of walls.(Author)

  17. Hierarchical cluster analysis and chemical characterisation of Myrtus communis L. essential oil from Yemen region and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-colorectal adenocarcinoma properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Crouch, Rebecca A; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from the dried leaves of Myrtus communis, collected in Yemen, was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The major constituents of essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenoids (87.1%), linalool (29.1%), 1,8-cineole (18.4%), α-terpineol (10.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and linalyl acetate (7.4%). The essential oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion assay and resulted in moderate to potent antibacterial and antifungal activities targeting mainly Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The oil moderately reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC 50  = 4.2 μL/mL or 4.1 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma cells) showed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate antitumor effect with IC 50 of 110 ± 4 μg/mL. Hierarchical cluster analysis of M. communis has been carried out based on the chemical compositions of 99 samples reported in the literature, including Yemeni sample.

  18. Screening for bacterial DNA in the hard tick Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae from Socotra Island (Yemen: detection of Francisella-like endosymbiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montagna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four adult ticks collected from livestock on Socotra Island (Yemen were identified as Hyalomma marginatum using traditional morphological characteristics. Morphological identification was confirmed for all the collected specimens using a molecular approach targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S rRNA. All the specimens were examined for the presence of tick-borne pathogens and the tick endosymbiont Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii using polymerase chain reaction. Three specimens out of the 34 analyzed tested positive to the presence of Francisella spp. leading to the first detection of these bacteria in H. marginatum on Socotra Island. The phylogenetic analyses conducted on a 660 bp fragment of the ribosomal gene 16S rRNA of Francisella spp. (including F. philomiragia as outgroup, the four subspecies of F. tularensis and the Francisella-like endosymbiont of ticks confirm that the newly detected Francisella strains cluster into the Francisella-like endosymbionts of ticks. Interestingly, the detected Francisella-like endosymbiont, shows a different genotype to that previously isolated from H. marginatum collected in Bulgaria. No specimen was positive for the presence of Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia burgdorferi or M. mitochondrii.

  19. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  20. Where is North?

    OpenAIRE

    Macmillan, Susan; Shanahan, Tom

    2010-01-01

    To find your way using a magnetic compass with a map, you need to know the difference between magnetic north and map north. This difference is called ‘grid magnetic angle’, and in the UK it is derived from a model of the Earth’s magnetic field, which is updated every year. The variation To go north, you just follow your compass towards magnetic north, right? Not quite. Geophysicists have to work hard so we can continue to navigate with map and compass. Susan Macm...

  1. Estrategia de intervención militar de Estados Unidos en Medio Oriente: dinámicas y consecuencias del uso de drones en Yemen y Pakistán entre 2009 a 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Cruz, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Este es un estudio sobre la estrategia de guerra estadounidense en Medio Oriente basada en el uso sistemático de drones durante el periodo comprendido entre 2009 y 2013. Se busca explicar de qué manera puede considerarse el uso de este tipo de armamento como una práctica basada en la proyección de poder sin mayor vulnerabilidad. Los casos de Pakistán y Yemen son abordados, ya que evidencian las características de las operaciones selectivas por las que ha abogado el Presidente Obama. El estudi...

  2. Agreement between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereto) concluded between the Republic of Yemen and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 12 September 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 21 September 2000. Pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 14 August 2002. Pursuant to Article II of the Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on the same date

  3. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    partner, holding 18 percent of all trade. North Korea’s leading export items to Japan were men’s suits, mushrooms , and coal. Japan’s main export items...credited with providing resources to North Korea in efforts to help establish and cultivate a much stronger military force as well as begin to

  4. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis C virus infection among renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis in three health centers in Aden, Yemen: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Aman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with positive anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibodies among patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD in three centers in Aden, Yemen. The data from 219 patients and their records over the period between 2000-2013, was extracted and analyzed. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 47.08 ± 13.9 years; 74.4% of them were married and 14.6% were employed. The prevalence of validated anti-HCV-positive cases was 40.2% (95%CI 33.64%-46.73%. The mean ± SD duration on HD of all the patients was 35.09 ± 38 months. On bivariate analysis, the duration on HD and attending more than one center for HD associated significantly with anti-HCV positivity (P <0.05. On multivariate fully adjusted Poisson regression modelling, controlled for age, Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were more likely to be positive for anti- HCV antibodies [P = 0.004, adjusted prevalence rate ratio (APRR = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.22-2.88; P = 0.0005, APRR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02. In this study sample, the prevalence of HCV was significant. Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were found to be more likely to contract HCV. Enhancing existing infection control measures and allocating more resources to HD centers therefore warrants consideration.

  6. Evaluation of outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) for treatment of severe acute malnutrition in Yemen: a focus on treatment default and its risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amad, Mohammed; Al-Eryani, Lina; Al Serouri, Abdulwahed; Khader, Yousef S

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to measure the treatment default rate among children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) who were admitted to the outpatient therapeutic programme (OTP) in Yemen and determine its risk factors. A prospective study was conducted among children with SAM who were newly admitted to the 11 OTPs in primary health centres of Sana'a city. A pretested semistructured questionnaire was used for data collection at admission and at after 2 months of admission to the OTP. Univariate and multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression were used to analyse the risk factors of treatment default. This study included 339 SAM children. Of those, 186 (55%) children discharged as defaulters, 141 (42%) were cured, and 12 (3%) were transferred to other treatment sites. Many factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and treatment and acceptability of OTP services factors were significantly associated with treatment default. Having difficulty to attend OTP every week (OR 8.4), unavailability of medication during follow-up visits (OR 5.0), not liking to eat Plumpy'Nut (OR 5.8), and not gaining weight since the start of treatment (OR 9.3) were the strongest predictors of treatment default. This study showed a high default rate among SAM children in Sana'a city. Factors related to poor accessibility, poor satisfaction with staff and system, and factors related to treatment and acceptability of OTP services were significantly associated with high default rate. Expansion of OTP services and training OTPs staff on SAM treatment protocols are highly recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Terrestrial gamma dose rate, radioactivity and radiological hazards in the rocks of an elevated radiation background in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien; Alnhary, Anees; Fadhl, Shadi

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate natural radiation and radioactivity in the rock and to assess the corresponding health risk in a region of elevated background radiation in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The mean external gamma dose rate was 374 nGy h(-1) which is approximately six times the world average. The measured results were used to compute annual effective dose equivalent, collective effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk, which are 2.298 mSv, 61.95 man Sv y(-1) and 8.043  ×  10(-3), respectively. Rocks samples from different geological formations were analyzed for quantitative determination of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. The specific activity of the rocks samples ranges from 7  ±  1 Bq Kg(-1) to 12 513  ±  329 Bq Kg(-1) for (232)Th, from 6  ±  1 Bq kg(-1) to 3089  ±  74 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 702  ±  69 Bq kg(-1) to 2954  ±  285 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. (232)Th is the main contributor to gamma dose rate from the rock samples. Indicators of radiological health impact, radium equivalent activity and external hazard index are 3738 Bq kg(-1) and 10.10, respectively. The mean external hazard index was ten times unity in the studied locations in Juban District, which is higher than the recommended value.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of hepatitis C virus infection among renal disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis in three health centers in Aden, Yemen: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Khadija; Al-Dubai, Sami AbdoRadman; Aman, Reema; Hawash, Aamenah; Alshagga, Mustafa; Kassim, Saba

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with positive anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies among patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in three centers in Aden, Yemen. The data from 219 patients and their records over the period between 2000-2013, was extracted and analyzed. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 47.08 ± 13.9 years; 74.4% of them were married and 14.6% were employed. The prevalence of validated anti-HCV-positive cases was 40.2% (95%CI 33.64%-46.73%). The mean ± SD duration on HD of all the patients was 35.09 ± 38 months. On bivariate analysis, the duration on HD and attending more than one center for HD associated significantly with anti-HCV positivity (P <0.05). On multivariate fully adjusted Poisson regression modelling, controlled for age, Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were more likely to be positive for anti- HCV antibodies [P = 0.004, adjusted prevalence rate ratio (APRR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-2.88; P = 0.0005, APRR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02. In this study sample, the prevalence of HCV was significant. Patients attending more than one center and those who underwent HD for longer durations were found to be more likely to contract HCV. Enhancing existing infection control measures and allocating more resources to HD centers therefore warrants consideration.

  9. The coralline red alga Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine as proxy of climate variability in the Yemen coast, Gulf of Aden (NW Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragnano, A.; Basso, D.; Jacob, D. E.; Storz, D.; Rodondi, G.; Benzoni, F.; Dutrieux, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown the potential of red coralline algae as paleoclimatic archive. A previously unexplored subfamily of coralline algae, the Lithophylloideae, was investigated from the Gulf of Aden (Balhaf, Yemen). Seasonal changes in Mg/Ca, Li/Ca and Ba/Ca composition of Lithophyllum kotschyanum f. affine were investigated by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). For the first time in coralline algae, the Li/Ca composition was analyzed and showed a highly significant and positive correlation with Mg/Ca and SST. Monthly algal Mg/Ca and Li/Ca variations indicate a positive correlation with sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS), although low growth rates decrease the resolution of the algal record. Albeit no or weak positive correlation between monthly algal Ba/Ca and local SST was found, fluctuations in Ba/Ca suggest the seasonal influence of nutrient-rich deep waters introduced by upwelling, and record an increase of sedimentation at the sampling site likely due to an intensified land use in the area. The Mg/Ca age model shows an average algal extension rate of 1.15 mm yr-1, and reveals multiple intra-annual banding (previously unreported in the genus Lithophyllum) together with carposporangia formation in late February-early March, when temperature begins to increase. The concentration of MgCO3 in the thallus of L. kotschyanum f. affine is 20 mol% (1 SE), confirming that within the genus, the species sampled in warmer regions contain higher mol% MgCO3. The concentrations of LiCO3 and BaCO3 are 8 μmol% (0.7 SE) and 0.5 μmol% (0.03 SE), respectively. Despite the limitations from low-growth rate and species-specific vital effect, coralline algae confirm their utility in climate and oceanographic reconstruction.

  10. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  11. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  12. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Ruben G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...... and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change...

  13. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  14. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  15. I-15 North Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  16. Poet North Manchester Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-North Manchester, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable

  17. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  18. Environmental Isotope Study of the Well Field of the Sana'a Water Supply and Sanitation Local Corporation (SWSSLC) In Sana'a Basin-Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsan, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental Isotope Study Of The Well Field of The Sana'a Water Supply and Sanitation Local Corporation (SWSSLC) In Sana'a Basin-Yemen. The water in the deep aquifers of the Sana'a Basin has been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. To identify the Chemical and the Isotopic characteristics for the well fields of the Sana'a Water Supply And Sanitation Local Corporation (SWSSLC) which withdrawal the water from deep aquifers (Tawilah Sandstone and Volcanics).The Tawilah Sandstone and Volcanic Aquifers represent the main Aquifers in the Sana'a Basin.The chemical and environmental isotope study in Sana'a basin comes out with the following results: 1. The Hydrochemical characteristic in the Sana'a Basin differ from aquifer to another, according to the rock type or formation, It was found that the type of water in the Tawilah sandstone is dominated by Ca- Na- HCO 3 , while the water type Na-Ca- HCO 3 found demonstrated in Volcanic Aquifer. Generally the Hydrochemical composition of groundwater from two aquifers are represent of mixture water. 2. The Groundwater of the deep aquifers for (Tawilah sandstone and Volcanics), indicates that its isotopic constitutes for a 18 O is depleted and tend to be close from the slope 8 of global meteoric water line, which means that this water does not exposed to any evaporation processes, and infiltrated to the aquifers in a cold and humid climatic condition. It is also indicates that the recharge to the deep aquifers comes from the same source and same altitudes, and also there is a hydraulic contact between aquifers. 3. The δ 18 O and δ 2 H values of the groundwater samples from deep aquifers are reflect hydrological regime with limited present day recharge and storage of large volume of fossil ground water .the very low or non-existent Tritium 3 H concentration observed in groundwater also support this conclusion and indicate that the groundwater contains no water recharged in the last four decades

  19. Geochemical characterization of the Jurassic Amran deposits from Sharab area (SW Yemen): Origin of organic matter, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate conditions during deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Makeen, Yousif M.; Saeed, Shadi A.; Al-Hakame, Hitham; Al-Moliki, Tareq; Al-Sharabi, Kholah Qaid; Hatem, Baleid Ali

    2017-05-01

    Calcareous shales and black limestones of the Jurassic Amran Group, located in the Sharab area (SW Yemen), were analysed based on organic and inorganic geochemical methods. The results of this study were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during Jurassic time and their relevance to organic matter enrichment during deposition of the Amran calcareous shale and black limestone deposits. The analysed Amran samples have present-day TOC and Stotal content values in the range of 0.25-0.91 wt % and 0.59-4.96 wt %, respectively. The relationship between Stotal and TOC contents indicates that the Jurassic Amran deposits were deposited in a marine environment as supported by biomarker environmental indicators. Biomarker distributions also reflect that the analysed Amran deposits received high contributions of marine organic matter (e.g., algal and microbial) with minor amount of land plant source inputs. Low oxygen (reducing) conditions during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits are indicated from low Pr/Ph values and relatively high elemental ratios of V/Ni and V/(V + Ni). Enrichment in the pyrite grains and very high DOPT and high Fe/Al ratios further suggest reducing bottom waters. This paleo-redox (i.e., reducing) conditions contributed to preservation of organic matter during deposition of the Jurassic Amran deposits. Semi-arid to warm climatic conditions are also evidenced during deposition of the Amran sediments and consequently increased biological productivity within the photic zone of the water column during deposition. Therefore, the increased bio-productivity in combination with good preservation of organic matter identified as the major mechanisms that gave rise to organic matter enrichment. This contradicts with the low organic matter content of the present-day TOC values of less than 1%. The biomarker maturity data indicate that the analysed Amran samples are of high thermal maturity; therefore, the low present-day TOC

  20. North-south interdependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norse, D

    1979-01-01

    The sound eco-development of agriculture can help to establish a cooperative and harmonious north-south interdependence. The interdependence pattern is seen when the major agricultural suppliers (energy, fertilizers, and pesticides) are examined in the context of commodity transfers of grain and rubber. The consumers of either the north or south would be unable to find alternative sources without major production or social disruption. The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) INTERFUTURES study examines the chain of dependencies between raw materials and markets and the implications for economic development, employment, and environmental hazards. If interdependence is to benefit both the north and the south, technological fixes will not be adequate or appropriate to deal with the potential hazards. (DCK)

  1. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  2. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hanane; Ogilvie, Isla; El Khoury, Antoine C; Duan, Yinghui; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-07

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  3. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  4. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  5. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  6. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue wit...

  7. Moving farther north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, R.

    2000-01-01

    According to predictions by the National Petroleum Council, North American demand for natural gas is likely to increase from 20 Tcf currently to 29 Tcf by the year 2010 and could increase to beyond 31 Tcf by 2015. In view of this and other similar predictions it is prudent to examine the potential sources of supply and to assess their capacity to meet this ever increasing demand. This paper provides an overview of North America's gas potential, proved reserves and current production. One of the sources much depended upon to meet future demand is the deepwater Gulf of Mexico which, however, would have to grow at the compounded rate of 21 per cent annually to meet expectations of 4.5 Tcf per year by 2010, a staggering rate of growth that would require 250 to 300 completions per year (current rate is about 100 per year) and two to three times the number of rigs currently working in the Gulf. If the deepwater Gulf of Mexico cannot meet this target, the incremental supply will most likely come from the North, namely the Fort Liard, Norman Wells, and the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea regions of Canada and Alaska's Cook Inlet, Copper River, North Slope and Susitna Basin. The economics of developing each of these regions is examined, using field size, reserves per well, exploration and development costs and cycle time as the bases for comparison. Obstacles to development such as access to pipelines, government regulations, and opposition by environmental groups are also discussed

  8. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  9. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  10. An analysis framework for characterizing and explaining development of EIA legislation in developing countries-Illustrated for Georgia, Ghana and Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhoff, Arend J., E-mail: akolhoff@eia.nl [Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, P.O. Box 2345, 3500 GH Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands); Runhaar, Hens A.C., E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Actors in the field of international development co-operation supporting the development of EIA legislation in developing countries often do not achieve the results envisaged. The performance of EIA in these countries often remains weak. One reason, we assume, is that often those actors support the establishment of overly ambitious EIA legislation that cannot achieve its objectives in the light of constraining contexts. To provide more effective support we need to better understand the enabling and constraining contextual factors that influence the development of EIA legislation and to which support actors should align itself. In this article a new analysis framework for classifying, characterizing and explaining the development of EIA legislation is described, measured in terms of ambition levels. Ambitions are defined as intentions the EIA authorities aim to fulfill, expressed in formal EIA legislation. Three country cases, Yemen, Georgia and Ghana are used to illustrate the usefulness of our framework and as a first test to refine the framework. We have formulated the following five hypotheses that complement and refine our analysis framework. One, EIA legislation may develop multilinearly in terms of ambition levels. Two, ambitions in EIA legislation seem to be influenced to a great extent by the power and capacity of, on the one hand, the environmental authorities supporting EIA and, on the other hand, the sector authorities hindering the development of EIA. Three, the political system is the most important context factor influencing the rules of policy-making and the power of the different actors involved. Four, the importance of context factors on the development of ambitions is dependent on the phase of EIA system development. Five, some ambitions seem to be influenced by particular factors; for instance the ambitions for the object of study seem to be influenced by the level of environmental awareness of the sector ministries and parliament. The analysis

  11. Meanwhile, North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    The progress regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes in North Korea and the instability on the Korean Peninsula have taken a back seat in the international community's analysis and perhaps its concerns for more than a year. The last event to provoke a wave of protest and tangible renewed interest occurred on 12 February 2013 when Pyongyang carried out its third nuclear test with an estimated yield of 6 to 8 kilo-tonnes. The United Nations Security Council condemned the test on 7 March (Resolution 2094). With the exception of several recent Security Council declarations, it is clear that activity on the part of the international community has been sparse. The same can be said with regard to the European Union and the United States. This state of affairs is not surprising. The analysis takes note of it by ceasing, there or thereabouts, to produce new material. Firstly, the North Korean crisis is a long-term one and the diplomatic process that is meant to lead to its resolution has been interrupted; the Six-Party Talks have been at a standstill since the end of 2008. A agreement between the United States and North Korea, concluded on 29 February 2012 under which the North Korean regime accepted the principle of a moratorium on long-range missile tests, nuclear tests, and all activity at the Yongbyon nuclear complex lastly barely a few days. Many actors involved in the management of this crisis are suffering from a weariness whose acknowledgement is politically incorrect: with regard to Pyongyang's launch of missiles and rockets last spring, the U.S. admiral Samuel Locklear told the Associated Press in July 'you become somewhat numb, you start to say, well, it's not so much of a big deal'. Moreover, since 2013, the focus of international security with regard to WMD and beyond has also largely shifted from North-East Asia to the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Pell-mell, the worsening and broadening of the war in Syria, the terrorist surge in Iraq, the

  12. Yemen: Comparative Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    occurred in 1992, with the bombing of two hotels in Aden housing American troops transiting to Somalia. The attacks resulted in the deaths of two...independently minded regional military leaders, Islamists, the Huthis, and Hirak for the Weberian monopoly of violence.309 IHS Jane’s asserts that...Yemeni government estimates two to three weapons per male aged 16–44. The Huthis also have access to the country’s largest arms market Suq al-Talh

  13. Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Impact of the Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Spierings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact and presents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing over 40 Arab Barometer and World Values Survey surveys on Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen, from before and after the uprisings. The analyses firstly show political-institutional trust falling in the uprisings’ aftermath in countries that went through democratic reform or regime change. It appears that politicians misbehaving and reforms not resolving social problems hurt people’s trust in politics. Secondly, in democratic transition countries Egypt and Tunisia, a decrease in social trust reflected the pattern of political-institutional trust indicating a spill-over effect. Thirdly, ethno-religious tolerance dropped region-wide after the uprisings, indicating that the aftermath of religious conflict impacted the entire Arab region. These results support rational-choice institutionalist theories, while at the same time refining them for the MENA context.

  14. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  15. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  16. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  17. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  18. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  19. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  20. The North Field Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Qatar Europe LNG Company's activities include gas production, gathering, treatment, liquefaction, shipping and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by-products. The (LNG) project to be developed by the Company shall be initially capable of processing 1200 mmscfd of raw gas and associated quantities of condensate from the North Field. Hydrocarbons produced will be delivered to shore in the industrial area (Ras Laffan) via a sub sea pipeline system. Raw gas is used as a feedstock into the liquefaction plant which is initially capable of producing 6.1 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of (LNG). The initial quantity of (LNG) will be exported from (Ras Laffan) loading terminal to a receiving terminal located on the North East coast of Italy via a dedicated fleet of (LNG) carriers. The whole project (Upstream, Downstream and Shipping) shall be executed on an integrated scheme basis under the the direct control of the Qatar Europe LNG Company and in accordance with the overall Master Schedule in order to ensure a delivery of first shipment of (LNG) in the 2 nd half of 1997. 3 figs

  1. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  2. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  3. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  4. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  5. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  7. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  8. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  9. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  10. Implications of Water Budget Deficits on Socio-Economic Stability and Food Security in the Arabian Peninsula and in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa is accentuated by forecasted climatic variability, decreasing precipitation volumes and projected population growth, urbanization and economic development, increasing water demand. These factors impose uncertainties on food security and socio-economic stability in the region. We develop a water-budget model combining hydrologic, climatic and economic data to quantify water deficit volumes and groundwater depletion rates for the main aquifer systems in the area, taking into account three different climatic scenarios, and calculated from the precipitation forecast elaborated in the CSIRO, ECHAM4 and HADCM3 global circulation models from 2016 to 2050 over 1-year intervals. Water demand comprises water requirements for each economic sector, derived from data such as population, GDP, cropland cover and electricity production, and is based upon the five different SSPs. Conventional and non-conventional water resource supply data are retrieved from FAO Aquastat and institutional databases. Our results suggest that in the next 35 years, in North Africa, only Egypt and Libya will exhibit severe water deficits with respectively 44% and 89.7% of their current water budgets by 2050 (SSP2-AVG climatic scenario), while all the countries in the Arabian Peninsula will be subjected to water stress; the majority of small-size aquifers in the Arabian Peninsula will reach full depletion by 2050. In North Africa, the fossil aquifers' volume loss will be 1-15% by 2050, and total depletion within 200-300 years. Our study suggests that (1) anthropogenic drivers on water resources are harsher than projected climatic variability; (2) the estimated water deficit will induce substantial rise in domestic food production's costs, causing higher dependency on food imports; and (3) projected water deficits will most strongly impact the nations with the lowest GDPP, namely Egypt, Yemen and Libya.

  11. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  12. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  13. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  15. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  16. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  17. Environmental Info for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in North Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  18. Whither North Carolina furniture manufacturing?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Lacy

    2004-01-01

    North Carolina's furniture manufacturing industry has contracted in recent years as imports have gained a greater share of the domestic furniture market. Rapid growth of the furniture industry in China and a surge in exports from that country to the United States in particular have contributed to plant closings and consolidation of operations in the state. North Carolina's furniture manufacturers are adapting to the emergence of global competition and are developing new corporate strategies t...

  19. Access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and factors associated with non-use among communities in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah governorate in the Tihama region, west of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2017-06-09

    Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts (Ad Durayhimi, Al Marawi'ah, Al Mansuriyah and Bayt Al Faqiah) in Al Hudaydah during February 2016. A total of 701 households were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and availability of LLINs were collected by interview and observation. Four indicators for malaria prevention using LLINs; proportion of households with at least one LLIN, proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people, proportion of population with access to LLINs in the surveyed households and proportion of population who slept under LLINs the previous night of the survey were calculated as indicated by Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Use to access ratio was assessed. Factors associated with not using LLINs among people with access were also investigated. Of 701 households with 4900 de facto population, ownership of at least one LLIN was 90.6%, while 24.1% owned at least one for every two people during the survey in 2016. The overall proportion of people with access to LLINs was 51.5% (95% CI 50.1-52.9). Only 19.0% (95% CI 17.9-20.1) slept under LLINs the night before the survey and the overall use to access ratio was 0.37. The proportions of children under 5 years of age with access to and use of LLINs were 13.7 and 42.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of pregnant women with access to and use of LLINs were 16.4 and 20

  20. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  1. Socioeconomic indicators are strong predictors of hepatitis A seroprevalence rates in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Demiray, Tayfur; Ozbek, Ahmet; Erkorkmaz, Unal; Altindis, Mustafa

    The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between age-specific hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates and various socioeconomic indicators within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We conducted a systematic review of all recently published studies on HAV conducted in the MENA region and identified the highest quality studies for inclusion in our analysis. We calculated the age at midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) for each study and estimated seroprevalence rates at the ages of 5, 10, and 15 years. Next, we identified the correlations between these metrics and several socioeconomic variables. HAV data collected in or after 2000 were available for 14 of the 19 countries in the MENA region. Four of the 14 included countries had intermediate HAV endemicity (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and UAE), five had high endemicity (Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia), and five had very high endemicity (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen). Water and sanitation were not significant predictors of AMPI or seroprevalence, most likely because most countries in this region have high rates of access to these utilities. However, gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), and the human development index (HDI) were all highly associated with AMPI and prevalence. The observed correlations suggest that of the MENA countries without recent HAV data, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Qatar most likely have low endemicity, Oman likely has intermediate endemicity, and Libya likely has high endemicity. While it is unlikely that a single correlation model would be suitable for use in all world regions, the approach utilized in this analysis might provide a simple but accurate method for using economic data to impute the endemicity profiles of countries without recent data in regions where at least several neighboring countries have conducted recent serostudies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring Efficiency of Health Systems of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer; Akinci, Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of twenty health systems in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to inform evidence-based health policy decisions. In addition, the effects of alternative stochastic frontier model specification on the empirical results are examined. We conducted a stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the country-level technical efficiencies using secondary panel data for 20 MENA countries for the period of 1995-2012 from the World Bank database. We also tested the effect of alternative frontier model specification using three random-effects approaches: a time-invariant model where efficiency effects are assumed to be static with regard to time, and a time-varying efficiency model where efficiency effects have temporal variation, and one model to account for heterogeneity. The average estimated technical inefficiency of health systems in the MENA region was 6.9 % with a range of 5.7-7.9 % across the three models. Among the top performers, Lebanon, Qatar, and Morocco are ranked consistently high according to the three different inefficiency model specifications. On the opposite side, Sudan, Yemen and Djibouti ranked among the worst performers. On average, the two most technically efficient countries were Qatar and Lebanon. We found that the estimated technical efficiency scores vary substantially across alternative parametric models. Based on the findings reported in this study, most MENA countries appear to be operating, on average, with a reasonably high degree of technical efficiency compared with other countries in the region. However, there is evidence to suggest that there are considerable efficiency gains yet to be made by some MENA countries. Additional empirical research is needed to inform future health policies aimed at improving both the efficiency and sustainability of the health systems in the MENA region.

  3. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  4. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  5. Energy, North Africa and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.

    1995-01-01

    The energy situation in the North African countries not only offers a multitude of opportunities for regional cooperation, but also for consolidating ties with the European Union. What are the medium-term chances of putting these possibilities to use ? This article reviews the energy issues in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, all in the middle of a complete economic, political, and cultural mutations. It identifies the intra-regional cooperative projects and certain potential obstacles, and analyzes the energy relations between North Africa and Europe from the strategic viewpoint of both regions. (author). 7 tabs

  6. North Sea oil directory 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This edition of the North Sea Oil Directory has been revised to keep pace with the ever-changing North Sea industry. The information is grouped under the following topics: exploration and production; group licensees; Dutch and Norwegian licensees; UK Offshore Operators Association Committees; drilling contractors; offshore exploration and surveys; cement, drilling fluids, and related equipment; drilling equipment; prime mover, transmission equipment; production and process equipment; rig and platform equipment suppliers; rig builders, ship builders; rig and platform logistics; ports, supply bases; marine civil engineering; specialized equipment and services; classified index; and an alphabetical index. (MCW)

  7. The North Korean nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However

  8. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  9. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  10. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  11. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  12. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  13. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  14. Clitopilus argentinus in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    Clitopilus argentinus is reported for the first time from North America. A full description and illustrations of the basidiomata and microscopic structures are provided. An X-ray elemental analysis of the diagnostic ‘hyaline’ incrustations of the pileus surface shows these extracellular structures

  15. Tall Tales of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno City Unified School District, CA.

    Designed for use in junior high school language arts classes, this learning activity packet introduces students to North American folklore. Selected readings cover Indian tales, real folk heroes (Davy Crockett and John Henry), imaginary folk heroes (Paul Bunyan and Pecos Bill), Black folk stories (Brer Rabbit), and tales of Washington Irving. Each…

  16. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    .... The Six-Party Talks include the United States, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and North Korea, and were begun in August 2003 to attempt to resolve the current crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons...

  17. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  18. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  19. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    human rights is a prominent issue in negotiations between the United States and North Korea, and for other purposes. • H.Res. 309 (Peter King ...the opinion of a North Korean expert at Seoul’s Sejong Institute, “North Korea’s economy had received a death sentence long ago, but it keeps afloat

  20. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  1. « Yémen nouveau, futur meilleur » ? “New Yemen and a brighter future ?” Getting back to the 2006 presidential election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Poirier

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Si l’élection présidentielle du 20 septembre 2006 reconduit ‘Alî ‘Abd Allâh /Sâli/h au sommet de l’ état avec 77% des voix, elle ne marque pas moins une transformation majeure de la scène politique yéménite. Pour la première fois, le président est mis en situation de compétition électorale par une opposition qui, en se réunissant autour d’un candidat unique, parvient à transcender le clivage opposant traditionnellement les partisans de la gauche aux formations islamistes. Cependant, la rénovation de l’enjeu électoral n’éloigne pas significativement le Yémen de la « norme institutionnelle arabe », le régime s’assurant du verrouillage autoritaire du scrutin. Quel est donc l’effet « élection 2006 » ? Dans quelle mesure le jeu politique a-t-il été durablement remodelé par l’introduction de la concurrence ? En offrant des horizons pluralistes sans toutefois contrarier les dynamiques de personnalisation du pouvoir, l’élection n’a-t-elle pas favorisé l’essor de nouvelles formes de contestation politique ?If the presidential election of September 2006 confirmed ‘Alî ‘Abd Allâh /Sâli/h at the head of the State with 77% of the votes, it nonetheless represents a major transformation of Yemeni political scene. For the first time, the president was confronted to electoral contest, as the opposition, gathered around a unique candidate, succeeded in surpassing the traditional leftist - islamist antagonism. However, the renewal of the electoral stake has not really averted Yemen from the “Arab institutional norm”, the regime ensuring an authoritarian lock of the poll. What is, then, the “2006 election” effect? To which extent has the political game been durably remodelled? By offering pluralist prospects without challenging the dynamics of personalization of power, hasn’t the election encouraged the rise of new forms of political contestation?

  2. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. 500.554 Section 500.554 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  3. Authropogenic Warming in North Alaska?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Sappington, David E.; Stooksbury, David E.

    1988-09-01

    Using permafrost boreholes, Lachenbruch and Marshall recently reported evidence for a 2°-4°C warming in North Alaska occurring at some undetermined time during the last century. Popular accounts suggest their findings are evidence for anthropogenic warming caused by trace gases. Analyses of North Alaskan 1000-500 mb thickness onwards back to 1948 indicate that the warming was prior to that date. Relatively sparse thermometric data for the early twentieth century from Jones et al. are too noisy to support any trend since the data record begins in 1910, or to apply to any subperiod of climatic significance. Any warming detected from the permafrost record therefore occurred before the major emissions of thermally active trace gases.

  4. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. NORTH END ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Harald; Bigsby, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies conducted in the North End Roadless Area, Arizona indicate probable or substantiated metallic mineral-resource potential in about one-fifth of the area. The area has potential for disseminated or stockwork-type molybdenum mineralization, copper-lead-zinc-silver veins, lead-zinc-silver limestone replacement deposits, and tungsten-bearing contact metamorphic skarn deposits. The area also contains cement rock and marble dimension stone, but has only slight promise for the occurrence of petroleum and natural gas.

  6. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  7. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  8. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  9. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  10. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  11. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  13. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  16. A brief summary of the epidemiology and genetic relatedness of avian influenza H9N2 virus in birds and mammals in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Mettenleiter, T C; Abdelwhab, E M

    2017-12-01

    H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their 'internal' gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N2 is endemic in the Middle East (ME) and North Africa since the late 1990s, little is known about its epidemiology and genetics on a regional level. In this review, we summarised the epidemiological situation of H9N2 in poultry and mammals in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Bahrain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. The virus has been isolated from humans in Egypt and serosurveys indicated widespread infection particularly among poultry workers and pigs in some countries. Some isolates replicated well in experimentally inoculated dogs, mice, hamsters and ferrets. Insufficient protection of immunised poultry was frequently reported most likely due to concurrent viral or bacterial infections and antigenic drift of the field viruses from outdated vaccine strains. Genetic analysis indicated several distinct phylogroups including a panzootic genotype in the Asian and African parts of the ME, which may be useful for the development of vaccines. The extensive circulation of H9N2 for about 20 years in this region where the H5N1 virus is also endemic in some countries, poses a serious public health threat. Regional surveillance and control strategy are highly recommended.

  17. Burden of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases in Middle East and North Africa: Results of Global Burden of Diseases Study from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Farnaz; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILDs) are major causes of death and disability in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). However, they have different patterns in countries with various geographical, cultural, and socio-economic status. We aimed to compare the burden of GILDs in Iran with its neighboring countries using the results of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study in 2010. METHODS Classic metrics of GBD have been used including: age-standardized rates (ASRs) of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY). All countries neighboring Iran have been selected. In addition, all other countries classified in the MENA region were included. Five major groups of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases were studied including: infections of gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal and pancreatobilliary cancers, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, and other digestive diseases. RESULTS The overall burden of GILDs is highest in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Egypt. Diarrheal diseases have been replaced by gastrointestinal cancers and cirrhosis in most countries in the region. However, in a number of countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, and Yemen, communicable GILDs are still among top causes of mortality and morbidity in addition to non-communicable GILDs and cancers. These countries are experiencing the double burden. In Iran, burden caused by cancers of stomach and esophagus are considerably higher than other countries. Diseases that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings have not been captured by GBD. CONCLUSION Improving the infrastructure of health care system including cancer registries and electronic recording of outpatient care is a necessity for better surveillance of GILDs in MENA. In contrast to expensive treatment, prevention of most GILDs is feasible and inexpensive. The health care systems in the region can be strengthened for

  18. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  19. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  20. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  1. North Africa oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms

  2. North RTL ''grid scan'' studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1990-01-01

    This study was made in response to screen measurements which indicated an emittance growth of nearly a factor of two within the North RTL or linac girder-1. Betatron oscillations are induced at the beginning of the North RTL to search for gross geometric aberrations arising within the RTL or sector-2 of the linac. The oscillations are induced horizontally and vertically with two X or two Y dipole correctors stepped in a nested loop fashion. In both cases the full set of RTL and first girder sector-2 linac beam position monitors (BPMs) are sampled in X and Y for each corrector setting. Horizontal (or vertical) data from pairs of BPMs are then transformed to phase space coordinates by the linear transformation constructed assuming the transport optics between the BPMs is known. A second transformation is then made to normalized phase space coordinates by using Twiss parameters consistent with the assumed transport optics. By careful choice of initial Twiss parameters the initial grid can be made square for convenience in graphical interpretation. A linear ''grid'' is then fitted to the transformed data points for each pair of BPMs. The area of each grid is calculated and linearity qualitatively evaluated. Furthermore, although not the focus of this study, the beta match at each BPM can be quantified. 6 figs

  3. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    although non- governmental groups do run operations in the DPRK in activities such as goat dairy farming and transportation. North -South Korean...Finance Minister Says “At Least” 34m US Dollars Sent to North Korea. Financial Times Information, Global News Wire—Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. June 6...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis Dick K

  4. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  5. The North American Transborder Freight Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The North American Transborder Freight Database, available since April 1993, contains freight flow data by commodity type and by mode of transportation (rail, truck,...

  6. Seasonal climate prediction for North Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryjov, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the operational seasonal climate prediction for North Eurasia is presented. It is shown that the performance of existing climate models is rather poor in seasonal prediction for North Eurasia. Multi-model ensemble forecasts are more reliable than single-model ones; however, for North Eurasia they tend to be close to climatological ones. Application of downscaling methods may improve predictions for some locations (or regions). However, general improvement of the reliability of seasonal forecasts for North Eurasia requires improvement of the climate prediction models. (letter)

  7. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  8. 77 FR 67276 - Yemen Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... reference books, photocopies, credit reports, transcripts of statements, registered mail, insurance... authority of, inter alia, the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) and the... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), in Section 203 (50 U.S.C. 1702), authorizes...

  9. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    Bank and Al-Nas press institute, and is the proprietor of local Kentucky Fried Chicken and Baskin-Robbins franchises . 7 One leader of the youth... restaurant in the Hadda district of Sana’a. The attacker, a Jordanian citizen who was found carrying other weapons and false identity papers, was caught

  10. Foreign adventures -- in Yemen and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, W.

    1995-01-01

    The year 1994 was reviewed for oil and gas producers, in terms of revenue, profit, capital expenditures and total assets. Companies with best and worst performances in share price, cash flow and net revenue for the year were listed. Summaries of business activity and strategies were provided for several blue chip companies including Canadian Occidental, Rigel Energy Corp., Summit Resources, and Amoco. A top 100 financial ranking list of publicly traded energy companies was also supplied

  11. Folk Astronomy and Calendars in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    A rich folk tradition of star lore evolved in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, especially during the Islamic era. Some of this lore was recorded in Yemeni Arabic texts, especially during the 13th and 14th centuries. Among the calendars in use are solar, lunar, and stellar varieties. The most significant folk calendars are the system of agricultural marker stars, often correlated with the 28 lunar stations, and the Pleiades conjunction calendar.

  12. Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    constitution states that a Yemeni national may not be extradited to a foreign authority. 54 “We outsource this to the Saudis. It is their problem,” The...equality, decentralization, and a greater share of state welfare . Many southerners reportedly have felt cut off from services and jobs and see persistent

  13. Cossidae of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Borth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera of the Socotra Archipelago is revised. Five species are recognized, including two new species (Mormogystia brandstetteri and Meharia hackeri, and dubious identifications and records are discussed. Adults and genitalia are illustrated and bionomic details, molecular evidence and a synonymic checklist of Socotra Cossidae genera is provided. A review of their distribution reveals that at least 80 percent of Socotro`s Cossidae species are unique to the archipelago which is renowned for its endemism.

  14. Predicamento de seguridad yemení

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Escobar, Ruben Dario

    2016-01-01

    Con el inicio del periodo Post-Guerra Fría el Sistema Internacional comienza a experimentar un incremento en el fortalecimiento de su componente social; la Sociedad de Estados alcanza un mayor nivel de homogenización, el estado, unidad predominante de esta, comienzan atravesar una serie de transformaciones que obedecerán a una serie de cambios y continuidades respecto al periodo anterior. Desde la perspectiva del Realismo Subalterno de las Relaciones Internacionales se destacan el proceso de ...

  15. Growth Comparison of Red Jabon in North Bolaang Mongondow and North Minahasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arif irawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Jabon is priority species that projected to be developed in plantation forests of North Minahasa Regency. Red Jabon is can adapt well various environmental conditions. The natural habitat of the red Jabon in North Sulawesi region was known in North Bolaang Mongondow. This study aimed to compare the growth of red jabon at the age of 1 year in North Minahasa Regency and North Bolaang Mongondow. The experiment was conducted in two (2 locations i.e. in Talawaan Village (North Minahasa Regency and Nunuka Village (North Bolaang Mongondow. Two independent samples t test was conducted to determine the differences in height and diameter growth parameters at two test sites.The results showed that there was no difference in the growth of red Jabon between North Minahasa and North Bolaang Mongondow. The average height and diameter of red Jabon in North Minahasa Regency is at 215.84 cm and 4.34 cm, while the same parameters of North Bolaang Mongondow amounted to 231.79 cm and 4.14 cm. The development efforts on the plantations of red Jabon North Minahasa Regency need to be improved because of the environmental conditions in this region is very suitable for the growth of red Jabon.

  16. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...... Designing a database Designing and testing a dashboard to present indicators in a balanced way Messages for others Auditing patients with a common disease as CAP is useful to identify areas for improvement for a large group of patients. The baseline audit can serve as a basis for a monitoring system......Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...

  17. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. North American supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocino, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The projected supply and demand for natural gas in five major regions of North America for the year 2000 was presented. In most regions, supply is expected to be greater than demand. A summary of how California dealt with an increase in natural gas demand in 1990 was presented. The California strategy included a readjustment of pipeline capacity, storage capacity and transportation. Whereas in the 1980s, when capacity was inadequate, the focus was on competition with alternate fuels, maximized capacity use, primary concern about reliability and only secondary concern about price, in the the 1990s, with excess capacity, the emphasis is on 'gas on gas' competition, efforts to satisfy the customer, primary concern about price, and only marginal concern about reliability. tabs., figs

  19. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  20. Primary hyperparathyroidism in North India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhansali, Anil; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Reddy, K.S.S.; Dash, Jiban Radharaman; Behera, Aruanshu; Katariya, Rabinder Nath; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2005-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has a variable clinical expression. Symptomatic PHPT is still predominant form of the disease in many parts of the world, especially developing countries. Because the clinical profile of the disease has changed from that described in the past we sought to improve our understanding of the disease in patients in North India. We summarized the clinical presentation, biochemical and radiological features, and operative findings from the case records from the last 13 years of 52 patients at a tertiary care center in North India who had documented PHPT. The male: female was 1:3.3 with ages ranging from 6 to 60 years (mean+-SD, 36.38+-12.73). Bone disease (46%), recurrent renal stones (21%) and body aches and pains (21%) were the most common modes of the presentation. The lag time varied ranged from 1 month to 16 years. Common clinical manifestations included bone pain (67%), weakness/fatigue (56%), fracture of long bones (48%), abdominal pain (39%), polyuria (37%) and psychiatric manifestations (23.1%). Hypertension was observed in 42% and a palpable nodule in the neck in 19%. Biochemical features included hypercalcemia (86.5%), hypophosphatemia (65.4%) and hyperphosphatasia (67.3%). Mean intact PTH (+-SD)was 809.0+-696.3 ng/L with levels significantly lower in patients who had only kidney stone diseases compared with those with bone disease (P=0.017). A single parathyroid was localized in 50(98%) patients. Hungry bone disease was seen in 59% patients. (author)

  1. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  2. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  3. 40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  4. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  5. The carbon budget of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Elkalay, K.; Frankignoulle, M.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Kattner, G.; Borges, A.V.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    A carbon budget has been established for the North Sea, a shelf sea on the NW European continental shelf. The carbon exchange fluxes with the North Atlantic Ocean dominate the gross carbon budget. The net carbon budget – more relevant to the issue of the contribution of the coastal ocean to the

  6. Juncus planifolius (Juncaceae) in North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    1980-01-01

    Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed.......Juncus planifolius is reported for the first time from North America. Bibliographic notes on this species and its synonymy are given. Its distribution, dispersal and relationships within the genus are discussed....

  7. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Peter van der Sleen; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Daniel Griffin; William J. Sydeman; Jason B. Dunham; Ryan R. Rykaczewski; Marisol García-Reyes; Mohammad Safeeq; Ivan Arismendi; Steven J. Bograd

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we...

  8. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  9. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  10. Generation of a field development plan, North Field, North Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, D.R.; Adams, S.; Mercadier, C.; Milatz, H.; van der Weerd, H.; Walker, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Natih Field in North Oman which is a complex domal fractured limestone structure with a STOIIP of some 50 million m 3 . Initially subjected to a depletion drive, rapidly dropping pressures resulted in a switch to water injection and then to gas injection to promote gas oil gravity drainage. In determining which production mechanism to promote an integrated approach has been taken. Field tests used tracers to investigate the problems associated with water injection; fracture orientation and intensity has been determined using core data including palaeomagnetics, FMS logs and out-crop studies; initial oil saturations have been determined within a give range using resistivity and pulsed neutron logs as well as capillary pressure curves to overcome problems of mixed wettability; to monitor gas saturation development in the matrix recourse has been made to Borehole Gravity Meter; special core analysis on restored state cores has been utilized to characterize wettability and relative permeability as input to both monitoring the water influx and to reservoir simulation. Development of a simulator to incorporate all the necessary physics of gravity drainage, including block to block interaction, has been undertaken at the research laboratories in the Netherlands and, using the understanding of the field built up through the above studies, a successful history match was achieved

  11. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  12. The North Cotentin radioecology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miserey, Y.; Pellegrini, P.

    2007-01-01

    On January 11., 97, the epidemiologist Jean-Francois Viel publishes a study on the risks of leukaemia of the children in the canton of Beaumont-Hague (Manche), situated near the site of the reprocessing plant of spent fuel of Cogema. Advancing the hypothesis of a link between the exposure to radioactive waste and the appearance of case of the disease in the region, the study creates at once the scandal within the scientific community and within the general public. Worrying about the affair, Ministers in charge of environment and health decide to create a first scientific commission in which participates Jean-Francois Viel. But the tensions are so important within this association that at the end of six months its president decides to resign. It is at this moment there of the story of this debate that the evidence was imperative: it was necessary to innovate by putting around the table experts of any origin to estimate the risks of leukaemia which can result from exposures of the populations of the North Cotentin to ionizing radiations. Placed under Annie Sugier presidency, then manager of the protection in the I.P.S.N. (Institute of protection and nuclear safety), the pluralistic group, called 'North Cotentin radioecology group' ( G.R.N.C.), who collected 50 experts, represents an innovative way of entering in the evaluation and the management of the risks and in the acceptability of the uncertainty. The originality of the G.R.N.C. lies in a critical step as exhaustive as possible which allows to end in the production of shared knowledge. The direction the economic studies and the environmental evaluation of the Ministry of ecology and sustainable development considered important to make the story of the G.R.N.C. better known. To bring to a successful conclusion this project of edition, a work group was set up by the service of Research) and the forward-looking and the drafting of the work was entrusted to a journalist, Yves Miserey and to an ethnologist, Patricia

  13. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  14. Benthic community structures in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heip, C.; Craeymeersch, J. A.

    1995-03-01

    Coherent assemblages of marine benthic species have been recognized from the early twentieth century, and the classical papers of Petersen (1914, 1918) were based on studies of limited areas in the North Sea. In 1986, a synoptic survey of the North Sea north to 57°N was undertaken by a group of ten laboratories from seven North Sea countries. The results of this survey have recently been published (Heip et al., 1992a, b; Künitzer et al., 1992; Huys et al., 1992), and some of the results are summarized in this paper. The analysis of the macrofauna is based on slightly more than 700 taxa. In general, the North Sea macrofauna consists of northern species extending south to the northern margins of the Dogger Bank, and southern species extending north to the 100 m depth line. The central North Sea is an area of overlap of southern and northern species, especially around the 70 m depth contour. Consistent groupings of species are recognized that were summarized in seven faunal groupings. Macrofaunal body weight, density and diversity increase linearly towards the north. Macrofaunal biomass for the whole area averages 7 g adwt. m-2 and decreases from south to north. Distribution patterns and trends within the meiofauna were very different. Nematodes, which are the dominant taxon overall, are least abundant in the sandy sediments of the Southern Bight, then increase to a maximum around 53° 30' N and slowly decrease again towards the north. Copepod density and diversity are highest in the Southern Bight, due to the presence of many interstitial species. A large number of species new to science were recorded by the North Sea Benthos Survey and about 1500 species are expected to occur. Copepods show very distinct assemblages according to water depth and sediment type. The contrasting patterns in latitudinal gradients of body weight and number of species of macro- and meiofauna can be only partially explained. Latitude and sediment characteristics, such as grain size and

  15. The pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the North Sea and its rivers; the uses of the North Sea (shipping; exploitation of oil and gas; fishing; recreation; land reclamation; industrial islands; waste dumping); the nature of the dumping problem (nuclear waste; organic chemicals; inorganic chemicals; oil; sewage; rubble and dredged spoils; ash); pollution legislation; Greenpeace activities in the North Sea (the nuclear campaigns (Windscale; Cap de la Hague; Atlantic waste dumping); the chemical campaigns); what is needed in the future; references; the Oslo Convention. (U.K.)

  16. The North American electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, I.

    1999-01-01

    The wide ranging changes that will drive the evolution of the North American electricity industry in the future are discussed. Deregulation and the advent of competition in both the United States and Canada are the principal forces that will change the shape of the electricity market, bringing new players and new forms of doing business into the marketplace. A review of the current state of the business shows that especially in the United States where deregulation began earlier than in Canada, independent generators already constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Non-utility generation capacity is about seven per cent of total U.S. capacity and accounts for about 10 per cent of total U. S. electricity supply, including imports. Examples from other industries clearly show that restructuring and the breakup of vertically integrated industries could be accomplished much faster than anticipated, that a decrease in prices followed rapidly as products became more like commodities, and that decreasing prices fostered product differentiation and competition. Major legislation affecting the electric power industry in the U.S. and Canada (U.S. National Energy Policy Act 1992, Alberta Electric Utilities Act 1995, Ontario Energy Competition Act 1998) decreeing open access transmission, unbundling of generation, transmission and ancillary services, and promoting competition, and the impacts of these legislative actions are also reviewed. The most visible impact is the explosion that can be seen in power marketing and energy trading on a scale unimaginable only a few short years ago, where the total volume of trade may be worth multiples of the value of the underlying commodity. At the same time, there is concern about the reliability of the system, and thus making it imperative to find new ways to manage reliability. Various suggestions are made as to how increased reliability of supply could be achieved by better management, new standards and better enforcement of

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  18. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  19. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  20. Boletus durhamensis sp. nov. from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Alan E. Bessette; Owen L. McConnell

    2016-01-01

    A new bolete with cinnamon-brown pores, Boletus durhamensis, is described. Collected in northern North Carolina, it is possibly mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Morphological and molecular characters support this taxon as a new species.

  1. Another Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Marta J

    2003-01-01

    At the conclusion of the six-nation talks in Beijing last August, North Korea announced there was no reason for further negotiations and their only option was to continue their nuclear weapons development program...

  2. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  3. GROUNDWATER, DRINKING WATER, ARSENIC POLLUTION, NORTH DAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Abdulmutalimova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we studied the chemical particularities of ground water of the North Daghestan, using by population as drinking water. In particular we examined the problem of arsenic pollution.

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  5. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entertainment software and equipment; recreational sports equipment; tobacco; wine and other alcoholic beverages... items meeting subsistence needs) intended for the benefit of the North Korean people; items in support...

  6. North Korean Crime-for-Profit Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael; Nanto, Dick K

    2007-01-01

    ... and counterfeiting of cigarettes expanding. Overall, the reported scale of this activity is significant and arguably provides important foreign currency resources to the military-oriented North Korean state...

  7. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  8. North Region ROW tool implementation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    Welcome to the North Region ROW Tool Workshop. This workshop is funded under an implementation project sponsored by TxDOTs Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI). This is the second of four regional workshops being planned for this summ...

  9. Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 7- 13 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Co as ta...ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 August 2017 Sediment Budget Analysis; Masonboro Inlet, North Carolina Kevin B. Conner U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington P...Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 Under Project 454632, “Sediment Budget Analysis, Masonboro Inlet, NC” ERDC/CHL TR-17-13 ii Abstract A

  10. The message in North American energy prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, A. [Department of Economics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Herbert, J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    1999-10-01

    How similar is the price behavior of North American natural gas, fuel oil, and power prices? Using current state-of-the-art econometric methodology, we explore the degree of shared trends across North American energy markets. Across these markets, there appear to be effective arbitraging mechanisms for the price of natural gas and fuel oil, but not for the price of electricity. 11 refs.

  11. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  12. Economic Performance and North Korean Regime Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As Cha and Anderson note, free markets have become the reliable means of survival in North Korea and these “markets create entrepreneurship , and... entrepreneurship creates an individualist way of thinking alien to the government.”9 If this case is true, the regime’s demise could very well be at...deep sense of guilt, thus giving Kim a tighter psychological control over the North Korea people. Kim Il-sung successfully transformed himself into

  13. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  14. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  15. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  16. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the purposes of...

  17. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  18. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  19. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...

  20. Economic impacts of Medicaid in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christopher; Hall, William; Garrett, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimates of the economic impacts of Medicaid program expenditures in North Carolina in state fiscal year (SFY) 2003. The study uses input-output analysis to estimate the economic impacts of Medicaid expenditures. The study uses North Carolina Medicaid program expenditure data for SFY 2003 as submitted by the North Carolina Division of Medical Assistance to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Industry structure data from 2002 that are part of the IMPLAN input-output modeling software database are also used in the analysis. In SFY 2003 $6.307 billion in Medicaid program expenditures occurred within the state of North Carolina-$3.941 billion federal dollars, $2.014 billion state dollars, and $351 million in local government funds. Each dollar of state and local government expenditures brought $1.67 in federal Medicaid cost-share to the state. The economic impacts within North Carolina of the 2003 Medicaid expenditures included the following: 182,000 jobs supported (including both full-time and some part-time jobs); $6.1 billion in labor income (wages, salaries, sole proprietorship/partnership profits); and $1.9 billion in capital income (rents, interest payments, corporate dividend payments). If the Medicaid program were shut down and the funds returned to taxpayers who saved/spent the funds according to typical consumer expenditure patterns, employment in North Carolina would fall by an estimated 67,400 jobs, and labor income would fall by $2.83 billion, due to the labor-intensive nature of Medicaid expenditures. Medicaid expenditure and economic impact results do not capture the economic value of the improved health and well-being of Medicaid recipients. Furthermore, the results do not capture the savings to society from increased preventive care and reduced uncompensated care resulting from Medicaid. State and local government expenditures do not fully capture the economic consequences of Medicaid

  1. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  2. GLOBAL COMPETITION BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca DIACONESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The human-geographic regionalization is a landmark in the demarcation of territories that include populations of the same demographic, cultural or economic background. A defining boundary for human characteristics across the planet can be made simple, between the North and the South. The north, though advanced economically, militarily, technologically, united, well-urbanized and landscaped, dominates the world for just 500 years before the South was in power. After a long period of stagnation, the South escapes the colonialist chains until the 1950s, after which begins a vast process of revival in which emerging new powers are emerging as well as a series of economic unions that can rival with the old powers in the North. Analyzing the number of inhabitants in the two regions, it is noted that demographic size is a priority in the slope of the power balance, so when one of the regions exceeded 50% of the total population of the Globe, it attracted wealth by exporting populations and culture that colonized the other half. After 1950, the South holds for the first time 400 years, over 50% of the total population, and in 2017 it reaches 62%, reaching 71% in 2050 and 81% of the world's population by 2100. understands that the economic difficulties in the North, financial crises, the limitation of global influence or the issue of immigrants is only at the beginning, and the transformation of the North into the southern vassal is just a matter of time.

  3. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  4. The Geology of Yemen: An Annotated Bibliography of Yemen’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sobreexplotacion De Acuiferos; Actas; Ponencias, Comunicaciones y Resumenes De Posters. XXIII International Congress on Aquifer Overexploitation...Overexploitation of Groundwater Resources in Wadi Hadramaut; XXIII Congreso Internacional Sobreexplotacion De Acuiferos; Actas; Ponencias, Comunicaciones y...de Acuiferos; Actas; Ponencias, Comunicaciones y Resumenes De Posters. XXIII International Congress on Aquifer Overexploitation; Proceedings

  5. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  6. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  7. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L.; Alatorre, C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...

  9. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  10. Book review: Bumble bees of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Bumblebee identification is generally considered straightforward, yet mistakes often are made due to the degree of similarity between the color patterns of different species. Bumble Bees of North America aims to improve the accuracy of identifications by both casual observers and professionals through the use of intuitive diagrams, descriptions, and the more technical dichotomous keys. In addition to providing the first complete field guide to North American bumblebees, the authors make efficient use of the reader’s attention by summarizing taxonomic history, favored food plants, and environmental issues concerning bumblebees.

  11. The North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Outcome and Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Keun

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the North Korean nuclear crisis and how to find the best method of dismantling the North's nuclear facilities. From empirical studies of North Korean negotiating behavior, strategy, intentions and future of the regime, North Korea seems unlikely to abandon its nuclear program, if left unconstrained. This paper analyzes North Korean nuclear strategy and discusses problems concerned with the North Korean nuclear issues. It will propose some resolutions for a comprehensive approach in order to find a solution to the North Korean nuclear threat: restarting the six-party talks; preparation of a sophisticated nuclear elimination road-map; encouraging the gradual transformation of North Korea and its integration into the international community. In the long run, when North Korean nuclear strategy is considered, dialogue and engagement combined with international pressure or proper sanctions is needed

  12. Coherent changes of wintertime surface air temperatures over North Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, Hai

    2018-03-29

    The surface temperature variance and its potential change with global warming are most prominent in winter over Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Consistent wintertime surface temperature variability has been observed over large areas in Eurasia and North America on a broad range of time scales. However, it remains a challenge to quantify where and how the coherent change of temperature anomalies occur over the two continents. Here we demonstrate the coherent change of wintertime surface temperature anomalies over North Asia and the central-eastern parts of North America for the period from 1951 to 2015. This is supported by the results from the empirical orthogonal function analysis of surface temperature and temperature trend anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lands and the timeseries analysis of the regional averaged temperature anomalies over North Asia and the Great Plains and Great Lakes. The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection provides a pathway to connect the regional temperature anomalies over the two continents. The ABNA is also responsible for the decadal variation of the temperature relationship between North Asia and North America.

  13. The Asian-Bering-North American teleconnection: seasonality, maintenance, and climate impact on North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection index is constructed from the normalized 500-hPa geopotential field by excluding the Pacific-North American pattern contribution. The ABNA pattern features a zonally elongated wavetrain originating from North Asia and flowing downstream across Bering Sea and Strait towards North America. The large-scale teleconnection is a year-round phenomenon that displays strong seasonality with the peak variability in winter. North American surface temperature and temperature extremes, including warm days and nights as well as cold days and nights, are significantly controlled by this teleconnection. The ABNA pattern has an equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere and is supported by synoptic-scale eddy forcing in the upper troposphere. Its associated sea surface temperature anomalies exhibit a horseshoe-shaped structure in the North Pacific, most prominent in winter, which is driven by atmospheric circulation anomalies. The snow cover anomalies over the West Siberian plain and Central Siberian Plateau in autumn and spring and over southern Siberia in winter may act as a forcing influence on the ABNA pattern. The snow forcing influence in winter and spring can be traced back to the preceding season, which provides a predictability source for this teleconnection and for North American temperature variability. The ABNA associated energy budget is dominated by surface longwave radiation anomalies year-round, with the temperature anomalies supported by anomalous downward longwave radiation and damped by upward longwave radiation at the surface.

  14. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America is investigated by analyzing data from a multi-decadal integration with a state of the art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. (orig.)

  15. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    [1] High biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system...... of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive...... observational records covering the relevant levels of the NAO index, we provide evidence that the North Sea pH and CO2 system strongly responds to external and internal expressions of the NAO. Under positive NAO, the higher rates of inflow of water from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic outflow lead...

  16. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  17. The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    dispatched air force pilots to assist Cairo during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War. However, there is still confusion about the timing of the Egyptian Scud...Norton, 1997, pp. 22-25. North Korea claims to have discovered Tangun’s remains in Pyongyang in 1993, and has since built a tomb for him on the

  18. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  19. North American trade growth continued in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Trade between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partnersCanada and Mexicohas more than doubled in dollar value since the inception of NAFTA in 1994. In 2007, U.S. trade with Canada and Mexico reached $909 bil...

  20. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...