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Sample records for north tan final

  1. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  2. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  3. North American Magazine Coverage of Skin Cancer and Recreational Tanning Before and After the WHO/IARC 2009 Classification of Indoor Tanning Devices as Carcinogenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    The mass media is an influential source of skin cancer information for the public. In 2009, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer classified UV radiation from tanning devices as carcinogenic. Our objective was to determine if media coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning increased in volume or changed in nature after this classification. We conducted a directed content analysis on 29 North American popular magazines (2007-2012) to investigate the overall volume of articles on skin cancer and recreational tanning and, more specifically, the presence of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection information in article text (n = 410) and images (n = 714). The volume of coverage on skin cancer and recreational tanning did not increase significantly after the 2009 classification of tanning beds as carcinogenic. Key-related messages, including that UV exposure is a risk factor for skin cancer and that indoor tanning should be avoided, were not reported more frequently after the classification, but the promotion of the tanned look as attractive was conveyed more often in images afterwards (p after the classification (p skin cancer risk factors, other UV behaviors, or early detection information over time. The classification of indoor tanning beds as carcinogenic had no significant impact on the volume or nature of skin cancer and recreational tanning coverage in magazines.

  4. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  5. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole TAN-2271 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole TAN-2272 was partially cored between 210 and 282 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) then drilled and constructed as a monitor well. Boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 are separated by about 63 ft and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geologic, geophysical, and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN-2272 required 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to total depths of 282 and 287 ft BLS, respectively. Depth to water is measured near 228 ft BLS in both boreholes. Following construction and data collection, temporary submersible pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.Borehole TAN-2271 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 33 ft BLS) to a depth of 284 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2271 was better than 98 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 33 to 211ft BLS primarily consists of two massive basalt flows that are about 78 and 50 ft in thickness and three sediment layers near 122, 197, and 201 ft BLS. Between 211 and 284 ft BLS, geophysical data and core material suggest a high occurrence of fractured and vesicular basalt. For the section of aquifer tested, there are two primary fractured aquifer intervals: the first between 235 and

  6. The New Global Digital Elevation Model : TanDEM-X DEM and its Final Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Rizzoli, Paola; Martone, Michele; Wecklich, Christopher; Borla Tridon, Daniela; Bachmann, Markus; Fritz, Thomas; Wessel, Birgit; Krieger, Gerhard; Zink, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) have become widely used in many scientific and commercial applications and there are several local products have been developed in the last years. They provide a representation of the topographic features of the landscape. The importance of them is known and valued in every geoscience field, but they have also vast use in navigation and in other commercial areas. The main goal of the TanDEM-X (TerraSARX add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) mission is the generation of a global DEM, homogeneous in quality with unprecedented global accuracy and resolution, which has been completed in mid-2016. For over four years, the almost identical satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X acquired single-pass interferometric SAR image pairs, from which is it possible to derive the topographic height by unwrapping the interferometric phase, unaffected by temporal decorrelation. Both satellites have been flying in close formation with a flexible geometric configuration. An optimized acquisition strategy aimed at achieving an absolute vertical accuracy much better than 10 meters and a relative vertical accuracy of 2 m and 4 m for flat and steep terrain, respectively, within a horizontal raster of 12 m x 12 m, which slightly varies depending on the geographic latitude. In this paper, we assess the performance of the global Tandem-X DEM, characterized in terms of relative and absolute vertical accuracy. The coverage statistics are also discussed in comparison to the previous almost global but with lower resolution DEM provided by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The exceptional quality of the global DEM is confirmed by the obtained results and the global TanDEM-X DEM is now ready to be distributed to the scientific and commercial community.

  7. Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Scam How to File a Complaint Anti-Aging Products Buying Cosmetic Contact Lenses? Ads for tanning ... Money & Credit Homes & Mortgages Health & Fitness Healthy Living Anti-Aging Products Buying Cosmetic Contact Lenses? Buying Health Products ...

  8. Bathymetric survey of water reservoirs in north-eastern Brazil based on TanDEM-X satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Foerster, Saskia; Medeiros, Pedro; de Araújo, José Carlos; Motagh, Mahdi; Waske, Bjoern

    2016-11-15

    Water scarcity in the dry season is a vital problem in dryland regions such as northeastern Brazil. Water supplies in these areas often come from numerous reservoirs of various sizes. However, inventory data for these reservoirs is often limited due to the expense and time required for their acquisition via field surveys, particularly in remote areas. Remote sensing techniques provide a valuable alternative to conventional reservoir bathymetric surveys for water resource management. In this study single pass TanDEM-X data acquired in bistatic mode were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) in the Madalena catchment, northeastern Brazil. Validation with differential global positioning system (DGPS) data from field measurements indicated an absolute elevation accuracy of approximately 1m for the TanDEM-X derived DEMs (TDX DEMs). The DEMs derived from TanDEM-X data acquired at low water levels show significant advantages over bathymetric maps derived from field survey, particularly with regard to coverage, evenly distributed measurements and replication of reservoir shape. Furthermore, by mapping the dry reservoir bottoms with TanDEM-X data, TDX DEMs are free of emergent and submerged macrophytes, independent of water depth (e.g. >10m), water quality and even weather conditions. Thus, the method is superior to other existing bathymetric mapping approaches, particularly for inland water bodies. The proposed approach relies on (nearly) dry reservoir conditions at times of image acquisition and is thus restricted to areas that show considerable water levels variations. However, comparisons between TDX DEM and the bathymetric map derived from field surveys show that the amount of water retained during the dry phase has only marginal impact on the total water volume derivation from TDX DEM. Overall, DEMs generated from bistatic TanDEM-X data acquired in low water periods constitute a useful and efficient data source for deriving reservoir bathymetry and show

  9. Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in North American magazines before and after the landmark 2006 International Agency for Research on Cancer report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-02-21

    Skin cancer is an increasingly important global public health problem. Mass media is a key source of skin cancer information. We examined how media coverage of skin cancer has changed over time as a consequence of the release of a key public health report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2006, which linked ultraviolet (UV) radiation from indoor tanning and skin cancer. A directed content analysis of skin cancer and tanning coverage in 29 popular North American magazines (2001-2012) examined reporting of skin cancer risk factors, UV behaviors, and early detection in article text (n = 761) and images (n = 1267). Chi-square and correlational analyses were used determine whether coverage changed in relation to the 2006 IARC report. The total volume of articles about skin cancer and tanning increased modestly after the IARC report (χ (2) = 4.57, df = 1, p after compared to before the report. There were virtually no changes in the percentage of coverage for both risk factors and early detection information over time. There were some changes in the percentage of coverage about UV behaviors after the IARC report, but these variables were not directly related to the report. Magazines were more likely to encourage sunscreen use (χ (2) = 11.55, df = 1, p after the IARC report. It also became less common for magazines to promote sun avoidance (χ (2) = 6.82, df = 1, p after the report. Despite a modest increase in volume of coverage post-IARC report, key messages from the report were not taken up by the media. While there have been some improvements in magazine reporting, there is a need for more effective dissemination of public health messages about skin cancer and tanning.

  10. Risks of Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safe tan. The increase in skin pigment, called melanin, which causes the tan color change in your ... to UV radiation, it increases the production of melanin in an attempt to protect the skin from ...

  11. CIRCULATION IN BATHROOM TANNING TANNING INDUSTRIES WITHIN A CONTEXT OF CLEANER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Colotta, G.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of recycling pickling-tanning baths, ensuring the quality of the final product at ali times and achieving, on the one hand, the reduction of saline pollution (50%) caused by pickling and tanning baths and, on the other hand, the reduction of chromium salt (14%) in tanning wastewater. With regards to the anatytical parameters of the bath, the results show that the parameters analysed (pH, conductivity, density, chlorides, sulp...

  12. Magazine exposure, tanned women stereotypes, and tanning attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Seungyoon; Wilson, Kari

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated whether magazine exposure is related to stereotypical beliefs about tanned women. A survey of White college women (n=205) assessed their exposure to beauty/fashion and health/fitness magazines. Outcome variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow. Attention to the tanned women's images in health magazines positively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit and that tanned women are shallow; in contrast, attention to the images in beauty magazine negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit. Number of beauty magazines women read negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are shallow. The belief that tanned women are fit was unrelated, but the belief that tanned women are shallow was negatively related, with tanning attitudes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor Tanning (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Indoor ... in the sun is bad for you — sun worshippers have prematurely aging skin, wrinkles, and maybe even skin cancer to look forward to. But what about tanning ...

  14. 77 FR 37806 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and temporary... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  15. 78 FR 35766 - North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 North Carolina: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... Carolina has applied to EPA for final authorization of changes to its hazardous waste program under the... final complete program revision application, seeking authorization of changes to its hazardous waste...

  16. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  17. 77 FR 14857 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... addresses provided above. The FEIS and ROD can be viewed and downloaded from the project Web site at www... Hoops, Major Projects Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, Raleigh, North Carolina. BILLING CODE... Federal Highway Administration Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina AGENCY...

  18. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  19. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  20. SEWABILITY PROPERTIES OF GARMENT LEATHERS TANNED WITH VARIOUS TANNING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromium tannage is the most used technology in processing of garment leathers. Due to environmental requirements and demands on natural products there is an increasing interest on alternatives to chromium tannage especially on vegetable tanned leathers. Leather properties vary in a very wide range depending on the animal type it is obtained from and the process type and chemicals used in the manufacturing. In this study, the effect of various tanning materials to the sewability of garment leathers was investigated. For this purpose, vegetable, chromium and chromium-vegetable combination tanned garment leathers from the same animal origin were supplied from a garment leather manufacturing factory. Needle penetration force and the sewability values of these leathers were determined by using L&M Sewability Tester. It was found that material properties and sewing properties showed differences regarding to the tanning material used even in same type of raw material. Chromium tanned leathers had sewability values of 13.4% horizontal and 14.2% vertical which are considered good to fair. Vegetable tanned leathers and chromium-vegetable tanned leathers had sewability values of 38.2% horizontal, 49.2% vertical and 98% horizontal, 98.5% vertical respectively which are considered poor. The results of the study conclude that, there is a big difference in material properties when the tanning technology and material is changed which also affects the sewing properties.

  1. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  2. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  3. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harland

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174 and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one's body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  4. Solar wind tans young asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    A new study published in Nature this week reveals that asteroid surfaces age and redden much faster than previously thought -- in less than a million years, the blink of an eye for an asteroid. This study has finally confirmed that the solar wind is the most likely cause of very rapid space weathering in asteroids. This fundamental result will help astronomers relate the appearance of an asteroid to its actual history and identify any after effects of a catastrophic impact with another asteroid. ESO PR Photo 16a/09 Young Asteroids Look Old "Asteroids seem to get a ‘sun tan' very quickly," says lead author Pierre Vernazza. "But not, as for people, from an overdose of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, but from the effects of its powerful wind." It has long been known that asteroid surfaces alter in appearance with time -- the observed asteroids are much redder than the interior of meteorites found on Earth [1] -- but the actual processes of this "space weathering" and the timescales involved were controversial. Thanks to observations of different families of asteroids [2] using ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, as well as telescopes in Spain and Hawaii, Vernazza's team have now solved the puzzle. When two asteroids collide, they create a family of fragments with "fresh" surfaces. The astronomers found that these newly exposed surfaces are quickly altered and change colour in less than a million years -- a very short time compared to the age of the Solar System. "The charged, fast moving particles in the solar wind damage the asteroid's surface at an amazing rate [3]", says Vernazza. Unlike human skin, which is damaged and aged by repeated overexposure to sunlight, it is, perhaps rather surprisingly, the first moments of exposure (on the timescale considered) -- the first million years -- that causes most of the aging in asteroids. By studying different families of asteroids, the team has also shown that an asteroid

  5. Associations between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnan, Elizabeth; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Darlow, Susan; Heckman, Carolyn J

    2015-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for indoor tanning may ultimately aid the development of better indoor tanning prevention strategies, which is pertinent given the association between indoor tanning and skin cancer. This study aimed to examine the relationship between seasonal sleep change and indoor tanning. Female tanners (N=139) completed self-report measures including items relating to seasonal sleep changes, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), reasons for tanning, tanning during the winter months, and the Tanning Pathology Scale (TAPS), which measures problematic tanning motives and symptoms of tanning dependence. It was hypothesized that seasonal sleep change and SAD would be associated with greater indoor tanning during the winter, more tanning to improve mood and to relax, and higher scores on the TAPS. Findings indicated that more seasonal sleep change was associated with tanning to improve mood and higher scores on the TAPS. Similarly, the presence of SAD was related to tanning to improve mood, tanning to relax, and more problematic tanning.

  6. Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the epidermis, where they trigger cells called melanocytes (pronounced: mel- an -oh-sites) to produce melanin . ... more deeply than lighter-skinned people because their melanocytes produce more melanin. But just because a person ...

  7. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically.

  8. 7 CFR 29.3066 - Tan color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tan color. 29.3066 Section 29.3066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Tan color. A light red-yellow....

  9. Indoor tanning promotions on social media in six US cities #UVTanning #tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Christine A; Asdigian, Nancy L; Kalra, Heidi L; Mayer, Joni A; Dellavalle, Robert P; Holman, Dawn M; Crane, Lori A

    2016-06-01

    There is no research investigating indoor tanning advertising on social media. We assessed the use of social media to promote indoor tanning. We subscribed to social media platforms in six US cities and content-analyzed promotional messages received. We captured 662 messages on Twitter and Facebook, through salon emails, and in daily deal coupons. Salon postings were most frequent on Twitter and Facebook, with an average of 2-3 postings per week. National chains posted more frequently than local businesses. Forty percent of messages were devoid of tanning content and included photos, jokes, or popular references. Thirty percent mentioned price reductions, and 28 % referenced an upcoming holiday. Sunless tanning (17 %) was promoted more often than ultraviolet tanning (9 %). Tanning salons actively use social media as a strategy for maintaining relationships with customers and offer pricing deals that promote loyalty and high-frequency tanning.

  10. 78 FR 70093 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For FHWA: Clarence W. Coleman, P. E., Director of Preconstruction and Environment... Carolina 27601-1418; Telephone: (919) 747-7014; email: clarence.coleman@dot.gov . FHWA North Carolina Division Office's normal business hours are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. (Eastern Time). For the North...

  11. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  12. Personal UV biodosimeter for healthy indoor tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, I. P.; Orlova, T. N.

    2008-04-01

    The practice of indoor tanning has led to the development of a large artificial tanning industry. In addition to psychological benefits, exposure to UVB light helps the body produce the activated form of vitamin D, which is necessary for many cellular functions. But uncontrolled tanning and UV overexposure can increase the risk of skin cancer. For direct checkout of the vitamin D synthetic capacity of a UV source the bio-equivalent UV dosimeter has been developed that is based on the same molecular photochemistry from which vitamin D is photosynthesized in human skin and makes possible both instrumental and visual indication of vitamin D synthesis.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment : Recreation management on the Lake Minatare Unit, North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of removing portions of the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge from the National...

  14. South Korea-North Korea Relations: Sunshine's Final Sunset? Maybe Not

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidan Foster-Carter

    2016-01-01

      North Korea's decision to start the new year with a bang -- its fourth nuclear test, carried out on January 6 -- guaranteed a downturn in inter-Korean ties, and in the DPRK's relations with the international community...

  15. The Secret Life of Quarks, Final Report for the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Robert J. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This final report summarizes activities and results at the University of North Carolina as part of the the SciDAC-2 Project The Secret Life of Quarks: National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics. The overall objective of the project is to construct the software needed to study quantum chromo- dynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions of subatomic physics, and similar strongly coupled gauge theories anticipated to be of importance in the LHC era. It built upon the successful efforts of the SciDAC-1 project National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory, in which a QCD Applications Programming Interface (QCD API) was developed that enables lat- tice gauge theorists to make effective use of a wide variety of massively parallel computers. In the SciDAC-2 project, optimized versions of the QCD API were being created for the IBM Blue- Gene/L (BG/L) and BlueGene/P (BG/P), the Cray XT3/XT4 and its successors, and clusters based on multi-core processors and Infiniband communications networks. The QCD API is being used to enhance the performance of the major QCD community codes and to create new applications. Software libraries of physics tools have been expanded to contain sharable building blocks for inclusion in application codes, performance analysis and visualization tools, and software for au- tomation of physics work flow. New software tools were designed for managing the large data sets generated in lattice QCD simulations, and for sharing them through the International Lattice Data Grid consortium. As part of the overall project, researchers at UNC were funded through ASCR to work in three general areas. The main thrust has been performance instrumentation and analysis in support of the SciDAC QCD code base as it evolved and as it moved to new computation platforms. In support of the performance activities, performance data was to be collected in a database for the purpose of broader analysis. Third, the UNC

  16. GCN/TAN: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2015-04-01

    The Gamma-ray Coordinates Network / Transient Astronomy Network (GCN/TAN) is your one-stop shopping place for all transient astronomy. It collects nearly all the astrophysical transients from the missions (space-based and ground-based), puts them into a standard format, and distributes them to whomever wishes to receive them. This is all done autonomously (completely autonomous within GCN/TAN, and almost always autonomously within the producer end of operations). This automation means minimal time delays (dependant on the internet email protocol and the number of hops (both of which are out of the control of GCN/TAN). A status report on the current set of sources of transient information, plus recently-added and soon-to-be-added source will be given. Also, a standing request for GCN/TAN to incorporate your transient data stream; plus instruction for customers to receive GCN/TAAN Notice and Circular information.

  17. Many College Women Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Ignore Indoor Tanning's Risks 7 out of 10 surveyed overlook connection to skin cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ...

  18. [Technical assistance to North Carolina industries]. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, A.A.

    1997-03-14

    The purpose of this CRADA was to provide a mechanism whereby private sector companies within the State of North Carolina could access the vast technological resources available at the Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This assistance was focused on assisting companies within the State to become more globally competitive. The North Carolina State University Industrial Extension Service and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (LMES), provided companies within the state of North Carolina up to four days of technical assistance at no charge. As a result of those interactions, there has been an economic impact of $4.2 million dollars reported over the life of the CRADA. This report contains a review of the objectives of this CRADA, and the status of each objectives. It also contains information on how the work performed under this CRADA benefited the sponsor in pursuing its mission. Details of private sector impact and how it was measured and collected are discussed.

  19. Radiological characterization of the TAN-IET facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppen, L.D.; Rodriguez, S.V.; Wheeler, O.A.; Cadwell, E.D.; Simpson, O.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Initial Engine Test (IET) facility is located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site at the north end of Test Area North (TAN). The IET facility was constructed and used for the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program during the 1950's and was later used for two other programs: the Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient (SNAP-TRAN) and the Hallam Decontamination and Decommissioning Project. The facility is no longer in use, therefore, a complete radiological characterization was conducted at the IET site. The characterization included measurements of beta-gamma dose rates; beta-gamma and alpha surface contamination; concentrations of selected radionuclides in subsurface storage tanks, surface soil, the exhaust duct, stack and test pad; and a walk-over surface survey of the entire facility. The information contained in this report will be of great value as the IET facility goes through the decommissioning and decontamination process.

  20. 75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...-Acre Trust Acquisition and Hotel/Casino Project, Madera County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... of Transportation (Caltrans), Madera Irrigation District, City of Madera, National Indian Gaming... acquisition and casino-resort project in unincorporated Madera County, just north of the City of Madera...

  1. An Epidemologic Study of High School Football Injuries in North Carolina--1968-1972. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Carl S.; Mueller, Frederick O.

    This report describes a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying epidemiologic methods in determining the extent of the problem of high school football injuries in North Carolina and to interrelate certain variables associated with the problem of risk in athletics. It provides a descriptive baseline of data on high school football…

  2. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  3. Use of chitosan for chromium removal from exhausted tanning baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Lanzetta, Rosa; Mancino, Anna; Naviglio, Biagio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Sartorio, Roberto; Tomaselli, Michele; Tortora, Gelsomina

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach, based on chitosan heavy-metal sequestrating ability, is proposed for chromium(III) removal from spent tanning liquor. Experimental results, obtained at lab-scale using real wastewater, are presented and discussed. Resulting efficiencies are extremely high, and strongly dependent on chitosan dose and pH value. Comparative analyses with other polysaccharides is also carried out showing that amine groups are more efficient than carboxyl and sulphate ones. Chromium recovery from sorption complexes and chitosan regeneration is finally proposed to optimize the whole process. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  4. The North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative. Initial Findings. Final Report. Working Group 1 - Grid Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    This report focuses on the tasks and results from Working Group 1 (WG1), grid configuration and integration, chaired jointly by representatives from Denmark and the Netherlands. The methodology, assumptions concerning generation portfolio, load situation, available technology and results are presented. This report presents the WG1 Offshore Grid Study that supports the North Seas Countries' Offshore Grid Initiative (NSCOGI) final report. The information contained in this report aims to evaluate the long-term development of an offshore grid structure in the North Seas by providing a view on how such a grid may possibly develop in the future, based on the assumptions made for this study. The report aims to compare and evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of the long term development of an optimised, integrated (or meshed) offshore grid in the North Seas by providing a view of how that possible grid might develop in the future against changes to the electricity energy requirements. To evaluate basic variants, different transmission design topologies (radial and meshed) were compared and analysed with respect to various aspects, such as cost/benefits, import and export levels and the systems' CO2 emissions.

  5. Applicative chemistry of tanning metallic heterocomplexes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidau, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of heterocomplex compounds is a fascinating field for experts in chemical synthesis and structural analysis, and for technologists specializing in leather processing. This volume describes the vast theoretical and practical possibilities of exploiting the action synergism of metals with different collagen cross-linking capacity. The possibility of reducing chromium content from leather tanning agents by replacing it with other tanning metals has significant environmental implications and minimum changes in terms of quality and production costs of natural leather, and is a viable

  6. Supersymmetric radiative corrections at large tan {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, H.E.

    2001-02-20

    In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), fermion masses and Yukawa couplings receive radiative corrections at one loop from diagrams involving the supersymmetric particles. The corrections to the relation between down-type fermion masses and Yukawa couplings are enhanced by tan {beta}, which makes them potentially very significant at large tan {beta}. These corrections affect a wide range of processes in the MSSM, including neutral and charged Higgs phenomenology, rare B meson decays, and renormalization of the CKM matrix. We give a pedagogical review of the sources and phenomenological effects of these corrections.

  7. Comparison of tanning with flour Caesalpinia Spinosa, with mineral tanning with skins chrome sulphate chervines

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2016-01-01

    In the lab of tannery skins of the FCP, the ESPOCH was the comparison of tanning with extract of plant polyphenols in Caesalpinia Spinosa, with a mineral tanning of sulfate of chromium for goat skins, i.e. 2 treatments with 7 repetitions each one, and in two consecutive runs a total of 28 experimental units were modeled under a completely randomized design in bivariate array. The results indicate that the most suitable tanning was to use plant polyphenols Caesalpinia Spinosa, (tara), since it...

  8. Source Apportionment of Final Particulate Matterin North China Plain based on Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, J.; Wu, W.; Chang, X.; Wang, S.; Hao, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most Chinese cities in North China Plain are suffering from serious air pollution. To develop the regional air pollution control policies, we need to identify the major source contributions to such pollution and to design the control policy which is accurate, efficient and effective. This study used the air quality model with serval advanced technologies including ISAM and ERSM, to assess the source contributions from individual pollutants (incl. SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3, primary PM), sectors (incl. power plants, industry, transportation and domestic), and regions (Beijing, Hebei, Tianjing and surrounding provinces). The modeling period is two months in 2012 as January and July which represent winter and summer respectively. The non-linear relationship between air pollutant emissions and air quality will be addressed, and the integrated control of multi-pollutants and multi-regions in China will be suggested.

  9. Source characterization of selected North Caspian events from the relative excitation of regional phases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.

    1981-11-01

    Seismograms of seven recent events (presumed underground nuclear explosions) which occurred during 1976-1979 in the North Caspian Sea region of the western Soviet Kazakh are compared at regional distances for their relative source excitation characteristics. The body wave magnitude estimates of these events range from 5.1 to 6.0. The data consist of analog and digital records collected at stations ranging in instrumental sophistication from temporary sites with single component smoke drum capability to those of SRO, ASRO and array (ILPA) configurations with digitally recorded down-hole observations. The amplitude and frequency measurements of the analog seismograms for the first arrival and the peak amplitude of P coda as well as for the clear S wave signals recorded for different events at the same station are compared.

  10. Psychometric assessment of the craving to tan questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians suggest that excessive tanning may be a behavioral addiction. Given the significance of craving in substance use, craving may be a useful construct to assess in those who tan. We designed this study to assess the psychometric properties of an alcohol craving measure adapted to measure past-week craving to tan. Undergraduate students (n = 421) who reported past-month tanning completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed demographics, tanning-related characteristics, and psychopathology, in addition to the Craving to Tan Questionnaire (CTQ). Analyses provided support for a single factor CTQ with good internal consistency, construct validity and convergent validity. CTQ scores were significantly higher among problematic versus non-problematic and dependent versus non-dependent tanners. CTQ scores were also associated with several tanning-related characteristics, such money spent on tanning in a typical month, frequency of tanning, and frequency of tanning-related problems. Additional analyses found that past-week craving to tan was significantly associated with greater obsessive compulsive and body dysmorphic symptoms. It may be useful in clinical settings to identify those experiencing problems with tanning and in research to further clarify the conceptualization of addiction-like tanning. However, the CTQ needs further evaluation.

  11. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  12. TaN resistor process development and integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Kathleen (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Marino John; Clevenger, Jascinda; Austin, Franklin H., IV (, LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Wolfley, Steven L.; Patrizi, Gary A.; Vigil, Pablita S. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM); Grine, Alejandro J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an integrated resistor process based on reactively sputtered tantalum nitride. Image reversal lithography was shown to be a superior method for liftoff patterning of these films. The results of a response surface DOE for the sputter deposition of the films are discussed. Several approaches to stabilization baking were examined and the advantages of the hot plate method are shown. In support of a new capability to produce special-purpose HBT-based Small-Scale Integrated Circuits (SSICs), we developed our existing TaN resistor process, designed for research prototyping, into one with greater maturity and robustness. Included in this work was the migration of our TaN deposition process from a research-oriented tool to a tool more suitable for production. Also included was implementation and optimization of a liftoff process for the sputtered TaN to avoid the complicating effects of subtractive etching over potentially sensitive surfaces. Finally, the method and conditions for stabilization baking of the resistors was experimentally determined to complete the full implementation of the resistor module. Much of the work to be described involves the migration between sputter deposition tools - from a Kurt J. Lesker CMS-18 to a Denton Discovery 550. Though they use nominally the same deposition technique (reactive sputtering of Ta with N{sup +} in a RF-excited Ar plasma), they differ substantially in their design and produce clearly different results in terms of resistivity, conformity of the film and the difference between as-deposited and stabilized films. We will describe the design of and results from the design of experiments (DOE)-based method of process optimization on the new tool and compare this to what had been used on the old tool.

  13. UV tanning advertisements in national high school newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgreen, Seth J; Domozych, Renee; Doctor, Monica; Reimer, Christine; Self, Alyssa; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2017-04-15

    Many young adults have utilized indoor ultraviolet(UV) tanning, putting them at higher risk for development of skin cancers. Prior to the increased regulations on indoor tanning for minors, indoor tanning businesses marketed to teens through modalities such as advertisements in high school newspapers. The purpose of this study was to quantify tanning advertisements in high school newspapers published across the United States between August 2014 and July 2015. Online versions of the newspaper issues were available on issuu.com. Tanning advertisements appeared in 3 of 23 high school newspapers with advertisements of any kind(13%). Among all newspapers with advertisements, 10% were indoor tanning advertisements. One newspaper in Colorado contained advertisements of any kind and had 0 tanning advertisements. A prior study of Colorado high schools showed 11 of 23 schools (48%) to contain tanning advertisements. This suggests that there may be a decrease in indoor UV tanning advertisements owing to increased tanning regulation by state legislatures, national attention to UV tanning, or a general decrease in high school tanning advertisements.

  14. Ultrasound assisted chrome tanning: Towards a clean leather production technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Embialle; Smets, Ilse; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing demand for a cleaner, but still effective alternative for production processes like in the leather industry. Ultrasound (US) assisted processing of leather might be promising in this sense. In the present paper, the use of US in the conventional chrome tanning process has been studied at different pH, temperature, tanning time, chrome dose and US exposure time by exposing the skin before tanning and during tanning operation. Both prior exposure of the skin to US and US during tanning improves the chrome uptake and reduces the shrinkage significantly. Prior exposure of the skin to US increase the chrome uptake by 13.8% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 5% (% based on skin weight) and shorten the process time by half while US during tanning increases the chrome uptake by 28.5% or reduces the chrome dose from 8% to 4% (half) and the tanning time to one third compared to the control without US. Concomitantly, the resulting leather quality (measured as skin shrinkage) improved from 5.2% to 3.2% shrinkage in the skin exposed to US prior tanning and to 1.3% in the skin exposed to US during the tanning experiment. This study confirms that US chrome tanning is an effective and eco-friendly tanning process which can produce a better quality leather product in a shorter process time with a lower chromium dose.

  15. Volcanic geomorphology using TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Kubanek, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Topography is perhaps the most fundamental dataset for any volcano, yet is surprisingly difficult to collect, especially during the course of an eruption. For example, photogrammetry and lidar are time-intensive and often expensive, and they cannot be employed when the surface is obscured by clouds. Ground-based surveys can operate in poor weather but have poor spatial resolution and may expose personnel to hazardous conditions. Repeat passes of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data provide excellent spatial resolution, but topography in areas of surface change (from vegetation swaying in the wind to physical changes in the landscape) between radar passes cannot be imaged. The German Space Agency's TanDEM-X satellite system, however, solves this issue by simultaneously acquiring SAR data of the surface using a pair of orbiting satellites, thereby removing temporal change as a complicating factor in SAR-based topographic mapping. TanDEM-X measurements have demonstrated exceptional value in mapping the topography of volcanic environments in as-yet limited applications. The data provide excellent resolution (down to ~3-m pixel size) and are useful for updating topographic data at volcanoes where surface change has occurred since the most recent topographic dataset was collected. Such data can be used for applications ranging from correcting radar interferograms for topography, to modeling flow pathways in support of hazards mitigation. The most valuable contributions, however, relate to calculating volume changes related to eruptive activity. For example, limited datasets have provided critical measurements of lava dome growth and collapse at volcanoes including Merapi (Indonesia), Colima (Mexico), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), and of basaltic lava flow emplacement at Tolbachik (Kamchatka), Etna (Italy), and Kīlauea (Hawai`i). With topographic data spanning an eruption, it is possible to calculate eruption rates - information that might not otherwise be available

  16. Review of Interventions to Reduce Ultraviolet Tanning: Need for Treatments Targeting Excessive Tanning, an Emerging Addictive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-06-22

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. TanDEM-X Bistatic SAR Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Balss, Ulrich; Niedermeier, Andreas; Breit, Helko

    2010-01-01

    In June, 2010 the German SAR satellite TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X-Add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) will be launched. Together with TerraSAR-X, launched June 15, 2007, it will form the first spaceborne bistatic SAR platform. Usually one of the satellite is transmitting (active satellite), while both are receiving. As both satellites fly in a helix orbit constellation, during a recording a satellite has to be passive, if the other one is close to the line of sight to the observation targ...

  18. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  19. Modeling of TAN in recirculating aquaculture systems by AQUASIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) contribute to identifying and quantifying the most important processes and their relative contribution to removal of TAN. AQUASIM is a flexible modular simulation system for water quality in natural and technical...... systems developed by EAWAG (Reichert, 1994). AQUASIM allows simulating complex biological, chemical and physical processes in standardized hydraulic systems. We used AQUASIM to model the steady state TAN concentrations in 12 experimental recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) operated by DTU AQUA...

  20. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  1. Spondilodiskitis tanı ve tedavisi

    OpenAIRE

    Aydinli, Ufuk

    2004-01-01

    Bu çalışmada 4 sponilodiskit olgusu sunuldu ve tartışıldı. Olguların 3'ü erkek, 1'i kadın olup yaşları 17 ile 63 arasında değişmekle idi. Olguların ana şikayeti sırt ve bel ağrısı olup tanı konulana kadar geçen süre 1,5-7 ay arasında idi. İki olguda batın ve loraks operasyonu öyküsü olup, bir olguda ise kronik böbrek yetmezliği vardı. Enfeksiyona neden olan mikroorganizma iki olguda stafilokoküs aureus, bir olguda psödomonas aeroginosa ve bir olguda ise stafilokoküs epidermidis idi....

  2. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  3. 78 FR 34874 - Indoor Tanning Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... similar program. In the case of promotions that entitle a customer to a ``free'' tan with the purchase of... point-of- sale software programs that automatically calculate the tax on the sale of indoor tanning... these types of sales, a process that the commenters said is time consuming, expensive, and prone...

  4. Does the Portrayal of Tanning in Australian Women's Magazines Relate to Real Women's Tanning Beliefs and Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G.; Warne, Charles D.; Scully, Maree L.; Wakefield, Melanie A.; Dobbinson, Suzanne J.

    2011-01-01

    Content analysis data on the tans of 4,422 female Caucasian models sampled from spring and summer magazine issues were combined with readership data to generate indices of potential exposure to social modeling of tanning via popular women's magazines over a 15-year period (1987 to 2002). Associations between these indices and cross-sectional…

  5. The deceptive nature of UVA-tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB-tanning on human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G.; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin due to the constitutively higher pigmentation but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photoprotective benefit, if any, is afforded by facultative pigmentation (i.e. a tan induced by UV exposure). To address that and to compare the effects of various wavelengths of UV, we repetitively exposed human skin to suberythemal doses of UVA and/or UVB over 2 weeks after which a challenge dose of UVA&UVB was given. Although visual skin pigmentation (tanning) elicited by the different UV exposure protocols was similar, the melanin content and UV-protective effects against DNA damage in UVB-tanned skin (but not in UVA-tanned skin) were significantly higher. UVA-induced tans seem to result from the photooxidation of existing melanin and its precursors with some redistribution of pigment granules while UVB stimulates melanocytes to up-regulate melanin synthesis and increases pigmentation coverage, effects that are synergistically stimulated in UVA and UVB-exposed skin. Thus, UVA-tanning contributes essentially no photoprotection, although all types of UV-induced tanning result in DNA and cellular damage which can eventually lead to photocarcinogenesis. PMID:20979596

  6. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan" published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin ("Vot-vot" and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!". Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  7. Historical aphasia cases: "Tan-tan", "Vot-vot", and "Cré nom!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; Caramelli, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    We describe three cases of aphasia in patients who were internationally famous historical personalities, such as the case of Mr. Leborgne ("Tan") published by Paul Broca in 1861, which became a reference for the study of aphasias. The other cases described here are those of the Russian revolutionary and politician Vladimir Ilyitch Ulianov (Lenin) ("Vot-vot") and the French poet Charles Baudelaire ("Cré nom!"). Besides their historical relevance and the clinical picture of aphasia, these three cases share as a common feature the occurrence of speech automatisms or stereotypes.

  8. Tan's distributions and Fermi-Huang pseudopotential in momentum space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The long-standing question of finding the momentum representation for the s-wave zero-range interaction in three spatial dimensions is here solved. This is done by expressing a certain distribution, introduced in a formal way in [ S. Tan Ann. Phys. (NY) 323 2952 (2008)], explicitly. The resulting...... form of the Fourier-transformed pseudopotential remains very simple. Operator forms for the so-called Tan's selectors, which, together with Fermi-Huang pseudopotential, largely simplify the derivation of Tan's universal relations for the Fermi gas, are here derived and are also very simple. A momentum...... cutoff version of the pseudopotential is also provided, and with this no apparent contradiction to the notion of integrals in Tan's methods is left. The equivalence, even at the intermediate-step level, between the pseudopotential approach and momentum-space renormalization of the bare Dirac delta...

  9. More Teens Turning Their Backs on Tanning Beds: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tanning beds likely has been the major driver in the observed decline, said Guy and Dr. ... concerted effort to get people to change their behavior." SOURCES: Gery Guy Jr., Ph.D., MPH, health ...

  10. Improving fundamental factors among correlation matching algorithms in underwater TANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Yan, Lei; Tong, Qingxi

    2007-06-01

    TERCOM, ICP and TIEM algorithms, which mathematically all apply correlation matching mode, have been developed for positioning in underwater Terrain-aided Navigation System (TANS), but how to virtually improve their performance is still research puzzle now. Analyzing the characters of terrain reference data's distribution and vehicles prowling underwater, we find that grid spacing and accumulation sequence are two decisional elements of underwater TANS. Then the modified Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimation algorithm (M-MAP) from super-resolution images reconstruction is creatively explored for implementing interpolation to enhance the accuracy of non-surveyed points' deep-determination, and basic error mechanism model (EMM) based on Mean Absolute Difference (MAD) algorithm is deduced which can reflect the relationship of underwater TANS's inner factors. Simulation experiments indicate that adopting appropriate fundamental factors can effectively boost up underwater TANS's navigation competence based on the algorithms listed above.

  11. Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang Meets Chinese Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Yiyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The visiting Vietnamese President Truong Tan Sang had a cordial meeting with Chinese personages friendly to Vietnam in the Vietnamese Embassy in China on June 20.The meeting was jointly arranged by

  12. First Bistatic Spaceborne SAR Experiments with TanDEM-X

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cassola, Marc; Prats, Pau; Schulze, Daniel; Tous-Ramon, Nuria; Steinbrecher, Ulrich; Marotti, Luca; Nanninni, Matteo; Younis, Marwan; Lopez-Dekker, Paco; Zink, Manfred; Reigber, Andreas; Krieger, Gerhard; Moreira, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    TanDEM-X is a high-resolution interferometric mission with the main goal of providing a global and unprecedentedly accurate digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth surface by means of single-pass X-band SAR interferometry. Despite its usual quasi-monostatic configuration, TanDEM-X is the first genuinely bistatic SAR system in space. During its monostatic commissioning phase, the system has been mainly operated in pursuit monostatic mode. However, some pioneering bistat...

  13. POTENTIAL OF VEGETABLE TANNING MATERIALS AND BASIC ALUMINUM SULPHATE IN SUDANESE LEATHER INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI, HAROUN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological pressures on chromium have now forced the leather industry to look for possible alternatives. A vegetable- aluminum combination tannage has been studied, with special attention being given to intended final product. Aluminum is mineral tanning agents that are widely used to stabilize collagens in the leather industry. In this study, the crosslinking of vegetable and aluminum, with collagens, have been explored. This kind of chrome free tannage give us leathers with shrinkage temperature around 125oC, elongation at break 65.6%, tensile strength 38 N/mm2, and tear strength 98 N/mm. The chemical properties of the combination tanned leathers are found to be quite normal. Among the combination system evaluated, a vegetable pretannage followed by retannage with basic aluminum sulphate was found to produce stronger leather with the durable characteristics. In contrast, pre-tanning with aluminum possibly tightens the collagen fiber network, preventing high molecular weight vegetable tannins from interacting with collagen fibres. Optimal results were obtained when 10% (w/w vegetable tannins (garad and 2% Aluminum sulphate was used.

  14. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson's hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report of research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson’s hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District...

  15. Breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainson's hawks, and northern harriers in south-central North Dakota : Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report of research survey to document the breeding ecology of ferruginous hawks, Swainsons hawk, and northern harrier in Kulm Wetland Management District WMD...

  16. Point defects stabilise cubic Mo-N and Ta-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutná, Nikola; Holec, David; Svoboda, Ondřej; Klimashin, Fedor F.; Mayrhofer, Paul H.

    2016-09-01

    We employ ab initio calculations to investigate energetics of point defects in metastable rocksalt cubic Ta-N and Mo-N. Our results reveal a strong tendency to off-stoichiometry, i.e. defected structures are surprisingly predicted to be more stable than perfect ones with 1:1 metal-to-nitrogen stoichiometry. Despite the similarity of Ta-N and Mo-N systems in exhibiting this unusual behaviour, we also point out their crucial differences. While Ta-N significantly favours metal vacancies, Mo-N exhibits similar energies of formation regardless of the vacancy type (V Mo, V N) as long as their concentration is below ≈ 15~\\text{at}. % . The overall lowest energies of formation were obtained for \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.78}\\text{N} and \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.91}\\text{N} , which are hence predicted to be the most stable compositions. To account for various experimental conditions during synthesis, we further evaluated the phase stability as a function of chemical potential of individual species. The proposed phase diagrams reveal four stable compositions, \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.84}\\text{N} , \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}0.91}\\text{N} , \\text{Mo}{{\\text{N}}0.69} and \\text{Mo}{{\\text{N}}0.44} , in the case of Mo-N and nine stable compositions in the case of Ta-N indicating the important role of metal under-stoichiometry, since \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.75}\\text{N} and \\text{T}{{\\text{a}}0.78}\\text{N} significantly dominate the diagram. This is particularly important for understanding and designing experiments using non-equilibrium deposition techniques. Finally, we discuss the role of defect ordering and estimate a cubic lattice parameter as a function of defect contents and put them in the context of existing literature theoretical and experimental data.

  17. Tannin Fingerprinting in Vegetable Tanned Leather by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy and Comparison with Leathers Tanned by Other Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. van der Westhuizen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state 13C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources – mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara – are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan.  Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers.  These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents.  Paramagnetic chromium (III tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III structures. Aluminium (III and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The 27Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  18. Tannin fingerprinting in vegetable tanned leather by solid state NMR spectroscopy and comparison with leathers tanned by other processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Frederik H; Underwood, Andrew P; Senekal, Nadine D; Bonnet, Susan L; Duer, Melinda J; Reid, David G; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2011-01-28

    Solid state ¹³C-NMR spectra of pure tannin powders from four different sources--mimosa, quebracho, chestnut and tara--are readily distinguishable from each other, both in pure commercial powder form, and in leather which they have been used to tan. Groups of signals indicative of the source, and type (condensed vs. hydrolyzable) of tannin used in the manufacture are well resolved in the spectra of the finished leathers. These fingerprints are compared with those arising from leathers tanned with other common tanning agents. Paramagnetic chromium (III) tanning causes widespread but selective disappearance of signals from the spectrum of leather collagen, including resonances from acidic aspartyl and glutamyl residues, likely bound to Cr (III) structures. Aluminium (III) and glutaraldehyde tanning both cause considerable leather collagen signal sharpening suggesting some increase in molecular structural ordering. The ²⁷Al-NMR signal from the former material is consistent with an octahedral coordination by oxygen ligands. Solid state NMR thus provides easily recognisable reagent specific spectral fingerprints of the products of vegetable and some other common tanning processes. Because spectra are related to molecular properties, NMR is potentially a powerful tool in leather process enhancement and quality or provenance assurance.

  19. Frito-Lay North America/NREL CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.

    2013-06-01

    Frito Lay North America (FLNA) requires technical assistance for the evaluation and implementation of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in production facilities and distribution centers across North America. Services provided by NREL do not compete with those available in the private sector, but rather provide FLNA with expertise to create opportunities for the private sector renewable/efficiency industries and to inform FLNA decision making regarding cost-effective projects. Services include: identifying the most cost-effective project locations based on renewable energy resource data, utility data, incentives and other parameters affecting projects; assistance with feasibility studies; procurement specifications; design reviews; and other services to support FNLA in improving resource efficiency at facilities. This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) establishes the terms and conditions under which FLNA may access capabilities unique to the laboratory and required by FLNA. Each subsequent task issued under this umbrella agreement would include a scope-of-work, budget, schedule, and provisions for intellectual property specific to that task.

  20. Geology, reservoir engineering and methane hydrate potential of the Walakpa Gas Field, North Slope, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, R.K.; Allen, W.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Walakpa Gas Field, located near the city of Barrow on Alaska`s North Slope, has been proven to be methane-bearing at depths of 2000--2550 feet below sea level. The producing formation is a laterally continuous, south-dipping, Lower Cretaceous shelf sandstone. The updip extent of the reservoir has not been determined by drilling, but probably extends to at least 1900 feet below sea level. Reservoir temperatures in the updip portion of the reservoir may be low enough to allow the presence of in situ methane hydrates. Reservoir net pay however, decreases to the north. Depths to the base of permafrost in the area average 940 feet. Drilling techniques and production configuration in the Walakpa field were designed to minimize formation damage to the reservoir sandstone and to eliminate methane hydrates formed during production. Drilling development of the Walakpa field was a sequential updip and lateral stepout from a previously drilled, structurally lower confirmation well. Reservoir temperature, pressure, and gas chemistry data from the development wells confirm that they have been drilled in the free-methane portion of the reservoir. Future studies in the Walakpa field are planned to determine whether or not a component of the methane production is due to the dissociation of updip in situ hydrates.

  1. Are we still dying for a tan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Andrew R; Frankel, Stephen J; Gunnell, David J; Smith, George Davey

    2002-01-01

    We suggest that the risks and benefits to individual and population health of different patterns of sunlight exposure are poorly characterised. Furthermore, we believe that the risks of excess exposure to sunlight in North European countries have been overstated and that the potential benefits of exposure to sunlight (particularly in moderation) have been largely ignored. We contend that a re-appraisal of these risks and benefits is required to allow us to better formulate public health policy and to provide the public and individuals with appropriate advice.

  2. Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, L T N; Hannevik, M; Veierød, M B

    2016-04-01

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases the risk of cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Indoor tanning devices have become important sources of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, both UVB and UVA. This systematic review assessed UV measurements performed in indoor tanning devices related to irradiance level, wavelength distribution and similarities to natural sun. The study was performed in accordance with the MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to May 2015, and also examined the reference lists of the retrieved studies. Eighteen studies were included. Twelve studies examined the erythema-weighted UV irradiances of indoor tanning devices, 11 studies examined UVB and 13 studies studied UVA. Compliance with irradiance limits was reported in nine studies. Erythema-weighted irradiances were highest in the most recent studies. Most studies had mean values higher than from natural sun and with large variations between devices. All studies except two had mean unweighted UVB irradiances lower than from natural summer sun (at latitudes from 37°S to 35°N), while mean unweighted UVA irradiances were, with one exception, substantially higher than from natural sun. The high values of UVA exposure from modern tanning devices are alarming in light of the increased focus on UVA irradiance as a carcinogen, and as UVA exposure confers little protection against subsequent UV exposure.

  3. ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TANNED BOVINE LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGANICI Cristian-Dragoş

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is one of the most globally spread biomaterial which is obtained by the processing of different animal skins. It encompasses a wide palette of applications, from footwear and clothing to upholsteries and different types of furniture [1], [2], [3]. The main constituent of animal skins is collagen, a supramolecular fibrillar protein in the form of a triple helix. This form endows leather with elasticity, good mechanical properties and softness. A major disadvantage resides in the inapplicability of raw animal hides, due to their microbiological instability and decay through rotting. Microbiological stability is obtained through the tanning process, characterized by protein crosslinking and drying afterwards. After tanning the leather exhibits the required properties for the desired specific applications in terms of aspect, availability and sustainability [4], [5]. The study aims to elucidate the thermal decomposition process of chrome-free tanned bovine hide (wet-white using a new product based on titanium and aluminium salts compared with the same hide tanned by chromium salts (wet-blue. The thermal behavior was studied by dynamic thermogravimetry in nitrogen atmosphere, up to 700 oC. A comparative thermal decomposition study between the different tanned bovine leathers was undertaken.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of TaN ALD Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Delong Zhang; Tracy Yund; Cynthia A.Hoover

    2004-01-01

    High purity organic-tantalum precursors for thin film ALD TaN were synthesized and characterized.Vapor pressure and thermal stability of these precursors were studied.From the vapor pressure analysis,it was found that TBTEMT has a higher vapor pressure than any other published liquid TaN precursor,including TBTDET,TAITMATA,and IPTDET.Thermal stability of the alkyl groups on the precursors was investigated using a 1H NMR technique.The results indicated that the tertbutylimino group is the most stable group on TBTDET and TBTEMT as compared to the dialkylamido groups.Thermal stability of TaN precursors decreased in the following order:TBTDET > PDMAT > TBTEMT.In conclusion,precursor vapor pressure and thermal stability were tuned by making slight variations in the ligand sphere around the metal center.

  5. Microstructural and weldability evaluation of 310TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Excellent weldability and good microstructural stability of 310TaN, in terms of the formation and growth of secondary phases at elevated temperature, was revealed in this investigation. The interganular stress corrosion resistance of 310TaN is superior to modified 800H and 310HCbN evaluated previously due to the fact that TaC, TaN and Ta(C,N) particles are more stable compared to Nb-rich or Ti-rich carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides presented in the other advanced alloys. Using resistance spot welding technique for which extremely fast cooling is a characteristic, it was found that a very minor amount of gain boundary liquation takes place during welding thermal cycling. The limited grain boundary liquation is of the eutectic type i.e., a low tendency to weld HAZ hot cracking.

  6. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  7. Status of the TAN aperture model in MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Chemli, S; De Maria, R; Giovannozzi, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the update of the existing TAN layout and aperture model in the MAD-X sequence for IR1 and IR5. The updated model introduces new markers indicating the longitudinal layering of the absorber and the geometry of the Y-chamber.

  8. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  9. Powdered hide model for vegetable tanning II. hydrolyzable tannin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable tannages employ both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins. As part of our exploration of tanning mechanisms, we reported last year on interactions of the condensed tannin, quebracho, with powdered hide. In this study, the interactions of chestnut extract, a hydrolyzable tannin, with powdere...

  10. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing...

  11. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services... follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.0-3 is the same.... Subpart G is added to read as follows: Subpart G--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor...

  12. "Darkness Overcomes You": Shaun Tan and Søren Kierkegaard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses Shaun Tan's picturebook "The Red Tree" using some of the central concepts of existentialism developed by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard argued that being a person entails a coming-to-be ["tilblivelse"], and for the person this coming-to-be manifests itself as a task. The task is to…

  13. VLF Tan Delta Measurement for Used XLPE Power Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Ha, Che Wung; Joo, Kwang Ho [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Medium voltage power cables in nuclear power plants are currently managed through the visual inspection or by monitoring environmental factors such as the temperature and radiation levels. However, these methods are insufficient to monitor aging degradation of power cables. The NRC requires an additional monitoring program to detect the aged degradation, especially for safety-related power cables which are inaccessible or installed underground. EPRI suggested that very low frequency (VLF) tan {delta} test be included in MV power cable diagnostic programs. In addition, the VLF tan {delta} test was recently adopted for domestic submarine distribution cable diagnostics. KEPRI suggested that the impacts of leakage current should be controlled in VLF tan {delta} test for the submarine cables. As a pre-process to develop such a program, tan {delta} tests have been performed for 4.16 kV cables which were removed from the domestic nuclear power plant after approximate 30 years of service to analyze the degradation of long time serviced cables and the effect of leakage current from the both ends of cables

  14. "Darkness Overcomes You": Shaun Tan and Søren Kierkegaard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses Shaun Tan's picturebook "The Red Tree" using some of the central concepts of existentialism developed by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Kierkegaard argued that being a person entails a coming-to-be ["tilblivelse"], and for the person this coming-to-be manifests itself as a task. The task is to…

  15. Large tan$\\beta$ from SU(2)$_{R}$ gauge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, G

    1994-01-01

    Sufficient conditions for the relation tan \\beta \\simeq m_t/m_b to hold in supersymmetric grand unified theories are formulated. Essential ingredients are the SU(2)_R gauge symmetry and a discrete matter parity. The applicability of our conditions is illustrated by specific examples. Implications for neutrino masses are discussed.

  16. Tan's distributions and Fermi-Huang pseudopotential in momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The long-standing question of finding the momentum representation for the s-wave zero-range interaction in three spatial dimensions is here solved. This is done by expressing a certain distribution, introduced in a formal way in [S. Tan, Ann. Phys. (NY)APNYA60003-491610.1016/j.aop.2008.03.004 323, 2952 (2008)], explicitly. The resulting form of the Fourier-transformed pseudopotential remains very simple. Operator forms for the so-called Tan's selectors, which, together with Fermi-Huang pseudopotential, largely simplify the derivation of Tan's universal relations for the Fermi gas, are here derived and are also very simple. A momentum cutoff version of the pseudopotential is also provided, and with this no apparent contradiction to the notion of integrals in Tan's methods is left. The equivalence, even at the intermediate-step level, between the pseudopotential approach and momentum-space renormalization of the bare Dirac delta interaction is then shown by using the explicit form of the cutoff pseudopotential.

  17. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crudu, Marian, E-mail: mariancrudu@yahoo.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Viorica, E-mail: viorica.deselnicu@icpi.ro [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Dana Corina, E-mail: d_deselnicu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei Nr. 313, Sector 6, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.albu@gmail.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  18. Tanning in solarium – knowledge, attitudes and Polish habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Torzewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tanning devices are sources of UVA and UVB radiation. UV exposure can cause damage to the cornea of the eye, skin burns and even skin cancer. Appropriate use of solarium requires adequate knowledge of health effects resulting from the excessive use of sunbeds. The aim of the study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and habits in the solarium use. Material and methods. The study was based on our own questionnaire distributed among the citizens of a city located in Łódź Province. The study group consisted of 135 adults, mostly women and people with secondary and vocational education. Participants of the study were asked to answer specific questions included in the questionnaire concerning the knowledge of UV radiation, attitudes and the behaviour in the solarium. Results. 36% of the respondents were going to the solarium. 38% of the respondents weren’t going at all. Every fourth respondent used to go to the solarium in the past, however gave up this type of tanning for some reasons. Protecting goggles were used only by 18% of the respondents. 94% of the respondents never asked the service about CE certificates for the sunbeds intended for use. Conclusions. People tanning in the solarium, in comparison to those who do not use the artificial sun, enjoy better knowledge of the ultraviolet radiation. However they do not follow the requirements of the safe tanning. They are also not interested in technical conditions of the sunbeds. People who are not tanning in the solarium are more aware of health effects caused by UV radiation. Actions promoting public awareness on negative health effects of exposure to UV radiation in the solarium are needed.

  19. Tan Silliksaar, Tõnu Ling : meie piltides ei ole mingit trikitamist ega skandaali / Tõnu Ling, Tan Silliksaar ; interv. Heli Salong

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ling, Tõnu

    2005-01-01

    Kuressaare kultuurikeskuses ja Saaremaa kunstistuudios avati Tõnu Lingi ja Tan Silliksaare fotonäitus-müük "Maameeste maastikud". Fotod on prinditud spetsiaalsele, kunsti reprodutseerimiseks mõeldud lõuendile. Autorid oma koostööst, fotodest, lõuenditehnikast

  20. A population-based survey on tanning bed use in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedemann Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The suntanning industry has grown up over the last decade in Europe, mainly because tanned skin is considered socially desirable and attractive. Because of the potential negative impact of artificial tanning on public health, this study was to investigate tanning bed use behaviour, UV related risk perception and beliefs about tanning in the German population. Methods In 2007, a representative telephone survey was carried out among 1501 German residents aged 14 years and older. Results More than one fourth (28% of the German population have used tanning beds at least once before in their lifetime. High-frequency tanning behaviour, i.e. using tanning beds more than 10 times per year, were recorded for 11%. Men and women aged 18 to 44 years and young women under the age of 18 used tanning beds more frequently (>10 times per year. Tanning bed use was positively related to appearance and lifestyle related beliefs as well as to the perception that tanned skin is healthy. Conclusion This analysis indicates that tanning bed use is common in Germany. The positive relationships of appearance and health related beliefs with tanning bed use are of great concern. The results indicate underlying misconceptions about the positive effect of artificial UV radiation compared to natural UV radiation particular for high-frequency tanners. The data shows the importance as well as the limitations for risk communication in its current effort to inform effectively about the dangers of artificial UV radiation.

  1. Molecular modeling approach to vegetable tanning: preliminary results for gallotannin interactions with the collagen microfibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanning of animal hides produces leather, a durable, flexible material that is stabilized against putrefaction. Chrome-tanned wet blue, aldehyde crosslinked wet white, and vegetable tanned hides are major contributors to current leather production. Although the chemistries involved are significant...

  2. Supersymmetric models with tan$\\beta$ close to unity

    CERN Document Server

    Ananthanarayan, B; Shafi, Qaisar

    1994-01-01

    Within the framework of supersymmetric grand unification, estimates of the $b$ quark mass based on the asymptotic relation $m_b \\simeq m_\\tau$ single out the region with $\\tan\\beta$ close to unity, particularly if $m_t(m_t) \\stackrel{_<}{_\\sim} 170\\ GeV$. We explore the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry and the associated sparticle and higgs spectroscopy in models with $1 < \\tan\\beta \\stackrel{_<}{_\\sim} 1.6$. The lightest scalar higgs is expected to have a mass below $100\\ GeV$, while the remaining four higgs masses exceed $300\\ GeV$. The lower bounds on some of the sparticle masses are within the range of LEP 200.

  3. Chromium recovery from exhausted baths generated in plating processes and its reuse in the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Josep; Buj, Irene; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan

    2012-03-30

    Chromium plating used for functional purposes provides an extremely hard, wear and corrosion resistant layer by means of electrolytic deposition. Typical layer thicknesses range between 2.5 and 500 μm. Chromium electroplating baths contain high concentrations of Cr(VI) with chromium trioxide (CrO(3)) as the chromium source. When because of technical or economic reasons a bath gets exhausted, a waste containing mainly chromium as dichromate as well as other heavy metals is generated. Chromium may then be purified for use in other industrial processes with different requirements. In this work, a sustainable system for using galvanic wastes as reagents in the leather tanning industry, thus reducing quantity of wastes to be treated, is presented. Metal cations present in the chromium exhausted bath were precipitated with NaOH. Then, the solution containing mainly soluble Cr(VI) was separated. By means of sodium sulphite in acidic conditions, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) as chromium (III) sulphate. From chromium (III) sulphate a basic Cr(III) sulphate may be obtained, which is one of most used compounds in the tanning industry. Cr(III) concentration in the final solution allows its reuse without concentration, but with a slight dilution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. TANNED LEATHERS PROPERTIES MODIFICATION AS A RESULT OF ARTIFICIAL AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Dan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a high tech material with different application fields, such as automotive, manufacturing of leatherwear articles or clothing and footwear. Leather is a biomaterial obtained by processing animal skins. Unfortunately, raw animal hides are practically inutilizable, due to their microbiological instability and are affected by rotting. Microbiological stability is achieved by tanning, when the protein is crosslinked, followed by drying. After crosslinking and drying, the new material shows the required properties of sustainability, availability and an esthetically pleasing aspect to the touch, making it available across its entire range of applications. From a structural point of view the animal skins are constituted of collagen, which is a fibrilar protein with a high degree of supramolecular organization in triple helix form that endows softness, elasticity and mechanical strength. High quality standards and lack of toxicity are required in all cases. Leather colour changes during exposure to light radiations are considered a consequence of the presence of some products with weak photochemical resistance during fabrication. The study aims to compare changes in properties of leathers obtained using mineral tanning agents such as Cr III salts and those obtained with the more environment-friendly technology using acid hydrolysis. Accelerated aging studies were conducted on tanned leathers by exposing the samples to UV radiation with different irradiation doses and two wavelengths (254 and 365 nm under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. Structural changes caused by irradiation were studied by FTIR. Colour changes on the sample surfaces were assessed during irradiation with the CIEL a*b* system. The colour parameters variation (L*, a*, b* and colour differences have been discussed in correlation with structural changes, tanning method and irradiation conditions.

  5. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda V.; Drljača Dijana

    2004-01-01

    According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The p...

  6. A SUSY SO(10) model with large tan$\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, G

    1994-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric SO(10) model with the asymptotic relation tan\\beta \\simeq m_t/m_b automatically arising from its structure. The model retains the significant Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model predictions for sin^2 \\theta_w and \\alpha_s and contains an automatic Z_2 matter parity. Proton decay through d=5 operators is sufficiently suppressed. It is remarkable that no global symmetries need to be imposed on the model.

  7. Indoor Tanning within UK Young Adults: An Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lorna J. Dodd; Forshaw, Mark J.; Williams, Stella

    2013-01-01

    The indoor tanning industry poses a long-term public health risk. Despite the adverse health effects, indoor tanning seems to be gaining considerable popularity. The study examined indoor tanning intentions and behaviour within UK young adults using an extended theory of planned behaviour model, which included variables on “appearance reasons to tan,” “perceived susceptibility to damaging appearance,” “perceived susceptibility to health consequences,” and “tanning knowledge.” The model was su...

  8. Tan spot - the most harmful wheat leaf disease in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is one of the most important wheat diseases in Latvia. Significant spreading of this disease was observed from 1998. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm "Peterlauki" of the Latvia University of Agriculture, during 1998-2003. Development of diseases was observed on 14 winter wheat varieties, dynamics of development was investigated on 'Donskaja polukarlikovaja' and 'Stava'. Assessments of the disease severity were carried out on the upper three leaves each week from the start of stem elongation to full ripening. Tan spot was observed at the stage of stem elongation in 2003, and only after flowering in 1999. Increase of the disease severity was slow until stage of milk ripeness, and only in late stages of wheat development sharp increase of the disease was observed. Total rate of infection (through the session of vegetation was very slow (0,01-0,19, but during ripening rate achieved 0,5-0,6. The main reason of so unequal development of the disease seems changes in amount of infection sources. Other possible reason of rapid increase of the disease development is the relationship between leaf age and susceptibility to the disease. Further research is necessary for better understanding of tan spot life cycle.

  9. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  10. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  11. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 2 contains the hydrogrpahic data collected during TIO Cruises 5-7. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  12. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 1 contains the hydrographic data collected during TIO Cruises 1-4. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  13. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix B contains the hydrographic data collected during all four NMFS-SEFSC cruises. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  14. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  15. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  16. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  17. Constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of Tan protein in brain and epidermis of Ceratitis capitata and of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type and tan mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M M; Sabio, G; Badaracco, A; Quesada-Allué, L A

    2011-09-01

    The present report shows a partial biochemical characterization and life cycle expression of N-β-alanyldopamine hydrolase (Tan protein) in Ceratitis capitata and Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-β-alanyldopamine (NBAD), the main tanning precursor of insect brown cuticles. It also plays an important role in the metabolism of brain neurotransmitters, recycling dopamine and histamine. In contrast to NBAD-synthase, Tan is expressed constitutively in epidermis and does not respond directly to microbial challenge. Immunodetection experiments showed the novel localization of NBAD-hydrolase in the embryo central neural system and in different regions of the adult brain, in addition to optic lobes. We sequenced and characterized Drosophila mutants tan¹ and tan³. The latter appears to be a mutant with normal expression in neural tissue but weak one in epidermis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix A contains: the cetacean, trutle, and bird sighting data from all shipboard and aerial visual surveys; contact data from the shipboard acoustic survey; and the cetacean environmental profiles. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  19. Evaluation of NANDA nursing diagnoses of healthcare college final year students during the clinical application of the mental health and disease nursing courseSağlık yüksekokulu son sınıf öğrencilerin ruh sağlığı ve hastalıkları hemşireliği dersi klinik uygulamasında NANDA hemşirelik tanılarının incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Taşdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the NANDA nursing diagnoses of Pamukkale University Denizli Healthcare College final year students for the patients they undertook the care of and to determine the aims and interventions relevant to these diagnoses.The study universe consisted of all Pamukkale University Denizli Healthcare College final year students who were continuing their education during the 2009-2010 educational year and took the Mental Health and Disease Nursing course (84. The universe was studied before selecting a sample. The internal medicine, surgery, cardiovascular surgery, chest disease, orthopedics-urology, and physical treatment and rehabilitation clinics were chosen for the consultation liaison psychiatry (CLP while the AMATEM Center of the Denizli State Hospital and the Pamukkale University Psychiatry clinics were chosen as the student clinical application areas. The data were collected by evaluating the 136 nursing care plans prepared by the students and the data collection forms the students had used for nursing care during the 2009-2010 autumn semester. The nursing care was evaluated according to the symptom, etiology and problem (SEP format, using the diagnostic list containing the NANDA diagnoses that had previously been provided to the students, and the number and percentage distributions were determined.The patients cared for at the CLP clinics by the students included in the study had been admitted for surgical interventions at a rate of 29.8% and cancer at 28.6% while those in the psychiatry clinics had been admitted for psychosis or alcohol-substance abuse at a rate of 16.7%. The students included in the study had determined 36 nursing diagnoses in 136 cases. The 6 most common diagnoses were infection risk at 34.5%, disturbance of sleep pattern at 33.3%, anxiety at 25.0%, activity intolerance at 20.2%, inadequate personal coping at 16.7% and trauma risk at 13.1% at the CLP clinics, and

  20. MSSM and large tan$\\beta$ from SUSY trinification

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, G

    1994-01-01

    We construct a supersymmetric model based on the semi-simple gauge group SU(3)_c \\times SU(3)_L \\times SU(3)_R with the relation tan\\beta \\simeq m_t/m_b automatically arising from its structure. The model below a scale \\sim 10^{16} GeV gives naturally rise just to the minimal supersymmetric standard model and therefore to the presently favored values for sin^2 \\theta_w and \\alpha_s without fields in representations higher than the fundamental.

  1. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Botić Tatjana; Ilišković Nadežda

    2006-01-01

    Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this i...

  2. Alkali-free method of hide preparation for tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valeika

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, beamhouse processes are carried out by varying a medium from strongly alkaline (unhairing-liming up to strongly acid (pickling. This study is designed to develop a preparation of hide for tanning via processes that avoid a sharp change of hide pH. Enzymes active in acid medium are employed for hide unhairing in a buffer system containing 2.5% acetic acid and 0.3% sodium acetate. An oxidative treatment with peracetic acid then allows the complete removal of residual hair and scud. During both processes, unhairing and oxidative treatment, the opening of the derma structure occurs: 13.3-14.6g of non-collagen proteins are removed and amount of dermatan sulphate decreases by 35%. The hide obtained can be chromed directly after the above processes and subsequent treatment with sodium chloride solution omitted conventional pickling. The pH of the hide varies in the range of 8.3-3.7 during the processes of preparation for tanning.

  3. Spectroscopy of TaN in Support of Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Sharfi, David; Kim, Yongrak; Kokkin, Damian; Bouchard, Jacob; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Tantalum nitride, TaN, has been recently identified as a leading candidate for extending the study of T, P-odd effects in the nuclear realm to include proton, neutron, and quark electric dipole moments (EDM) and beyond. This is primarily due to enhancements in the interaction of electrons with the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) and the resulting parity-violating effects. Study of the dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the 17570.80 (Ω = 0+) , 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) , 19216.80 (Ω = 1), and 19396.78 (Ω = 1) bands above the X1Σ+ (v = 0) ground state of TaN near 569 nm, 543 nm, 520 nm, and 515 nm has enabled a determination of the branching ratios and transition dipole moments of all 4 states. Radiative lifetimes of 454(32) ns, 479(12) ns, 333(4) ns, and 480(17) ns respectively were measured from an analysis of the fluorescence decay curves, and potential optical pumping approaches for both populating and detecting the parity-violation sensitive 3Δ1 state are proposed. Further experiments using CW laser excitation have enabled the observation of the hyperfine structure of several bands in the gateway 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) to X1Σ+ (v = 0) transition, and analysis of these complex spectra is underway. DK, JB, and TS acknowledge support from NSF CHE-1265885, as do RM, DS, and YK from Pomona College.

  4. Enhancement of chromium uptake in tanning using oxazolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Brutto, Patrick E; Siddhartha, G; Ramesh, R; Ramanaiah, B; Saravanan, P; Mandal, A B

    2011-06-15

    Monocyclic and bicyclic oxazolidines were offered at three different junctures of chrome tanning process viz. prior to BCS offer, along with BCS and after basification. It was found that oxazolidine when offered after basification brought about better chromium uptake and reduction of chromium load in the wastewater. Offer of oxazolidine was also varied. Increase in offer of oxazolidine from 0.25% to 1% was found to enhance the chromium uptake and decrease the chromium load in wastewater. But the increase in uptake was not proportionate to the increase in oxazolidine offer more than 0.75%. Offer of 1% Zoldine ZA 78 (monocyclic oxazolidine) and Zoldine ZE (bicyclic oxazolidine) after basification brought about 63.4% and 73.1% enhancement in chrome content in leather compared to control where oxazolidine was not offered. The tone of the wetblue was found to be altered moderately. However this did not call for any process adjustments in wet-finishing. The oxazolidine treated leathers were found to be immensely fuller and tighter. It was found experimentally that offer of 1% of oxazolidine facilitated reduction in the offer of syntans administered for filling and grain tightening by around 46%. Oxazolidine could bring about significant reduction in cost of chemicals apart from resulting environmental benefits due to enhancement of chromium uptake during tanning.

  5. Study of the dechroming of tanned leather wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to European legislation, it is not possible to dump any chromium-containing waste in Europe. The minimization of wastes is a key element in that strategy. It involves the application of clean technologies: low and non-waste technologies. The tanning industry generates substantial quantities of chromium-containing solid waste in the form of shavings and trimmings. The recycling and reuse of those wastes must be the primary target in optimizing processes of the leather industry. The problem is in a satisfying chromium separation from collagen fibers. Common hydrolysis processes-alkaline or acidic-give gelatins containing residual chromium (III. By using an oxidation agent (H2O2 before alkaline hydrolysis, in was demonstrated that chromium from chromium-containing leather wastes can be almost fully recovered by the previous oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI. This chromium can be reused in the tanning process. That would represent an economic saving. The best result of the dechroming process was a gelatin hydrolyzate with only 1.11 in respect to the initial amount.

  6. Removing Sedimentation as a Technique for Restoring Palustrine Seasonal and Temporary Wetlands in the Northeast Drift Prairie of North Dakota – Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — EXECUTIVE SUMMARY On July 10, 2008, partners from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the North Dakota Natural Resources Trust, Delta Waterfowl Foundation, and the...

  7. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  8. Lifetime history of indoor tanning in young people: a retrospective assessment of initiation, persistence, and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lostritto Karen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite educational and public health campaigns to convey the risks of indoor tanning, many individuals around the world continue to engage in this behavior. Few descriptive studies of indoor tanning have collected information pertaining to the lifetime history of indoor tanning, thereby limiting our ability to understand indoor tanning patterns and potentially target interventions for individuals who not only initiate, but continue to persistently engage in indoor tanning. Methods In-person interviews elicited detailed retrospective information on lifetime history of indoor tanning among white individuals (n = 401 under age 40 seen by a dermatologist for a minor benign skin condition. These individuals were controls in a case-control study of early-onset basal cell carcinoma. Outcomes of interest included ever indoor tanning in both males and females, as well as persistent indoor tanning in females - defined as females over age 31 who tanned indoors at least once in the last three or all four of four specified age periods (ages 11-15, 16-20, 21-30 and 31 or older. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of ever and persistent indoor tanning in females. Results Approximately three-quarters (73.3% of females and 38.3% of males ever tanned indoors, with a median age of initiation of 17.0 and 21.5, respectively. Among indoor tanners, 39.3% of females and 21.7% of males reported being burned while indoor tanning. Female ever indoor tanners were younger, had darker color eyes, and sunbathed more frequently than females who never tanned indoors. Using unique lifetime exposure data, 24.7% of female indoor tanners 31 and older persistently tanned indoors starting as teenagers. Female persistent indoor tanners drank significantly more alcohol, were less educated, had skin that tanned with prolonged sun exposure, and sunbathed outdoors more frequently than non-persistent tanners

  9. Indoor Tanning, Mental Health, and Substance Use among College Students: The Significance of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relations among indoor tanning frequency, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance use. A total of 421 college students (68% female) completed self-report measures on one occasion. Among men, indoor tanning was positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, whereas indoor tanning was unrelated to these symptoms among women. Among women, indoor tanning was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances. Further research is needed to explore contextual and coping processes that may underlie these gender differences. PMID:20453052

  10. Production Technology Research on Cattle Upper Leather Chrome-free Tanning%黄牛鞋面革无铬鞣生产工艺研讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达宇; 周赟; 雷明智

    2016-01-01

    选择有机膦盐鞣剂预鞣,然后采用铝鞣剂和锆鞣剂结合进行主鞣,使革身柔软,粒面平细,具有较好的复鞣、染色和加油性能。最后用收敛性强的植物鞣剂和合成鞣剂复鞣。生产过程清洁环保,成品革不含六价铬等有毒有害成分,革身柔软、丰满,粒面紧实细致,不松面,皮革感观和理化指标符合使用要求。%This paper aims at choosing organic phosphorus salt for pretanning which makes the finished leathers have good fullness and dyeing performance as well as oil-adding quality, then adopts aluminum tanning agent and zirconium tanning agent to carry out main tanning, and finally uses robust vegetable tannin and synthetic tanning agent for retanning. What's more, It is believed that it's a cleaner production process and the finished leather doesn't contain hazardous substances such as hexavalent chromium, thus makes the leather surface even and subtle, plumpy and soft, which meets the requirements of physical and chemical index.

  11. Evaluation of potential for cogeneration of electricity and process heat in North Carolina. Final report, June 1, 1978-May 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study was to enable North Carolina to more efficiently utilize available energy than would be possible without additional cogeneration. Effective use of cogeneration can ease the requirement for utility capital and power plant sites and, by reducing fuel usage, can lead to less environmental damage. The study used the National Emissions Data System data bank and the North Carolina Boiler Registry to identify potential candidates for cogeneration and to then ascertain the magnitude of the potential in existing, new, and expanded facilities as a function of cogeneration impediment elimination. The survey uncovered 372 MW of operable cogeneration capacity in North Carolina in 15 plants. An estimate of the potential for expansion of cogeneration by firms presently operating in North Carolina amounted to 130 MW. This estimate was based on current conditions of fuel costs, electricity rates, standby charges, and investment tax credit. Much information is provided concerning industry and utilities in North Carolina, fuel usage by industry, and barriers to cogeneration. Recommendations are summarized.

  12. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological constraints on syn-orogenic strike-slip movement of Tan-Lu fault zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guang; LIU Guosheng; W. J. Dunlap; C. Teyssier; WANG Yongsheng; NIU Manlan

    2004-01-01

    Two phases of sinistral strike-slip ductile shear belts occur on the eastern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt.A muscovite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 128 Ma was obtained from mylonite in the later ductile shear zone. Three muscovite samples separated from mylonites of 3 localities in the earlier ductile shear belts yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 192.5±0.7 Ma, 189.7±0.6 Ma and 188.7±0.7 Ma, respectively. They are interpreted as cooling ages of the earlier sinistrai strike-slip deformation. It is suggested that left-lateral displacement of the Tan-Lu fault zone started in a late stage of the collision orogeny in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt between the North and South China plates. Therefore, the earlier Tan-Lu fault zone was syn-orogenic strike-slip tectonics.The fault zone was used again for sinistral displacement during tectonic activities of peri-Pacific regime in Early Cretaceous. It is proposed that the fault zone occurred as a transform fault during the orogenic process.

  13. XLPE/PE电缆的0.1 Hz超低频tanδ测量%tanδ Measurement Using 0.1 Hz Voltage for XLPE Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋文波; 孙显增; 王作君

    2001-01-01

    介绍了XLPE/PE电缆现场试验新方法--0.1 Hz超低频电压试验的基本原理和测量技术,用它测量电缆tanδ可以敏感地检查电缆绝缘的整体缺陷.给出了XLPE电缆tanδ现场测量结果.

  14. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention.

  15. Quest for Self—An Interpretation of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平

    2015-01-01

    Based on the text analysis of Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club this dissertation tries to prove that Amy Tan uses this semi-autobiographical novel as attempted quests for her identity in American society and tries to understand her own relationship with her mother.

  16. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Reeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity obtained from 6,195 respondents, 50.2% female, 15–69 years, was investigated in relation to six sun-tanning related statements. A total “positive perceptions of tanning” (ProTan score was also calculated. Regression analyses modelled each component and the ProTan score against survey year and respondent characteristics. Results. Statistically significantly higher ProTan scores were found for age group (strong reverse dose-response effect, male sex, residence (highest in Auckland, ethnicity (highest among Europeans, and sun sensitivity (an n-shaped association. There was no statistically significant change in total ProTan scores from baseline. Conclusions. The development, pretesting, and evaluation of messages for those groups most likely to endorse ProTan statements should be considered for the New Zealand skin cancer prevention program. To achieve and embed significant change, mass media campaigns may require greater intensity and reinforcement with sustained contextual support for settings-based behavioural change.

  17. The potential carcinogenic risk of tanning beds: clinical guidelines and patient safety advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Mogensen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Mogensen1, Gregor BE Jemec21Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark; 2Department of Dermatology, Roskilde Hospital, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Copenhagen, Roskilde, DenmarkIntroduction: In 2009, the WHO listed ultraviolet (UV radiation as a group 1 carcinogen. In spite of this, each year, millions of people tan indoor in Western countries. The aim of this review is to summarize evidence of tanning bed carcinogenesis and to present guidelines for use of tanning beds and patient safety advice.Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted based on both PubMed and Medline searches and on literature review of the retrieved papers.Results: Use of indoor tanning beds represents a significant and avoidable risk factor for the development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Frequent tanners are more often adolescent females. Tanning beds have additional potential adverse effects such as burns, solar skin damage, infection, and possibly also addictive behavior.Discussion: The effort in preventing UV light-induced carcinogenesis should currently be aimed at developing new strategies for public health information. Tanning beds are one preventable source of UV radiation. In the majority of people solar UV radiation continues to be the major factor and therefore anti-tanning campaigns must always include sunbathers.Keywords: tanning beds, skin cancers, melanoma, nonmelanoma

  18. 77 FR 37838 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Services Excise Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... (including qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. These regulations affect disregarded entities responsible for collecting the indoor tanning services excise tax and...

  19. On Chinese American Identity Dilemma in Amy Tan's The Bonesetter's Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福江

    2010-01-01

    In The Bonesetter's Daughter,Amy Tan explores the complexity of Chinese American identity dilemma confronted by the major charactersThis paper in-tends to examine the marginalized position of the Chinese immigrant mother Luling and the American bom daughter Ruth and reveal the ideology of Amy Tan's writing beyond the bounds of ethnicity.

  20. Psychosocial aspects associated with use of sunscreen, natural sunlight exposure, and artificial tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventenilla, Jessica; França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello; Keri, Jonette

    2017-02-08

    Natural and artificial tanning have become very popular in Western culture, yet at the same time, there is still a psychodermatology concern for this activity. Not much has been examined with the psychological aspects of tanning and sunscreen use. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial effects associated with sun protection, natural, and artificial tanning among individuals 18 years old or older visiting the University of Miami Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We distributed a survey on tanning and sunscreen use to 150 dermatology outpatients, hospital employees, and hospital visitors for three weeks during June/July 2015 asking about how often they tan, use sunscreen, and how they feel about this topic. Demographics, such as gender, ethnicity, and education were taken into consideration to examine the different responses in each category. Our results suggest that people's perception to tanning and sunscreen use have evolved over time. Most people in South Florida nowadays feel guilty when exposed to natural sunlight without sunscreen and do not tan frequently. The majority of the people, specifically women, utilize the recommended amount of sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30-50. However, we can conclude that communication between social media and the general public can affect people's decision-making on tanning and sunscreen use with physician advice being the most effective method of encouraging people to use sunscreen. This study will add to the growing knowledge about psychodermatology.

  1. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  2. Kamu Malı ve Hizmeti Tanımı

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoyunlu, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Bu makale kamu malı ve hizmetinin tanımı ile ilgilidir. Tanımın hangi unsurları içermesi sorusuna cevap aranmaktadır. Değişik kaynaklardan alınan tanımlar gözden geçirildikten sonra, özel mal ile kamu malı arasındaki farkları öne çıkaran bir örneğe yer verilmiştir. Kanımızca, kamu malı ve hizmeti tanımında, sadece kişisel seçim biçimlerini etkileyen unsurlara yer verilmelidir. Bu nedenle kamu malı ve hizmetinin devlet bütçesinden finansmanı tanıma dahil edilmemelidir; çünkü devlet tarafından ...

  3. 40 CFR 425.20 - Applicability; description of the hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.20 Section 425.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save, Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.20 Applicability...

  4. Predictors of Sun-Related Behaviors among Young Women: Comparisons between Outdoor Tanners, Fake Tanners, and Tan Avoiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K.; Oxlad, Melissa; Roberts, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Skin cancer incidence continues to rise as a tanned appearance remains desirable, particularly among young women. Fake tanning provides a tanned appearance without exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In order to advance our understanding of the factors that contribute to long-term behavior change, this study explores determinants…

  5. A narrative review of the potential for self-tanning products to substitute for solaria use among people seeking a tanned appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Turon, Heidi; Brozek, Irena; Noble, Natasha; Zucca, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancers including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers are a high-cost and largely preventable form of cancer. While limiting exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light via outdoor activities is a focus of public health efforts, indoor UV exposure via solaria or 'tanning booths' has also become a cause for concern. In recent decades the availability of less harmful non-UV self-tanning products such as sprays and lotions has increased. This review explores (i) the available data regarding the prevalence and behavioural factors associated with use of solaria and self-tanning products and (ii) data that may shed light on the likelihood of solaria users substituting self-tanning products as a less harmful alternative to solaria exposure. While there are insufficient data on which to draw a firm conclusion about the potential for substitution, it appears unlikely that most solaria users would readily substitute self-tanning products in place of solaria exposure. Public health advocates may need to consider whether a robust research study of the cost-effectiveness of encouraging substitutional use of self-tanners is desirable, or whether efforts to severely restrict access to solaria may be a better approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. TanDEM-X双站SAR干涉测量及研究进展%TanDEM-X bistatic SAR interferometry and its research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚飞; 江利明; 柳林; 孙永玲; 汪汉胜

    2015-01-01

    This paper comprehensively describes the scientific research plan of the TanDEM -X/TerraSAR -X bistatic SAR mission, with emphasis placed on its scientific objectives, TanDEM-X satellite parameters, orbital configuration and data acquisition modes. Then, the advantages of the new InSAR techniques including bistatic SAR, Pol-InSAR and digital beam forming are briefly discussed and the progress of the techniques of TanDEM-X bistatic SAR interferometry is analyzed. These new SAR techniques will greatly promote the application potential of SAR interferometry in Earth sciences such as global topography mapping, glaciology, oceanography and geology.%较全面、系统地介绍了TanDEM-X/TerraSAR-X双站SAR科学计划,重点涉及其科学目标、TanDEM-X卫星参数、轨道结构以及干涉数据获取模式等相关内容,并讨论了双站SAR成像、极化InSAR和数字波束成形等干涉测量新技术及其研究进展。这些双站SAR新技术的实现将大大地推动SAR干涉测量在全球地形测绘、冰川学、海洋学及地质学等领域中的应用。

  7. Changes in sunburn and tanning attitudes among lifeguards over a summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Lifeguards are at increased risk of excessive sun exposure and sunburn. We sought to examine changes in: (1) sunburn frequency over a summer while controlling for sun exposure, sun protection habits, and participation in a skin cancer prevention program; and (2) tanning attitudes while controlling for participation in the program. Participants in this study were lifeguards (n = 3014) at swimming pools participating in the Pool Cool program in 2005. Lifeguards completed surveys at the beginning and end of the summer. Sequential regression analyses were used to assess changes in sunburn frequency and tanning attitudes. Sunburn frequency decreased between baseline and follow-up. Having a sunburn over the summer was significantly predicted by baseline sunburn history, ethnicity, skin cancer risk, and sun exposure. The tanning attitude, "People are more attractive if they have a tan," was significantly predicted from baseline tanning attitude and ethnicity. The second tanning attitude, "It helps to have a good base suntan," was significantly predicted by baseline tanning attitude, ethnicity, basic/enhanced group, and moderate skin cancer risk. Self-reported data and limited generalizability to lifeguards at other outdoor pools are limitations. The findings showed that previous sunburn history is an important predictor of sunburn prospectively. In addition, a more risky tanning attitude is an important predictor of future attitudes toward tanning. Active involvement in targeted prevention programs may help to increase preventive behavior and health risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling of Chrome Tanned Leather Dust in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Salwa H.; Mohamed, Ola A.

    2010-06-01

    Concerns on environmental waste problem caused by chrome tanned leather wastes in huge amount have caused an increasing interest in developing this wastes in many composite formation. This leather dust was used as filler in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) before treatment and after treatment with ammonia solution and sod. formate. Different formulations of NBR/ leather dust (untreated-treated with ammonia solution—treated with sod. formate) composites are prepared. The formed composite exhibit a considerable improvement in some of their properties such as rheometric characteristics especially with composites loaded with treated leather dust. Tensile strength, modulus at 100% elongation, hardness and youngs modulus were improved then by further loading start to be steady or decrease. Cross linking density in toluene were increased by incorporation of leather dust treated or untreated resulting in decreases in equilibrium swelling. Distinct increase in the ageing coefficient of both treated and untreated leather with drop in NBR vulcanizates without leather dust. Addition of leather dust treated or untreated exhibit better thermal stability.

  9. Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza J Shapiro

    Full Text Available Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with "Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS," a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or "devolution." In support of this idea, individuals with "UTS" are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary "reversal," no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with "UTS", we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence-not diagonal sequence-quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the "devolution" hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions.

  10. Issues in the preservation of manually tanned skin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torunn Klokkernes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of conservation relates to material science and technology as a fundamental aspect to understand artefacts’ material properties and deterioration. The research performed in this study is an initial approach to the understanding of the complex nature of manually tanned skin materials manufactured by individual tradition bearers from indigenous cultures in the circumpolar area; it instigates a series of research topics which can be further addressed. Contextual interpretation comprises traditional knowledge and practices as well as the empirical information obtained through investigative and analytical methods. This requires collaboration between several areas of knowledge, and raises questions with regard to the interpretation of analytical results in the investigation of these material groups.La  conservation use de l’analyse matérielle et des technologies pour mieux comprendre les propriétés des artefacts et leurs mécanismes de dégradation. La présente recherche constitue une approche de la nature complexe des cuirs tannés au sein des cultures indigènes de la région circumpolaire. Elle suscite par ailleurs de nouveaux thèmes de recherches connexes. L’interprétation contextuelle, de son côté, englobe la connaissance des pratiques ainsi que les informations obtenues par des méthodes d’investigation analytique et exige la collaboration entre divers secteurs et disciplines.

  11. The potential effects of climate change on the native vascular flora of North America. A preliminary climate envelopes analysis: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, L.E.; Kutner, L.S.; Maddox, G.D.; Honey, L.L.; Thurman, C.M. [Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA (United States); Kartesz, J.T. [North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chaplin, S.J. [Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Midwestern heritage Task Force

    1993-11-01

    To assess the potential effects of global warming on the North American flora, the reported geographical distributions of the 15,148 native North American vascular plant species were matched with climate data for 194 geographical areas to estimate the current ``climate envelope`` for each species. Three methods of analysis were used to construct these envelopes, all based on the limits of mean annual temperatures currently experienced by each species within its present range. Published models of future climates predict a possible increase in mean annual temperatures of 3{degree}C (5.4{degree}F) within the next century. Assuming that species might be eliminated from areas outside their present climate envelope, then about 7% to 11% of North America`s native plant species would be entirely out of their envelopes in a +3{degree}C climate. Rare species would be disproportionately affected -- between 10% and 18% of these species would be entirely out of their climate envelopes. However, some rare species may be able to persist at their present sites due to the availability of suitable microhabitats or genetic variation in climate tolerances. Of the more common species, only about 1% to 2% would be vulnerable in a +3{degree}C climate. The local effects of climate change on plant species would vary considerably if species withdraw from the southern or low-elevation portions of their ranges. Species may expand their ranges northwards as new areas become climatically suitable for them, producing significant changes in local floras. Species vary in their ability to make such migrations, depending upon limitations imposed by dispersal ability and/or specialized habitat requirements. An estimate of dispersibility suggests that species with narrow climate envelopes tend to lack characteristics promoting mobility.

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of membrane filtration for the recovery and re-use of tanning chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, W; Lucas, M

    2003-04-01

    The majority of pollution generated from leather manufacturing can be contributed to the inefficiency of chemical use in leather processing and to organic substances derived from the hides during processing. In particular, the overall tanning processes performed in drums can be characterized by a high consumption of water and chemicals, most of which are found in the final wastewater. To ensure full penetration and reaction of chemicals with collagen, chemicals are added in excess and are only partly up-taken by the leather. Significant savings of chemicals can be achieved by recovery and recycling of chemicals and water from part streams, thus reducing environmental impacts. This research formed an integrated approach to investigate and exploit the potential of a closed loop operation for various part streams of tanneries. Each of the process streams was separately collected, treated and purified by membrane technologies to obtain a recyclable liquor which can be re-used operationally. In this way a complete recovery of process liquors can be achieved for immediate operational re-use. Membrane technology has been applied to recover chemicals from un-hairing, vegetable tanning, chrome liquors and to polish saline part streams for re-use. By applying membrane filtration up to 90% of the treated liquors can be recovered giving a remaining concentrate volume of only 10%. The permeate obtained from several process areas contained to a high extent chemicals, which were re-used for leather processing.

  13. Stoichiometry behavior of TaN, TaCN and TaC thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M. [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 2681, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Castillo, H.A. [Centro de Enseñanza Técnica y Superior, CETYS Universidad, Campus Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. (Mexico); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Manizales (Colombia); De La Cruz, W. [Centro de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 2681, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    Thin films were synthesized in a magnetron sputtering system using a target of Ta with 99.99% purity and silicon substrates (1 1 1). The gases used for the film growth were (Ar + N{sub 2}), (Ar + CH{sub 4} + N{sub 2}) and (Ar + CH{sub 4}) mixtures for TaN, TaCN and TaC, respectively. The substrate temperature increased from room temperature to 500 °C. The chemical composition and bonding configuration were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealing Ta-N, Ta-C-N, Ta-C and C-C bonds. Moreover, the crystallographic structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), indicating the presence of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes belonging to a face-centered cubic structure. The stoichiometry variation dependence on the CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} flow was analyzed, and the influence of the substrate temperature on the coatings was investigated. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the evolution on the grain formation in the coatings as the substrate temperature increased.

  14. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  15. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets.

  16. Chemical functionalization and stabilization of type I collagen with organic tanning agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Deselnicu, Viorica; Ioannidis, Ioannis; Deselnicu, Dana; Chelaru, Ciprian [Leather and Footwear Research Institute, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the interactions between selected organic tanning agents and type I fibrillar collagen as a model fibrillar substrate to enable the fast direct evaluation and validation of interpretations of tanning activity. Type I fibrillar collagen (1%) as gel was used as substrate of tanning and tannic acid, resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde and their combination at three concentrations as crosslinking agents (tannins). To evaluate the stability of collagen during tanning, the crosslinked gels at 2.8, 4.5 and 9.0 pHs were freeze-dried as discs which were characterized by FTIR, shrinkage temperature, enzymatic degradation and optical microscopy, and the results were validated by statistical analyses. The best stability was given by combinations between resorcinol- and melamine-formaldehyde at isoelectric pH.

  17. 77 FR 43157 - Disregarded Entities and the Indoor Tanning Services Excise Tax; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Excise Tax; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correcting amendment... qualified subchapter S subsidiaries) and the indoor tanning services excise tax. DATES: This correction is... Employment taxes, Estate taxes, Excise taxes, Gift taxes, Income taxes, Penalties, Reporting...

  18. Sun-Tanning Perceptions of a New Zealand Urban Population (1994–2005/6)

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, A I; McLeod, G. F. H.; Gray, A. R.; McGee, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sun-tanning perceptions are monitored to identify changes and help refine targeting of skin cancer prevention messages. Aim. To investigate associations between perceptions of sun-tanning and demographic factors among a New Zealand urban population, 1994–2006. Methods. A telephone survey series was conducted during summer in 1994, 1997, 1999/2000, 2002/2003, and 2005/2006. Demographic and personal information (sex, age group, skin sun-sensitivity, and self-defined ethnicity) obtai...

  19. Biotechnological sequestering of chromium(III) From Post-Tanning Effluents: First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lalueza Baro, Joana; Rius Carrasco, Antoni; Puig Vidal, Rita; Martí Badia, Maria Elena; Martí Bernadas, Joan Francesc; Rodriguez, N.; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals in waste waters and sludge may cause significant environmental problems, and it is known that conventional recovery technologies cannot always achieve satisfactory treatment. For example, they are inappropiate to completely recover the chromium in the case of waste waters from the tanning process. Chromium can be recovered (by precipitation)from effluents that contain high concentrations of this metal. However, effluents from the later stages in present day tanning process often ...

  20. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  1. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  2. Enacting legislation to restrict youth access to tanning beds: a survey of advocates and sponsoring legislators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayan, Busayo; Geller, Alan C; Resnick, Elissa A; Demierre, Marie-France

    2010-07-01

    Passing tanning bed legislation restricting underage use has remained challenging. We sought to determine the resources required to pass tanning bed legislation restricting use to children and identify key barriers to its passage. A total of 15 states sought to pass tanning bed legislation in 2006; in-depth surveys were completed with advocates in 10 states and legislators in 5 states. Advocates sought advice from the sponsoring legislator or legislators (n = 9), held discussions with other organizations (n = 8), and used a lobbyist (n = 5). The 3 major barriers were strong lobbying efforts by the tanning bed industry (n = 10), proceedings after the bill was filed (n = 5), and obtaining support from other organizations (n = 4). For legislators, the most significant barrier was making colleagues aware of the health effects of tanning bed use. Five of 10 legislators and 10 of 15 advocates responded to the survey. Barriers to passage of tanning bed legislation can potentially be surmounted with advice to advocates and coordinated efforts by multiple organizations. Copyright (c) 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. First-principles study of the structural stability and electronic structures of TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, C.L.; Yuan, G. [School of Information and Engineering, Ocean University of China, QingDao 266100 (China); Hou, Z.F. [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Using the plane-wave pseudopotential method within the generalized gradient approximation, we have studied the structural stability and electronic structures for several TaN phases. Our results show CoSn is the calculated ground-state structure of TaN among the five crystallographic structures that have been studied. The order of energetic stability of phase structures of TaN from low to high is: CsClTaN in the CoSn and WC structures is due to the formation of pseudogap around the Fermi level and the stronger hybridization between N-2p states and Ta-5d states. TaN in all structures studied has a metallic nature. The calculated bulk modulus indicates that TaN in the WC structure may be a less compressible material. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. The tanning habits and interest in sunscreen of Google users: what happened in 12 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Michael C; Heppt, Markus V; Eigentler, Thomas K; Kirchberger, Markus A; Schuler, Gerold; Heinzerling, Lucie

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising worldwide. One possible reason for this is natural and artificial UV exposure. Only little data on actual consumer statistics from tanning studios and the usage of sunscreen are available. Therefore, it is difficult to describe trends for both and identify the impact of preventive measures. To gain knowledge about the popularity of 'tanning bed' and 'sunscreen', normalized search volumes for both search queries were obtained from Google Trends for 11 countries between January 2004 and June 2016. With few exceptions, worldwide interest in 'tanning bed' has been declining, whereas interest in 'sunscreen' has been increasing. The assessed countries from the Southern Hemisphere showed minor interest in tanning compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Both search queries were observed to fluctuate in a seasonal pattern. Skin cancer prevention measures influence the interest in tanning beds and sunscreen. Google Trends data can act as a first surrogate marker to evaluate the influence of skin cancer campaigns on the popularity of tanning beds and sunscreen. Fine-tuning of skin cancer campaigns according to seasonal and geographic trends and behaviors may help to maximize their success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of advertising strategies between the indoor tanning and tobacco industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jennifer; Jones, David A

    2010-04-01

    The indoor tanning industry is large and continues to grow, with 2007 domestic sales in excess of $5 billion. Advertising is central to shaping the consumer's perception of indoor tanning as well as driving industry demand. This article aims to identify key drivers of consumer appeal by comparing tanning advertising strategies to those used by tobacco marketers. Tobacco advertising was selected as a reference framework because it is both well documented and designed to promote a product with known health hazards. Two thousand advertisements from 4 large tobacco advertisement databases were analyzed for type of advertisement strategy used, and 4 advertising method categories were devised to incorporate the maximum number of advertisements reviewed. Subsequently, contemporary tanning advertisements were collected from industry magazines and salon websites and evaluated relative to the identified strategy profiles. Both industries have relied on similar advertising strategies, including mitigating health concerns, appealing to a sense of social acceptance, emphasizing psychotropic effects, and targeting specific population segments. This examination is a small observational study, which was conducted without rigorous statistical analysis, and which is limited both by the number of advertisements and by advertising strategies examined. Given the strong parallels between tobacco and tanning advertising methodologies, further consumer education and investigation into the public health risks of indoor tanning is needed.

  6. Testing a social cognitive theory-based model of indoor tanning: implications for skin cancer prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Zeitany, Alexandra; Kelley, Dannielle; Morales-Pico, Brenda; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a theory-based understanding of indoor tanning is a major impediment to the development of effective messages to prevent or reduce this behavior. This study applied the Comprehensive Indoor Tanning Expectations (CITE) scale in an analysis of indoor tanning behavior among sorority women (total N = 775). Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that CITE positive and negative expectations were robust, multidimensional factors and that a hierarchical structure fit the data well. Social cognitive theory-based structural equation models demonstrated that appearance-oriented variables were significantly associated with outcome expectations. Outcome expectations were, in turn, significantly associated with temptations to tan, intention to tan indoors, and indoor tanning behavior. The implications of these findings for the development of messages to prevent and reduce indoor tanning behavior are discussed in two domains: (a) messages that attempt to change broader societal perceptions about tan skin, and (b) messages that focus more narrowly on indoor tanning-challenging positive expectations, enhancing negative expectations, and encouraging substitution of sunless tanning products.

  7. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, G; Sadulla, S; Sehgal, P K; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T(s)) and denaturation temperature (T(d)) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T(s) of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Green chemistry approaches to leather tanning process for making chrome-free leather by unnatural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, G.; Sadulla, S.; Sehgal, P.K. [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India); Mandal, Asit Baran, E-mail: abmandal@hotmail.com [Central Leather Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Adyar, Chennai 600 020 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unnatural D-AA assisted tanned leathers found soft and full possessing tight grain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased hydrothermal stability of collagen via intra and inter molecular crosslink. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-Ly+Ald tanned leathers revealed a properly oriented with well aligned structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-AA in collagen creates new topologies inaccessible to homo chiral molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improves conventional tanning process, and reduce the total solid and liquid wastes. - Abstract: In the present study, green and sustainable method or eco-friendly approaches to tanning process based on unnatural D-amino acids (D-AA)-aldehyde (Ald) as a substitute for chrome-free tanning has been attempted. The distribution of optically active D-AA in tanned leather, the hydrothermal stability, the mechanical properties and resistance to collagenolytic activity of tanned leather, the evaluation of eco-friendly characteristics were investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopic (AFM) analyses indicate the surface morphology and roughness, respectively, of the tanned leather collagen matrix. Shrinkage and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses shows that the shrinkage temperature (T{sub s}) and denaturation temperature (T{sub d}) of tanned leather are related to the content of D-AA+Ald present in the leather matrix. It has been found that the T{sub s} of D-AA tanned leather is more than that of Ald tanned leather and also more or less equal to chrome tanned leather. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) shows that the developed process results in significant reduction in total solids content (TSC) and improves better biodegradability of organic compound present in the effluent compared to chrome tanning.

  9. Analysis of lipophilic organic pollutants in the Baltic and North Sea (ALOSON). Final report; Analyse lipophiler organischer Schadstoffe in Ost- und Nordsee (ALOSON). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehnerfuss, H.; Giger, W.; Schroeder, H.

    1999-10-01

    During the ALOSON-F+E-project emphasis has been placed upon non-target investigations of seawater, marine sediments and marine biota from the Baltic and North Sea. Sampling procedures as well as extraction, clean-up and fractionation methods were developed for these three environmental compartments and applied to three stations in the German Bight. In these water samples 20 compounds were verified thus far not included in actual monitoring programmes, while in the respective sediment samples 12 compounds were verified. It is worth mentioning that in the seawater samples some new compounds were found which are essential components of drugs or other active substances like coffein. Furthermore, halogenated pyridine derivatives may be of interest. In the sediment samples dominating pollutants turned out to comprise musk compounds and several sulfur and nitrogen containing substances which may justify subsequent investigations. In biota samples (mussels and Wittling gonades/liver/muscle) 11 compounds were verified. Again, the polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN dominated, but also several 'classical' pollutants like chlordane, HCH and DDT isomers and/or metabolites were found. In addition, comparison with the MS library suggested many brominated compounds which may be of particular interest with regard to subsequent studies. In parallel, some target investigations were carried out in 13 marinas at the Baltic and North Sea coast and for 5 stations in the German Bight. Orienting quantifications in seawater (German Bight) were carried out for benzothiazole, methylthiobenzothiazole, thiocyanatobenzothiazole, HHCB, AHTN, 2,5-dichloroaniline, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene and LAS, while extensive quantifications in marine sediments as well as in marina sediments were performed for Irgarol 1051, TBT, DBT, MBT, TPT, DPT, MPT, nonylphenol, nonylphenol-monoethoxylate, nonylphenolpolyethoxylate, LAS and the optical whiteners DAS 1, DSBP, BLS, LAS. (orig

  10. How Do Perceived Descriptive Norms Influence Indoor Tanning Intentions? An Application of the Theory of Normative Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Orrego Dunleavy, Victoria; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-02-01

    Indoor tanning bed use is highly influenced by perceived norms about a tanned appearance. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) details the many ways in which norms can impact intentions and behavior, but has never been assessed in the context of indoor tanning. Considering this, we conducted a survey among female university students (N = 274) to determine the extent to which the TNSB predicted intentions to use indoor tanning beds. Overall, the path model predicted about 46% of the variance in intentions, and the majority of significant indirect effects were witnessed through the outcome expectation variables included in the TNSB, suggesting that these may be the most salient mechanisms-as predicted by the TNSB-through which norms can impact tanning intentions. In light of these results, theoretical and practical implications are discussed, and specific recommendations are given to extend the predictive utility of the TNSB in the context of indoor tanning.

  11. The Growing Public Health Challenges of Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation From Use of Indoor Tanning Devices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Lewis, Ryan C; Lee, Maximilian S; Yao, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is recognized as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the world's authority on cancer research. In particular, exposure to ultraviolet radiation can lead to melanoma of the skin, which is the deadliest form of skin cancer in the United States. Yet despite the significant public health burden that is associated with skin cancer in the United States, each year over a million Americans engage in indoor tanning where exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation occurs. In this article, we argue for an immediate ban on the use of commercial indoor tanning by minors and, based on international precedents, the phasing out of all commercial tanning operations in the United States. We consider the use of indoor tanning devices in the United States, epidemiological data on indoor tanning devices and cancer, regulation of tanning devices, and scientific evidence for increased government intervention.

  12. "Oh yeah, they're looking": A thematic analysis of indoor UV tanning industry advertising and articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Suzanne M; Rafuse, Lindsay P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancers are becoming more prevalent even though many can be prevented. Women are more knowledgeable than men about skin cancer, yet they are more likely to sunbathe deliberately and to use artificial tanning equipment. The purpose of this article is to examine messages that women receive about the benefits of a tan. Particularly, we focused on how the indoor UV tanning industry represents the value of a tan to women. We subjected five issues of Smart Tan Canada to thematic analysis. We examined language in advertisements and articles that promote an artificial tan to women. Four themes emerged: Be Beautiful and Sexy; Look Young; Feel Better; and Science, Health, and Nature. These themes are especially effective in a culture that routinely objectifies women and places a high degree of value on their appearance. We suggest that appearance-based interventions, media literacy training, and legislation could counteract the messages in the themes.

  13. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  14. A 125 GeV fat Higgs at large tan β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Arjun; Raj, Nirmal

    2015-12-01

    In this article we study the viability of regions of large tan β within the frame-work of Fat Higgs/λ-SUSY Models. We compute the one-loop effective potential to find the corrections to the Higgs boson mass due to the heavy non-standard Higgs bosons. As the tree level contribution to the Higgs boson mass is suppressed at large tan β, these one-loop corrections are crucial to raising the Higgs boson mass to the measured LHC value. By raising the Higgsino and singlino mass parameters, typical electroweak precision constraints can also be avoided. We illustrate these new regions of Fat Higgs/λ-SUSY parameter space by finding regions of large tan β that are consistent with all experimental constraints including direct dark matter detection experiments, relic density limits and the invisible decay width of the Z boson. We find that there exist regions around λ = 1 .25 , tan β = 50 and a uniform psuedo-scalar 4 TeV ≲ M A ≲ 8 TeV which are consistent will all present phenomenological constraints. In this region the dark matter relic abundance and direct detection limits are satisfied by a lightest neutralino that is mostly bino or singlino. As an interesting aside we also find a region of low tan β and small singlino mass parameter where a well-tempered neutralino avoids all cosmological and direct detection constraints.

  15. Portrayal of tanning, clothing fashion and shade use in Australian women's magazines, 1987-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-10-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic regression using robust standard errors to adjust for clustering on magazine was used to assess the relationship between these outcomes and year, setting and model's physical characteristics. Most models portrayed outdoors did not wear hats (89%) and were not in shade (87%). Between 1987 and 2005, the proportion of models depicted wearing hats decreased and the proportion of models portrayed with moderate to dark tans declined and then later increased. Younger women were more likely to be portrayed with a darker tan and more of their body exposed. Models with more susceptible phenotypes (paler hair and eye colour) were less likely to be depicted with a darker tan. Darker tans and poor sun-protective behaviour were most common among models depicted at beaches/pools. Implicit messages about sun protection in popular Australian women's magazines contradict public health messages concerning skin cancer prevention.

  16. Efficacy of a new tan doped sol-gel sorbent for uptake of zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.; Ahmed, S.; Riaz, M. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, F.; Younas Khokhar, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya Univ., Multan (Pakistan)

    2003-07-01

    A TAN (1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol) doped sol gel silica sorbent (reddish colour, porous, stable, hard, non-swelling) were prepared and investigated for the removal of Zn (II) from aqueous solutions. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm, equilibration time and pH effect on the removal were studied from non competitive aqueous solution to optimize the conditions to be utilized on a large scale. Fast equilibration was observed and adsorption equilibria were reached within 30 minutes. Adsorption of zinc ions on the blank (un-doped) sol gel was found negligible. The maximum adsorption of Zn (II) ions onto the TAN doped sol-gel from single solutions were 2.33 mg/g (0.035 mmol/g). TAN doped sol gel can be regenerated through washing with a solution of 0.1 M HCl solution. The maximum regeneration value was as high as 99.0%. The TAN-doped sol gel silica is suitable at least for four adsorption-desorption cycles without experiencing considerable loss of adsorption capacity. The uptake route and the nature of the Zn-TAN complex have been discussed. (orig.)

  17. UV emissions from artificial tanning devices and their compliance with the European technical standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facta, Stefania; Fusette, Stefania Saudino; Bonino, Alessandro; Anglesio, Laura; d'Amore, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Use of ultraviolet radiation-emitting tanning devices has been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (group 1) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Following this classification, the knowledge of typical ultraviolet emission levels from tanning devices can be of interest for evaluating their impact on health. In this work, the results of an extensive measurement campaign on artificial tanning appliances are presented. Ultraviolet emissions from 94 tanning appliances produced by 15 different manufacturers were characterized by onsite spectroradiometric measurements. The measured radiometric quantities were compared with reference values fixed in the European technical standard EN 60335-2-27 "Household and similar electrical appliances-Safety. Part 2: Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation." Measurement results indicate that 88% of the examined appliances had ultraviolet emissions not compliant with the technical standard. Among the considered appliances, tanning devices equipped with low pressure lamps showed higher ultraviolet levels of effective irradiance and less compliance with standard requirements. In particular, UV emissions from 100% of low pressure appliances and from 78% of high pressure appliances exceeded the irradiance limit of 0.3 Wm set by the European technical standard.

  18. STUDY AND PREPARATION ON "PAIN TAN NING" AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATION AND STUDY ON BRAIN ATLAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Mingshun; GU Lanjie; LIU Qingrui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical effect of combined mixture of traditional chineses and western medicine "PIAN TAN NING" in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and change of brain atlas. Methods:In 6660 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, the curative effect of "PIAN TAN NING" and brain atlas were observed and other 30 cases were compared with treatment of Dextran. Results:After treatment, patient's clinical symptoms and recovered degree of myodynamia and brain atlas improved significantly. Total effective rate was 96. 7%. But the contral group was 80. 0%. There was a significant difference between them ( p < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The "PIAN TAN NING" produced a good clinical curative effect in treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and the side effect was only a few. So it can be applied very well in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The applied value of brain atlas was very good.

  19. Trends in tans and skin protection in Australian fashion magazines, 1982 through 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Marks, R; King, M

    1992-12-01

    We rated 3971 photographs of models from midsummer editions of six Australian fashion magazines from 1982-1983 to 1990-1991 for tan on a 9-point scale, for the presence of hats, for sun-protective clothing, and for shade setting. With the exception of the 1990-1991 sample, there was an increasing proportion of light tans over the years. Men were more likely to be deeply tanned than were women. The proportion of models wearing hats followed an increasing linear trend across the five periods. Three quarters of the outdoor photographs were taken in unshaded settings. In unshaded settings, 17% of the women and 5% of the men wore hats.

  20. Global Maps from Interferometeric TanDEM-X Data: Applications and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paola; Martone, Michele; Brautigam, Benjamin; Zink, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    TanDEM-X is a spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission, whose goal is the generation of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy, by using interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques (InSAR). TanDEM-X offers a huge global data set of bistatic InSAR acquisitions, each of them supplemented by quick look images of different SAR quantities, such as amplitude, coherence, and DEM. Global quick look mosaics of the interferometric coherence and of the relative height error can be considered for mission performance monitoring and acquisition strategy optimization. The aim of this paper is to present the use of such mosaics within the TanDEM-X mission and to show their potentials for future scientific applications for example in the fields of glaciology and forestry.

  1. Using UV photography to reduce use of tanning booths: a test of cognitive mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Lane, David J; Mahler, Heike I M; Kulik, James A

    2005-07-01

    Two laboratory studies were conducted in which a new type of intervention was used to reduce ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure from tanning booth use among college students (Time 1 Ns=70 and 134). The intervention uses UV photography to highlight the damage to facial skin caused by previous UV exposure. When the authors controlled for baseline measures of booth use, students in both studies who viewed their UV photographs reported less booth use at a follow-up session 3-4 weeks later than did students not shown a copy of their photograph. Also, in both studies, the decline in use was significantly mediated by a Tanning Cognition Index composed of variables suggested by the prototype-willingness (prototype) model of health risk: tanning attitudes, tanner prototypes, and willingness to engage in risky UV exposure.

  2. Hydrolysis of tanned leather wastes under alkaline, acidic and oxidative conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botić Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Different wastes in large quantities are the outcome or the by-product of processes in the tanning industry. The largest part of solid wastes is collagen based and obtained in the reprocessing steps of tanned and non-tanned products. The quality collagen substance obtained from wastes of the leather industry used as a supporting material in many reprocessing industries. Hydrolysis is the basic step of collagen processing, namely the shortening of its polypeptide chain. The main goal of this investigation was to examine the influence of the following parameters on the extent of collagen hydrolysis: type and quantity of reagent used for hydrolysis temperature of hydrolysis, pH, duration of hydrolysis as well as the dimensions of the "shavings" samples. The change of molar mass during hydrolysis was monitored by UV-spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to the dechroming process of the collagen hydrolysate.

  3. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ignacio López

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  4. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ignacio López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  5. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras tan pobres?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Ignacio López.

    2010-01-01

    Landes, David. La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones. ¿Por qué algunas son tan ricas y otras son tan pobres?, Barcelona, Editorial Crítica, 1999, 604 páginas. ¿Porqué hay naciones pobres y naciones ricas y cuál es la contribución de la historia en la comprensión de esta cuestión? El autor entiende por cultura el espíritu de empresa, el conjunto de valores que guían la conducta de una población, el dominio de la ciencia, la tecnología y el espíritu racional.

  6. Skin deep: Coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines (2000-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2015-06-18

    Skin cancer is a significant public health problem among Canadians. Knowledge and attitudes about health are informed by mass media. The aim of our study was to describe the volume and nature of coverage of skin cancer and recreational tanning in Canadian women's magazines. Directed content analysis on article text and images in six popular Canadian women's magazines (Chatelaine, Canadian Living, Homemakers, Flare, FASHION, ELLE Canada) from 2000-2012 with attention to risk factors, ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure and protection behaviours, and early detection. Six popular American women's magazines were used for a between-country comparison. There were 154 articles (221 images) about skin cancer and tanning published over 13 years. Volume of coverage did not increase in a linear fashion over time. The most common risk factor reported on was UV exposure (39%), with other risk factors less frequently identified. Although 72% of articles promoted sunscreen use, little content encouraged other protection behaviours. Only 15% of articles and 1% of images discouraged indoor tanning, while 41% of articles and 53% of images promoted the tanned look as attractive. Few articles (<11%) reported on early detection. Relative to American magazines, Canadian magazines had a greater proportion of content that encouraged sunscreen use and promoted the tanned look and a lesser proportion of content on risk factors and early detection. Skin cancer and tanning messages in Canadian women's magazines had a narrow focus and provided limited information on risk factors or screening. Conflicting messages about prevention (text vs. images) may contribute to harmful UV behaviours among Canadian women.

  7. On Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club from the Perspective of Symbolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Yi-hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper tries to explore the symbolic meanings in Tan's The Joy Luck Club from the following two parts: symbolic meanings of food and symbolic meaning of water. By employing symbolism, Tan extends the traditional Chinese images into cultural ones, in which the conflicts between Chinese and American cultures are symbolized and allegorized, and the novel holds more symbolic meanings with deeper cultural implication. The happy ending of this novel illustrates that the ancient China and the young American eventually reach mutual communication and understanding.

  8. Late Permian high-Mg andesite and basalt association from northern Liaoning, North China: Insights into the final closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and the orogen-craton boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Lu, Yinghuai; Zong, Keqing

    2016-08-01

    High-Mg andesites (HMAs) and related basalts constitute a volumetrically minor, but genetically important occurrence along most convergent plate margins of various ages on Earth. The details of their petrogenesis can contain critical information for resolving essential geodynamic and crustal evolutionary issues. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the late Permian metamorphosed high-Mg basaltic to andesitic suite from Kaiyuan of northern Liaoning, North China. These rocks feature SiO2 contents ranging from 48.7 to 63.2 wt.%, high Mg# values of 63-75, an enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). They possess whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70417-0.70457, εNd(t) values from - 0.4 to 5.0, and εHf(t) values from 5.1 to 11, as well as zircon εHf(t) values from - 9.4 to 0.4. These features indicate that their petrogenesis most likely involved precursory metasomatism of mantle peridotites by melts from subduction-related sediments, and subsequent partial melting. With a depleted mantle source and possible tectonic link to post-subduction slab break-off, the Kaiyuan suite could present a spatial reference not only for defining the demarcation line between the North China craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic belt (CAOB) in the region, but also for tracing the final location of the cryptic suturing zone of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Synthesizing the suite with coeval igneous episodes as well as concomitant metamorphic events along the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone leads to the characterization of the eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean within a double-sided subduction system during late Permian-Early Triassic.

  9. Microbial Studies Supporting Implementation of In Situ Bioremediation at TAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Joan Marie; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Rae, Catherine; Ely, R. L.

    2000-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is evaluating in situ bioremediation of contaminated groundwater at its Test Area North Facility. To determine feasibility, microcosm and bioreactor studies were conducted to ascertain the ability of indigenous microbes to convert trichloroethene and dichloroethene to non-hazardous byproducts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and to measure the kinetics of microbial reactions associated with the degradation process. Microcosms were established from core samples and groundwater obtained from within the contaminant plume. These microcosms were amended with nutrients, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, to identify electron donors capable of stimulating the degradation process. Results of the anaerobic microcosm studies showed that lactate, acetate and propionate amendments stimulated indigenous cell growth and functioned as effective substrates for reductive degradation of chloroethenes. Bioreactors inoculated with cultures from these anaerobic microcosms were operated under a batch mode for 42 days then converted to a fed-batch mode and operated at a 53-day hydraulic residence time. It was demonstrated that indigenous microbes capable of complete anaerobic reductive dechlorination are present in the subject well. It was also demonstrated that aerobic microbes capable of oxidizing chlorinated compounds produced by anaerobic reductive dechlorination are present. Kinetic data suggest that controlling the type and concentration of electron donors can increase trichlorethene conversion rates. In the event that complete mineralization of trichlorethene does not occur following stimulation, and anaerobic/aerobic treatment scheme is feasible.

  10. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  11. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  12. In vitro/in vivo and analytical evaluation of sunless tanning formulations containing different rheology modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueva-Koganov, Olga V; Mandalia, Yamini; Brito, Juan; Rocafort, Colleen; Orofino, Steven; Vazquez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    In vitro data suggest that different in vivo performances are expected for two dihydroxyacetone (DHA)-containing formulations with similar concentrations of DHA and excipients but different commercially available rheology modifiers: one with a cationic polymer-based rheology modifier (blend) [dimethylacrylamide/ethyltrimonium chloride methacrylate copolymer (and) propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate (and) PPG-1 trideceth-6 (and) C10-11 isoparaffin]; and the other with a polyacrylamide-based rheology modifier (blend) [polyacrylamide (and) C13-14 isoparaffin (and) laureth-7]. Both rheology modifiers (blends) contained comparable levels of polymers and were used at 3% w/w (as supplied). Differences in color development were illustrated in vitro with respect to the yellow/red and lightness/chroma parameters, which were confirmed in the followup in vivo studies. The test article with the cationic polymer-based rheology modifier produced a more natural sunless tan, comparable to a desirable sun-induced tan, for all panelists, one that was more uniform and lasted longer compared with the sunless tan generated by the test article with the polyacrylamide-based rheology modifier. A method for HPLC analysis of DHA in sunless tanning formulations was established and utilized to confirm concentrations of DHA in test articles.

  13. Ever Searching for Better Living——Tan Sri Lee Kim Yew and his CHHB Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Visionary Entrepreneur There have been many spectacular feats and achievements by Malaysians in the last two decade,but none as uneXpected and hard-fought as the rise of Tan Sri Lee Kim Yew,Group Managing Director and Founder of CHHB.

  14. The Relationships between Female Adolescents' Media Use, Indoor Tanning Outcome Expectations, and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M.; Kelley, Dannielle; Zeitany, Alexandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unlike other types of cancer, skin cancer incidence rates are on the rise and adolescent females are particularly likely to tan indoors, a major risk factor. However, little research has examined the role of media use in encouraging or discouraging this dangerous behavior in this population. Aims: To empirically assess the links…

  15. Portrayal of Tanning, Clothing Fashion and Shade Use in Australian Women's Magazines, 1987-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Jamsen, Kris; McLeod, Kim

    2008-01-01

    To examine modelling of outcomes relevant to sun protection in Australian women's magazines, content analysis was performed on 538 spring and summer issues of popular women's magazines from 1987 to 2005. A total of 4949 full-colour images of Caucasian females were coded for depth of tan, extent of clothing cover, use of shade and setting. Logistic…

  16. Arc Tan- Exponential Type Distribution Induced By Stereographic Projection / Bilinear Transformation On Modified Wrapped Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Y.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we make an attempt to construct a new three parameter linear model, we call this new model as Arc Tan-Exponential Type distribution, by applying Stereographic Projection or equivalently Bilinear transformation on Wrapped Exponential distribution, Probability density and cumulative distribution functions of this new model are presented and their graphs are plotted for various values of parameters.

  17. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  18. Inverse gene-for-gene interactions contribute additively to tan spot susceptibility in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is an important disease in almost all wheat-growing areas of the world. The disease system is known to involve at least three fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that interact with corresponding host sensitivity (S) genes in an inv...

  19. Structural, electronic and optical properties of hexagonal TaN compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjun; Yan, Jungan; Kuang, Zhong; Chen, Taihong; Li, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of hexagonal Tantalum nitride (TaN) in CoSn and WC structures are studied using the first-principle calculations. Lattice constants and electronic band structures are in an excellent agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical values. TaN in both structures studied has a metallic nature and a strong hybridization of Ta 5d and N 2p are found from the spin density of states (DOS). Meanwhile, our LSDA+U calculations predicted a strong ferromagnetic state for CoSn-type structure and an obvious paramagnetic nature for WC-type structure. No phase transition are observed within cubic and hexagonal CoSn and WC structures under high pressures. Our results show WC-type TaN is the calculated ground-state structure among the three crystallographic structures studied under 120 GPa. Optical properties show that TaN in CoSn-type structure is a better dielectric material.

  20. On some binomial coefficients related to the evaluation of tan(nx)

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Shi-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study some binomial coefficients which are related to the evaluation of tan(nx). We mainly present a connection between these binomial coefficients and the coefficients of a family of derivative polynomials for tangent and secant.

  1. TanDEM-X the Earth surface observation project from space level - basis and mission status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wiśniowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TanDEM-X is DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt the Earth surface observation project using high-resolution SAR interferometry. It opens a new era in space borne radar remote sensing. The system is based on two satellites: TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX flying on the very close, strictly controlled orbits. This paper gives an overview of the radar technology and overview of the TanDEM-X mission concept which is based on several innovative technologies. The primary objective of the mission is to deliver a global digital elevation model (DEM with an unprecedented accuracy, which is equal to or surpass the HRTI-3 specifications (12 m posting, relative height accuracy ±2 m for slope < 20% and ±4 m for slope > 20% [8]. Beyond that, TanDEM-X provides a highly reconfigurable platform for the demonstration of new radar imaging techniques and applications.[b]Keywords[/b]: remote sensing, Bistatic SAR, digital elevation model (DEM, Helix formation, SAR interferomery, HRTI-3, synchronization

  2. The TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Model and Terrestrial Impact Craters

    OpenAIRE

    Gottwald, Manfred; Fritz, Thomas; Breit, Helko; Schättler, Birgit; Harris, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We use the global digital elevation model (DEM) generated in the TanDEM-X mission for mapping further confirmed terrestrial impact craters. This DEM provides the most accurate spaceborne global elevation data. It permits detailed studies of the topography of the sites of simple and complex structures with unprecedented accuracy.

  3. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  4. The Power of Interconnectivity: Tan Sitong's Invention of Historical Agency in Late Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore how Chinese Buddhists acted as trailblazers of Engaged Buddhism, I shall analyze a late nineteenth-century thinker, Tan Sitong 譚嗣同 (1865–1898. The focus of my analysis is his masterpiece, Renxue 仁學. From his position of Buddhist eclecticism, Tan discoursed at length on non-differentiation as the truth of the universe to reflect on the creative disposition of human agency. He described in Renxue how this disposition would contribute to the agendas defining Chinese modernity. In addition, discussing the meanings of non-differentiation, Tan also generalized about the nature of the human agency he attempted to advocate: while he perceived the human agency blessed with a non-differentiating mindset as an omnipotent history-making force, he also argued that it did not confer upon its owner the status of world savior. In fact, in his view, the efficacy of a non-differentiating mind was determined by the world it aimed to help. Tan's signature piece, I argue, provides a lens through which we can observe modern Chinese Buddhism's role as an important part of the global formation of Engaged Buddhism.

  5. Supergravity Solutions in the Low-$\\tan\\beta$ $ \\lambda_t$ Fixed Point Region

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Ohmann, P

    1994-01-01

    There has been much discussion in the literature about applying the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) requirement to GUT models with supergravity. We motivate and discuss the application of the EWSB requirement to the low $\\tan\\beta$ fixed-point region and describe the solutions we find.

  6. A 125 GeV Fat Higgs at large $\\tan \\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    We study the viability of regions of large $\\tan \\beta$ within the framework of Fat Higgs/$\\lambda$-SUSY Models. We compute the one-loop effective potential to find the corrections to the Higgs boson mass due to the heavy non-standard Higgs bosons. As the tree level contribution to the Higgs boson mass is suppressed at large $\\tan \\beta$, these one-loop corrections are crucial to raising the Higgs boson mass to the measured LHC value. By raising the Higgsino and singlino mass parameters, typical electroweak precision constraints can also be avoided. We illustrate these new regions of Fat Higgs/$\\lambda$-SUSY parameter space by finding regions of large $\\tan \\beta$ that are consistent with all experimental constraints including direct dark matter detection experiments, relic density limits and the invisible decay width of the $Z$ boson. We find that there exist regions around $\\lambda = 1.25, \\tan \\beta = 50$ and a uniform psuedo-scalar $4~{\\rm TeV} \\lsim M_A \\lsim 8$~TeV which are consistent will all present ...

  7. The physical properties of cubic plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition TaN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lavoie, C.; Copel, M.; Narayanan, V.; Park, D.-G.; Rossnagel, S. M.

    2004-05-01

    Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) is a promising technique to produce high quality metal and nitride thin films at low growth temperature. In this study, very thin (<10 nm) low resistivity (350 μΩ cm) cubic TaN Cu diffusion barrier were deposited by PE-ALD from TaCl5 and a plasma of both hydrogen and nitrogen. The physical properties of TaN thin films including microstructure, conformality, roughness, and thermal stability were investigated by various analytical techniques including x-ray diffraction, medium energy ion scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The Cu diffusion barrier properties of PE-ALD TaN thin films were studied using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical scattering, and sheet resistance measurements during thermal annealing of the test structures. The barrier failure temperatures were obtained as a function of film thickness and compared with those of PE-ALD Ta, physical vapor deposition (PVD) Ta, and PVD TaN. A diffusion kinetics analysis showed that the microstructure of the barrier materials is one of the most critical factors for Cu diffusion barrier performance.

  8. 78 FR 27117 - General and Plastic Surgery Devices: Reclassification of Ultraviolet Lamps for Tanning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Women: An Evaluation of the Association of Tanning Bed Use and Smoking,'' Journal of the American... history of melanoma, and usage in pregnancy. Some Panel members also supported more prominent posting of... Among Offspring of Women With Personal or Family History of Skin Cancer,'' Pediatrics, vol. 117,...

  9. Chrome Tanning Leather of Giant Sea Perch Combined with Seed Extract Areca Nut on the Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustami - Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tanning is the process of converting raw hide protein to leather, which are stable, not easily decompose, and is suitable for a variety of uses. The use of vegetable based tanning materials in the leather tanning process has not been carried out. Vegetable based materials that were used are betel nuts. This plant contains tannin which is the main agent in the process of leather tanning. The aim of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of snapper leather treated with betel nut extract. Soxhlet extracting method with methanol as a solvent were used to obtain tannin from betel nuts. Tanned Snapper Leather were analyzed for physical quality, elongation strength, tensile strength, tear strength, and sewing strength. The result showed that methanol extracted betel nut with 10% concentration gives the optimum physical characteristics.Keywords: areca nut, chrome, snapper, snapper

  10. Biointervention makes leather processing greener: an integrated cleansing and tanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2003-06-01

    The do-undo methods adopted in conventional leather processing generate huge amounts of pollutants. In other words, conventional methods employed in leather processing subject the skin/hide to wide variations in pH. Pretanning and tanning processes alone contribute more than 90% of the total pollution from leather processing. Included in this is a great deal of solid wastes such as lime and chrome sludge. In the approach described here, the hair and flesh removal as well as fiber opening have been achieved using biocatalysts at pH 8.0 for cow hides. This was followed by a pickle-free chrome tanning, which does not require a basification step. Hence, this tanning technique involves primarily three steps, namely, dehairing, fiber opening, and tanning. It has been found that the extent of hair removal, opening up of fiber bundles, and penetration and distribution of chromium are comparable to that produced by traditional methods. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis, and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally processed leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Importantly, softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also demonstrates reduction in chemical oxygen demand load by 80%, total solids load by 85%, and chromium load by 80% as compared to the conventional process, thereby leading toward zero discharge. The input-output audit shows that the biocatalytic three-step tanning process employs a very low amount of chemicals, thereby reducing the discharge by 90% as compared to the conventional multistep processing. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the process is technoeconomically viable.

  11. Studies on 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of strike-slip time of the Tan-Lu fault zone and their tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Xu, J. W., Ma, G. E, Ten years review on studies on the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1992, 38(4):316-324.[2]Xu, J. W., The Tancheng-Lujiang Wrench Fault System, Chichester(UK): John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1993, 177-183.[3]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Tectonic relationships between the Tan-Lu fault zone and the Dabie-Jiaonan orogenic belt, in Research Progress in Structural Geology and Lithosphere Dynamics (ed., Ma. Z. J.) (in Chinese), Beijing: Seismological Publishing House, 1999,164-170.[4]Dou, L. R., Song, J. G., Wang, Y., Chronology of formation of the northern part of the Tan-Lu fault zone and its implications, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1996,42(6): 508-512.[5]Yin, A., Nie, S. Y., An indendation model for the North and South China collision and the development of the Tan-Lu and Honam fault system, eastern Asia, Tectonics, 1993, 12(4): 801-813.[6]Wan, T. F., Zhu, H., The maximum sinistral strike-slip displacement and formation time of the Tan-Lu fault zone, Geological Journal of China Universities (in Chinese), 1996, 2(1): 14-27.[7]Wang, X. F., Li, Z. J., Chen, B. L. et al., Formation and evolution of the Tan-Lu strike-slip fault system and its geological significance, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. Z.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 176-196.[8]Xu, J. W., Zhu, G., Tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone,eastern China, International Geology Review, 1994,36:771-784.[9]Zhu, G., Xu, J. W., Displacement, timing and tectonic models of the Tan-Lu fault zone, in Proceedings of 30th International Geological Congress (ed., Zheng, Y. D.), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1998, 14: 167-175.[10]Zhang, Z. M., Liou, J. G., Coleman, R. G., An outline of the plate tectonics of China, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1984, 95:295-312.[11]Watson, M. P., Hayward, A. B., Parkinson, D. N. et al., Plate tectonics history, basin development and petroleum source rock

  12. Anatomie d’une marge passive hybride. Marge Ifni/Tan-Tan (sud du Maroc au Mesozoique: apports des donnees geophysiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahim, M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Ifninan-Tan margin started during the Triassic-Liassic extensional event, and continued during the Jurassic to present opening of the central Atlantic. This margin is located to the S of the South-Atlas lineament, between two contrasted geotectonic scenarios: the N, where the effect of the atlasic and alpine tectonics is spectacular, and the S, where this does not occur. The Ifninan-Tan margin is characterized by a series of post-rift deposits only slightly deformed and disturbed by salt diapirism towards the ocean. These series completely mask the structures of the rift, and they have been studied with the abundant information gathered by the oil exploration campaigns (seismic reflection and drilling, and with the analysis of gravimetrical and magnetic field-potential data. The study of the rift structures (both inland and offshore, highlights the difference between two sectors of the platform: (i a NE sector, where the upper part of the pre-rift substratum is not very deep, and where the dominating structural style is constituted by half-grabens and horsts; and, (ii a SW sector where grabens dominate. This paper shows that two structural styles and modes of extension can coexist on the same passive margin, one hundred kilometers apart. The differences described here are imposed by the structures inherited from the Hercynian evolution.La constitution de la marge Ifni/Tan-Tan a commencé lors de la distension triasico-liasique et s’est poursuivie pendant l’ouverture de l’Atlantique central, qui a eu lieu au Jurassique, jusqu’a l’actuel. Située au Sud du linéament sud atlasique entre deux domaines géotectoniques variés: un domaine au Nord ou l’effet de la tectonique atlasique et alpine est très spectaculaire et un domaine au Sud ou cet effet est très discret, la marge Ifni/Tan-Tan est caractérisée par des séries post-rift peu déformées et perturbées, en mer, par des montées diapiriques de sel. Ces s

  13. Elevation validation and geomorphic metric comparison with focus on ASTER GDEM2, SRTM- C, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphologists use digital elevation models (DEMs) to quantify changes in topography - often without rigorous accuracy assessments. In this study we validate and compare elevation accuracy and derived geomorphic metrics from the current generation of satellite-derived DEMs on the southern Central Andean Plateau. The average elevation of 3.7 km, diverse topography and relief, lack of vegetation, and clear skies create ideal conditions for remote sensing in this study area. DEMs at resolutions of 5-30 m are sourced from open-access, research agreement, and commercial outlets, with a focus on the 30 m SRTM-C, 30 m ASTER GDEM2, 12 m TanDEM-X, and 5 m ALOS World 3D data. In addition to these edited products, manually generated DEMs included 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X DEMs and a 30 m stacked ASTER L1A stereopair DEM. We assessed vertical accuracy by comparing standard deviations (SD) of the DEM elevation versus 307,509 differential GPS (dGPS) measurements with employed a Fourier analysis to identify DEM frequencies and their spectral power. The optical 5 m ALOS World 3D DEM shows high-frequency noise in 2-8 pixel steps, with no corresponding landscape features in this highly diffusive, vegetation-free environment. Finally, we explore the geomorphometric potential of the higher-quality 12 m TanDEM-X DEM through a hillslope length and surface roughness assessment across steep environmental, climatic and topographic gradients in the Quebrada del Toro catchment, west of Salta, Argentina.

  14. 40 CFR 425.30 - Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. 425.30 Section 425.30 Protection of... FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory § 425.30 Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory. The...

  15. Tanning elixir万能的皮肤自晒黑护肤品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    来自Carita公司的护肤新品包括名为ProgressifAnti-Age Solaire Self-Tanning Tinted Cream for Face的抗衰老自晒黑护肤膏霜.其同时具有SPF8的紫外线防护指数。另一个新产品是ProgessilfAnti-Age Solaire Self-Tanning and Contouring Milk.是一个用于腿部和全身肌肤的,具有SPF8防晒指数的自晒黑护肤奶液.宣称也具有抗衰老功效。

  16. Large muon (g-2) from TeV-scale MSSM with infinite tan\\beta

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Markus; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2015-01-01

    The muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\\mu$ is studied in the infinite $\\tan\\beta$ limit of the MSSM. Since the muon mass arises completely from loop effects, large corrections to $a_\\mu$ are expected in comparison to the usual case with moderately high $\\tan\\beta$. Due to the qualitatively different parameter dependence, the gap between the experimental value and the Standard Model prediction can be filled only in parameter volumes in which a mass hierarchy suppresses the chargino loop in favour of the neutralino contribution. Two such possibilities are found to have either large Higgsino mass or large muon sneutrino mass. Supersymmetric particles even at the TeV scale can lead to the best fit of $a_\\mu$.

  17. TaN molecule as a candidate to search for New physics

    CERN Document Server

    Skripnikov, L V; Mosyagin, N S; Titov, A V; Flambaum, V V

    2015-01-01

    TaN molecule is probably the best candidate to search for T,P-violating nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM), it also looks promissing to search for other T,P-odd effects. We report results of coupled-cluster calculations of T,P-odd effects in TaN produced by the Ta nucleus MQM, electron electric dipole moment (EDM), scalar$-$pseudoscalar nucleus$-$electron interactions, also of the molecule-axis hyperfine structure constant and dipole moment. Nuclear calculations of $^{181}$Ta MQM are performed to express the T,P-odd effect in terms of the strength constants of T,P-odd nuclear forces, proton and neutron EDM, QCD parameter $\\theta$ and quark chromo-EDM.

  18. Tropical-Forest Biomass Dynamics from X-Band, TanDEM-X DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuhaft, R. N.; Neumann, M.; Keller, M. M.; Goncalves, F. G.; Santos, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of the change in above ground biomass (AGB) is key for understanding the carbon sink/source nature of tropical forests. Interferometric X-band radar from the only orbiting interferometer, TanDEM-X, shows sensitivity to standing biomass up to at least 300 Mg/ha. This sensitivity may be due in part to the propagation of the shorter X-band wavelength (0.031 m) through holes in the canopy. This talk focuses on estimating the change in AGB over time. Interferometric baselines from TanDEM-X have been obtained in Tapajós National Forest in the Brazilian Amazon over a 4-year period, from 2011 to 2015. Lidar measurements were also acquired during this period. Field measurements of height, height-to-base-of-crown, species, diameter, and position were acquired in 2010, 2013, and 2015. We show interferometric phase height changes, and suggest how these phase height changes are related to biomass change. First we show height changes between baselines separated by one month, over which we expect no change in AGB, to evaluate precision. We find an RMS of 3 m, due to actual change. Most stands show changes in interferometric phase height consistent with regrowth (~10 Mg/ha/yr), and several stands show abrupt, large changes in phase height (>10 m) due to logging and natural disturbance. At the end of 2015, we will acquire more TanDEM-X data over Tapajos, including an area subjected to selective logging. We are doing "before" (March 2015) and "after" (October 2015) fieldwork to be able to understand the signature of change due to selective logging in TanDEM-X interferometric data.

  19. CP violation in B --> phi K_S decay at large tan(beta)

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seungwon

    2003-01-01

    We consider the chargino contribution to the CP violation in B \\to \\phi K_S decay in the minimal supersymmetric standard model at large \\tan\\beta. It is shown that the Wilson coefficient C_{8g} of the chromomagnetic penguin operator can be significantly enhanced by the chargino-mediated diagrams while satisfying other direct/indirect experimental constraints. The enhanced C_{8g} allows large deviation in the CP asymmetry from the standard model prediction.

  20. CP violation in $B \\to \\phi K_S$ decay at large $\\tan\\beta$

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Seungwon

    2003-01-01

    We consider the chargino contribution to the CP violation in $B \\to \\phi K_S$ decay in the minimal supersymmetric standard model at large $\\tan\\be$. It is shown that the Wilson coefficient $C_{8g}$ of the chromomagnetic penguin operator can be significantly enhanced by the chargino-mediated diagrams while satisfying other direct/indirect experimental constraints. The enhanced $C_{8g}$ allows large deviation in the CP asymmetry from the standard model prediction, especially it can explain the ...

  1. High School Students’ Use of Sunscreen and Tanning Beds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-20

    This podcast is an interview with Corey Basch, EdD, MPH, assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at William Paterson University. Dr. Basch discusses her study on high school students’ use of sunscreen and tanning beds between 2001 and 2011.  Created: 8/20/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/20/2014.

  2. TARA (Caesalpinia spinosa): the sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell Escuer, Joan Carles

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concerns lower carbon footprint and health safety. Taxonomy of the tree is described and the substances contained in the fruit are chemically characterized in order to justify that tara farm forestry is economically viable and to secure a potential worth. The v...

  3. On some spectral properties of TanDEM-X interferograms over forested areas

    OpenAIRE

    De Zan, Francesco; Krieger, Gerhard; López-Dekker, Paco

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports about some obervations over rainforest (in Brazil and Indonesia), where the spectra of TanDEM-X interferograms show distinct features, almost a signature, which is explained and modelled in terms of the scattering properties. Supported by comparisons with simulations, the observations exclude any homogeneous, horizontally-layered forest; instead, they are compatible with a model with point scatterers clustered in clouds. Such a model, with high extinction and large gaps...

  4. Observations and discussions of TanDEM-X interferogram spectra over rain forest

    OpenAIRE

    De Zan, Francesco; Krieger, Gerhard; López-Dekker, Paco

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports about some obervations over rainforest (in Brazil and Indonesia), where the spectra of TanDEM-X interferograms show distinct features, almost a signature, which is explained and modelled in terms of the scattering properties. Thanks to the comparison with simulations, the observations exclude a homogeneous, horizontally-layered forest; instead, they are compatible with a model with point scatterers clustered in clouds. Such a model, with high extinction and large gaps th...

  5. Depositional environments of the subsurface Cretaceous deposits of southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, E. S., Jr.

    1981-02-01

    The subsurface Cretaceous deposits of southeastern North Carolina were analyzed. Six lithologic units were recognized. These are, in ascending stratigraphic order: an unnamed Lower Cretaceous unit, Cape Fear Formation, unnamed Upper Cretaceous unit, Middendorf Formation, Black Creek Formation, and Peedee Formation. The unnamed Lower Cretaceous unit contains interbedded fine to medium grained sands, calcareous sandstones, sandy limestones and clays which were deposited in environments ranging from nearshore to fluvial. The Cape Fear Formation consists of very fine to coarse tan sands interbedded with brown and reddish clays. The Upper Cretaceous unnamed unit is composed of tan and yellow medium to coarse sands interbedded with tan and red clays deposited in braided fluvial environments. The Black Creek Formation consists of lignitic dark clays and coarse to very fine sands. Formation is composed of dark green to greenish-gray, micaceous, glauconitic clays and sands interbedded with calcareous sandstones or sandy limestones.

  6. High-Accuracy Tidal Flat Digital Elevation Model Construction Using TanDEM-X Science Phase Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ryu, Joo-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using TanDEM-X (TDX) interferometric observations of tidal flats for digital elevation model (DEM) construction. Our goal was to generate high-precision DEMs in tidal flat areas, because accurate intertidal zone data are essential for monitoring coastal environment sand erosion processes. To monitor dynamic coastal changes caused by waves, currents, and tides, very accurate DEMs with high spatial resolution are required. The bi- and monostatic modes of the TDX interferometer employed during the TDX science phase provided a great opportunity for highly accurate intertidal DEM construction using radar interferometry with no time lag (bistatic mode) or an approximately 10-s temporal baseline (monostatic mode) between the master and slave synthetic aperture radar image acquisitions. In this study, DEM construction in tidal flat areas was first optimized based on the TDX system parameters used in various TDX modes. We successfully generated intertidal zone DEMs with 57-m spatial resolutions and interferometric height accuracies better than 0.15 m for three representative tidal flats on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, we validated these TDX DEMs against real-time kinematic-GPS measurements acquired in two tidal flat areas; the correlation coefficient was 0.97 with a root mean square error of 0.20 m.

  7. Green route for the utilization of chrome shavings (chromium-containing solid waste) in tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Thanikaivelan, Palanisamy; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2002-03-15

    Chromium-containing wastes from various industrial sectors are under critical review. Leather processing is one such industrial activity that generates chromium-bearing wastes in different forms. One of them is chrome shavings, and this contributes to an extent of 10% of the quantum of raw skins/hides processed, amounting to 0.8 million ton globally. In this study, the high protein content of chrome shavings has been utilized for reduction of chromium(VI) in the preparation of chrome tanning agent. This approach has been exploited for the development of two products: one with chrome shavings alone as reducing agent and the other with equal proportion of chrome shavings and molasses. The developed products exhibit more masking due to the formation of intermediate organic oligopeptides. This has been corroborated through the spectral, hydrolysis, and species-wise distribution studies. The formation of these organic masking agents helps in chrome tanning by shifting the precipitation point of chromium to relatively higher pH levels. Hence, the developed products find use as chrome tanning agents for leather processing, thus providing a means for better utilization of chrome shaving wastes.

  8. Characterization of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Tan Spot of Wheat) Races in Baltic States and Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Ali, Shaukat; Liatukas, Zilvinas; Ittu, Mariana; Kaur, Navjot

    2017-01-01

    Tan spot, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora triticirepentis, is economically important foliar disease in Latvia, Lithuania, and Romania; however, race structure from Baltic States and Romania is not known. In this study, we performed genotypic and phenotypic race characterization of a large collection of P. triticirepentis isolates from these countries to determine race structure and utilize this information for better disease management and breeding wheat for tan spot resistance. We characterized 231 single spore isolates from Latvia (n = 15), Lithuania (n = 107), and Romania (n = 109) for Ptr ToxA and Ptr ToxB genes using two genes specific primers. A subset (139) of 231 isolates were further characterized for their race structure by inoculating them individually on tan spot wheat differentials set. Majority (83%) of the 231 isolates amplified Ptr ToxA gene suggesting prevalence of race 1 and 2. Further, phenotypic characterization of 139 isolates also showed wide prevalence of races 1 (68%), 2 (8%), 3 (11%), and 4 (5%) were also identified from Baltic States as well as Romania. Eighteen of the isolates (13%) did not seem to be of any of the eight known races as they lacked Ptr ToxA gene but they behaved like either race 1 or race 2, suggesting possibility of novel toxins in these isolates as their virulence tools.

  9. An assessment of TanDEM-X GlobalDEM over rural and urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudogbo, Fifamè N.; Duro, Javier; Huber, Martin; Rudari, Roberto; Eddy, Andrew; Lucas, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a key input for the development of risk management systems. Main limitation of the current available DEM is the low level of resolution. DEMs such as STRM 90m or ASTER are globally available free of charge, but offer limited use, for example, to flood modelers in most geographic areas. TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement), the first bistatic SAR can fulfil this gap. The mission objective is the generation of a consistent global digital elevation model with an unprecedented accuracy according to the HRTI-3 (High Resolution Terrain Information) specifications. The mission opens a new era in risk assessment. In the framework of ALTAMIRA INFORMATION research activities, the DIAPASON (Differential Interferometric Automated Process Applied to Survey Of Nature) processing chain has been successfully adapted to TanDEM-X CoSSC (Coregistered Slant Range Single Look Complex) data processing. In this study the capability of CoSSC data for DEM generation is investigated. Within the on-going FP7 RASOR project (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation and Of Risk), the generated DEM are compared with Intermediate DEM derived from the TanDEM-X first global coverage. The results are presented and discussed.

  10. Tropical forest heterogeneity from TanDEM-X InSAR and lidar observations in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandi, Elsa Carla; Mitchard, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Fires exacerbated during El Niño Southern Oscillation are a serious threat in Indonesia leading to the destruction and degradation of tropical forests and emissions of CO2 in the atmosphere. Forest structural changes which occurred due to the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation in the Sungai Wain Protection Forest (East Kalimantan, Indonesia), a previously intact forest reserve have led to the development of a range of landcover from secondary forest to areas dominated by grassland. These structural differences can be appreciated over large areas by remote sensing instruments such as TanDEM-X and LiDAR that provide information that are sensitive to vegetation vertical and horizontal structure. One-point statistics of TanDEM-X coherence (mean and CV) and LiDAR CHM (mean, CV) and derived metrics such as vegetation volume and canopy cover were tested for the discrimination between 4 landcover classes. Jeffries-Matusita (JM) separability was high between forest classes (primary or secondary forest) and non-forest (grassland) while, primary and secondary forest were not separable. The study tests the potential and the importance of potential of TanDEM-X coherence and LiDAR observations to characterize structural heterogeneity based on one-point statistics in tropical forest but requires improved characterization using two-point statistical measures.

  11. Recycling Technology for Waste Tanning Liquors%鞣制废液的循环技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Mokrejs; D.; Janacova; M.; Mladek; K.; Kolornaznik; F.; Langmaier; V.; Vasek

    2007-01-01

    Tannery belongs to typical industrial branches which during the technological process produce considerable quantities of liquid and solid wastes contributing to polluting the environment. The presented work describes dechromation of waste tanning liquor utilising chrome sludge produced through enzymatic hydrolysis of chrome-tanned leather wastes. The principle of dechromation consists in sorption of chrome from waste liquor after tanning to chrome sludge. Recycling technology is characterised by an almost 99% efficiency, simplicity and low investment requirements.%制革属于典型的工业分支,制革工业中会产生大量的污染环境的废液和废固.该论文利用铬鞣革废物的酶法水解用铬污泥除去鞣制废液中的铬.除去铬的原理是鞣后的铬污泥从废液中吸收铬.该循环技术回收率可达99%,操作简单、成本低廉.

  12. Tanning Shade Gradations of Models in Mainstream Fitness and Muscle Enthusiast Magazines: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention in Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Basch, Corey H; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Berdnik, Alyssa; Basch, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    .... This study evaluated and compared tanning shade gradations of adult Caucasian male and female model images in mainstream fitness and muscle enthusiast magazines. Sixty-nine U.S. magazine issues...

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  14. Derivation of $m_A \\simeq M_Z$ and $\\tan \\beta > \\sqrt 3$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, E

    1994-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, the Higgs sector has two unknown parameters, usually taken to be $\\tan \\beta \\equiv v_2/v_1$ and $m_A$, the mass of its one physical pseudoscalar particle. By minimizing the minimum of the Higgs potential along a certain direction in parameter space, it is shown that $m_A = M_Z$ + radiative correction, and if one further plausible assumption is made, $\\tan \\beta > \\sqrt 3$.

  15. Gigantic diphoton rate of heavy Higgs bosons in the aligned two Higgs doublet models with small tan β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Yeo Woong

    2015-06-01

    We study the implications of the LHC heavy neutral Higgs boson search data on the aligned two Higgs doublet model with a softly broken Z2 symmetry. When tan β is small, the gluon fusion production of the heavy C P -even scalar H0 or the C P -odd scalar A0 becomes large enough to constrain the model by the current γ γ , τ+τ- , and t t ¯ data. By reinvestigating the indirect constraints from Δ ρ , b →s γ , Δ MBd , Rb, ɛK , and the perturbativity of the running top quark Yukawa coupling, we find that the small tan β region is still allowed: for instance, tan β ≳0.6 (0.5 ) for Type I and X (II and Y) for mH±=800 GeV . We find that the current LHC results of the heavy Higgs searches at √{s }=8 TeV are shown to put on more significant bounds. If mH≃mA , the t t ¯ mode excludes tan β ≲1.5 for mH ,A=500 - 600 GeV in all four types, and the γ γ and τ+τ- modes exclude tan β ≲1 - 3 (tan β ≲3 - 10 ) for mH ,A=150 - 340 GeV in Types I, II, and Y (Type X).

  16. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  17. Gigantic diphoton rate of heavy Higgs bosons in the aligned two Higgs doublet models with small $\\tan\\beta$

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Jeonghyeon

    2014-01-01

    We study the implications of the LHC heavy neutral Higgs search data on the aligned two Higgs doublet model with softly broken $Z_2$ symmetry. When $\\tan\\beta$ is small, the gluon fusion production of the heavy CP-even scalar $H^0$ or the CP-odd scalar $A^0$ becomes large enough to constrain the model by the current $\\gamma\\gamma$, $\\tau^+\\tau^-$, and $t\\bar{t}$ data. By reinvestigating this small $\\tan\\beta$ region, we find that the indirect constraints like $\\Delta\\rho$, $b\\to s \\gamma$, $\\Delta M_{B_d}$, $R_b$, $\\epsilon_K$, and the perturbativity of running top Yukawa coupling are rather weak to be $\\tan\\beta > 0.5$. The current heavy Higgs search results are shown to put more significant bounds. If $m_H \\simeq m_A$, the $t\\bar{t}$ mode excludes $\\tan\\beta< 1.5$ for $m_{H,A}=500-600\\,$GeV in all four types, and the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\tau^+\\tau^-$ modes exclude $\\tan\\beta < 1-3$ ($\\tan\\beta < 3-10$) for $m_{H,A}=120-340\\,$GeV in Type I, II, and Y (Type X).

  18. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  19. Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  20. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2 surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range.

  1. Inter-agency comparison of TanDEM-X baseline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Moon, Y.; Wermuth, M.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Bock, H.; Bodenmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using close formation flying for bistatic SAR interferometry. The primary goal of the mission is to generate a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 2 m height precision and 10 m ground resolution from the configurable SAR interferometer with space baselines of a few hundred meters. As a key mission requirement for the interferometric SAR processing, the relative position, or baseline vector, of the two satellites must be determined with an accuracy of 1 mm (1D RMS) from GPS measurements collected by the onboard receivers. The operational baseline products for the TanDEM-X mission are routinely generated by the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) using different software packages (EPOS/BSW, GHOST) and analysis strategies. For a further independent performance assessment, TanDEM-X baseline solutions are generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) on a best effort basis using the Bernese Software (BSW). Dual-frequency baseline solutions are compared for a 1-month test period in January 2011. Differences of reduced-dynamic baseline solutions exhibit a representative standard deviation (STD) of 1 mm outside maneuver periods, while biases are below 1 mm in all directions. The achieved baseline determination performance is close to the mission specification, but independent SAR calibration data takes acquired over areas with a well known DEM from previous missions will be required to fully meet the 1 mm 1D RMS target. Besides the operational solutions, single-frequency baseline solutions are tested. They benefit from a more robust ambiguity fixing and show a slightly better agreement of below 1 mm STD, but are potentially affected by errors caused by an incomplete compensation of differential ionospheric path delays.

  2. Modelling of XCO2 Surfaces Based on Flight Tests of TanSat Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Li; Yue, Tian Xiang; Wilson, John P.; Wang, Ding Yi; Zhao, Na; Liu, Yu; Liu, Dong Dong; Du, Zheng Ping; Wang, Yi Fu; Lin, Chao; Zheng, Yu Quan; Guo, Jian Hong

    2016-01-01

    The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km2 and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO2) surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR) reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm. However, it is difficult to directly analyze the spatial distribution of XCO2 in the flight area using the limited flight test data and the approximate surface of XCO2, which was obtained by regression modeling, which is not very accurate either. We therefore used the high accuracy surface modeling (HASM) platform to fill the gaps where there is no information on XCO2 in the flight test area, which takes the approximate surface of XCO2 as its driving field and the XCO2 observations retrieved from the flight test as its optimum control constraints. High accuracy surfaces of XCO2 were constructed with HASM based on the flight’s observations. The results showed that the mean XCO2 in the flight test area is about 400 ppm and that XCO2 over urban areas is much higher than in other places. Compared with OCO-2’s XCO2, the mean difference is 0.7 ppm and the standard deviation is 0.95 ppm. Therefore, the modelling of the XCO2 surface based on the flight test of the TanSat instruments fell within an expected and acceptable range. PMID:27809272

  3. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result.

  4. Study of Tanning Ability of the Bisphenol S Derivatives-Al(Ⅲ)Complex Tanning Agent%双酚S衍生物-铝(Ⅲ)配合物的鞣性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强西怀; 黄剑; 张辉

    2013-01-01

    用双酚S衍生物与碱式铝盐形成的配合物对山羊酸皮进行鞣制实验,通过测定坯革收缩温度(Ts)和观察粒面状况变化,发现配合物的鞣制效果和铝盐的碱度及其与双酚S衍生物的配比相关.实验中最佳鞣性的配合物组成是n(双酚S衍生物)∶n(Al3+)=1∶1,铝盐碱度以33%为宜;优选的配合物鞣制的适宜应用工艺主要参数为:配合物鞣剂用量5%,鞣制3h,其鞣制的坯革Ts达到78℃;将双酚S衍生物、碱式硫酸铝和配合物三者鞣性进行对比,证实了双酚S衍生物与碱式铝盐配体之间形成了一定的配位络合,鞣制性能具有协同效应;通过考察坯革经不同介质处理后收缩温度的变化情况,表明配合物与皮胶原纤维具有良好的键合作用.%The property of Bisphenol S derivatives - Al( HI ) complex tanning agent was studied with the goal pickling pelts tanning application and evaluated the changes of shrinkage temperature and grain of the crust. It was found that the tanning property is related to the alkalinity of aluminum salts and its proportion complexed with the Bisphenol S derivatives. The results indicated that the best alkalinity is 33 % , the best proportion is n( Bisphenol S derivatives) :n( Al3+ ) = 1 : 1; the optimal application process of the complex is used at the amount of 5 % ,tanning 3h and the shrinkable temperature of crust could reach to 78℃ after tanning . Comparing to after aluminum tanning and Bisphenol S derivatives tanning, it showed that there is synergy between the Bisphenol S derivatives and alkali aluminum salts in tanning and they could coordinate with each other and the complex tanning agent could combine with the collagen fiber well proved by the changes of shrinkage temperature after dealing with different mediums.

  5. Interferometric SAR Coherence Models for Characterization of Hemiboreal Forests Using TanDEM-X Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aire Olesk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four models describing the interferometric coherence of the forest vegetation layer are proposed and compared with the TanDEM-X data. Our focus is on developing tools for hemiboreal forest height estimation from single-pol interferometric SAR measurements, suitable for wide area forest mapping with limited a priori information. The multi-temporal set of 19 TanDEM-X interferometric pairs and the 90th percentile forest height maps are derived from Airborne LiDAR Scanning (ALS, covering an area of 2211 ha of forests over Estonia. Three semi-empirical models along with the Random Volume over Ground (RVoG model are examined for applicable parameter ranges and model performance under various conditions for over 3000 forest stands. This study shows that all four models performed well in describing the relationship between forest height and interferometric coherence. Use of an advanced model with multiple parameters is not always justified when modeling the volume decorrelation in the boreal and hemiboreal forests. The proposed set of semi-empirical models, show higher robustness compared to a more advanced RVoG model under a range of seasonal and environmental conditions during data acquisition. We also examine the dynamic range of parameters that different models can take and propose optimal conditions for forest stand height inversion for operationally-feasible scenarios.

  6. Broadband microwave response of superconducting NbN and TaN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felger, M. Maximilian; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70669 Stuttgart (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Ultrathin NbN and TaN films with their peculiar superconducting behavior are of interest both for fundamental physics (e.g. concerning the superconductor-insulator transition) and novel applications (e.g. for single-photon detectors). Here microwave spectroscopy is a powerful tool to characterize essential superconducting properties and to investigate the charge dynamics (Cooper pairs and quasiparticles). We have prepared by sputtering thin films of NbN (thickness between 3 nm and 20 nm; T{sub c} between 5 K and 13 K) and TaN (thickness 5 nm; T{sub c} between 8.5 K and 9.5 K) on sapphire substrates. We performed broadband microwave spectroscopy on these samples using a Corbino spectrometer at temperatures down to 1.1 K and at frequencies up to 50 GHz. From these data we determine the superconducting penetration depth and we evaluate the frequency-dependent conductivity. While many of the observed features can be described within expectations of conventional BCS theory, we also find deviations that are caused by fluctuations near the superconducting transition.

  7. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  8. Potentials of TanDEM-X Interferometric Data for Global Forest/Non-Forest Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Michele; Rizzoli, Paola; Brautigam, Benjamin; Krieger, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method to generate forest/non- forest maps from TanDEM-X interferometric SAR data. Among the several contributions which may affect the quality of interferometric products, the coherence loss caused by volume scattering represents the contribution which is predominantly affected by the presence of vegetation, and is therefore here exploited as main indicator for forest classification. Due to the strong dependency of the considered InSAR quantity on the geometric acquisition configuration, namely the incidence angle and the interferometric baseline, a multi-fuzzy clustering classification approach is used. Some examples are provided which show the potential of the proposed method. Further, additional features such as urban settlements, water, and critical areas affected by geometrical distortions (e.g. shadow and layover) need to be extracted, and possible approaches are presented as well. Very promising results are shown, which demonstrate the potentials of TanDEM-X bistatic data not only for forest identification, but, more in general, for the generation of a global land classification map as a next step.

  9. Degradation of soil and hydrological conditions in the Peštan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Мilica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Peštan River Basin, the right tributary of the Kolubara River, a complex degradation of natural conditions has been expressed over the decades. The exploitation of lignite in the Kolubara Coal Basin, which is in large part located in the territory of this basin, as well as accompanying activities related to it, are the dominant activities that lead to the degradation of soil and hydrological conditions. If other land use types are added to this, it can be concluded that the land cover in the studied territory suffered significant negative changes. The above mentioned activities have led to land loss and deterioration of its quality, and the regulation works due to dislocation of the Kolubara watercourse into the Peštan riverbed have caused numerous degradation of landscapes, reduced the basin area and shortened its watercourse, led to morphological changes of the river network and deterioration of the surface water quality. The aim of this paper is to perform a geospatial analysis of all areas in which the degradation of soil and hydrological conditions is present, in order to prevent their further degradation and proper management of these areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: The Research on Climate Change Influences on Environment: Influence Monitoring, Adaptation and Mitigation, subproject No. 9: Torrential Floods Frequency, Soil and Water Degradation as the Consequence of Global Changes

  10. A systematic review of visual image theory, assessment, and use in skin cancer and tanning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Visual images increase attention, comprehension, and recall of health information and influence health behaviors. Health communication campaigns on skin cancer and tanning often use visual images, but little is known about how such images are selected or evaluated. A systematic review of peer-reviewed, published literature on skin cancer and tanning was conducted to determine (a) what visual communication theories were used, (b) how visual images were evaluated, and (c) how visual images were used in the research studies. Seven databases were searched (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) resulting in 5,330 citations. Of those, 47 met the inclusion criteria. Only one study specifically identified a visual communication theory guiding the research. No standard instruments for assessing visual images were reported. Most studies lacked, to varying degrees, comprehensive image description, image pretesting, full reporting of image source details, adequate explanation of image selection or development, and example images. The results highlight the need for greater theoretical and methodological attention to visual images in health communication research in the future. To this end, the authors propose a working definition of visual health communication.

  11. Nie-Tan Method and its Improved Version: A CounterexampleMétodo Nie-Tan y su Versión Mejorada: Un contraejemplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Salazar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context: The bottleneck on interval type-2 fuzzy logic systems is the output processing when using Centroid Type-Reduction + Defuzzification (CTR+D method. Nie and Tan proposed an approximation to CTR+D (NT method. Recently, Mendel and Liu improved the NT method (INT method. Numerical examples (due to Mendel and Liu exhibit the NT and INT methods as good approximations to CTR+D. Method: Normalization to the unit interval of membership function domains (examples and counterexample and variables involved in the calculations for the three methods. Examples (due to Mendel and Liu taken from the literature. Counterexample with piecewise linear membership functions. Comparison by means of error and percentage relative error. Results: NT vs. CTR+D: Our counterexample showed an error of 0.1014 and a percentage relative error of 30.53%. This is respectively 23 and 32 times higher than the worst case obtained in the examples. INT vs. CTR+D: Our counterexample showed an error of 0.0725 and a percentage relative error of 21.83%. This is respectively 363 and 546 times higher than the worst case obtained in the examples. Conclusions: NT and INT methods are not necessarily good approximations to the CTR+D method.

  12. Multi-Temporal Investigation of Greenland Ice Sheet Snow Facies Using TanDEM-X Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paola; Martone, Michele; Brautigam, Benjamin; Rott, Helmut; Moreira, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the first results of the developed approach for classifying Greenland ice sheet snow facies, based on the use of interferometric TanDEM-X SAR data. Large-scale mosaics of radar backscatter and volume decorrelation, derived from the interferometric coherence, are used as input data set for applying a classification algorithm based on the c-means fuzzy clustering. The unique data set provided by TanDEM-X is particularly suitable for this analysis due to the single-pass bistatic acquisition mode which does not suffer from temporal decorrelation. The obtained results have been verified with external snow melt data. Moreover, independent multi-temporal TanDEM-X backscatter data and interferometric time series have been analyzed as well.

  13. Effect of Pretreatment of TaN Substrates on Atomic Layer Deposition Growth of Ru Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mi; CHEN Tao; TAN Jing-Jing; RU Guo-Ping; JIANG Yu-Long; LIU Ran; QU Xin-Ping

    2007-01-01

    The polycrystalline ruthenium films are grown on TaN substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis(cyclopentadienyl) ruthenium [RuCp2] and oxygen as ruthenium precursor and reactant respectively at a deposition temperature of 330℃. The low-energy Ar ion bombardment and Ru pre-deposition are performed to the underlying TaN substrates before ALD process in order to improve the Ru nucleation. X-ray diffraction,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, canning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are carried out to characterize the properties of ALD Ru films.The results show that the nucleation density of Ru films with Ar+ bombardment to the underlying TaN substrates is much higher than that of the ones without any pretreatment. The possible reasons are discussed.

  14. First Results of the Performance of the Global Forest/Non-Forest Map derived from TanDEM-X Interferometric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carolina; Rizzoli, Paola; Martone, Michele; Wecklich, Christopher; Bueso Bello, Jose Luis; Krieger, Gerhard; Zink, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    The globally acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data set, used for the recently completed primary goal of the TanDEM-X mission, enables a big opportunity for scientific geo-applications. Of great importance for land characterization, classification, and monitoring is that the data set is globally acquired without gaps and includes multiple acquisitions of every region, with comparable parameters. One of the most valuable maps that can be derived from interferometric SAR data for land classification describes the presence/absence of vegetation. In particular, here we report about the deployment of the Global Forest/Non-Forest Map, derived from TanDEM-X interferometric SAR quick-look data, at a ground resolution of 50 m by 50 m. Presence of structures and in particular vegetation produces multiple scattering known as volume decorrelation. Its contribution can be directly estimated from the assessment of coherence loss in the interferometric bistatic pair, by compensating for all other decorrelation sources, such as poor signal-to-noise ratio or quantization noise. Three different forest types have been characterized based on the estimated volume decorrelation: tropical, temperate, and boreal forest. This characterization was then used in a fuzzy clustering approach for the discrimination of vegetated areas on a global scale. Water and cities are filtered out from the generated maps in order to distinguish volume decorrelation from other decorrelation sources. The validation and performance comparison of the delivered product is also presented, and represents a fundamental tool for optimizing the whole algorithm at all different stages. Furtheremore, as the time interval of the acquisitions is almost 4 years, change detection can be performed as well and examples of deforestation are also going to be included in the final paper.

  15. Indoor tanning and the MC1R genotype: risk prediction for basal cell carcinoma risk in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Annette M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T

    2015-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence is increasing, particularly in young people, and can be associated with significant morbidity and treatment costs. To identify young individuals at risk of BCC, we assessed existing melanoma or overall skin cancer risk prediction models and built a novel risk prediction model, with a focus on indoor tanning and the melanocortin 1 receptor gene, MC1R. We evaluated logistic regression models among 759 non-Hispanic whites from a case-control study of patients seen between 2006 and 2010 in New Haven, Connecticut. In our data, the adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for a model by Han et al. (Int J Cancer. 2006;119(8):1976-1984) with 7 MC1R variants was 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.78), while that by Smith et al. (J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(15 suppl):8574) with MC1R and indoor tanning had an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.75). Our base model had greater predictive ability than existing models and was significantly improved when we added ever-indoor tanning, burns from indoor tanning, and MC1R (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.81). Our early-onset BCC risk prediction model incorporating MC1R and indoor tanning extends the work of other skin cancer risk prediction models, emphasizes the value of both genotype and indoor tanning in skin cancer risk prediction in young people, and should be validated with an independent cohort. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The pre-launch status of TanSat Mission: Instrument, Retrieval algorithm, Flux inversion and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Yin, Zengshan; Yang, Zhongdong; Zheng, Yuquan; Yan, Changxiang; Tian, Xiangjun; Yang, Dongxu

    2016-04-01

    After 5 years development, The Chinese carbon dioxide observation satellite (TanSat), the first scientific experimental CO2 satellite of China, step into the pre-launch phase. The characters of pre-launch carbon dioxide spectrometer have been optimized during the laboratory test and calibration. Radiometric calibration shows a SNR of 440 (O2A 0.76um band), 300 (CO2 1.61um band) and 180 (CO2 2.06um band) on average in the typical radiance condition. Instrument line shape was calibrated automatically in using a well design testing system with laser control and record. After a series of test and calibration in laboratory, the instrumental performances meet the design requirements. TanSat will be launched on August 2016. The optimal estimation theory was involved in TanSat XCO2 retrieval algorithm in a full physics way with simulation of the radiance transfer in atmosphere. Gas absorption, aerosol and cirrus scattering and surface reflectance associate with wavelength dispersion have been considered in inversion for better correction the interference errors to XCO2. In order to simulate the radiance transfer precisely and efficiently, we develop a fast vector radiative transfer simulation method. Application of TanSat algorithm on GOSAT observation (ATANGO) is appropriate to evaluate the performance of algorithm. Validated with TCCON measurements, the ATANGO product achieves a 1.5 ppm precision. A Chinese carbon cycle data- assimilation system Tan-Tracker is developed based on the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Tan-Tracker is a dual-pass data-assimilation system in which both CO2 concentrations and CO2 fluxes are simultaneously assimilated from atmospheric observations. A validation network has been established around China to support a series of CO2 satellite of China, which include 3 IFS-125HR and 4 Optical Spectrum Analyzer etc.

  17. RNAi-Mediated Functional Analysis of Bursicon Genes Related to Adult Cuticle Formation and Tanning in the Honeybee, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Neto, Moysés; Falcon, Tiago; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile

    2016-01-01

    Bursicon is a heterodimeric neurohormone that acts through a G protein-coupled receptor named rickets (rk), thus inducing an increase in cAMP and the activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the cuticular tanning pathway. In insects, the role of bursicon in the post-ecdysial tanning of the adult cuticle and wing expansion is well characterized. Here we investigated the roles of the genes encoding the bursicon subunits during the adult cuticle development in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. RNAi-mediated knockdown of AmBurs α and AmBurs β bursicon genes prevented the complete formation and tanning (melanization/sclerotization) of the adult cuticle. A thinner, much less tanned cuticle was produced, and ecdysis toward adult stage was impaired. Consistent with these results, the knockdown of bursicon transcripts also interfered in the expression of genes encoding its receptor, AmRk, structural cuticular proteins, and enzymes in the melanization/sclerotization pathway, thus evidencing roles for bursicon in adult cuticle formation and tanning. Moreover, the expression of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and AmRk is contingent on the declining ecdysteroid titer that triggers the onset of adult cuticle synthesis and deposition. The search for transcripts of AmBurs α, AmBurs β and candidate targets in RNA-seq libraries prepared with brains and integuments strengthened our data on transcript quantification through RT-qPCR. Together, our results support our premise that bursicon has roles in adult cuticle formation and tanning, and are in agreement with other recent studies pointing for roles during the pharate-adult stage, in addition to the classical post-ecdysial ones. PMID:27907116

  18. Challenge of urban sewage disposal in a karst region: Mérida, Yucátan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E. C.; Villasuso, M.

    2013-05-01

    Four hydrogeologic factors influence urban sewage management on the northern Yucátan (Mexico) Peninsula: 1) lack of rivers capable of transporting and/or oxidizing sewage, 2) near-surface flat-lying, porous, permeable limestone and dolomite with shallow layers of variable permeability but without major subsurface aquitards, 3) rapid groundwater transmission, penetration of seawater inland beneath a fresh water lens, and a flat water table only a few meters below land surface and controlled by sea level, 4) near absence of soil cover. Mérida, Yucátan (population approaching one million, approximately the world's 450th most populous city) has no central sewage system. The water table beneath the city is consistently only 7-9 m below land surface, and the 40 m-thick fresh water lens, which is the sole source of municipal, industrial, and agricultural water, directly overlies a marine intrusion of modified seawater composition. The old city has an estimated 130,000 drains feeding untreated household waste directly into the permeable karst aquifer. Numerous storm drains send street runoff directly to the aquifer. In addition, industries, hotels, and some subdivisions have unmonitored injection wells that pump untreated wastewater into the underlying saline intrusion. Some injection wells have flow problems possibly because of low aquifer permeability within the saline intrusion. Deep injection is also problematic because density contrast with saline intrusion water can produce a gravity imbalance, and high sulfate water can react with organic waste to produce H2S. Some city water supply wells are reportedly affected by inflation of the water table beneath the city, by local upconing of saline water, and by nitrate contamination. Paradoxically, Mérida with an abundant, easily contaminated source of fresh water, lacks streams to transport sewage off-site, and thus shares some water supply/sewage treatment problems with cities in arid regions. Recently, compact

  19. Thin absorber EUV photomask based on mixed Ni and TaN material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Derrick; Bagge, Patrick; Khaw, Ian; Sun, Lei; Wood, Obert; Chen, Yulu; Kim, Ryoung-han; Qi, Zhengqing John; Shi, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    Lithographic patterning at the 7 and 5 nm nodes will likely require EUV (λ=13.5 nm) lithography for many of the critical levels. All optical elements in an EUV scanner are reflective which requires the EUV photomask to be illuminated at an angle to its normal. Current scanners have an incidence of 6 degree, but future designs will be properties of the Ni-Ta nano-composite material. Finite integral method and effective medium theory-based transfer matrix method have been independently developed to analyze the performance of the nano-composite absorption layer. We show that inserting 15% volume fraction Ni nanoparticles into 40-nm of TaN absorber material can reduce the reflection below 2% over the EUV range. Numerical simulations confirm that the reduced reflectivity is due to the increased absorption of Ni, while scattering only contributes to approximately 0.2% of the reduction in reflectivity.

  20. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported.

  1. Using TanDEM data for forest height estimation and change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Antje; Dubois, Clémence; Boldt, Markus; Hinz, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Mapping of forest coverage and forest changes became an increasing issue due to deforestation and forest degradation. Moreover, the estimation of related indicators such as carbon reduction, biomass and wood capacity is of large interest for industry and politics. As forest height is an important contributing parameter for these indicators, the region-wide estimation of forest heights is an essential step. This article investigates the accuracy potential of forest height estimation that can be reached by the current configuration of the two SAR satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X. Depending on the chosen acquisition mode and flight geometry, products of different quality can be achieved. Eight InSAR data sets showing different characteristics in geometric resolution, length of baseline, and mapping time, are processed and analyzed. To enable a thorough evaluation of the estimated heights, first-pulse LIDAR point clouds and aerial ortho-images are used as reference data.

  2. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Weijun; Liu, Li; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Xiao, Genfu; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2005-05-10

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens.

  3. Synthesis and study of MPNS/SMA nano-composite tanning agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Pan; Mei Qi; Zhi Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The radical polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA),styrene (ST) with the vinyl groups introduced onto the surface of the nano-sized silica via solution polymerization method was developed.The methacryloxypropyl nano-sized silica (MPNS) was used as macromonomer and polymerized with maleic anhydride and styrene by initiating with BPO in toluene.The structure and properties of MPNS/SMA nano-composite were characterized by FT-IR spectra and TEM.Meanwhile,it was applied as tanning agent compared with the traditional styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer in leather.It was found that the applied leather had better quality characteristics with the addition of the nano-sized silica.

  4. (g-2){sub μ} in the MSSM with tan β → ∞

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Markus; Stoeckinger, Dominik; Stoeckinger-Kim, Hyejung [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Park, Jae-Hyeon [Departament de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the MSSM for the exotic scenario tan β → ∞ where one of the Higgs doublets does not obtain a vacuum expectation value. This leads to the masses of the down-type fermions being created completely on loop level. The one-loop results for the self energies can be used to calculate the Yukawa couplings which is explicitly done for the muon and utilized to compute the supersymmetric contributions to its anomalous magnetic moment. We identify the parameter regions in which these contributions are capable of explaining the discrepancy between Standard Model prediction and experimental result. Compared to the usual MSSM, this is possible with higher SUSY masses at the expense of a large muon Yukawa coupling. Other constraints like the metastability of the electroweak vacuum are considered as well.

  5. Tan's contact and the phase distribution of repulsive Fermi gases: Insights from QCD noise analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, William J

    2016-01-01

    Path-integral analyses originally pioneered in the study of the complex-phase problem afflicting lattice calculations of finite-density quantum chromodynamics are generalized to non-relativistic Fermi gases with repulsive interactions. Using arguments similar to those previously applied to relativistic theories, we show that the analogous problem in nonrelativistic systems manifests itself naturally in Tan's contact as a nontrivial cancellation between terms with varied dependence on extensive thermodynamic quantities. We analyze that case under the assumption of gaussian phase distribution, which is supported by our Monte Carlo calculations and perturbative considerations. We further generalize these results to observables other than the contact, as well as to polarized systems and systems with fixed particle number. Our results are quite general in that they apply to repulsive multi-component fermions, are independent of dimensionality or trapping potential, and hold in the ground state as well as at finite...

  6. Valoración de activos financieros utilizando Montecarlo: cuando el mundo no es tan normal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Amaya Ochoa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Valorar activos financieros cuando el mundo no es tan normal como asumen muchos modelos financieros exige un método flexible para operar con diversas distribuciones, el cual, adicionalmente, pueda incorporar discontinuidades como las que se dan en procesos estocásticos de salto. El método Monte Carlo cumple con esos requisitos, además de generar una buena aproximación y ser eficiente, lo cual lo convierte en el más adecuado para aquellos casos en los cuales no se cumple el supuesto de normalidad. Este artículo explica como se aplica este método para la valoración de activos financieros, particularmente opciones financieras, cuando el activo subyacente sigue un proceso de volatilidad estocástica o de salto-difusión.

  7. Exploring the Potential of TanDEM-X Data in Rice Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, E.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, phenological parameters such as growth stage, calendar estimation, crop density and yield estimation for rice fields are estimated employing TanDEM-X data. Currently, crop monitoring is country-dependent. Most countries have databases based on cadastral information and annual farmer inputs. Inaccuracies are coming from wrong or missing farmer declarations and/or coarsely updated cadastral boundary definitions. This leads to inefficient regulation of the market, frauds as well as to ecological risks. An accurate crop calendar is also missing, since farmers provide estimations in advance and there is no efficient way to know the growth status over large plantations. SAR data is of particular interest for these purposes. The proposed method includes two step approach including field detection and phenological state estimation. In the context of precise farming it is substantial to define field borders which are usually changing every cultivation period. Linking the SAR inherit properties to transplanting practice such as irrigation, the spatial database of rice-planted agricultural crops can be updated. Boundaries of agricultural fields will be defined in the database, and assignments of crops and sowing dates will be continuously updated by our monitoring system considering that sowing practice variously changes depending on the field owner decision. To define and segment rice crops, the system will make use of the fact that rice fields are characterized as flooded parcels separated by path networks composed by soil or rare grass. This natural segmentation is well detectable by inspecting low amplitude and coherence values of bistatic acquisitions. Once the field borders are defined, the phenology estimation of crops monitored at any time is the key point of monitoring. In this aspect the wavelength and the polarization option of TanDEM-X are enough to characterize the small phenological changes. The combination of bistatic interferometry and Radiative

  8. A time series of TanDEM-X digital elevation models to monitor a glacier surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anja; Mayer, Christoph; Lambrecht, Astrid; Floricioiu, Dana

    2016-04-01

    Bivachny Glacier, a tributary of the more than 70 km long Fedchenko Glacier in the Pamir Mountains, Central Asia, is a surge-type glacier with three known surges during the 20th century. In 2011, the most recent surge started which, in contrast to the previous ones, evolved down the whole glacier and reached the confluence with Fedchenko Glacier. Spatial and temporal glacier volume changes can be derived from high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) based on bistatic InSAR data from the TanDEM-X mission. There are nine DEMs available between 2011 and 2015 covering the entire surge period in time steps from few months up to one year. During the surge, the glacier surface elevation increased by up to 130 m in the lower part of the glacier; and change rates of up to 0.6 m per day were observed. The surface height dataset was complemented with glacier surface velocity information from TerraSAR-X/ TanDEM-X data as well as optical Landsat imagery. While the glacier was practically stagnant in 2000 after the end of the previous surge in the 1990s, the velocity increase started in 2011 in the upper reaches of the ablation area and successively moved downwards and intensified, reaching up to 4.0 m per day. The combination of surface elevation changes and glacier velocities, both of high temporal and spatial resolution, provides the unique opportunity to describe and analyse the evolution of the surge in unprecedented detail. Especially the relation between the mobilization front and the local mass transport provides insight into the surge dynamics.

  9. Preparation of Tanning Collagen Fiber Spun-lace Nonwovens Material with Immobilized Tannins%固化单宁鞣革胶原纤维水刺非织造材料的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    本文将鞣革胶原纤维通过气流成网机成网,然后利用水刺试验机制备鞣革胶原纤维水刺材料,最后在黑荆树单宁水溶液及交联戊二醛水的作用下制得固化单宁鞣革胶原纤维水刺材料。并使用红外光谱和扫描电镜对其结构进行了表征及分析。由实验可知,鞣革胶原纤维热敏感温度为105℃,在后续加工过程中不宜超过此温度;鞣革胶原水刺材料固化单宁后,平方米克重增加约40%,但厚度变化不明显,MD方向、CD方向强力均得到提高,提高率分别为64.6%和23.6%,同时断裂伸长率分别下降55.6%和45.2%。固化单宁鞣革胶原水刺材料是便于使用的重金属吸附材料,其开发和利用为广泛应用鞣革胶原纤维材料提供了新的思路。%In this paper, tanning leather collagen fibers were formed a network by air-laid machine, then tanning collagen fiber spun-lace material was prepared by spun-lace testing machine,finally tanning collagen fiber spun-lace non-woven material with immobilized tannins was prepared in the black wattle tannins and glutaraldehyde solution. And infrared spectrometer and scanning electron microscope were used to analyze its structure and characterization. The experiment showed that tanning collagen fibers heat sensitive temperature was 105℃, which should be more than the temperature in the subsequent process;after tanning collagen spun-lace material immobilized tannins, gram weight per square metre increased about 40%, but the thickness change was not obvious, the MD and CD direction strength increased by 64.6%and 23.6%respectively , at the same time elongation at break decreased by 55.6% and 45.2% respectively; tanning collagen spun-lace material with immobilized tannins is a heavy metal adsorption material that is easy to use. Its development and use provide a new train of thought for widely using tanning collagen fiber material in the future.

  10. Ageing Condition Assessment of XLPE Cable Insulation Based on tanδ at 0.1 Hz%基于0.1 Hz下tanδ的XLPE电缆绝缘老化状态评估技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 王林杰; 苏宇; 肖阳; 曹晓珑

    2016-01-01

    The detection technology of XLPE cable insulation has recieved more and more attention with the continuous development of power cable industry. It is an important and indispensable process of elec-trical equipment management at present for the effective assessment of cable insulation ageing condition. According to the IEEE test criteria about cable insulation diagnosis method at very low frequency (0.1 Hz), a new method was put forwarded to assess the ageing condition of XLPE insulation. The sam-ples were sliced from XLPE cable insulation layer, and the tanδ of the slice samples at 0.1 Hz were tested under different voltages, and then the voltage sensitivity was used to judge the ageing dgree of insulation. It is found that the change rule of tanδ with voltage can effectively reflect the difference of insulation ageing condition for the power cables after operating different years, and the tanδ of inner, middle, and outer insulation layers is different. The tanδ of inner and middel layers is normalized by set-ting the tanδ of outer layer as reference, and the relative value is used as a judgement basis of insula-tion ageing state. This method is an effective way for ageing condition assessment of XLPE cable insula-tions which are lack of original data.%随着电力电缆行业的持续发展,XLPE电缆绝缘检测技术受到越来越多的关注.对电缆绝缘老化状态的有效评估是当前电气设备管理一个十分重要和必不可少的过程.根据IEEE提出的有关电力电缆绝缘超低频(0.1 Hz)试验标准,提出一种对XLPE电缆绝缘分层取样,测量切片试样在0.1 Hz下的tanδ随外施电压的变化,以电压敏感度来判断绝缘老化程度的方法.通过测量不同运行年限的XLPE电缆绝缘,发现tanδ随外施电压的变化规律可以有效反映出不同运行时间绝缘老化状态的区别,绝缘内、中、外层的tanδ存在差异性.将老化电缆绝缘内层和中层的tanδ以外层tanδ测量值作

  11. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  12. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  13. New insights into the roles of host gene-necrotrophic effector interactions in governing susceptibility of durum wheat to tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan spot and Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) are important diseases of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Parastagonospora nodorum, respectively. The P. tritici-repentis necrotrophic effector (NE) Ptr ToxB causes tan spot when recognized by the Tsc2 gene. The NE To...

  14. Magnetic field stimulated enhancement of the barrier for vortex penetration in bended bridges of thin TaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilin, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.ilin@kit.edu; Siegel, Michael, E-mail: michael.siegel@kit.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Critical state in mesoscopic superconducting TaN structures has been studied. • Suppression of the current crowding by magnetic field has been investigated. • Maximum of critical current of bended TaN bridges is at non-zero magnetic field. • The critical current of 90° bended bridges increases by 37% in magnetic field. • Significant bulk pinning is in ultra-thin TaN mesoscopic structures. - Abstract: An increase of the supercurrent density in the vicinity of sharp bends of mesoscopic superconducting strips (the current crowding) leads to a decrease of the potential barrier for vortex penetration and thus to a decrease of the measured critical current I{sub C} of the strip in comparison to the de-pairing critical current. However, it has been shown that the Meissner currents induced by an external magnetic field of appropriate direction reduce the effect of current crowding resulting in an increase of the measured I{sub C} of superconducting mesoscopic structures with bends. We performed a detailed experimental investigation of the dependence of critical current on magnetic field in straight and bended bridges made from thin TaN films. Indeed, in the case of bridges with bends, the critical current reaches a maximum at non-zero magnetic fields which value increases with an increase of the angle of bends.

  15. Pointing to Shaun Tan's The Arrival and Re-Imagining Visual Poetics in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjartveit, Carolyn J.; Panayotidis, E. Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how Shaun Tan's graphic novel "The Arrival" (2006) opened a polyphonic dialogue with culturally diverse early childhood educators. Using visual, graphic and symbolic languages provided alternative ways for the research participants to express their experiences and understandings of being recent…

  16. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    With the publication of the Manifesto for a New Nordic Cuisine in 2004, the gastronomic potentials of the Scandinavian flora and fauna became the basis for a social innovation project with ambitions far beyond fine dining and select produce. Since then New Nordic Food has become a key platform......-constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  17. Closing the wedge: Search strategies for extended Higgs sectors with heavy flavor final states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Stefania; Kim, Ian-Woo; Shah, Nausheen R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-04-01

    We consider search strategies for an extended Higgs sector at the high-luminosity LHC14 utilizing multitop final states. In the framework of a two Higgs doublet model, the purely top final states (t t ¯ , 4 t ) are important channels for heavy Higgs bosons with masses in the wedge above 2 mt and at low values of tan β , while a 2 b 2 t final state is most relevant at moderate values of tan β . We find, in the t t ¯H channel, with H →t t ¯, that both single and three lepton final states can provide statistically significant constraints at low values of tan β for mA as high as ˜750 GeV . When systematics on the t t ¯ background are taken into account, however, the three lepton final state is more powerful, though the precise constraint depends fairly sensitively on lepton fake rates. We also find that neither 2 b 2 t nor t t ¯ final states provide constraints on additional heavy Higgs bosons with couplings to tops smaller than the top Yukawa due to expected systematic uncertainties in the t t ¯ background.

  18. Closing the Wedge: Search Strategies for Extended Higgs Sectors with Heavy Flavor Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Stefania; Shah, Nausheen R.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    We consider search strategies for an extended Higgs sector at the high-luminosity LHC14 utilizing multi-top final states. In the framework of a Two Higgs Doublet Model, the purely top final states ($t\\bar t, \\, 4t$) are important channels for heavy Higgs bosons with masses in the wedge above $2\\,m_t$ and at low values of $\\tan\\beta$, while a $2 b 2t$ final state is most relevant at moderate values of $\\tan \\beta$. We find, in the $t\\bar t H$ channel, with $H \\rightarrow t \\bar t$, that both single and 3 lepton final states can provide statistically significant constraints at low values of $\\tan \\beta$ for $m_A$ as high as $\\sim 750$ GeV. When systematics on the $t \\bar t$ background are taken into account, however, the 3 lepton final state is more powerful, though the precise constraint depends fairly sensitively on lepton fake rates. We also find that neither $2b2t$ nor $t \\bar t$ final states provide constraints on additional heavy Higgs bosons with couplings to tops smaller than the top Yukawa due to expec...

  19. Flood Control Minnesota River, Minnesota, Mankato-North Mankato-Le Hillier. Design Memorandum Number 8. Part I. Location Study and Draft Supplement II to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Bridge Relocations. Main Street, Trunk Highways 60 Bridge over the Minnesota River between Mankato and North Mankato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    businesses would be dislocated. Mulberry or Pike-Poplar redevelopment stimuli could have some positive carryover effect to the existing CBD. North Mankato...and out of feeding, spawning, breeding, and nursery areas - Habitat in the fill area is not conducive for such acti- vities. Fill activities are not

  20. The Levels of Genetic Differentiation of Small-Tailed Han Sheep and Tan Sheep Populations Using Structural Loci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-xia; CHANG Hong; JI De-jun; Tsunoda Kenji; REN Zhan-jun; REN Xiang-lian; SUN Wei; YANG Zhang-ping; CHANG Guo-bin

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of "random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat" and several electrophoresis techniques, the variations of 17 structural loci encoding blood proteins in 60 Small-Tailed Han sheep and 73 Tan sheep were examined and compared with those of 14 other sheep populations in China and other countries to investigate their levels of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep were 0.2360 and 0.2587, respectively. The average polymorphic information content values were 0.1974 and 0.2102, respectively. The average effective numbers of alleles were 1.5723 and 1.5751, respectively. The coefficients of gene differentiation in the four groups (including 4, 6, 13, and 16 sheep populations, respectively) were 0.049323, 0.059987, 0.1728, and 0.201256,respectively, indicating that the degree of gene differentiation at the structural loci was the least in Hu sheep, Tong sheep,Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep; followed by the above-mentioned four sheep populations and two Mongolian sheep populations; and was the highest in sheep populations belonging to the Mongolian sheep group, South Asian sheep, and European sheep. The earlier researchers' conclusions that both Small-Tailed Han sheep and Tan sheep evolved from Mongolian sheep were further verified by the results of this study. Hu sheep, Tong sheep, Small-Tailed Han sheep, and Tan sheep were decreasingly affected by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep to different degrees. The relationships among sheep populations were not closely related to the geographical distances among sheep populations.

  1. Hipotiroidismo subclínico, ni tan asintomático, ni tan inofensivo Subclinical hypothyroidism neither so asymptomatic nor so harmless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelys Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipotiroidismo subclínico es la condición definida por la elevación de la hormona estimulante del tiroides, en presencia de secreción de hormonas tiroideas (T3 y T4 normales para el rango de referencia. Sus manifestaciones clínicas no son tan nulas como lo define el término subclínico. Si se hace un correcto interrogatorio y examen clínico se pueden encontrar alteraciones en diversos sistemas y órganos que perjudican la calidad de vida de los pacientes afectos e incrementan su morbimortalidad. Durante el embarazo, la entidad cobra especial atención debido a la repercusión en el feto de la alteración de su desarrollo. En los pacientes ancianos es de vital importancia su diagnóstico, debido al incremento de la prevalencia de la entidad en este grupo y la repercusión sobre la calidad de vida. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar las alteraciones clínicas que se puedan presentar en el hipotiroidismo subclínico, así como en situaciones especiales de la vida (embarazo y senectud.Subclinical hypothyroidism is the condition defined by the raise of thyroid-stimulating hormone in presence of normal thyroid hormone secretion (T3 and T4 for reference rank. Its clinical manifestations are not so nulls as defines the subclinical term. If an appropriate questioning and clinical examination is made it is possible to find alterations in many systems and organs harming the quality of life of patients affected and to increase its morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy this entity acquires a special attention due to repercussion on fetal development alteration. In elderly patients is essential its diagnosis due to entity prevalence increase on this group and the repercussion on quality of life. Aim of present paper is to review the clinical alterations that may be present in subclinical hypothyroidism, as well as in special situations of life (pregnancy and senescence.

  2. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  3. KLINO - climatology and prognosis of climate-induced changes in hydrographic parameters of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Final report; KLINO - Klimatologie und Prognose klimainduzierter Aenderungen hydrographischer Groessen in Nord- und Ostsee. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The marine climate of the North Sea and Baltic Sea was simulated and analyzed with the aid of meteorological and oceanographic models. The KLINO project is a first step towards climate impact research as sensitivity studies of the models permit preliminary statements on the effects of potential changes of marine climate. The simulations covered several decades. The models used were: WAM for calculating the swell of the Atlantic and the two marginal seas; HAMSOM for climate-induced variations of the hydrographic parameters of the NOrth Sea and Baltic Sea; HAMSOM and REMO for interactive coupling between ocean and atmosphere; HYDROMOD for extreme and normal conditions in the offshore region. [German] Im Projekt KLINO wurde das derzeitige marine Klima (Wasserstaende und mittlerer Meeresspiegel, Seegang, Stroemungen und Schichtung) von Nord- und Ostsee in Kontrollexperimenten mit Hilfe meteorologischer und ozeanographischer Modelle simuliert und nach vollzogen. Das KLINO Projekt ist in die Arbeiten zur Klima-Regionalisierung bzw. als ein erster Schritt zur Klima-Impaktforschung einzustufen, da Sensitivitaetsstudien der Modelle bereits vorsichtige Aussagen ueber die Folgen moeglicher Aenderungen des marinen Klimas zulassen. Das WAM-Modell lieferte eine Klimatologie des Seeganges fuer den Atlantik und die beiden Randmeere. Die klimainduzierten Schwankungen der hydrographischen Parameter in Nord- und Ostsee wurden mit Hilfe des HAMSOM untersucht; eine interaktive Kopplung zwischen Ozean und Atmosphaere erfolgte mit den Regionalmodellen HAMSOM und REMO. Die Simulationen deckten hinreichend lange Zeitraeume (Dekaden) ab und wurden mit beobachteten bzw. aus meteorologischen Re-Analysen abgeleiteten Fluessen von Impuls, Waerme und Frischwasser angetrieben. Zur Initialisierung und Validierung der ozeanographischen Modelle wurden umfangreiche Beobachtungsdatensaetze fuer die Parameter Temperatur, Salzgehalt, Eis, Seegang und Oberflaechenauslenkung zusammengestellt

  4. 论谭恩美与东方主义%On Amy Tan and Orientalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学芬

    2016-01-01

    In the era of globalization, there is still Orientalism. A series of novels of Amy Tan sometimes follow Orientalism conventionality, sometimes beyond it. Besides she is influenced by the western tradition of Orientalism, reasons of follow Orientalism also have catering to the western readers’ imagination of exotic, to meet the market demand;And due to miscommunication between east and west. The reasons of surpassing Orientalism mainly include the following:one is that the identity of the Chinese American makes her learn more about what is the real east than whites;the second is Amy tan try to resist cultural hegemony, rewrite the east of her idea;the third is the desire and drive of the innovation. Only surpassing Orientalism, can we better deal with relationship between east and west, live in peace.%全球化时代,依然有东方主义。谭恩美的系列小说有时因袭东方主义,有时又超越。因袭的原因除了有受西方传统的东方主义的影响外,还有为了迎合西方读者对异域的想象,满足市场需求;以及东西方交流不畅造成的。超越东方主义的原因主要有以下几点:一是华裔的身份使她比白人更了解真实的东方究竟是什么样子;二是谭恩美试图反抗文化霸权,重写心目中的东方;三是创新的渴望和驱动。只有超越东方主义,才能更好地处理东西方关系,和平相处。

  5. Rehabilitation of river sediments contaminated by heavy metals from tanning industries using the phytoextraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá Castillo, Juan Carlos; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Mora Navarro, José; Murcia Navarro, Francisco Jose; Zornoza Belmonte, Raúl; Faz Cano, Ángel; Gómez-Garrido, Melisa

    2017-04-01

    Leather tanning is an industrial sector of great tradition in Spain that has progressively evolved until it has reached a high degree of technification in the present. However, in its early days, the leather tanning industry has always been considered a dirty and polluting activity, mainly due to the water spills that ended up in the river channels. The Guadalentin Valley between Lorca and Murcia (SE Spain) is characterised by intensive crop and pig production, and an extensive agroalimentary and leather tannery industry. These anthropogenic sources have released salts and metals such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) into Guadalentin river. Up to 2003, wastewater was discharged directly to the dry river, immediately upstream of the urban nucleus of Lorca, without any previous treatment. It contained high concentrations of inorganic salts and heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Cr). Spills, in some events, had a flow of 10 000 m3 d-1, with concentration of Cr over 500 mg L-1. Phytoremediation is a sustainable alternative that allows the environmental rehabilitation of fluvial dry sediments through the transfer of heavy metals from the contaminated soils to the native vegetation present. Atriplex halimus, salsola oppositifolia, suaeda vera and tamarix africana were the most representative autochthonous phytoextractor species that were planted to study the degree of decontamination of dry river sediments before planting and 12 months after planting. The sediments characterization was done by a sampling grid of 40 000 m2 (500 m x 8 m) where samples were taken at 3 depths (0-20 cm, 20-50 cm and 5-100 cm) every 50 m. A vegetation study was carried out by random plots of 10 m x 10 m. The results indicated that after 12 months the vegetation cover increased between 35% and 70%. The degree of contamination of Cu, Zn and Cr of the river dry sediments decreased slightly, being the atriplex halimus the plant specie that presented the highest value of the bioaccumulation factor

  6. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    North Korea’s economy and trade, North Korea’s possible response to sanctions and outside pressures of denuclearization , The extent of North...of denuclearization . The actions of North Korea are highly monitored and any predictions would take a much more in depth look at what North Korea

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  8. Resummation of tan-beta-enhanced supersymmetric loop corrections beyond the decoupling limit

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer, Lars; Scherer, Dominik

    2009-01-01

    We study the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with Minimal Flavour Violation for the case of a large parameter tanbeta and arbitrary values of the supersymmetric mass parameters. We derive several resummation formulae for tanbeta-enhanced loop corrections, which were previously only known in the limit of supersymmetric masses far above the electroweak scale. Studying first the renormalisation-scheme dependence of the resummation formula for the bottom Yukawa coupling, we clarify the use of the sbottom mixing angle in the supersymmetric loop factor Delta_b. As a new feature, we find tan-beta-enhanced loop-induced flavour-changing neutral current (FCNC) couplings of gluinos and neutralinos which in turn give rise to new effects in the renormalisation of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and in FCNC processes of B mesons. For the chromomagnetic Wilson coefficient C_8, these gluino-squark loops can be of the same size as the known chargino-squark contribution. We discuss the phenomenological consequences ...

  9. Variation in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. infected by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Park, Semin; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kim, Gon-Sup; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Huh, Moo Ryong; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Yi; Shin, Sung Chul

    2014-04-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Fruit peels infected with C. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in Citrus benikoji Hort. ex. Tan. Seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. The flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards and quantified. Among the 17 flavonoids, the concentration of component 3 was the highest and that of component 10 was the lowest. During 8 days after inoculation, the concentration of the seven flavonoids 1-3, 5, 6, 13, and 14 increased gradually up to day 8. Flavonoid 4 was detected from day 7. The seven minor flavonoid components, 8-12, 15, and 16 increased to day 5 and then decreased. However, flavonoids level variations were not significantly different from that of the non-infected fruits during the experimental period. The monitoring suggested that the constitutively formed seven polymethoxyflavones (8-12, 15, and 16) may act as phytoanticipins in the defence mechanism against the fungus, and that hespertin 7-O-glucoside (4), produced de novo on day 6 after infection, may function as a phytoalexin.

  10. TanDEM-X Across-Track Interferometry over Dry Snow Covered Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Dimitra; Brown, Ian A.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse bistatic HH-polarised TanDEM-X interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired over winter, dry snow conditions in a sub- Arctic site in Norway. Exploiting the principles of across-track interferometry, the elevation of the scattering phase centre estimated by the phase difference between the two SAR acquisitions. Interference patterns were assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Clearings and forest stands, were analysed. Interferometric phase uncertainty and spatio-temporal consistency were analysed by means of scattering phase centre elevation accuracy and coherence degree, γ with respect to hydro-meteorological conditions. Clearings displayed absolute height errors of < 1 m. The sole approximation was to consider volume decorrelation effects as main source of elevation ambiguities and coherence decay. Principal Component Analysis was conducted to identify the combined influence of variables describing the radar response and scattering centre. However, the derived DEMs attained high vertical accuracy, the sub-meter height errors might relate to snowcover effects. Coherence was strongly influenced by snowpack parameters suggesting TDM coherence inversion may enable snow cover monitoring.

  11. Phenological tracking og agricultural feilds investigated by using dual polarimetry tanDEM-X images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.; Nooryazdan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing plays a key role in monitoring and assessing environmental changes. Because of its special imaging characteristics such as high-resolution, capabilities to obtain data in all weather conditions and sensitivity to geometrical and dielectric properties of the features, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology has become a powerful technique to detect small scale changes related to earth surface.SAR images contain the information of both phase and intensity in different modes like single, dual and full polarimetric states which are important in order to extract information about various targets. In this study we investigate phenological changes in an agricultural region using high-resolution X-band SAR data. The case study is located in Doroud region of Lorestan province, west of Iran. The purpose is to investigate the ability of copolar and interferometric coherence extracted from TanDEM-X dual polarimetry (HH/VV) in bistatic StripMap mode for tracking the phenological changes of crops during growing season. The data include 11 images acquired between 12.06.2012 and 02.11.2012 and 6 images acquired between 30.05.2013 and 04.08.2013 in the CoSSC format. Results show that copolar coherence is almost able to follow phenological changes but interferometric coherence has a near constant behaviour with fluctuations mainly related to baseline variations.

  12. Spectrochemical Analysis of Soil around Leather Tanning Industry Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS to determine the chromium contamination of soil due to effluents from leather tanning industry in Kasur District of Punjab (+31∘6′23.21″, +74∘27′16.29″ in Pakistan. Calibration curves were constructed by indigenously prepared standard sample and fitting of curves by linear regression. The limit of detection (LOD was found to be 23.71 mg kg−1. It has been found that the concentration of chromium in the soil is up to 839 mg kg−1 in vicinity of effluent drain and 1829 mg kg−1 in the area of old stagnant pool, which is much higher than the safe limits. Qualitative detection of other elements like Na, Cl, Fe, P, and Si was done from LIBS spectra. The leaching of soil contaminants due to seepage of industrial effluents from deteriorating brick lined drains in horizontal direction has also been observed.

  13. TaN, a molecular system for probing ${\\cal{P,T}}$-violating hadron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleig, Timo; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    All-electron configuration interaction theory in the framework of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian has been applied to the TaN molecule, a promising candidate in the search for Beyond-Standard-Model physics in both the hadron and the lepton sector of matter. We obtain in the first excited {$^3\\Delta_1$} state a ${\\cal{P,T}}$-odd effective electric field of $36.0 \\left[\\frac{\\rm GV}{\\rm cm}\\right]$, a scalar-pseudoscalar ${\\cal{P,T}}$-odd interaction constant of $32.8$ [kHz], and a nuclear magnetic-quadrupole moment interaction constant of $0.74$ [$\\frac{10^{33} {\\text{Hz}}}{e\\, {\\text{cm}}^2}$]. The latter interaction constant has been obtained with a new approach which we describe in detail. Using the same highly correlated all-electron wavefunctions with up to $2.5$ billion expansion terms, we obtain a parallel magnetic hyperfine interaction constant of $-2954$ [MHz] for the $\\rm {^{181}{T}a}$ nucleus, a very large molecule-frame electric dipole moment of $-4.91$ [Debye], and spectroscopic constants for the fo...

  14. Nanomaterials for the cleaning and pH adjustment of vegetable-tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Michele; Bartoletti, Angelica; Bozec, Laurent; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Odlyha, Marianne; Pianorsi, Diletta; Poggi, Giovanna; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-02-01

    Leather artifacts in historical collections and archives are often contaminated by physical changes such as soiling, which alter their appearance and readability, and by chemical changes which occur on aging and give rise to excessive proportion of acids that promote hydrolysis of collagen, eventually leading to gelatinization and loss of mechanical properties. However, both cleaning and pH adjustment of vegetable-tanned leather pose a great challenge for conservators, owing to the sensitivity of these materials to the action of solvents, especially water-based formulations and alkaline chemicals. In this study, the cleaning of historical leather samples was optimized by confining an oil-in-water nanostructured fluid in a highly retentive chemical hydrogel, which allows the controlled release of the cleaning fluid on sensitive surfaces. The chemical gel exhibits optimal viscoelasticity, which facilitates its removal after the application without leaving residues on the object. Nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide and lactate, dispersed in 2-propanol, were used to adjust the pH up to the natural value of leather, preventing too high alkalinity which causes swelling of fibers and denaturation of the collagen. The treated samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, controlled environment dynamic mechanical analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. The analytical assessment validated the use of tools derived from colloid and materials science for the preservation of collagen-based artifacts.

  15. 《弹歌》考论%On Tan Ge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德春

    2015-01-01

    As a literary classic,Tan Ge should be examined from a number of angles. For instance, the bow used by ancient people should have been made out of bamboo rather than wood, as it is more flexible and the primitive people’s productivity was low. Also,the corpse of the dead was much valued by ancient people,and hence predators should be driven away. It is argued that present annotators may not understand the wording in this classic correctly and that attention should be drawn to those wrong annotations.%《弹歌》之“续竹”不可作“属木”,“逐害”不可作“逐肉”,《弹歌》非为黄世歌,《弹歌》只能是后世追记或臆测古代之情况而形成之作品,而且《弹歌》的产生不会早于周代。《弹歌》的主题不是猎歌,而是孝子驱赶禽兽的悲歌。褚斌杰关于《弹歌》的高论特别值得学术界反思,几部中国文学史关于《弹歌》主题的错误论述也值得学术界反思。

  16. Electroweak symmetry breaking with non-universal scalar soft terms and large tan$\\beta$ solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Olechowski, M

    1995-01-01

    We discuss radiative electroweak symmetry breaking with non-universal scalar masses at the GUT scale. Large \\tan\\beta solutions are investigated in detail and it is shown that qualitatively new (as compared to the universal case) solutions exist, with much less correlation between soft terms. We identify two classes of non-universalities which give solutions with A_o\\simeq B_o\\simeq M_{1/2}\\simeq O(M_Z), \\mu \\simeq O(0.5 m_o), m_o>>M_Z and A_o\\simeq B_o\\simeq M_{1/2} \\simeq\\mu\\simeq O(M_Z), m_o\\ge M_Z, respectively. In each case, after imposing gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, we discuss the predictions for m_t, m_b and the spectrum of supersymmetric particles. One striking consequence is the possibility of light charginos and neutralinos which in the second option can be higgsino-like. Cosmological constraint on the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino is also included.

  17. Heavy Higgs Bosons at Low $\\tan \\beta$: from the LHC to 100 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We present strategies to search for heavy neutral Higgs bosons decaying to top quark pairs, as often occurs at low $\\tan \\beta$ in type II two Higgs doublet models such as the Higgs sector of the MSSM. The resonant production channel is unsatisfactory due to interference with the SM background. We instead propose to utilize same-sign dilepton signatures arising from the production of heavy Higgs bosons in association with one or two top quarks and subsequent decay to a top pair. We find that for heavier neutral Higgs bosons the production in association with one top quark provides greater sensitivity than production in association with two top quarks. We obtain current limits at the LHC using Run I data at 8 TeV and forecast the sensitivity of a dedicated analysis during Run II at 14 TeV. Then we perform a detailed BDT study for the 14 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV collider.

  18. Heavy Higgs bosons at low tan β: from the LHC to 100 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Hajer, Jan; Li, Ying-Ying; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present strategies to search for heavy neutral Higgs bosons decaying to top quark pairs, as often occurs at low tan β in type II two Higgs doublet models such as the Higgs sector of the MSSM. The resonant production channel is unsatisfactory due to interference with the SM background. We instead propose to utilize same-sign dilepton signatures arising from the production of heavy Higgs bosons in association with one or two top quarks and subsequent decay to a top pair. We find that for heavier neutral Higgs bosons the production in association with one top quark provides greater sensitivity than production in association with two top quarks. We obtain current limits at the LHC using Run I data at 8 TeV and forecast the sensitivity of a dedicated analysis during Run II at 14 TeV. Then we perform a detailed BDT study for the 14 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV collider.

  19. High Frequency Tan Delta Measurement Method for 132kV Transmission Underground Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Avinash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tangent Delta is a measurement technique to investigate cables insulation strength. Current techniques utilize Very Low Frequency (VLF at 0.1 Hz and power frequency at 50 Hz. However, high voltages are required, thus requiring larger space and cost. Proposed method of tangent delta testing utilizes High frequency Low voltage diagnoses. The phase between the current and the voltage is utilized to determine the tangent delta (tan δ. The aim of this study is to develop a low voltage high frequency tangent delta measurement method and test if it can discriminate manufactured 132 kV good conditioned cable sample from defect induced cables with void, scotched and contamination in its insulation. Impurities are clearly discriminated using this method. Comparison of Tangent Delta of cables manufactured simultaneously in good condition and defect induced is performed using High Frequency Tangent Delta method and in 50 Hz conventional method to validate the effectiveness of the measurement technique. The High Frequency AC setup utilizes a small testing environment which can sample small lengths with minimum 1 m length of cable. The small lengths will result in the reduction of total capacitance of the cable but using High Frequency induces high electric stress on XLPE layer thus resulting in measureable dielectric current.

  20. Neither this nor that: The hyphenated existence of Chinese children growing up in twentieth century North America

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This project takes its evidence from Chinese North American authors who have written about their own lives or those of members of their immigrant community. Authors such as Denise Chong, Wayson Choy, Ben Fong-Torres, Amy Tan, and Yuen-Fong Woon have written autobiographical fictions, fictionalized biographies, and family histories that delve into Chinese communities in Canada and America. These authors have opened windows into the personal worlds of their communities, and this project attempt...

  1. Large muon $(g-2)$ with TeV-scale SUSY masses for $\\tan\\beta\\to\\infty$

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Markus; Stöckinger, Dominik; Stöckinger-Kim, Hyejung

    2015-01-01

    The muon anomalous magnetic moment $a_\\mu$ is investigated in the MSSM for $\\tan\\beta\\to\\infty$. This is an attractive example of radiative muon mass generation with completely different qualitative parameter dependence compared to the MSSM with the usual, finite $\\tan\\beta$. The observed, positive difference between the experimental and Standard Model value can only be explained if there are mass splittings, such that bino contributions dominate over wino ones. The two most promising cases are characterized either by large Higgsino mass $\\mu$ or by large left-handed smuon mass $m_L$. The required mass splittings and the resulting $a_\\mu^\\text{SUSY}$ are studied in detail. It is shown that the current discrepancy in $a_\\mu$ can be explained even in cases where all SUSY masses are at the TeV scale. The paper also presents useful analytical formulas, approximations for limiting cases, and benchmark points.

  2. APLIKASI KORELASI PEARSON DALAM MEMBANGUN MODEL TREE-AUGMENTED NETWORK (TAN (Studi Kasus Pengenalan Karakter Tulisan Tangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Budi Santoso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Langkah pertama dalam membangun model pengenalan Tree-Augmented Network (TAN  dengan  mengukur  besarnya  hubungan  diantara  pasangan  fitur  objek.  Salah  satu metode yang dapat digunakan mengukur besarnya keeratan hubungan secara linier diantara pasangan fitur adalah   Korelasi Pearson. Aplikasi Korelasi Pearson  dalam membangun model Tree-Augmented Network (TAN dalam penelitian ini, akan diujicobakan pada kasus membangun  model pengenalan karakter tulisan tangan. Data fitur karakter tulisan tangan untuk kasus ini, diasumsikan mengikuti distribusi gaussian karena estimasi parameter model pengenalannya menggunakan estimator Maximum Likelihood (ML. Hasil eksperimen dengan menggunakan data training yang terdiri dari 5 jenis karakter tulisan tangan, menunjukkan untuk dimensi fitur karakter tulisan tangan 10x30 (30 fitur, akurasi sistem Korelasi Pearson dalam membangun model TAN untuk mengenali karakter tulisan tangan  sebesar 88 %.

  3. Soybean plant growth study conducted using purified protein hydrolysate-based fertilizer made from chrome-tanned leather waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2015-12-01

    Leather processing discharges enormous amount of chrome containing leather solid waste which creates a major disposal problem. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is a complex of collagen and chromium. The presence of chromium limits protein application in fertilizer industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used as a nitrogen source for fertilizer formulation. In this study, an attempt has been made to employ purified protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLS) in formulation of fertilizer. The formulated fertilizer (1–3 t ha(-1)) is employed as nitrogen source in production of soybean. Plant growth study demonstrates that formulated fertilizer dosage 3 t ha(-1) produced similar effects of commercial fertilizer-treated plants. Application of formulated fertilizer yielded higher seed in plant than commercial fertilizer.

  4. Production of materials with alumina and ashes from incineration of chromium tanned leather shavings: environmental and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basegio, T; Haas, C; Pokorny, A; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2006-09-21

    The leather tannery industry produces a significant amount of solid and hazardous wastes. Chromium-containing wastes like tanned shavings used to be incinerated in order to recover energy. The incineration process generates ashes that must be disposed of. This paper is a report on the results of the evaluation of technological properties and environmental compatibility of products made of alumina and ashes from incinerated chrome tanned shavings. The raw materials, tannery ashes and alumina were mixed together in different proportions. The ceramic bodies were molded using a hydraulic press and fired with a heating rate of 100 K/h until 1400 degrees C for 4 h in a muffle furnace. The ceramic specimens were characterized regarding physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Leaching tests, according to Brazilian, German and Dutch regulations, were performed on ceramic bodies containing different additions of ash. Results show that the ceramic materials produced are acceptable for refractory applications.

  5. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.......8-2.0%) or an identical placebo tanning bed without UVB. The output in the 280-320 nm range was 450 µW/cm(2). Blood samples were analyzed for 25OHD and cholecalciferol at baseline and during 7 days after treatment. We included 20 volunteers, 11 to UVB and 9 to placebo treatment. During the first 6 h, no significant.......0 nmol/l per 24 h (p bed session had significant, but modest impact on the level of 25OHD during 7 days after exposure to UVB....

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  8. High-resolution digital elevation models from single-pass TanDEM-X interferometry over mountainous regions: A case study of Inylchek Glacier, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelmeijer, Julia; Motagh, Mahdi; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of using single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) radar imagery to analyse inter- and intra-annual glacier changes in mountainous terrain. Based on SAR images acquired in February 2012, March 2013 and November 2013 over the Inylchek Glacier, Kyrgyzstan, we discuss in detail the processing steps required to generate three reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) with a spatial resolution of 10 m that can be used for glacial mass balance studies. We describe the interferometric processing steps and the influence of a priori elevation information that is required to model long-wavelength topographic effects. We also focus on DEM alignment to allow optimal DEM comparisons and on the effects of radar signal penetration on ice and snow surface elevations. We finally compare glacier elevation changes between the three TDX DEMs and the C-band shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) DEM from February 2000. We introduce a new approach for glacier elevation change calculations that depends on the elevation and slope of the terrain. We highlight the superior quality of the TDX DEMs compared to the SRTM DEM, describe remaining DEM uncertainties and discuss the limitations that arise due to the side-looking nature of the radar sensor.

  9. Surface wear resistance properties of Ta+N implanted W18Cr4V high speed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wei; LI Bing-wen; GUO Chu-wen; MAO Xin-yuan; MA Qin-qin

    2009-01-01

    High-speed steel W18Cr4V is commonly used in industries such as blade and mould manufacturers because of its high level of hardness and toughness, red-hardness and resistance. Ion implantation is an effective method to improve the wear resis-tance of W18Cr4V. In our investigation, Ta and Ta+N ion implantation was performed on W18Cr4V high-speed steel. The surface properties after implantation were evaluated by measuring friction coefficients while the carbonyl phase of the surface was ana-lyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that the friction coefficients of the treated samples were much lower. Samples implanted with Ta+N had a lower friction coefficients than samples implanted only with Ta. This can be attributed to the formation of a new chemical compound, Fe7Ta3, on both surfaces. An even harder chemical compound, Fe2N, was formed on both sttrfaces of Ta+N implanted samples.

  10. Enlarging regions of the MSSM parameter space for large tan β via SUSY decays of the heavy Higgs bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Anibal D.; Schmidt, Michael A.

    2017-08-01

    In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) searches for the heaviest CP-even and CP-odd Higgs H, A to tau-lepton pairs severely constrain the parameter region for large values of tan β and light Higgs bosons H, A. We demonstrate how the experimental constraint can be avoided by new decays to light third-generation sfermions, whose left-right couplings to H can be maximised in regions of large trilinear couplings A b , A τ for sbottoms and staus, or large supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs mass μ for stops. Due to the tan β-enhancement in the production cross-sections via gluon-fusion and in association with bottom-quark pairs for H and A, we find that down-type sfermions, in particular, sbottoms perform a better job in allowing more parameter space than up-type sfermions such as stops, which require much larger values of μ to compensate for tan β. Vacuum stability as well as flavour observables constraints and direct searches for SUSY particles are imposed. We also associate the lightest CP-even Higgs with the observed 125 GeV SM-like Higgs and impose the experimental constraints from the LHC.

  11. Respirometric studies on the effectiveness of biogas production from wastewaters originating from dairy, sugar and tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Zieliński, M; Dudek, M; Grala, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of biogas production during methane fermentation of wastewaters originating from the dairy, tanning and sugar industries, by means ofrespirometric measurements conducted at a temperature of 35 degrees C. Experiments were carried out with the use of model tanks of volume 0.5 dm3. A high production yield of biogas, with methane content exceeding 60%, was achieved in the case of the anaerobic treatment of wastewaters from the dairy and sugar industries. A significantly lower effect was observed in the case of tanning wastewaters. The effectiveness of the fermentation process decreased with increasing loading of the tanks with a feedstock of organic compounds. By loading a model tank with this feedstock, the effectiveness of treatment ranged from 62.8% to 71.4% residual chemical oxygen demand for dairy wastewaters and from 57.9% to 64.1% for sugar industry wastewaters. The efficiency of organic compound removal from tanning wastewaters was below 50%, regardless of the method applied.

  12. TorsinA controls TAN line assembly and the retrograde flow of dorsal perinuclear actin cables during rearward nuclear movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cosmo A; Harris, Nathan J; Willey, Patrick T; Woolums, Brian M; Wang, Yuexia; McQuown, Alex J; Schoenhofen, Amy; Worman, Howard J; Dauer, William T; Gundersen, Gregg G; Luxton, G W Gant

    2017-03-06

    The nucleus is positioned toward the rear of most migratory cells. In fibroblasts and myoblasts polarizing for migration, retrograde actin flow moves the nucleus rearward, resulting in the orientation of the centrosome in the direction of migration. In this study, we report that the nuclear envelope-localized AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) torsinA (TA) and its activator, the inner nuclear membrane protein lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), are required for rearward nuclear movement during centrosome orientation in migrating fibroblasts. Both TA and LAP1 contributed to the assembly of transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines, which couple the nucleus to dorsal perinuclear actin cables undergoing retrograde flow. In addition, TA localized to TAN lines and was necessary for the proper mobility of EGFP-mini-nesprin-2G, a functional TAN line reporter construct, within the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, TA and LAP1 were indispensable for the retrograde flow of dorsal perinuclear actin cables, supporting the recently proposed function for the nucleus in spatially organizing actin flow and cytoplasmic polarity. Collectively, these results identify TA as a key regulator of actin-dependent rearward nuclear movement during centrosome orientation. © 2017 Saunders et al.

  13. Accuracy assessment of TanDEM-X IDEM using airborne LiDAR on the area of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woroszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Ewiak, Ireneusz; Lulkowska, Paulina

    2017-06-01

    The TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement (TanDEM-X) mission launched in 2010 is another programme - after the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in 2000 - that uses space-borne radar interferometry to build a global digital surface model. This article presents the accuracy assessment of the TanDEM-X intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM) provided by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) under the project "Accuracy assessment of a Digital Elevation Model based on TanDEM-X data" for the southwestern territory of Poland. The study area included: open terrain, urban terrain and forested terrain. Based on a set of 17,498 reference points acquired by airborne laser scanning, the mean errors of average heights and standard deviations were calculated for areas with a terrain slope below 2 degrees, between 2 and 6 degrees and above 6 degrees. The absolute accuracy of the IDEM data for the analysed area, expressed as a root mean square error (Total RMSE), was 0.77 m.

  14. Lava emplacements at Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka) from June 2011 to September 2014 observed by TanDEM-X SAR-Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Alexandra; Kubanek, Julia; Westerhaus, Malte; Gottschämmer, Ellen; Heck, Bernhard; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Ring of Fire, Shiveluch volcano is one of the largest and most active volcanoes on Kamchatka Peninsula. During the Holocene, only the southern part of the Shiveluch massive was active. Since the last Plinian eruption in 1964, the activity of Shiveluch is characterized by periods of dome growth and explosive eruptions. The recent active phase began in 1999 and continues until today. Due to the special conditions at active volcanoes, such as smoke development, danger of explosions or lava flows, as well as poor weather conditions and inaccessible area, it is difficult to observe the interaction between dome growth, dome destruction, and explosive eruptions in regular intervals. Consequently, a reconstruction of the eruption processes is hardly possible, though important for a better understanding of the eruption mechanism as well as for hazard forecast and risk assessment. A new approach is provided by the bistatic radar data acquired by the TanDEM-X satellite mission. This mission is composed of two nearly identical satellites, TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, flying in a close helix formation. On one hand, the radar signals penetrate clouds and partially vegetation and snow considering the average wavelength of about 3.1 cm. On the other hand, in comparison with conventional InSAR methods, the bistatic radar mode has the advantage that there are no difficulties due to temporal decorrelation. By interferometric evaluation of the simultaneously recorded SAR images, it is possible to calculate high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of Shiveluch volcano and its surroundings. Furthermore, the short recurrence interval of 11 days allows to generate time series of DEMs, with which finally volumetric changes of the dome and of lava flows can be determined, as well as lava effusion rates. Here, this method is used at Shiveluch volcano based on data acquired between June 2011 and September 2014. Although Shiveluch has a fissured topography with steep slopes

  15. Alternative Epistemologies in Budjette Tan and Kajo Baldisimo’s TRESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Micaela Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postmodern readings are premised on the dissolution of grand narratives, disallowing the imagination of unity or truth, and giving primacy to decentering as novelty. Working against such a tendency, this essay presents a reading of Budjette Tan and Kajo Baldisimo’s TRESE as a text grounded in particular social epistemologies, which allows the text to speak of Metro Manila as a unified entity where people share realities and myths. TRESE, I argue here, locates the impulse for resolution in alternative systems of knowledge— often between superstition and grand narrative—that are easily available, but often too quickly dismissed as useless or outmoded. In stories such as “Wanted: Bedspacer” and “Cadena de Amor,” different ways of accessing knowledge are allowed to play vital roles in detection without totally devaluing rational analyses. These alternatives to logic and science may themselves vary: from superstitions to the properly arcane, from “common sense” to emotional and sociological understanding of human interaction. The text engages in myth-making in an effort to approximate cultural unity, where such unity has always been problematic, by imagining alternative access points to truth; this is a move that must be read in the context of a culture that is not irrational or anti-rational, but one in which rationality is only one way of accessing knowledge. TRESE empowers alternative systems of knowledge that allow us to better comprehend ourselves as a society. In this essay I employ critical insights from Kumkum Sangari’s “The Politics of the Possible,” through which TRESE can be read as a text that is not simply a novelty, but as one in which popular tropes and strategies of myth-making come together to present the possibility of a vision of a Philippine urban culture that embraces both the fantastic and the real, rather than being divided between them.

  16. Inicios y finales de discurso en Aristófanes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alfageme, Manuel Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    El estudio de los comienzos de los discursos de Aristófanes permite establecer tres modelos: vocativo, partícula y oración subordinada. Los finales, en cambio, no presentan una forma tan clara. Asimismo, hay que hacer notar el hecho de que estas mismas formas se encuentran en los tratados hipocráticos y en los discursos forenses antiguos. The openings of Aristophanes' speeches allow establishing three different models: vocative, particle, and subordinate clause. The endings, instead, do no...

  17. Jurassic Tectonics of North China: A Synthetic View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yueqiao; DONG Shuwen; ZHAO Yue; ZHANG Tian

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a synthetic view on the Jurassic tectonics of North China, with an attempt to propose a framework for the stepwise tectonic evolution history. Jurassic sedimentation, deformation and magmatism in North China have been divided into three stages. The earliest Jurassic is marked by a period of magmatism quiescence (in 205-190 Ma) and regional uplift, which are considered to be the continuation of the "Indosinian movement" characterized by continent-continent collision between the North and South China blocks. The Early to Middle Jurassic (in 190-170 Ma) was predominated by weak lithospheric extension expressed by mantle-derived plutonism and volcanism along the Yanshan belt and alongside the Tan-Lu fault zone, normal faulting and graben formation along the Yinshan-Yanshan tectonic belt, depression and resuming of coal-bearing sedimentation in vast regions of the North China block (NCB). The Middle to Late Jurassic stage started at 165,.5 Ma and ended up before 136 Ma; it was dominated by intensive intraplate deformation resulting from multi-directional compressions. Two major deformation events have been identified. One is marked by stratigraphic unconformity beneath the thick Upper Jurassic molasic series in the foreland zones of the western Ordos thrust-fold belt and along the Yinshan-Yanshan belt; it was predated 160 Ma. The other one is indicated by stratigraphic unconformity at the base of the Lower Cretaceous and predated 135 Ma. During this last stage, two latitudinal tectonic belts, the Yinshan-Yanshan belt in the north and the Qinling-Dabie belt in the south, and the western margin of the Ordos basin were all activated by thrusting; the NCB itself was deformed by the NE to NNE-trending structural system involving thrusting, associated folding and sinistral strike-slip faulting, which were spatially partitioned. Foliated S-type granitic plutons aged 160-150 Ma were massively emplaced in the Jiao-Liao massif east of the Tan-Lu fault zone and

  18. 对铬鞣过程的重新认识(续)%CHROME TANNING:exploding the perceived myths preconceptions and received wisdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AnthonyD.Covington

    2002-01-01

    @@ (to be contined) 7. pH and temperature. Fixation of chrome on collagen is influenced strongly by both temperature and pH: furthermore,there is a general correlation between the amount of bound chrome and the shrinkage temperature of the tanned collagen (23). Therefore, the question is: are pH and temperature equivalent in their effects on the chrome tanning reaction?

  19. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  20. Fuyao Aims for North America Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's auto-part industry has grown powerful enough to shake the world. Most recently, the acquisition attempt by a Chinese autoglass maker on a North Americac project shocked competitors.Fuyao Glass, China's largest and the world's sixth largest autoglass maker, announced thatthey have now entered the final stage of acqtuiring the North American glass-making assets of Ford Motor Co. which has been struggling through a painful restructuring.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  2. Radionuclide studies in the North Atlantic as a contribution to a better understanding of particle dynamics in the water column. Final report; Radionukliduntersuchungen im Nordatlantik als Beitrag zum Verstaendnis der Partikeldynamik in der Wassersaeule. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, J.C.; Vogler, S.; Fietzke, J.; Mangini, A.; Stoffers, P.

    1997-12-31

    As part of the German Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) the distribution of natural radionuclides in the water column and in sediment traps have been investigated. The main objective was to estimate the trapping efficiency of sediment traps deployed at three locations in the eastern North Atlantic (L1: 33 N, L2: 47 N; L3: 54 N; all situated at about 20 W) and to obtain information about particle exchange processes in the water column. In the upper water column the {sup 230}Th concentrations are similar at all locations investigated and a reversible scavenging model was able to describe the {sup 230}Th distribution. In the deep water-column at L2 and L3, however, the {sup 230}Th concentrations were significantly lower than predicted from the reversible scavenging model. The {sup 230}Th concentrations here could be described by a scavenging-mixing model which assumes an advection of {sup 230}Th depleted water masses and a rapid ventilation between 3 and 25 years. Seasonal variations in the radionuclide fluxes were observed in the sediment traps. The {sup 228}Th/{sup 230}Th ratios in the traps indicate particle exchange rates (aggregation/disaggregation) to be higher during the spring blooms. Based on the {sup 230}Th and {sup 231}Pa distribution in the water column and in the sediment traps, trapping efficiencies were calculated to be between 15% and 181%. Overtrapping was observed in a trap deployed near the seafloor. The lowest efficiencies (15%-26%) were determined in the 500 m and 1000 m traps. No direct relation between water currents and trapping biases were observed in this study. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Deutschen JOINT GLOBAL OCEAN FLUX STUDY wurde die Verteilung natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Wassersaeule und in Sinkstoffallen an drei Lokationen (L1: 34 N, L2: 47 N, L3: 54 N; alle bei 20 W) im oestlichen Nordatlantik untersucht. Wesentliche Ziele des Projektes waren, die Fangeffizienz von Sinkstoffallen und die Partikeldynamik (Partikel

  3. 电流互感器高电压介质损耗因数tanδ的测量%Measurement of High Voltage Dielectric Loss Factor tanδ of Current Transformer Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志勇; 阎春雨; 张建忠

    2005-01-01

    文章对高电压下的互感器介质损耗因数测量能准确反映设备的绝缘状况进行分析,并通过实例验证高压介质损耗值能有效地判断绝缘体是否存在缺陷.因此得到现场开展tanδ-U曲线测试工作,对准确判断互感器绝缘状况有重要意义的结论.

  4. Phenotypic Plasticity through Transcriptional Regulation of the Evolutionary Hotspot Gene tan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Jean-Michel; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; De Castro, Sandra; Peronnet, Frédérique

    2016-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to distinct environmental conditions. Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive. Furthermore, it is thought to facilitate evolution. Although phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon, its molecular mechanisms are only beginning to be unravelled. Environmental conditions can affect gene expression through modification of chromatin structure, mainly via histone modifications, nucleosome remodelling or DNA methylation, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity might partly be due to chromatin plasticity. As a model of phenotypic plasticity, we study abdominal pigmentation of Drosophila melanogaster females, which is temperature sensitive. Abdominal pigmentation is indeed darker in females grown at 18°C than at 29°C. This phenomenon is thought to be adaptive as the dark pigmentation produced at lower temperature increases body temperature. We show here that temperature modulates the expression of tan (t), a pigmentation gene involved in melanin production. t is expressed 7 times more at 18°C than at 29°C in female abdominal epidermis. Genetic experiments show that modulation of t expression by temperature is essential for female abdominal pigmentation plasticity. Temperature modulates the activity of an enhancer of t without modifying compaction of its chromatin or level of the active histone mark H3K27ac. By contrast, the active mark H3K4me3 on the t promoter is strongly modulated by temperature. The H3K4 methyl-transferase involved in this process is likely Trithorax, as we show that it regulates t expression and the H3K4me3 level on the t promoter and also participates in female pigmentation and its plasticity. Interestingly, t was previously shown to be involved in inter-individual variation of female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, and in abdominal pigmentation divergence between Drosophila species. Sensitivity of t expression to

  5. CLINICAL PROFILE AND EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT MODALITIES IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF HYPERPIGMENTARY DISORDERS AND TANNED SUN EXPOSED SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Skin hypermelanosis is a psychologically stressful condition for modern men and women needs improvement with the help of different hypopigmentary agents. OBJECTIVE : C linical Profile and efficacy of different modalities in the Improvement of hyperpigmentary disorders and tanned Sun exposed skin. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Patients of both gender and age diagnosed with hyperpigmentary disorders were enrolled for the study. Patients were registered in to seven different groups and allocated seven modalities. RESULT : There were 129 patients (42 males and 87 females underwent the treatment and remain in follow up for three months. Maximum number of patients with hyperpigmentary disorde rs belongs to age group 21 to 30 years. Females (67.44% are more commonly affected than males (32.56%. Tanning (27.90% was the most common facial condition in which males (55.55% outnumbered females (44.45% due to more sun exposure in males. Melasma ( 23.25% was the second most common conditions. In the present study, among all the treatment modalities glycolic acid is the most s uccessful in terms of results, compliance and satisfaction of the patients. There are minimal and transient side effects and this modality can be applied to any hyperpigmentary condition for improvement of hyperpigmentary complexion. LIMITATION : Larger studies are required to further confirm the efficacy of different regimes for improvement in complexion. CONCLUSION : Tanning was most common facial condition of hyperpigmention after that melasma was second most common cause of hyperpigmention. Glycolic acid peel (35 - 50% is the most successful in terms of results, compliance and satisfaction of the patients.

  6. Mechanism of Chrome-free Tanning with Tetra-hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Chloride%四羟甲基氯化膦无铬鞣的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵双喜; 史楷岐; 李亚; 蒋岚; 马淳安

    2008-01-01

    Tetra-hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC) has been considered as an important chrome-free tanning agent. To understand the THPC tanning mechanism, the structure, charge distribution, activity and tanning ability of each phosphorous compound in THPC tanning system were studied, by 31P NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and computational chemistry method, etc. When pH raised to 6.0, the decomposition of THPC would take place, which results in a production of free formaldehyde, tri-hydroxymethyl phosphonium (TrHP) and tri-hydroxymethyl phosphine oxide (TrHPO). At pH 9.0, THPC will be converted completely to TrHP and most TrHP is further oxidized into TrHPO. It is possible that, in reaction of phosphorous compounds and collagens, both P-C and C-O bonds would break simultaneously or individually. From molecular charge distribution and bond polar properties, it is deduced that, if P-C bonds break, the activity is in order of TrHPO>THPC>TrHP, whereas if C-O bonds break, the order is TrHP>THPC>TrHPO. It is more possible that P-C bonds will break in reaction with collagen, and TrHPO may be more active in the THPC tanning system. The results of tanning and DSC also prove the above conclusion. Furthermore, the fact that the shrinkage temperature of THPC tanned leather was below 70℃ when basified to pH 5.0 or lower suggests that the hydroxymethyl groups of THPC and TrHP are less possible to combine directly with amino groups of collagen.

  7. The Anti-enzymatic Hydrolysis Properties of Tanned Collagen%鞣制皮胶原的抗酶解性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴从喜; 张金伟; Shalbuev Dmitry; 陈武勇

    2013-01-01

    分别以不同鞣制方法、不同鞣制程度的皮胶原为对象,研究不同蛋白酶对其的酶解作用.通过对酶解溶液中羟脯氨酸和酶解后皮胶原的收缩温度以及对处理后皮胶原的显微结构观察.结果表明:植物鞣和戊二醛鞣制皮胶原比铬鞣皮胶原更能耐中性蛋白酶酶解作用;酸性蛋白酶更易酶解铬鞣皮胶原,碱性蛋白酶更易酶解植鞣皮胶原,而戊二醛鞣皮胶原具有广泛的耐酶解作用.%In this experiment, the properties of anti - enzymatic hydrolysis of three kinds of tanned collagen with different amount of tanning agents were evaluated using different kind of proteases. After the tanned leather hydrolyzed by the enzymes, the hydroxyproline concentration in the solution and the shrinkage temperature of the treated collagen were tested. It was found that the tanned collagen with the vegetable tannin and the glutaraldehyde are more resistant to hydrolysis with the neutral enzyme than chrome ones; the destructive of acidic protease on chrome tanned leather and the destructive of alkaline protease on vegetable tanned leather are more severe; also, the glutaraldehyde tanned leather has a widespread resistance to all types of enzymatic hydrolysis.

  8. Charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs boson decays and measurement of tan at the compact linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Coniavitis; A Ferrari

    2007-11-01

    The minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) predicts the existence of new charged and neutral Higgs bosons. The pair creation of these new particles at the multi-TeV + − compact linear collider (CLIC), followed by decays into standard model particles, were simulated along with the corresponding background. High-energy beam–beam effects such as ISR, beamstrahlung and hadronic background were included. We have investigated the possibility of using the ratio between the number of events found in various decay channels to determine the MSSM parameter tan and we have derived the corresponding statistical error from the uncertainties on the measured cross-sections and Higgs boson masses.

  9. Two new species of the genus Terrobittacus Tan & Hua, 2009 (Mecoptera: Bittacidae from southwestern China with a key to species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of hangingflies, Terrobittacus rostratus sp. nov. and Terrobittacus angustus sp. nov., are described and illustrated from Yunnan, southwestern China, increasing the species number of Terrobittacus Tan & Hua, 2009 to six. Terrobittacus rostratus sp. nov. differs from its congeners by wings devoid of markings and epandrial appendages slightly longer than half the length of the gonocoxites. Terrobittacus angustus sp. nov. can be recognized by wing markings along R5 distally. A key to species of the genus is updated to include the two new species.

  10. Do melanoidins induced by topical 9% dihydroxyacetone sunless tanning spray inhibit vitamin d production? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Fusaro, Ramon M; Sayre, Robert M; Huerter, Christopher J; Heaney, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    We report here preliminary pilot study data of the effect of sunless tanning spray with 9% [Correction added after online publication (August 24th, 2009): The concentration of Dihydroxyacetone used in the study was 9% and not 3% as previously stated] dihydroxyacetone (DHA) on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels in subjects exposed to controlled amounts of UV-B radiation during April/May in Omaha, NE, 41 degrees N latitude. We found that DHA-induced melanoidins in skin act as a topical sunscreen attenuating the formation of 25(OH)D.

  11. Preference Differentiation of ChangZhuTan Urban Rresidents Forest Health Tourism Based on Lifestyle: A Case of ChangZhuTan City%基于生活形态的城市居民森林保健旅游偏好分异研究 ——以长株潭地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑群明; 唐绒; 陈青山

    2015-01-01

    森林保健旅游已经成为健康旅游的一大热点.在森林保健旅游的研究中,旅游偏好研究的成果较少.通过引入生活形态的概念,对长株潭地区的城市居民加以细分,来研究生活形态迥异的城市居民在森林保健旅游领域的旅游偏好.研究发现,长株潭地区的城市居民可细分为保守稳重型、消极随意型和积极进取型三个不同生活形态的族群;进一步研究发现,不同生活形态的族群在人口学特征、森林保健旅游项目、信息渠道、出行时段、出游方式、入住方式以及消费意向等森林保健旅游偏好方面存在差异.基于研究结论从产品开发和市场营销角度提出相关建议.%Forest health tourism has become a hot spot for health tourism.In the study of forest health tourism,pref-erence research has few outcome.This paper introduces the concept of lifestyle,to distinguish urban residents in Chang-ZhuTan areas and study the travel preferences about different forms of urban residents.It finds that,ChangZhuTan Ur-ban Residents can be ,this paper sdivided into conservative type,passive type and aggressive type.Further research finds differences among the three different lifestyle groups in demographic characteristics and forest health tourism projects,information channels,travel time,travel mode,dormitory-style and consume intention.Finally,some related suggestions for product development and marketing are proposed based on the research findings.

  12. Studies of obtaining and stability in aqueous medium of new complex compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) used in ecological leather tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, Marian; Sibiescu, Doina; Rosca, Ioan; Sutiman, Daniel; Vizitiu, Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the study of obtaining new coordination compounds of Ti(IV) and Zr(IV) using as ligand: D,L-β-iso-butyric acid, is presented. Also, the stability of these compounds in aqueous medium is studied. The studies of obtaining and of stability of the new compounds were accomplished in aqueous solutions using methods characteristic for coordination compounds: conductance and pH measurements. The combination ratios and the stability were determined with methods characteristic for studies in solutions. From experimental data resulted that the combination ratio of central metallic atoms with the ligand derived from D,L-β-iso-butyric acid was 1:2. From experimental data resulted that in strong acid and strong basic mediums, the coordination compounds could not be obtained. The optimal stability of the studied compounds is limited between 3-6, pH - values. This fact is in accordance with the conditions of using these compounds in ecological leather tanning. Of great importance is that these compounds were used with very good results in tanning processes of different types of leather. This fact evidenced that the ecological alternative of tanning is better than non-ecological tanning using chrome compounds. The importance of this paper consists in obtaining new coordination compounds that can be used in ecological leather tanning.

  13. 司马谈临终遗命与司马迁人生转向%The Testament of Sima Tan and the Turning of Sima Qian' s Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁传璋

    2016-01-01

    司马氏家族的传统实为多元,司马迁并非出身于纯粹的"史官世家". 他处于武帝"有为"之世,青少年时期志在立功荣祖. 仕为郎中后以"辩智闳达"得到武帝器重,奉使西征南略,仕途不可限量.司马谈临终遗命改变了司马迁的人生取向,继任太史,由立功转为立言. 先父遗命成为司马迁的纂著指南和精神动力,指导、鞭策、支持他发愤著书,完成"究天人之际,通古今之变"的第二部《春秋》——《太史公书》.%The family of Sima was of multiple family traditions, which was not purely one of official historians. Sima Qian was living in the period when Emperor Wu was full of promise, and he made up his mind to render meritorious service and glorify his an?cestors. After he was appointed as a Langzhong, he won the appreciation of the emperor with his witty eloquence, and was ordered to go on an expedition in the west to conquer Nanlve, his official future being infinitely bright. The testament of Sima Tan changed the direction of Sima Qian' s life, and he carried on his father' s duty as an official historian, turning from rendering meritorious deeds to establishing his theory in words. His late father' s last orders became the guidance and spiritual power of his writings, until he fi?nally completed the second Spring and Autumn—The Book of the Greatest Official Historian.

  14. Estimating Digital Terrain Model in forest areas from TanDEM-X and Stereo-photogrammetric technique by means of Random Volume over Ground model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. K.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lagomasino, D.; Osmanoglu, B.; Feliciano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in forest areas is invaluable information for various environmental, hydrological and ecological studies, for example, watershed delineation, vegetation canopy height, water dynamic modeling, forest biomass and carbon estimations. There are few solutions to extract bare-earth Digital Elevation Model information. Airborne lidar systems are widely and successfully used for estimating bare-earth DEMs with centimeter-order accuracy and high spatial resolution. However, expensive cost of operation and small image coverage prevent the use of airborne lidar sensors for large- or global-scale. Although IceSAT/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) lidar data sets have been available for global DTM estimate with relatively lower cost, the large footprint size of 70 m and the interval of 172 m are insufficient for various applications. In this study we propose to extract higher resolution bare-earth DEM over vegetated areas from the combination of interferometric complex coherence from single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) data at HH polarization and Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from high-resolution WorldView (WV) images by means of random volume over ground (RVoG) model. The RVoG model is a widely and successfully used model for polarimetric SAR interferometry (Pol-InSAR) forest canopy height inversion. The bare-earth DEM is obtained by complex volume decorrelation in the RVoG model with the DSM estimated by stereo-photogrammetric technique. Forest canopy height can be estimated by subtracting the estimated bare-earth model from the DSM. Finally, the DTM from airborne lidar system was used to validate the bare-earth DEM and forest canopy height estimates.

  15. 论谭毅诗歌的拓扑学结构%On the Topology of Tan Yi's Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海英

    2015-01-01

    谭毅的诗歌写作与国内当代女性诗歌写作有着极为鲜明的差异,其诗歌的重心一是致力于绘制“家族记忆”的拓扑学,以实现对当前场所精神沦丧的思考,二是致力于进行“语言”的拓扑学实验,以拓展诗歌写作的界域。用“拓扑学”的概念来从家族、记忆和语言三个方面分析谭毅的诗歌,乃是查看此种写作路向为当下诗歌写作提供的可能性以及潜在的问题。%Tan Yi's poetry writing has a very distinct difference with other contemporary female's. On one hand, she is committed to drawing the topology of family-memory for thinking about the lost of genius loci, on the other hand, she is committed to exploring the topology of language for expanding the precincts of writing. In the paper, using the concept of "topology" to analyze Tan Yi's poem from family, memory and language, to understand the value of her writing will be my motivation,also think about the problems that may exist.

  16. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy on ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracht, Uwe Santiago; Heintze, Eric; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Il' in, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Guo, Qiao; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ultra-thin films of the conventional superconductors niobium nitride (NbN) and tantalum nitride (TaN) have recently attracted attention for devices such as single-photon detectors. Quasi-optical THz spectroscopy is a particularly suited tool with direct access to superconducting properties, such as the superconducting energy gap, which are necessary for a proper understanding of device performance and for future improvements. With our THz-spectroscopy approach we measure amplitude and phaseshift of coherent radiation (0.09-1.2 THz) passing through thin-film systems. We present the performance and possibilities of our experimental set-up, and we apply it to ultra-thin superconducting films of NbN and TaN. We fit the experimental data to weak-coupling BCS theory, and we obtain frequency- and temperature-dependent superconducting properties such as the complex optical conductivity, the complex dielectric function, the energy gap, the penetration depth, and the superfluid density.

  17. The influence of Chromium supplied by tanning and wet finishing processes on the formation of cr(vi in leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fuck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium used in leather manufacturing can be oxidized from the trivalent to the hexavalent state, causing environmental concerns. In this study, the influence of Cr(III from tanning, deacidification pH, fatliquors, chrome retanning and vegetable retanning on the formation of Cr(VI in leather was analyzed by comparing natural and aged samples. In wet-blue leather, even after aging and in fatliquored leathers that did not suffer the aging process, the presence of Cr(VI was always below the detection limit of 3 mg/kg. Considering the presence of Cr(VI, the supply of chromium during the retanning step had a more significant effect than during the tanning. In the fatliquoring process with sulfites, fish and synthetic fatliquor leather samples contained Cr(VI when aged, and the highest concentration detected was 26.7 mg/kg. The evaluation of Cr(VI formation led to recommendations for regulation in the leather industry.

  18. Multi-scale kinetic surface roughening of reactive-sputtered TaN thin films characterized by wavelet transform approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.J., E-mail: jjyang@scu.edu.cn; Miao, F.M.; Tang, J., E-mail: tangjun@scu.edu.cn; Yang, Y.Y.; Liao, J.L.; Liu, N.

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic surface roughening of TaN thin films deposited by reactive sputtering was investigated by using atomic force microscopy. Wavelet transform method incorporating power spectrum density analysis was applied to extract the global and local surface morphologies of the films. Then the dynamical exponents of global and local surface roughening were calculated in terms of dynamic scaling theory. The results show that the kinetic surface roughening of TaN thin films exhibits multi-scale characteristics, where a set of local dynamical exponents (α{sub l} = 0.95, β{sub l} = 0.24) and global dynamical exponents (α{sub g} = 1.56, β{sub g} = 0.71) was obtained. The local surface roughening is dominated by the competition between linear surface diffusion and deposition flux noise, while the global surface roughening displays anomalous rapid-roughening behavior due to the preferred grain growth. - Highlights: • Film surface multi-scale behaviors were characterized by wavelet transform. • Microscopic mechanisms of surface multi-scale behaviors were investigated.

  19. Extraction and Optimization of Natural Dye from Hambo Hambo (Cassia singueana Plant Used for Coloration of Tanned Leather Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taame Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at introducing natural dye extracted from the bark of Cassia Singueana plant for dyeing chrome tanned sheep skin crust leather. The colorant was extracted by aqueous extraction and its strength evaluated using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The extraction with the highest strength (3.9 at λmax of 400 nm was obtained at temperature of 95°C, concentration of 60 g/l, and time of 60 minutes. The possibility of using aloe vera juice and mango bark extract as natural mordants for leather coloration was investigated. Dyeing was conducted with and without mordant using different combinations of temperature, time, pH, and concentration of mordants. All three mordanting techniques were evaluated. The color strength (K/S, CIE L⁎a⁎b⁎ values, and fastness properties (light, rubbing, and perspiration of dyed leather samples were evaluated using appropriate instruments and according to international standards. Majority of samples exhibited that fastness result was in the range of good-excellent. Significantly better color fastness was obtained in case of leather samples premordanted with aloe vera. This study leads to the conclusion that dye extracted from bark of Cassia singueana can be used as colorant for tanned leather with the selected natural mordants.

  20. Ice dynamics of Himalayan glaciers (Himachal Pradesh, India) using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are the natural indicators of climate change. Himalaya is a part of widely spread mountain range consisting of second largest ice mass after polar region. The glaciers in Himalaya are located in Himachal Pradesh and other territories of India. The precipitation in the region is influenced by both Indian summer monsoon and mid-latitude winter westerlies. The glacier discharge influences the river basins and provides fresh water for various infrastructural necessities of urbanization in the state. The study aims to estimate the ice thickness and volume change during the decade (2011-2000) and annually during 2011-2014. For this, TanDEM-X DEMs are subtracted from the SRTM C/X band DEM of 2000. In addition, ice flow dynamics are quantified by the constellation of TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data using SAR offset tracking method. The primary investigations reveal that the terminus velocity of Bada Shigri (G077683E32169N), the biggest glacier of the state, Chhota Shigri( G077513E32227N), a bench-mark glacier, and other glacier (G077547E32162N) in 2011 found out to be < 2cm/day. The upper stream velocities of the glaciers are increased linearly and influenced by glacier tributaries.

  1. SELECTION OF MODELS FOR SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING OF THE TAN-MITE Dichopelmus notus KEIFER (ACARI, ERIOPHYIDAE IN MATE-TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research established models for the construction of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-miteDichopelmus notus Keifer (Acari, Eriophyidae in mate-tea orchards. The study was carried out in a ten years old orchard, locatedin Chapecó, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. In three areas of approximately 2,500 m2, 30 plants had been selected randomly. Fortnightly,from January to December, 2004, infestation of D. notus in 18 mature leaves of ten plants in each area were evaluated. Theevaluations were executed directly in the orchard, using lenses (10x and 1 cm2 of fixed field. The lines of the sequential plans wereconstructed using the methodology based on the confidence interval of Iwao (1975, considering the models of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity, Normal Approach of Blyth (1986, Approach of Hall (1982 modified by Blyth (1986, Normal Approach ofMolenaar (1973, Normal Approach of Pratt (1968 and Leemis & Trivedi (1996 methodology. The models were evaluatedconsidering amplitude analysis of the confidence intervals. The results had evidenced that the Model of Normal Approach withCorrection of Continuity must preferentiably be used in the elaboration of plans of binomial sequential sampling for the tan-mite inmate-tea orchards.

  2. Oncolytic and immunologic cancer therapy with GM-CSF-armed vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lili; Fan, Jun; Guo, Mingming; Huang, Biao

    2016-03-28

    Targeted oncolytic vaccinia viruses are being developed as a novel strategy in cancer therapy. Arming vaccinia viruses with immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance antitumor efficacy. Such engineered oncolytic viruses, like JX-594, a Wyeth strain vaccinia virus modified with human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have shown promising results and have proceeded rapidly in clinical trials. However, the oncolytic potential of the Chinese vaccine strain Tian Tan (VTT) has not been explored. In this study, we constructed a targeted oncolytic vaccinia virus of Tian Tan strain Guang9 (VG9) expressing murine GM-CSF (VG9-GMCSF) and evaluated the antitumor effect of this recombinant vaccinia virus in a murine melanoma model. In vitro, viral replication and cytotoxicity of VG9-GMCSF was as potent as VG9; in vivo, VG9-GMCSF significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted melanoma tumors, prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice, and produced an antitumor cytotoxic response. Such antitumor effect may be due to the lytic nature of virus as well as the stimulation of immune activity by GM-CSF production. Our results indicate that VG9-GMCSF induces strong tumoricidal activity, providing a potential therapeutic strategy for combating cancer.

  3. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of solar UV-A dose.

  4. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  5. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

  6. Un Tratado no tan simple: el realismo mágico del funcionalismo.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El Tratado de Lisboa de 13 de diciembre de 2007, fruto de una esforzada, discreta y, por ello, excelete presidencia alemana en el primer semestre de ese año, encara en los meses que quedan de 2008 la recta final del proceso de prestaciones de consentimiento en los Parlamentos nacionales. Proceso no del todo exento de algunos temores.

  7. North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Richard [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The U.S. DOE’s Office of EERE National Solar Energy Technology Program (SETP) calls for a “National Accreditation and Certification Program for Installation and Acceptance of Photovoltaic Systems.” A near-term goal listed in the U.S. Photovoltaic Industry’s Roadmap, 2000 - 2020 is to work to establish standards, codes, and certifications which are essential for consumer protection and acceptance as part of the goal of building toward a viable future PV industry. This program paves the way for a voluntary national certification program for PV system practitioners and installers, initiation of the first steps toward certification of hardware, and reinforcement of all five of the technical objectives in the Systems category of SETPs Multi-Year technical Plan. Through this project, NABCEP will direct the continued initiation of and sustained implementation and administration of the NABCEP Solar PV Installer Certification Program (hereafter the “Program”). The NABCEP Program is a national, voluntary program designed to provide certification for those PV installers who demonstrate the requisite skills, abilities and knowledge typically required to install and maintain PV systems. The core document upon which the Program was developed and upon which the national exam is based, is referred to as the (Program) Task Analysis. It is a thorough descriptive document containing specific psychomotor and cognitive tasks for the purposes of identifying the types of training/assessment methods that apply. Psychomotor skills require measuring, assembling, fastening and related activities. Cognitive skills require knowledge processing, decision-making and computations. NABCEP effectively evaluates an applicant’s psychomotor skills through review of a candidate’s PV installations and hands-on training received. NABCEP evaluates the candidate’s cognitive skills through administration of its national Program exam. By first qualifying for and then obtaining the required passing score, NABCEP certificants receive an accreditation that upholds NABCEP’s standards of quality, compliance to applicable codes and safety in PV installation. The objectives of DOE’s National Solar Energy Technology Program (SETP) are intrinsic to NABCEP. As detailed in the PV Roadmap, the lifespan of a PV system is a function of reliability and value. PV system reliability is directly dependent upon the quality of components and, design, installation and maintenance of a system. The latter three are all core components of the NABCEP Task Analysis - accordingly NABCEP certified installers will be instrumental in improving reliability of systems through safe, code and manufacturer-compliant installation and necessary post-installation maintenance of PV systems. This will have the effect of ensuring and increasing the performance of installed systems and, as consumers realize the benefits of well-installed and maintained systems, increased demand will follow and manufacturers will respond - supporting further growth in the PV industry. Furthermore, as more NABCEP certified installers perform these installations and maintenance competently, additional installations (whole system re-installations) and unnecessary repairs can be avoided. This will drive down system costs. This combined with creation/enhancement of the DE-FG36-04GO14348/005 NABCEP Central Data Base of Installers – providing consumers with installation/maintenance service options will further reduce system costs and help meet the overall goal of reducing life cycle costs. As consumers receive more value from PV systems which are providing longer, trouble free, renewable energy, they will join the ranks of professionals and enthusiasts calling for reduced technological barriers to installation (particularly for grid-tied systems). States and utilities will react to pressure and begin easing onerous net-metering and other technological restrictions. The benefits of NABCEP’s Program will be evident to consumers, manufacturers, distributors, state energy officials and solar academic institu

  8. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  9. Effects of Substrate Bias on the Hardness and Resistivity of Reactively Sputtered TaN and TiN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junqing; Arshi, Nishat

    2016-06-01

    TaN and TiN films are being widely used as conductive layers in electronic devices or protective coatings on metal surfaces. Among various deposition methods, reactive magnetron sputtering is preferred partly due to its ability to control the energy of the depositing ions by applying different substrate bias voltages. In this study, TaN and TiN films were deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates by using direct current magnetron sputtering technique with 370 W target power at 1.9 mTorr and under different substrate biases. The effects of the substrate bias on both the resistivity and the hardness of the deposited TaN and TiN films were investigated. The phase and composition of the deposited films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, the resistivity was measured by a four-point probe, and the hardness was obtained by nano-indentation. For TaN films, the use of substrate bias not only increased the hardness but also increased the resistivity. Moreover, the formation of the Ta3N5 phase at the -300 V substrate bias significantly increased the TaN film resistivity. For TiN films, the optimum resistivity (minimum) of 19.5 µΩ-cm and the hardness (maximum) of 31.5 GPa were achieved at the -100 V substrate bias. Since the phase changes occurred in both the TaN and the TiN films at higher substrate biases and these phase changes negatively affected the resistivity or hardness property of the films, the substrate bias should not significantly exceed -100 V.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of TaN in free-jet: Observation of high-lying excited electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhate, S. G.; Mukund, Sheo; Bhattacharyya, Soumen

    2017-02-01

    Rotationally resolved excitation spectra of TaN molecules, produced in a free-jet, have been studied using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Thirteen excited electronic states in the energy region, 23,500-30,000 cm-1 have been observed. The molecular constants, Ω-quantum numbers and radiative lifetimes have been determined for these states. Because of the case (c) behavior and absence of the regular energy spacing, the assignments of the excited electronic states of TaN become difficult. The number of observed excited electronic states is significantly larger than currently predicted, indicated a need for additional ab initio calculations.

  11. The first outline of Calvin’s theology – the preface to the New Testament in the Olivétan Bible of 1535

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The prefaces which Calvin wrote for the Bible translation of Olivétan (1535) conform to the general custom during the Reformation to translate the Bible into the vernacular and to publish these translations simultaneously with interpretation aids. In the preface published in the Olivétan Bible and preceding the New Testament translation, Calvin wants to indicate to the reader (in this case the heathen) the correct way to approach the Bible. Although no captions or headings are included, the p...

  12. Reflection of Tan sheep Industry Development of Yanchi County%对盐池滩羊产业发展的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菡虹

    2012-01-01

    根据盐池滩羊产业发展现状,分析了滩羊产业发展中存在的问题,提出以草定畜、科学规划、建立标准、夯实基础、市场运作的发展建议。%According to the present situation of Tan sheep development,the article analyzed the problems in Tan sheep industry.Some suggestions were put forward,including determining livestock carrying capacity according to grass,scientific planning,establishing standard,building sound foundation,as well as launching a market operation.

  13. Hide Tanning and Its Use in Taiga: The Case of the Orochen-Evenki Reindeer Herders and Hunters of Zabaikalye (East Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Brandišauskas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the way in which the Orochen-Evenki hunters and herders in northern part of Zabaikalye tan hides and produce gear in the post-Soviet era. Here, I wish to present the argument that it is difficult to understand the reviving of hide tanning in remote villages and the taiga without understanding how hunters and herders in this region adapt to the unstable post-Soviet environment. I suggest that hunters and herders aim to maintain their autonomy from goods and resources imported from cities, and, in spending little effort connecting with state powers in this way, securing their lives from socio-economic constraints.

  14. Detection of hazardous pollutants in chrome-tanned leather using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, M M; Gondal, Mohammed Asharf; Seddigi, Z S

    2011-04-01

    Highly toxic contaminants like Cr, As, and Pb were detected in chrome-tanning process of animal skin to produce leather by applying locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. An Nd-YAG laser with 1,064 nm wavelength was focused on the surface of leather samples (natural and manufactured) to generate a plasma spark and spectrally resolved spectra were used for identification and quantification of contaminants. The leather samples were collected from a tannery located in industrial cities of Riyadh and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out on fully, half manufactured (wet blue leather), and natural hide (skin). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt where laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied for the analysis of leather before and after tanning process. The maximum concentration of different elements of environmental significance like chromium, lead, arsenic, sulfur, magnesium were 199, 289, 31, 38, and 39 ppm, respectively, in one of the manufactured leather samples. The limit of detection (LOD) of our LIBS system for chromium, lead, arsenic, sulfur, and magnesium were 2, 3, 1.5,7, and 3 ppm, respectively. The safe permissible limit for tanned leather for highly toxic elements like chromium, lead, and arsenic are 1, 0.5, 0.01 ppm, respectively, as prescribed in Environmental Regulation Standards for Saudi Industries set by Royal Commission Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The LIBS technique is superior to other conventional techniques like ICP or atomic absorption that a little or no sample preparation is required, no chemicals are needed, multi-elemental analysis is possible for all kinds of samples (natural and anthropogenic materials), microgram of sample is essential, and LIBS could be applied for remote analysis. It is highly selective and sensitivity higher than ICP, and as no sample and chemicals are required, it is cost effective for multi-sample analysis per unit time as compared with other

  15. Nunca fue tan hermosa la Basura; hacia una 'Estética de lo peor'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pardo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This Article corresponds to the final version published in the book * of the same name that originally was exposed as the Conference in the series 'Urban Distortions' on May 17, 2006 at the Cultural Center 'La Casa Lit', Madrid. Comments Posted by Philosophical Magazine with permission from the author.Book: PARDO, José Luis, has never been so beautiful in the trash. Articles and essays. Barcelona, Galaxia Gutenberg / Readers Circle, 2010, ISBN 978-84-672-3887-7

  16. Generation of a ToxA knockout strain of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Caroline S; See, Pao Theen; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis causes tan spot, a major disease of wheat, throughout the world. The proteinaceous effector ToxA is responsible for foliar necrosis on ToxA-sensitive wheat genotypes. The single copy ToxA gene was deleted from a wild-type race 1 P. tritici-repentis isolate via homologous recombination of a knockout construct. Expression of the ToxA transcript was found to be absent in transformants (toxa), as was ToxA protein production in fungal culture filtrates. Plant bioassays were conducted to test transformant pathogenicity. The toxa strains were unable to induce necrosis on ToxA-sensitive wheat genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a targeted gene knockout in P. tritici-repentis. The ability to undertake gene deletions will facilitate the characterization of other pathogenicity effectors of this economically significant necrotroph.

  17. Betwixt and Between Past and Present: Cultural and Generic Hybridity in the Fiction of Amy Tan and Mary Yukari Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Youssef

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amy Tan and Mary Yukari Waters are both Asian-Americans who portray hybridity in their short stories which depict the shifting identities of the self. But do the internal categories of gender, race and ethnicity help in the coherence or do they add to the fragmentation of diverse identities? It is the dynamics of this critique of multiple identification and hybrid cultures that is being traced here in this study and how all this is reflected in narrative responses to such conditions of the examination of the self and, on a broader scale, community. The study builds on Victor Turner’s theory of liminality. Key words Hybridity, liminality, multiple identity, race, culture.

  18. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  19. Modelling above Ground Biomass in Tanzanian Miombo Woodlands Using TanDEM-X WorldDEM and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Puliti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR data has great potential for monitoring large scale forest above ground biomass (AGB in the tropics due to the increased ability to retrieve 3D information even under cloud cover. To date; results in tropical forests have been inconsistent and further knowledge on the accuracy of models linking AGB and InSAR height data is crucial for the development of large scale forest monitoring programs. This study provides an example of the use of TanDEM-X WorldDEM data to model AGB in Tanzanian woodlands. The primary objective was to assess the accuracy of a model linking AGB with InSAR height from WorldDEM after the subtraction of ground heights. The secondary objective was to assess the possibility of obtaining InSAR height for field plots when the terrain heights were derived from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS; i.e., as an alternative to using airborne laser scanning (ALS. The results revealed that the AGB model using InSAR height had a predictive accuracy of R M S E = 24.1 t·ha−1; or 38.8% of the mean AGB when terrain heights were derived from ALS. The results were similar when using terrain heights from GNSS. The accuracy of the predicted AGB was improved when compared to a previous study using TanDEM-X for a sub-area of the area of interest and was of similar magnitude to what was achieved in the same sub-area using ALS data. Overall; this study sheds new light on the opportunities that arise from the use of InSAR data for large scale AGB modelling in tropical woodlands.

  20. To the question on accuracy of forest heights’ measurements by the TanDEM-X radar interferometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Chimitdorzhiev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the validation results of the InSAR method for determining the forest canopy height, based on TanDEM-X and ALOS PALSAR data. The research conducted on the territory of the Baikal-Kudara forest area of the Republic of Buryatia (52°10'N, 106°48'E. Forest vegetation is represented mainly by conifers – pine, and spruce, with a small admixture of deciduous trees – aspen, birch, etc. The forest vegetation height was determined by subtracting the digital elevation model (DEM of the digital terrain model (DTM. DEM is built according to the L-band (wavelength of 23.5 cm ALOS PALSAR satellite with horizontal co-polarization mode. In the investigation it was assumed that a radar signal of ALOS PALSAR passes all forest thickness and reflected from the underlying surface, made it possible to recover terrain under forest canopy. DTM has been built using the TanDEM-X data (wavelength 3 cm. In this case, it was assumed that the radar echoes scattered from a some virtual phase centers of scattering surface, which characterizes the upper limit of the continuous forest canopy. To check the accuracy of satellite definitions of forest height in study area were made high-precision geodetic measurement of trees heights using electronic total station and the coordinates of geographic control points using differential GPS receivers. The discrepancy between the satellite and ground-based measurements at 11 test sites did not exceed 2 m, which is mainly due to the difference in measurement techniques: height of individual trees by ground methods and continuous forest canopy height using radar interferometry.

  1. Evaluation of historical and analytical data on the TAN TSF-07 Disposal Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Technical Support Facility (TSF)-07 Disposal Pond, located at Test Area North at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, has been identified as part of Operable Unit 1-06 under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department is conducting an evaluation of existing site characterization data for the TSF-07 Disposal Pond Track 1 investigation. The results from the site characterization data will be used to determine whether the operable unit will undergo a Track 2 investigation, an interim action, a remedial investigation/feasibility study, or result in a no-action decision. This report summarizes activities relevant to wastewaters discharged to the pond and characterization efforts conducted from 1982 through 1991. Plan view and vertical distribution maps of the significant contaminants contained in the pond are included. From this evaluation it was determined that cobalt-60, cesium-137, americium-241, mercury, chromium, and thallium are significant contaminants for soils. This report also evaluates the migration tendencies of the significant contaminants into the perched water zone under the pond and the surrounding terrain to support the investigation.

  2. Euroopa Liidu eelarve / Lembo Tanning, Toivo Tanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanning, Lembo

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti, nr. 3, 2007, lk. 33-39. Ülevaade Euroopa Liidu eelarve moodustamise põhimõtetest ja prioriteetidest. Diagramm: Euroopa Liidu eelarve 2006-2013. Graafikud: ELi ühtekuuluvussummad 2007-2013; Eesti ühtlustustoetused 2007-2013. Tabel: Balti riikidele eraldatavad ühtlustamisfondi summad 2007-2013

  3. Maailma naftareservid / Lembo Tanning, Toivo Tanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanning, Lembo

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti nr. 4 lk. 37-41. Maailmaturul jätkub toornafta hindade kasv, maailma uuritud naftavarud ja reservid. Tulevikus hakkab nafta ja selle hind paljuski määrama ühe või teise riigi majandusarengut ning sellest omakorda nende sõjalist võimsust ja poliitilist mõjuvõimu. Tabelid: Tõestatud naftavarud, 2007; Olemasolevad tõestatud naftavarud, 1986-2006. Diagrammid: 10 suuremat nafta reservidega riiki, 2007; Maailma nafta reservid, 2006

  4. Maailma naftareservid / Lembo Tanning, Toivo Tanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanning, Lembo

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti nr. 4 lk. 37-41. Maailmaturul jätkub toornafta hindade kasv, maailma uuritud naftavarud ja reservid. Tulevikus hakkab nafta ja selle hind paljuski määrama ühe või teise riigi majandusarengut ning sellest omakorda nende sõjalist võimsust ja poliitilist mõjuvõimu. Tabelid: Tõestatud naftavarud, 2007; Olemasolevad tõestatud naftavarud, 1986-2006. Diagrammid: 10 suuremat nafta reservidega riiki, 2007; Maailma nafta reservid, 2006

  5. Wavelet based analysis of TanDEM-X and LiDAR DEMs across a tropical vegetation heterogeneity gradient driven by fire disturbance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandi, De Elsa Carla; Mitchard, Edward; Hoekman, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional information provided by TanDEM-X interferometric phase and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital ElevationModels (DEMs) were used to detect differences in vegetation heterogeneity through a disturbance gradient in Indonesia. The range of vegetation types developed

  6. Evaluating the Quality and Accuracy of TanDEM-X Digital Elevation Models at Archaeological Sites in the Cilician Plain, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Erasmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful instrument for mapping and monitoring traces of historical settlements and infrastructure, not only in distant areas and crisis regions. It helps archaeologists to embed their findings from field surveys into the broader context of the landscape. With the start of the TanDEM-X mission, spatially explicit 3D-information is available to researchers at an unprecedented resolution worldwide. We examined different experimental TanDEM-X digital elevation models (DEM that were processed from two different imaging modes (Stripmap/High Resolution Spotlight using the operational alternating bistatic acquisition mode. The quality and accuracy of the experimental DEM products was compared to other available DEM products and a high precision archaeological field survey. The results indicate the potential of TanDEM-X Stripmap (SM data for mapping surface elements at regional scale. For the alluvial plain of Cilicia, a suspected palaeochannel could be reconstructed. At the local scale, DEM products from TanDEM-X High Resolution Spotlight (HS mode were processed at 2 m spatial resolution using a merge of two monostatic/bistatic interferograms. The absolute and relative vertical accuracy of the outcome meet the specification of high resolution elevation data (HRE standards from the National System for Geospatial Intelligence (NSG at the HRE20 level.

  7. A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Jess Walter

    2004-01-01

    A Holistic Approach to Taxonomic Evaluation of Two Closely Related Endangered Freshwater Mussel Species, the Oyster Mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis) and Tan Riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri) (Bivalvia: Unionidae) by Jess W. Jones Richard J. Neves, Chairperson Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences (ABSTRACT) Primers for 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and characterized for the endangered oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis from the Clinch River, TN. Microsatellite...

  8. Accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn by plants in tanning sludge storage sites: opportunities for contamination bioindication and phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of appropriate disposal strategies of tanning sludge (e.g., uncontrolled landfills and disposing sludge to open areas) has led to severe Cr pollution in waters and soils in many developing countries. Excessive Cr can be highly toxic to many living organisms and may damage the ecosystem. In ...

  9. 植物鞣剂与非铬金属鞣剂结合鞣制的研究%Vegetable and Non-chromium Metal Tanning Agent Combination Tannage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李闻欣; 王勇

    2013-01-01

    用栲胶、铝鞣剂、钛鞣剂对浸酸猪皮进行结合鞣制,在最佳工艺的基础上,选取与铝鞣剂和钛鞣剂搭配最佳的栲胶,考察栲胶用量和改变结合鞣不同鞣制阶段pH值对Ts的影响.结果表明:使用水解类栲胶的效果一般情况下比用缩合类栲胶好,且用栗木栲胶的效果更好.在植铝钛结合鞣中,栗木栲胶用量15%,当植鞣pH值为4.8、铝鞣pH值为3.0、钛鞣pH值为1.5时,结合鞣制革的Ts达到93℃.%The pickling pigskins were tanned with vegetable tannin, aluminium tanning agent and titanium tanning agent ( self - made). On the basis of the optimum, the best collocation of tannin extracts was selected with aluminium tanning agent and titanium tanning agent. The effect of tannin extract dosage and different pH value in combination tanning process on Ts were investigated. The results show the tanning properties of the pelts by hydrolysable tannin are better than that by the condensed tannin on general circumstances, and chestnut extract tannin has a better tanning effect than other tannins. In the vegetable - alumium - titanium combination tanning process, the amount of chestnut extract is 15% , when the pH value of vegetable tannage is 4. 8, the pH value of the aluminum tannage is 3. 0, the pH value of the titanium tannage is 1. 5, the maximum Ts value of the combination tanned leather can be up to 931.

  10. Two stages of zircon crystallization in the Jingshan monzogranite, Bengbu Uplift: Implications for the syn-collisional granites of the Dabie-Sulu UHP orogenic belt and the climax of movement on the Tan-Lu fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Griffin, W. L.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Huang, P. Y.; Li, X.

    2011-03-01

    The detailed study of zircon can provide vital clues about the petrogenetic environment of granitoid rocks. Morphological and chemical studies of zircon grains from the Jingshan monzogranite in the Bengbu Uplift (Anhui province, eastern China) identify three phases of growth. Zircon I is brown, translucent, ovoid, and occurs as inherited cores. It shows two groups of 206Pb/ 238U ages, corresponding to the country rock of the Jingshan monzogranite and the basement of the Bengbu Uplift. Zircon II is colorless, transparent and idiomorphic-hypidiomorphic with Ipr = 0.34-0.52, Ipy = 0.03-0.24 and Iel = 0.26-0.34. It shows a very bright CL due to high contents of trace elements (e.g., Y, U and Th), and the oscillatory zoning associated with sector zoning. It contains 1.40-1.66 wt.% HfO 2 with a mean ɛ Hf (t) of - 17.88. These features indicate the igneous crystallization of Zircon II from a peraluminous granite of mainly crustal origin. Based on the field geology, petrography, geochemical analysis, and especially a weighted mean age of 222 Ma for Zircon II, we argue that the Jingshan monzogranite is a syn-collisional granite of the Dabie UHP orogenic belt. This provides new evidence for the northward subduction of the South China Block beneath the North China Block just before 222 Ma, and allows quantitative estimates of the rate of post-UHP exhumation in the Dabie orogenic belt. Zircon III is also colorless and transparent, but is totally idiomorphic with Ipr = 0.41-1.00, Ipy = 0.88-1.00 and Iel = 0.39-0.83. It occurs only as overgrowths on Zircon II, and shows weak CL due to its depletion in trace elements. Zircon III has widely variable contents of HfO 2 (1.12 to 3.01 wt.%) and Hf-isotope compositions very similar to those of Zircon II. These features suggest crystallization of Zircon III from small volumes of leucosome, probably in the beginning stages of migmatisation. Zircon III has a weighted mean age of 156 Ma, interpreted as representing the climax of movement

  11. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every teena

  12. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  13. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    complicated thrust and fold, the previous uniifed Ordos-North China Basin was separated by the northeast-oriented Great Xing’an Range and Taihang Mountain uplifted linearment. The differential evolution of basins and sedimentary palaeoge-ography between eastern and western North China was initiated, and was interpreted to result in the closure of Okhotsk Ocean and the subduction of Palaeo-Paciifc Plate (late stage 2). During the Late Jurassic (the early phase of stage 3), a variety of faulted basins occurred in the Yanshan and Yinshan areas in the northeastern North China. In Yanshan area, basins were iflled with thickened intermediate volcanic rocks and purple-red coarse-grained clastic rocks. In contrast, only thick layered sedimentary rocks with rare volcanic rocks developed in the Yinshan faulted basins, the Ordos Basin and basins in sourthern North China. XMOB was the main provenance of the Early Mesozoic basins in the North China, while the Ordos Basin and the Hefei Basin were partly supplied by the northern Qinling Orogenic Belt. During the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous (the late phase of stage 3), the north-ern and northeastern North China experienced extensional movement after the subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate, the closure of the Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean and the subsequent Yanshanian orogeny. At the same time, a NE-oriented, giant rift basin system (NE Asia Rift) extended from the Yanshan to the western Great Xing’an Range, where rift basins were iflled with the regional, NE-oriented, thick coarse-grained clastic rocks and a belt of volcanic rocks. In the meantime, the eastern and northeastern China and most areas of NCC were presented as highland terrains. During the middle-late Early Cretaceous (stage 4), rift basins developed and accumulated alluvial sediments and interbedded alkaline volcanic rocks in the western and northern North China, including Yingen, Ejinaqi and Erlian regions. Basins were formed on both sides of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  15. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  16. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory and Deep Water Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Acoustic Lab and Deep Water Acoustics” Encl: (1) Final Technical Report for Subject Grant (2) SF298 for Enclosure Enclosure (1) is the Final...North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory and Deep Water Acoustics Final Report PI James A. Mercer Applied Physics Laboratory...During FY16 the primary effort has been working on manuscripts as summarized below: 1) A test of deep water Rytov theory at 284 Hz and 107 km in

  17. DETERRING NORTH KOREA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Peck

    2017-01-01

    .... No one can credibly promise that the GMD system will work as planned in an emergency, but with North Korea exploding nuclear bombs underground and testing long-range missiles, the US plans to spend...

  18. Tuberculosis in North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Sharon; Linton, Heidi; Schoolnik, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula are high. How South Korea, the United States, and other countries, including China, engage North Korea remains a sensitive issue, as policies tying aid to denuclearization are debated...

  19. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  20. Catchment properties in the Kruger National Park derived from the new TanDEM-X Intermediate Digital Elevation Model (IDEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, J.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-04-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEM) represent fundamental data for a wide range of Earth surface process studies. Over the past years the German TanDEM-X mission acquired data for a new, truly global Digital Elevation Model with unpreceded geometric resolution, precision and accuracy. First processed data sets (i. e. IDEM) with a geometric resolution of 0.4 to 3 arcsec have been made available for scientific purposes. This includes four 1° x 1° tiles covering the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Here we document the results of a local scale IDEM validation exercise utilizing RTK-GNSS-based ground survey points from a dried out reservoir basin and its vicinity characterized by pristine open Savanna vegetation. Selected precursor data sets (SRTM1, SRTM90, ASTER-GDEM2) were included in the analysis and highlight the immense progress in satellite-based Earth surface surveying over the past two decades. Surprisingly, the high precision and accuracy of the IDEM data sets have only little impact on the delineation of watersheds and the calculation of catchment size. But, when it comes to the derivation of topographic catchment properties (e.g. mean slope, etc.) the high resolution of the IDEM04 is of crucial importance, if - from a geomorphologist's view - it was not for the disturbing vegetation.

  1. A review on management of chrome-tanned leather shavings: a holistic paradigm to combat the environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Anupama; Chaudhary, Rubina; Subramani, Saravanabhavan

    2014-10-01

    Raw hide/skins come to the tanners as a by-product of meat industry which is converted into value-added leather as product for fashion market. Leather manufacturing is a chemical process of natural biological matrix. It employs a huge quantity of water and inorganic and organic chemicals for processing and thereby discharges solid and liquid wastes into the environment. One of the potential solid wastes generated from leather industry is chrome-tanned leather shavings (CTLSs), and its disposal is increasingly becoming a huge challenge on disposal to tanners due to presence of heavy metal chromium. Hence, finding a sustainable solution to the CTLS disposal problem is a prime challenge for global tanners and researchers. This paper aims to the deeper review of various disposal methods on CTLS such as protein, chromium, and energy recovery processes and its utilization methodologies. Sustainable technologies have been developed to overcome CTLS solid wastes emanating from leather processing operations. Further, this review paper brings a broader classification of developed methodologies for treatment of CTLSs.

  2. Thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned solid wastes with calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Messaoudi, A; Azzi, M; Bennazha, J; Younssi, S Alami; Bouhria, M

    2007-01-01

    The thermal behaviour of chrome shavings and of sludges recovered after digestion of tanned wastes with Ca(OH)2 was studied. Ashes obtained after incineration of wastes at various temperatures were analysed by X-ray diffraction and EDX method. The main crystallized phases present in the ash obtained at 600 degrees C are Cr2O3 and NaCl. The diffractograms revealed an increase in the intensities of the chromium oxide peaks and a very notable decrease of the amount of sodium chloride at 1100 degrees C. EDX analysis revealed a total disappearance of the chlorine peak at this temperature. Scanning electron micrographs show that the waste lost its fibrous aspect when the temperature increases. Formation of aggregates was noted after 550 degrees C. Combustion of organic matters and decarbonation phenomenon are the main stages observed on GTA and DTA curves of sludges. These phenomena are, respectively, exothermic and endothermic. The diffractogram of sludges recorded at 550 degrees C, in the presence of a constant oxygen surplus, revealed the presence of CaCrO4 and CaCO3.

  3. Por qué los mercados financieros son tan ineficientes y explotadores, y una propuesta de solución

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Woolley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo presenta una nueva manera de entender el funcionamiento de los mercados financieros. Su diferencia clave con la teoría convencional es que reconoce que los inversionistas no invierten directamente en valores sino a través de agentes tales como los administradores de fondos. Los agentes tienen objetivos diferentes y mejor información que sus clientes, y esta asimetría es fuente de ineficiencia: mala fijación de precios, burbujas y colapsos de Bolsa. Un resultado independiente es que los agentes pueden capturar la masa de ganancias de las innovaciones financieras. Los problemas de principal-agente ayudan a explicar por qué el sector financiero global se ha vuelto tan hipertrofiado, rentable y propenso a crisis. La acción remedial consiste en que los principales modifiquen la manera de contratar o instruir a los agentes. El ensayo termina con un manifiesto de políticas que los fondos de pensiones y otros grandes inversionistas pueden adoptar para atenuar los efectos destructivos de la delegación sobre sus beneficios individuales, y promover el bienestar social en forma de un sector financiero más esbelto, eficiente y estable.

  4. LSER-based modeling vapor pressures of (solvent+salt) systems by application of Xiang-Tan equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aynur Senol

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with modeling the vapor pressures of (solvent+salt) systems depending on the linear solvation energy relation (LSER) principles. The LSER-based vapor pressure model clarifies the simultaneous impact of the vapor pressure of a pure solvent estimated by the Xiang-Tan equation, the solubility and solvatochromic parameters of the solvent and the physical properties of the ionic salt. It has been performed independently two structural forms of the generalized solvation model, i.e. the unified solvation model with the integrated properties (USMIP) containing nine physical descriptors and the reduced property-basis solvation model. The vapor pressure data of fourteen (solvent+salt) systems have been processed to analyze statistical y the reliabil-ity of existing models in terms of a log-ratio objective function. The proposed vapor pressure approaches reproduce the observed performance relatively accurately, yielding the overall design factors of 1.0643 and 1.0702 for the integrated property-basis and reduced property-basis solvation models.

  5. Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from the Chang-Zhu-Tan Region, Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yongzhen; Dai, Tagen; Wu, Qianhong

    2013-02-01

    Street dusts collected from 20 locations in the Chang-Zhu-Tan (Changsha, Zhuzhou, and Xiangtan) region, Hunan, China, in May to July 2006, were investigated for sources of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The individual PAH concentrations were in the range of 10-4316 ng g(-1), and ∑PAHs(16) levels were in the range of 3,515-24,488 ng g(-1), with a mean of 8,760 ng g(-1). The high-molecular-weight PAHs (four to six rings), ranging from 47.51 to 82.11 %, with a mean of 74.79 %, were the dominant PAH compounds in almost all of the dusts. The isomer ratios suggested a rather uniform mixture of coal combustion and petroleum PAH sources. Factor analysis and multiple linear regression analysis indicate that the main sources of the 16 PAHs were coal combustion/vehicle exhaust, coking/petroleum, and plant combustion, with contribution rates of 50.9, 35.01, and 14.08, respectively. The spatial distributions of PAH concentrations were significantly related to the distribution of industries, traffic circulation, and farmland in this region.

  6. Immunogenicity analysis following human immunodeficiency virus recombinant DNA and recombinant vaccinia virus Tian Tan prime-boost immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cunxia; Du, Shouwen; Li, Chang; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Maopeng; Li, Yi; Yin, Ronglan; Li, Xiao; Ren, Dayong; Qin, Yanqing; Ren, Jingqiang; Jin, Ningyi

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed and compared the immunogenicity of various immunization strategies in mice using combinations of recombinant DNA (pCCMp24) and recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan (rddVTT-CCMp24). Intramuscular immunization was performed on days 0 (prime) and 21 (boost). The immunogenicity of the vaccine schedules was determined by measuring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific binding antibody levels and cytokine (interleukin-2 and interleukin-4) concentrations in peripheral blood, analyzing lymphocyte proliferation capacity against HIV epitopes and CD4(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio, and monitoring interferon-gamma levels at different times post-immunization. The results showed that pCCMp24, rddVTT-CCMp24 and their prime-boost immunization induced humoral and cellular immune responses. The pCCMp24/rddVTT-CCMp24 immunization strategy increased CD8(+) T cells and induced more IFN-γ-secreting cells compared with single-shot rDNA. The prime-boost immunization strategy also induced the generation of cellular immunological memory to HIV epitope peptides. These results demonstrated that prime-boost immunization with rDNA and rddVTT-CCMp24 had a tendency to induce greater cellular immune response than single-shot vaccinations, especially IFN-γ response, providing a basis for further studies.

  7. Search for Supersymmetry in the Dilepton Final State with Taus at CDF Run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robert David [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the results a search for chargino and neutralino supersymmetric particles yielding same signed dilepton final states including one hadronically decaying tau lepton using 6.0 fb-1 of data collected by the the CDF II detector. This signature is important in SUSY models where, at high tan β, the branching ratio of charginos and neutralinos to tau leptons becomes dominant. We study event acceptance, lepton identification cuts, and efficiencies. We set limits on the production cross section as a function of SUSY particle mass for certain generic models.

  8. Kedi Enfeksiyonları 1: Zorlayan Tanı Kedilerin Enfeksiyöz Peritonitisi "Infectious of Feline 1: A challenging diagnosis; Feline Infectious Peritonitis"

    OpenAIRE

    AYTUĞ, Nilüfer

    2008-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) kedi koronaviruslerinin (FCoV) virulent ve mutant bir formu tarafından oluşturulan, sistemik bir hastalıktır. Genç kedilerdeki en önemli ölüm nedeni olduğu bildirilmektedir. Bu virusun mutantı olduğu koronavirusler (FCoV), genellikle patojenik değildirler ya da bazı olgularda sadece hafif ishale neden olabilirler. Bu iki suş, birbirlerinden morfolojik ya da antijenik olarak ayrılamazlar. Bu nedenle FIP’in tanısı çok zordur. Olası tanı, klinik bulgular ve ba...

  9. Sub-acute Toxicity Study of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan Cultivar E Sclerotium in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Yee Fung; Boon Hong Kong; Nget Hong Tan; Jayalakshmi Pailoor

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus also known as Tiger Milk Mushroom, is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhi...

  10. First-principles study of the charge transfer and evolution of Si doping 2N2Ta islands adsorption on TaN (001) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Zhang, Honglv; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Haiqing; Liu, Xuejie

    2017-01-01

    The separation and aggregation of Si atoms around TaN grains during deposition of Ta-Si-N nanocomposite films were studied, and the adsorption energies, charge transfer and atomic partial density of state of Si-2N2Ta islands on the TaN (001) surface and diffusion energy of the islands during their evolution were evaluated using the first-principles method based on density functional theory (DFT). In the lowest total energy stable configuration, N and Ta atoms tended to combine to form 2N2Ta islands, whereas Si atoms tended to stay at a position diagonal to the Ta atom outside of the island. Si atoms entered the position of the missing N atom of the TaN island and formed a substitute solid solution during Ta-Si-N growth. The Si atoms of the solid solution in the island could be easily extruded by Ta- or N-rich island during the deposition process. The process of Si atom extrusion by a N atom which was the configuration of N-by-2Ta1N1Si island evolved into Si-by-2N2Ta island in rich N-atom. The process of Si atom was extruded by the Ta atom which was the configuration of Ta-by-2N1Ta1Si island evolved into Si-of-2Ta2N island, that reduced the total energy of island. The diffusion energies of these evolutions were 0.974 and 1.712 eV, respectively. The Si atoms and TaN grain phase tended to separate during the deposition process. Si atoms could give way to Ta and N atoms during the Ta-Si-N nanocomposite film deposition process.

  11. “UNER TAN SYNDROME” IN TWO TURKISH FAMILIES IN RELATION TO DEVOLUTION AND EMERGENCE OF HOMO ERECTUS: NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION, MRI AND PET SCANS

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, Prof. Dr. Üner; PENÇE, Dr. Sadrettin; YILMAZ, Dr. Mustafa; ÖZKUR, Dr. Ayhan; KARACA, Dr. Sibel; TAN, Dr. Meliha; KARATAŞ, Dr. Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    “Uner Tan Syndrome” consists of two main symptoms: quadrupedal gait and primitive cognitive abilities including language and conscious experience. To assess the central mechanisms involved in this syndrome, we performed MRI and PET scans on affected and unaffected individuals from both families. All affected individuals were also subjected to neurological examination. To assess the integrity of the peripheral and central vestibular system, Barany’s caloric test was applied to the affected ind...

  12. Una aplicación de redes sistémicas para entender las concepciones de los estudiantes:¿qué tan grande es un átomo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Farías

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe el empleo de las redes sistémicas para analizar las concepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la carrera de biología acerca del tamaño del átomo. Las respuestas a la pregunta ¿qué tan grande es un átomo? se evaluaron antes y después del estudio de los temas de estequiometría y estructura atómica. El análisis de las redes permitió identificar que, después del estudio de los temas mencionados, la red se hace más compleja como evidencia de un cambio en las respuestas. No obstante, las categorías de la red antes y después de la intervención didáctica se mantienen. Al final del proceso, una gran parte de los estudiantes que no tenían respuesta a la pregunta propuesta inicialmente se posicionan y adoptan como solución la comparación con elementos que conocen, siempre relacionando algo “muy grande” con algo “muy pequeño”.

  13. Diplomatic Game among PRC,USA and Africa in Tan Zam Railway Decision%援建坦赞铁路决策问题上的中美非外交博弈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈喜彭

    2015-01-01

    There is a long diplomatic game among PRC,USA and Africa in building the Tan Zam Railway. The governments of Tanzania and Zambia preferred to accept western countries'assistance rather than China 's.American government neither gave a hand to Tanzania and Zambia,nor allowed them to ask China for help.With a positive attitude,China had prepared for building the railway all by herself.Finally,China not only succeeded in breaking USA's destruction,but also won the trust of Tanzania and Zambia.%中美非三方在援建坦赞铁路决策问题上有过复杂的外交博弈。坦赞两国希望美国等西方国家援建坦赞铁路,曾试图借重中国以获取美国的支持。美国非但不应允帮助两国修建坦赞铁路,还极力阻挠中国施以援手。中国则采取积极主动的态度,做好了独自援建坦赞铁路的有关准备,最终冲破美国的阻力,赢得了坦赞两国的信任。

  14. TaN interface properties and electric field cycling effects on ferroelectric Si-doped HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Fancher, Chris M.; Lambers, Eric; Rudawski, Nicholas G.; Jones, Jacob L.; Moghaddam, Saeed; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Ferroelectric HfO2-based thin films, which can exhibit ferroelectric properties down to sub-10 nm thicknesses, are a promising candidate for emerging high density memory technologies. As the ferroelectric thickness continues to shrink, the electrode-ferroelectric interface properties play an increasingly important role. We investigate the TaN interface properties on 10 nm thick Si-doped HfO2 thin films fabricated in a TaN metal-ferroelectric-metal stack which exhibit highly asymmetric ferroelectric characteristics. To understand the asymmetric behavior of the ferroelectric characteristics of the Si-doped HfO2 thin films, the chemical interface properties of sputtered TaN bottom and top electrodes are probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ta-O bonds at the bottom electrode interface and a significant presence of Hf-N bonds at both electrode interfaces are identified. It is shown that the chemical heterogeneity of the bottom and top electrode interfaces gives rise to an internal electric field, which causes the as-grown ferroelectric domains to preferentially polarize to screen positively charged oxygen vacancies aggregated at the oxidized bottom electrode interface. Electric field cycling is shown to reduce the internal electric field with a concomitant increase in remanent polarization and decrease in relative permittivity. Through an analysis of pulsed transient switching currents, back-switching is observed in Si-doped HfO2 thin films with pinched hysteresis loops and is shown to be influenced by the internal electric field.

  15. Üstün Zekâlılar: Özellikleri, Tanılanmaları, Eğitimleri (KİTAP İNCELEMELERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Demirel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Üstün Zekâlılar: Özellikleri, Tanılanmaları, Eğitimleri” adlı yenilenmiş ikinci basım olan bu kitap; üstün zekâ tanımları ve tarihçesi, üstün zekâ kuramları, üstün zekâlıların özellikleri ve gelişimleri, tanılama, eğitim stratejileri, müfredat tasarımı ve müfredat modelleri, eğitim prog-ramı tasarımı, program değerlendirmesi, sosyal-duyuşsal-akademik konular ve rehberlik, üs-tün zekâlı öğrencilerin öğretmenleri olmak üzere on bölümden oluşmaktadır.

  16. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  17. UGT1A1 (TA)n genotype is not the major risk factor of cholelithiasis in sickle cell disease children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Philippe; Renoux, Céline; Lacan, Philippe; Bertrand, Yves; Cannas, Giovanna; Garnier, Nathalie; Cuzzubbo, Daniella; Kebaïli, Kamila; Renard, Cécile; Gauthier, Alexandra; Pialoux, Vincent; Martin, Cyril; Romana, Marc; Connes, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Because of the increased hemolytic rate, a significant proportion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are prone to develop cholelithiasis. The present study investigated the role of several genetic factors (UGT1A1 promoter (TA)n repeat polymorphism, alpha-globin status), hematological parameters, clinical severity, and hydroxyurea (HU) therapy on the occurrence of cholelithiasis in SCD. One hundred and fifty-eight children (2-18 yr old) regularly followed at the University Hospital of Lyon (France) were included. A multivariate Cox model was used to test the associations between cholelithiasis and the different parameters analyzed. We confirmed that alpha-thalassemia and low basal reticulocyte (RET) count were independent protective factors for cholelithiasis while 7/7, 8/8 and 7/8 UGT1A1 (TA)n genotypes were independent predisposing factors for this complication. We also showed for the first time that HU treatment decreased the risk for cholelithiasis while frequent vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome events increased that risk. Our findings demonstrate that UGT1A1 (TA)n polymorphism is not the only factor triggering gallstone formation in SCD. Cholelithiasis is also modulated by RET count, the number of deleted alpha-genes, HU therapy and the frequency of vaso-occlusive events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of phototoxic and photogenotoxic risk associated with the use of photosensitizers in suntan preparations: application to tanning preparations containing bergamot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysan, A; Morlière, P; Averbeck, D; Dubertret, L

    1993-01-01

    Bases for the elaboration of a standardized protocol are proposed for studying phototoxic effects of skin tanning preparations containing photosensitizing agents. The experimental procedure includes in vivo phototoxicity tests, evaluation of the photogenotoxic risk and determination of the photosensitizer concentration in plasma after topical application. This procedure was carried out with tanning preparations containing a well-known photosensitizer, 5-methoxypsoralen, as a component of bergamot oil. The whole study has been performed using topical application of the commercial suntan product, i.e. containing the sunscreens and all other components. Whereas the exposure to solar simulated radiation never triggered any phototoxic response, a photosensitizing effect was observed for skin type I volunteers exposed to high doses of ultraviolet A. The transepidermal penetration resulted in a 5-methoxypsoralen concentration of 1-4 ng/ml in the suction blister fluid. The photogenotoxicity of this suction blister fluid containing 5-methoxypsoralen and also other ingredients of the tanning preparation was assayed on yeast cells and was found to be rather low. 5-Methoxypsoralen was also detected in plasma after repeated applications but at low concentrations (about 1 ng/ml) which do not present a potential risk for systemic ocular effects.

  19. Cenozoic evolution of the eastern Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuse, M.; Lykke-Andersen, H.; Michelsen, O.

    2003-12-01

    This paper provides a review of recent high-resolution and conventional seismic investigations in the eastern Danish North Sea and destribes their implications for the development of the eastern North Sea Basin. The results tomprise detailed timestructure maps of four major unconformities in the eastern Danish North Sea: the Top Chalk surface (mid-Paleogene), near top Oligocene, the mid-Miocene unconformity, and base Quatemary. The maps show that the eastem Danish North Sea has been affected by fauldng and salt diapirism throughout the Cenozoic. Carbonate mounds, erosional valleys and pockmark- or karstlike struttures were identitied at the top of the Upper Cretaceous-Danian Chalk Group. Strike-parallel erosional features and depositional geometries observed at near top Oligocene and at the mid-Miocene unconformity indicate that these major sequence boundarics tan be attributed to large-scale lateral changes in sediment supply directions. Increases in sediment flux to the southeastern North Sea at the Eocene/Oligocene transition and in the post-Middle Miocene appear to correlate with similar events world wide and with long term {delta} {sup 18} O increases, indicating forting by global factors, i.e. eustasy and climate. Stratal geometries observed on the seismic data indicate that the socalled `Neogene uplift' of the Bastern Danish North Sea may have been hundreds of metres less than previously suggested. lt is argued that late Cenozoic uplift of the basin margin and of mountain peaks in southern Norway may have been caused entirely by isostatic uplift of the trust in response to accelerated late Cenozoic denudation and dissection of topography created in the Paleogene. The late Cenozoic periods of accelerated denudation and incision rates were most likely driven by climatic deterioration and long term eustatic lowering rather than active late Cenozoic tectonics, the cause of which is conjectural. A series of shallow thrust struttures and an associated system

  20. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  1. Cuáles y qué tan graves son los daños a la salud individual y a la sociedad causados por el consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tania Romo-González; Carlos Larralde

    2013-01-01

      En vista del amplio consumo de drogas licitas e ilicitas en casi todo el mundo occidental, nosotros sospechamos que no eran tantos ni tan graves los danos que causan, como se afirma, y decidimos...

  2. Histerektomi endikasyonları ve histopatolojik tanıların dağılımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Keskin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Kliniğimizde gerçekleştirilen histerektomi operasyonlarının klinik endikasyonlarını incelemek ve histerektomi materyallerindeki histopatolojik tanıları ortaya koymaktır. Yöntem. Ocak 2010-Ocak 2013 tarihleri arasında gerçekleştirilen 223 total abdominal histerektomi olgusu retrospektif olarak incelendi. Yaş, menapozal durum, operasyon endikasyonu, yapılan operasyonun bilgileri ve elde edilen materyalin patolojik inceleme sonuçları analiz edildi. Bulgular. Çalışmaya alınan hastaların yaş ortalaması 49,3±5,4 olarak saptandı. Tüm vakalara total abdominal histerektomi uygulanmıştı. Hastaların %76,2’sine bilateral ooferektomi, %17,4’üne tek taraflı ooferektomi, %6,2’sine ise sadece histerektomi uygulanmıştı. Hastaların %19,2’si menapoz olarak değerlendirildi. Histerektomi endikasyonlarımız arasında en sık izlenen 138 hasta (%61,8 ile myoma uteri idi. Diğer endikasyonlar ise sırasıyla 38 hasta (%17 ile disfonksiyone uterin kanama, 37 hasta (%16,5 ile adneksiyel kitle, 10 hasta (%4,4 ile pelvik organ prolapsusu idi. Histerektomi materyallerinin histopatolojik incelemesi sonucunda, en yaygın tanımlanan patolojiler sırasıyla %68,1; %37,2; %18,8 oranlarıyla leiomyom, adenomyozis ve overyan/paraoveryan kist olarak belirlendi. En sık görülen kombinasyon %15,2 ile leiomyom ve adenomyozis kombinasyonuydu. Ayrıca 19 hastada (%8,5 endometrial polip, 15 hastada (%6,7 endometrial hiperplazi, 11 hastada (%4,9 atrofik endometrium, 4 hastada (%1,7 servikal intraepitelyal neoplazi, 3 hastada (%1,3 endometrium kanseri saptandı. Sonuç. Çalışmamızda en sık histerektomi endikasyonu literatürdeki gibi myoma uteri olarak saptandı. Histopatolojik inceleme sonucunda ise en sık leiomyom ve adenomyozis saptandı. Menometroraji/pelvik ağrı şikayeti ile başvuran ve özellikle myoma uterisi olan hastalarda eşlik eden adenomyozis olabileceği akılda tutulmalıdır. Fertilitesini tamamlam

  3. Dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado: una alternativa como agente curtiente Aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane: an alternative as tanning agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mata-Mata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron y se evaluaron como agentes curtientes de pieles vacunas dos tipos de agentes de reticulación base poliuretano bloqueado. Se presentan los resultados de la síntesis de dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado (DPU’s, basadas en prepolímeros a partir de la reacción de los diisocianatos alifáticos H12MDI (4,4’ metilenbis-ciclohexilisocianato y HDI (hexametilendiisocianato con polioles base poliéter óxido de etileno de peso molecular 1 y 2 KDa, en una relación molar isocianato/oxhidrilo (NCO/OH de 4:1 y 6:1 a 100 °C por 2 y 4 horas. En una segunda reacción, los grupos isocianato (NCO libres del prepolímero se bloquearon con una solución acuosa de NaHSO3 ó Na2S2O5 al 40%p/p. Los prepolímeros se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia IR y RMN de ¹H. El tanto por ciento de isocianato libre en el prepolímero, así como el bloqueo de dichos grupos, se determinaron por espectroscopía IR. La evaluación de la capacidad curtiente de las DPU’s se determinó de acuerdo a la estabilidad térmica de la piel (temperatura de desnaturalización, mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y a la determinación del índice de reticulación de las DPU’s con la colágena de la piel mediante un ensayo con ninhidrina.Two types of crosslinking agents blocked polyurethanes were synthesized and evaluated as tanning agents of bovine skins. The results of the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane (DPU’s are presented. They were based on prepolymers from the reaction of the aliphatic diisocyanates H12MDI 4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate and HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate with HO-polyols such as polyethylene oxide of molecular weight 1 and 2 kDa. The molar NCO/OH ratio was fixed in 4:1 or 6:1, at 100 °C and 2 or 4 hours for the reaction time. In a second reaction, the prepolymer containing terminal NCO groups were blocked by reaction with an aqueous NaHSO3 or Na2S2O5 solution to 40% w/w. The

  4. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the final determination of... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  5. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  6. Rock Deformation, Component Migration and 18O/16O Variations during Mylonitization in the Southern Tan-Lu Fault Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoyong; LIU Deliang; FENG Min; YU Qingni; WANG Kuiren

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the volume loss, fluid flow and component variations in the ductile shear zone of the southern Tan-Lu fault belt. The results show that there is a large amount of fluids flowing through the shear zone during mylonitization, accompanied with the loss of volume of rocks and variations of elements and oxygen isotopes. The calculated temperature for mylonitization in different mylonites ranges from 446 to 484℃, corresponding to that of 475 to 500℃for the wall rocks. The condition of differential stress during mylonization has been obtained between 99 and 210 MPa, whereas the differential stress in the wall rock gneiss is 70-78 MPa. The mylonites are enriched by factors of 1.32-1.87 in elements such as TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Y, Zr and V and depleted in SiO2, Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, Sr, Rb and light REEs compared to their protolith gneiss. The immobile element enrichments are attributed to enrichments in residual phases such as ilmentite, zircon, apatite and epidote in mylonites and are interpreted as due to volume losses from 15% to 60% in the ductile shear zone. The largest amount of SiO2 loss is 35.76 g/100 g in the ductile shear zone, which shows the fluid infiltration. Modeling calculated results of the fluid/rock ratio for the ductile shear zone range from 196 to 1192 by assuming different degrees of fluid saturation. Oxygen isotope changes of quartz and feldspar and the calculated fluid are corresponding to the variations of differential flow stress in the ductile shear zone. With increasing differential flow stress, the mylonites show a slight decrease of δ18O in quartz, K-feldspar and fluid.

  7. The HIA instrument on board the Tan Ce 1 Double Star near-equatorial spacecraft and its first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rème

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available On 29 December 2003, the Chinese spacecraft Tan Ce 1 (TC-1, the first component of the Double Star mission, was successfully launched within a low-latitude eccentric orbit. In the framework of the scientific cooperation between the Academy of Sciences of China and ESA, several European instruments, identical to those developed for the Cluster spacecraft, were installed on board this spacecraft.

    The HIA (Hot Ion Analyzer instrument on board the TC-1 spacecraft is an ion spectrometer nearly identical to the HIA sensor of the CIS instrument on board the 4 Cluster spacecraft. This instrument has been specially adapted for TC-1. It measures the 3-D distribution functions of the ions between 5 eV/q and 32 keV/q without mass discrimination.

    TC-1 is like a fifth Cluster spacecraft to study the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere and to study geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms in the near equatorial plane.

    HIA was commissioned in February 2004. Due to the 2 RE higher apogee than expected, some in-flight improvements were needed in order to use HIA in the solar wind in the initial phase of the mission. Since this period HIA has obtained very good measurements in the solar wind, the magnetosheath, the dayside and nightside plasma sheet, the ring current and the radiation belts. We present here the first results in the different regions of the magnetosphere and in the solar wind. Some of them are very new and include, for example, ion dispersion structures in the bow shock and ion beams close to the magnetopause. The huge interest in the orbit of TC-1 is strongly demonstrated.

  8. Seasonal effects on the estimation of height of boreal and deciduous forests from interferometric TanDEM-X coherence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesk, Aire; Voormansik, Kaupo; Tamm, Tanel; Noorma, Mart; Praks, Jaan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the performance of single-pass X-band bistatic SAR interferometric forest height estimation of boreal and temperate deciduous forests under variable seasonal conditions. For this, twelve acquisitions of single- and dual-polarized TanDEM-X coherence images over 118 forest stands were analyzed and compared against LiDAR forest height maps. Strong correlations were found between interferometric coherence magnitude and LiDAR derived forest stand height for pine forests (r2=0.94) and spruce forest (r2=0.87) as well as for deciduous trees (r2=0.94) during leaf-off conditions with temperatures below 0°C. It was found that coherence magnitude based forest height estimation is influenced by leaf-on and leaf-off conditions as well as daily temperature fluctuations, height of ambiguity and effective baseline. These factors alter the correlation and should be taken into account for accurate coherence-based height retrieval. Despite the influence of the mentioned factors, generally a strong relationship in regression analysis between X-band SAR coherence and LiDAR derived forest stand height can be found. Moreover, a simple semi empirical model, derived from Random Volume over Ground model, is presented. The model takes into account all imaging geometry dependent parameters and allows to derive tree height estimate without a priori knowledge. Our results show that X-band SAR interferometry can be used to estimate forest canopy height for boreal and deciduous forests in both summer and winter, but the conditions should be stable.

  9. Effect of Xiao-tan-jie-yu Prescription on sleep quality of soldiers acute exposure to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xing YANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the efficacy of Xiao-tan-jie-yu prescription (XTJYF on sleep quality of the soldiers who acutely exposed to western area of high altitude. Methods  In this prospective, completely randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study, 550 soldiers acutely exposed to western area of high altitude were investigated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, 100 soldiers with sleep disorder were selected and divided into two groups (50 each: treatment group received TCM XTJYF therapy and control group was treated with placebo. After 2 weeks' treatment, PSQI total score and respective factor scores before and after treatment were assessed, and clinical therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions were observed. Results  The PSQI total score and respective factor scores of these soldiers were significantly higher than those of normal adults, but significantly lower than those of insomnia patients, while their sleep disorder factor score was significantly higher compared with insomnia patients. XTJYF reduced the total score and some factor scores (subjective sleep quality, time for initiating sleep, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency for PSQI in the soldiers with sleep disorder, and the overall response rate was 91.49% which is higher than those in the placebo control group (P<0.05 or 0.01, without toxic side effects. Conclusions  The sleep quality of soldiers who acutely exposed to western area of high altitude in China is not high, and XTJYF may safely and effectively improve the sleep quality. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.10.15

  10. Comparison of the replication characteristics of vaccinia virus strains Guang 9 and Tian Tan in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2014-10-01

    Vaccinia virus is widely used as a vector in the development of recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus strain Guang 9 (VG9), which was derived from vaccinia virus strain Tian Tan (VTT) by successive plaque-cloning purification, was more attenuated than VTT. In this study, the host cell range and the growth and replication of VG9 were compared with those of VTT. The results showed that both VG9 and VTT could infect permissive cells (Vero, TK-143 and CEF) and semipermissive cells PK (15) and induced a visible cytopathic effect (CPE). Both strains could infect nonpermissive CHO-K1 cells but neither was able to reproduce. The replicative ability of VG9 was a little lower than that of VTT. Additionally, recombinant vaccinia viruses containing a firefly luciferase gene (VG9-L and VTT-L) were constructed, and their expression in vitro and replication and spread in vivo were compared. The expression ability of VG9-L was lower than that of VTT-L. Whole-animal imaging data indicated that VG9-L could reproduce quickly and express the exogenous protein at the site of inoculation, regardless of whether the intramuscular, intracutaneous, subcutaneous or celiac inoculation route was used. VG9-L was better in its ability to express a foreign protein than VTT-L, but the time during which expression occurred was shorter. There was no dissemination of virus in mice inoculated with either strain. In summary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using VG9 for the production of smallpox vaccines or the construction of recombinant vaccinia virus vaccines.

  11. Tobacco treatment TrAining Network in Crete (TiTAN-Crete: protocol for a controlled before-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis Girvalaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of tobacco use in Greece are among the highest in Europe and are responsible for an enormous burden of chronic disease and death. A large proportion of tobacco users report an interest in quitting. Family medicine practices have been identified as important settings for identifying tobacco users, delivering advice to quit smoking, and providing tobacco treatment interventions. The 5A’s (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange schema is an evidence-based model for addressing tobacco use in clinical settings. The rates at which primary care clinicians in Greece address tobacco use in their practice is unknown but, as in other countries, is understood to be sub-optimal. This paper describes the rationale, design, and protocol for a pre/post, controlled study to compare the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention delivered in primary care practices in Heraklion, Greece. The TiTAN-Crete intervention includes a 1-day tobacco treatment training program, dissemination of provider and patient resources and two booster training sessions. Participating providers and a cross-sectional sample of patients from their practices, will be surveyed. Outcome measures include changes in provider attitudes and beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and barriers related to smoking cessation treatment delivery. Rates at which providers deliver tobacco treatment to patients will be measured by patient report of 5As delivery. Multi-level modeling will be used to examine the effects of the intervention. This study will lead to a better understanding of how to best assist clinicians in Greece to enhance the rates at which smoking cessation treatments are delivered to smokers.

  12. TanDEM-X IDEM precision and accuracy assessment based on a large assembly of differential GNSS measurements in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, J.; Schmullius, C.

    2016-09-01

    High resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) represent fundamental data for a wide range of Earth surface process studies. Over the past years, the German TanDEM-X mission acquired data for a new, truly global Digital Elevation Model with unprecedented geometric resolution, precision and accuracy. First TanDEM Intermediate Digital Elevation Models (i.e. IDEM) with a geometric resolution from 0.4 to 3 arcsec have been made available for scientific purposes in November 2014. This includes four 1° × 1° tiles covering the Kruger National Park in South Africa. Here, we document the results of a local scale IDEM height accuracy validation exercise utilizing over 10,000 RTK-GNSS-based ground survey points from fourteen sites characterized by mainly pristine Savanna vegetation. The vertical precision of the ground checkpoints is 0.02 m (1σ). Selected precursor data sets (SRTMGL1, SRTM41, ASTER-GDEM2) are included in the analysis to facilitate the comparison. Although IDEM represents an intermediate product on the way to the new global TanDEM-X DEM, expected to be released in late 2016, it allows first insight into the properties of the forthcoming product. Remarkably, the TanDEM-X tiles include a number of auxiliary files providing detailed information pertinent to a user-based quality assessment. We present examples for the utilization of this information in the framework of a local scale study including the identification of height readings contaminated by water. Furthermore, this study provides evidence for the high precision and accuracy of IDEM height readings and the sensitivity to canopy cover. For open terrain, the 0.4 arcsec resolution edition (IDEM04) yields an average bias of 0.20 ± 0.05 m (95% confidence interval, Cl95), a RMSE = 1.03 m and an absolute vertical height error (LE90) of 1.5 [1.4, 1.7] m (Cl95). The corresponding values for the lower resolution IDEM editions are about the same and provide evidence for the high quality of the IDEM products

  13. Final Focus Test Stand final report

    CERN Document Server

    Jeremie, A; Burrows, P

    2013-01-01

    Future Linear colliders will need particle beam sizes in the nanometre range. The beam also needs to be stable all along the beam line and especially at the Final Focus section. A dedicated Final Focus test stand has been used for this study and is comprised of several sub-parts. First there is the Stabilisation/Isolation system with sensors and actuators stabilizing down to sub-nanometre level. Then the Magnet itself needs to comply with very specific design constraints. In addition to the mechanical items, the beam can be stabilized acting on the trajectory directly and Beam-based controls have been developed and tested on different accelerator facilities.

  14. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  15. Curtimento de peles de peixe com taninos vegetal e sintético = Tanning fish skins using vegetable and synthetic tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Martins Vieira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente experimento objetivou-se avaliar a resistência das peles de peixes submetidas ao curtimento com taninos vegetal e sintético. As peles foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos aplicados na etapa decurtimento (T1 = 10% tanino vegetal; T2=10% tanino sintético; T3 = 5% tanino vegetal + 5% sintético; T4 = 12% tanino vegetal; T5 = 12% tanino sintético; T6 = 6% tanino vegetal + 6% sintético e dez repetições por tratamento, sendo o couro a unidade experimental.Para os testes de resistência à tração, alongamento e rasgamento, foi utilizado o dinamômetro EMIC. O curtimento com tanino vegetal, sintético e/ou sua combinação, assim como os níveis utilizados dentro de cada técnica de curtimento, interferiu no teste de tração, no entanto não influenciou No teste de alongamento e rasgamento progressivo. Portanto, a técnica de curtimento interfere na resistência dos couros de peixes. As peles de tilápia, quando curtidas e recurtidas apenas com tanino sintético, independentemente da concentração (10 ou 12%, apresentaram pior resistência à tração. Quando comparados com os que receberam 10% de taninos (vegetal e a combinação dos taninos, esses couros não apresentaram diferença na resistência.The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the resistance of fish skins submitted to tanning using vegetable and synthetic tannins. Skins were distributed in a completelyrandomized design, with six treatments applied in the tanning stage (T1 = 10% vegetable tannin; T2 = 10% synthetic tannin; T3 = 5% vegetable tannin + 5% synthetic tannin; T4 = 12% vegetable tannin; T5 = 12% synthetic tannin; T6 = 6% vegetable tannin + 6% synthetic. Ten repetitions per treatment were conducted, and the leather was theexperimental unit. For the tests of tensile strength, lengthening and progressive tearing resistance, an EMIC dynamometer was used. Tanning with vegetable tannin, synthetic

  16. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the outer layers of Saturn's atmosphere, and the mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo, telling us: why the

  17. Jevrovaljuta / Lembo Tanning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanning, Lembo

    2001-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse Euroopa ühisraha kasutuselevõtmise ettevalmistamisega seonduvat: Euroopa Rahaliidu loomist, riikidele esitatud konvergentsikriteeriume, vaadeldakse euroga ühinenud maade üldist majandusseisundit

  18. Dangers of Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Boards study tools Online Learning Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members Chronic urticaria—for public Dermatology World Dialogues in Dermatology JAAD Mohs AUC ...

  19. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  20. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...

  1. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages for the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic events in the southeast margin of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO SuShu; LI ShuGuang

    2009-01-01

    A garnet-pyroxene bearing amphibolite as a xenolith hosted by the Mesozoic igneous rocks from Xuzhou-Suzhou area was dated by zircon SHRIMP U-Pb method, which yields a metamorphic age of Archean metamorphic complex named Wuhe group in the Bengbu uplift give a metamorphic U-Pb age Bengbu uplift give a magma crystallization U-Pb age of 2054 ± 22 Ma. Both the Xuzhou-Suzhou area and Bengbu uplift are located in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. Therefore, these ages indicate that there is a Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton, and its metamorphic and magmatic ages are consistent with those of the other three Paleoproterozoic tectonic zones in the North China Craton. In view of the large scale sinistral strike-slip movement occurred at the Mesozoic along the Tan-Lu fault zone, the position of the eastern Shandong area, which is a south section of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, was correlated to Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu area prior to movement of the Tan-Lu fault zone. This suggests that the Xuzhou-Suzhou-Bengbu Paleoproterozoic tectonic zone might be a southwest extension of the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt.

  2. Destruction geodynamics of the North China Craton and its Paleoproterozoic plate tectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU RiXiang; ZHENG TianYu

    2009-01-01

    Much attention has been paid in the last two decades to the physical and chemical processes as well as temporal-spatial variations of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton. In order to provide insights into the geodynamics of this variation, it is necessary to thoroughly study the state and structure of the lithospheric crust and mantle of the North China Craton and its adjacent regions as an integrated unit. Based on the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle constrained from seismological studies, this paper presents various available geophysical results regarding the lithosphere thickness, the nature of crust-mantle boundary, the upper mantle structure and deformation characteristics as well as their tectonic features and evolution systematics. Combined with the obtained data from petrology and geochemistry, a mantle flow model is proposed for the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. We suggest that subduction of the Pacific plate made the mantle underneath the eastern Asian continent unstable and able to flow faster. Such a regional mantle flow system would cause an elevation of melt/fluid content in the upper mantle of the North China Craton and the lithospheric softening, which, subsequently resulted in destruction of the North China Craton in different ways of delamination and thermal erosion in Yanshan, Taihang Mountains and the Tan-Lu Fault zone. Multiple lines of evidence recorded in the crust of the North China Craton, such as the amalgamation of the Archean eastern and western blocks, the subduction of Paleo-oceanic crust and Paleo-continental residue, indicate that the Earth in the Paleoproterozoic had already evolved into the plate tectonic system similar to the present plate tectonics.

  3. Monitoring lava dome changes by means of differential DEMs from TanDEM-X interferometry: Examples from Merapi, Indonesia and Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubanek, J.; Westerhaus, M.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the amount of erupted material during a volcanic crisis is one of the major challenges in volcano research. One way to do this and to discriminate between juvenile and non-juvenile fraction is to assess topographic changes before and after an eruption while using area-wide 3D data. LiDAR or other airborne systems may be a good source, but the recording fails when clouds due to volcanic activity obstruct the sight. In addition, costs as well as logistics are high for local observatories. When dealing with dome-building volcanoes, acquiring the data gets further complicated. As the volcano dome can change rapidly in active phases, it is nearly impossible to collect data at the right time. However, when dealing with gross volume change estimates, at least two data sets - taken directly before and after the eruption - are essential. The innovative German Earth observation mission TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is of great importance to overcome some of these problems. The two almost identical radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X fly in a close formation, thus recording images of the same place on the Earth surface at the same time (bistatic mode). As the radar signal penetrates clouds, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the area of investigation can be generated without problems even with cloud cover. A time series analysis of the differential DEMs therefore opens the possibility to assess volume changes at active lava domes. We choose Merapi in Indonesia and Volcán de Colima in Mexico as test sites. Both volcanoes reside in a state of long term effusive eruption, interrupted every few years by phases of dome destruction, generation of pyroclastic flows and deposition of volcanic material. The availability of extensive ground truth data for both test sites further enables to validate the spaceborne data and results. Here, we analyze lava dome changes due to the hazardous Merapi 2010 eruption. We show a series of DEMs

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  5. Accumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn by plants in tanning sludge storage sites: opportunities for contamination bioindication and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongqiang; Yu, Shen; Bañuelos, G S; He, Yunfeng

    2016-11-01

    Tanning sludge enriched with high concentrations of Cr and other metals has adverse effects on the environment. Plants growing in the metalliferous soils may have the ability to cope with high metal concentrations. This study focuses on potentials of using native plants for bioindication and/or phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated sites. In the study, we characterized plants and soils from six tanning sludge storage sites. Soil in these sites exhibited toxic levels of Cr (averaged 16,492 mg kg(-1)) and other metals (e.g., 48.3 mg Cu kg(-1), 2370 mg Zn kg(-1), 44.9 mg Pb kg(-1), and 0.59 mg Cd kg(-1)). Different metal tolerance and accumulation patterns were observed among the sampled plant species. Phragmites australis, Zephyranthes candida, Cynodon dactylon, and Alternanthera philoxeroides accumulated moderate-high concentrations of Cr and other metals, which could make them good bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. High Cr and other metal concentrations (e.g., Cd and Pb) were found in Chenopodium rubrum (372 mg Cr kg(-1)), Aster subulatus (310 mg Cr kg(-1)), and Brassica chinensis (300 mg Cr kg(-1)), being considered as metal accumulators. In addition, Nerium indicum and Z. candida were able to tolerate high concentrations of Cr and other metals, and they may be used as preferable pioneer species to grow or use for restoration in Cr-contaminated sites. This study can be useful for establishing guidelines to select the most suitable plant species to revegetate and remediate metals in tanning sludge-contaminated fields.

  6. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2012-10-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.8-2.0%) or an identical placebo tanning bed without UVB. The output in the 280-320 nm range was 450 µW/cm². Blood samples were analyzed for 25OHD and cholecalciferol at baseline and during 7 days after treatment. We included 20 volunteers, 11 to UVB and 9 to placebo treatment. During the first 6 h, no significant differences in 25OHD between the groups were found. At the end of the study, we found a mean increase of 25OHD in the UVB group of 4.5 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) compared to a decline of -1.2 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) in the placebo group (p = 0.1). A linear mixed model yielded an increase of 25OHD in the UVB group of 1.0 nmol/l per 24 h (p cholecalciferol, we found a near significant increase of 1 pmol/l per hour in the UVB group compared to the placebo group during the first 6 h (p = 0.052). One tanning bed session had significant, but modest impact on the level of 25OHD during 7 days after exposure to UVB.

  7. TaN interface properties and electric field cycling effects on ferroelectric Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu, E-mail: nishida@ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Takmeel, Qanit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zhou, Chuanzhen [Analytical Instrumentation Center, College of Engineering at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27696 (United States); Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27696 (United States); Lambers, Eric; Rudawski, Nicholas G. [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2015-04-07

    Ferroelectric HfO{sub 2}-based thin films, which can exhibit ferroelectric properties down to sub-10 nm thicknesses, are a promising candidate for emerging high density memory technologies. As the ferroelectric thickness continues to shrink, the electrode-ferroelectric interface properties play an increasingly important role. We investigate the TaN interface properties on 10 nm thick Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films fabricated in a TaN metal-ferroelectric-metal stack which exhibit highly asymmetric ferroelectric characteristics. To understand the asymmetric behavior of the ferroelectric characteristics of the Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films, the chemical interface properties of sputtered TaN bottom and top electrodes are probed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ta-O bonds at the bottom electrode interface and a significant presence of Hf-N bonds at both electrode interfaces are identified. It is shown that the chemical heterogeneity of the bottom and top electrode interfaces gives rise to an internal electric field, which causes the as-grown ferroelectric domains to preferentially polarize to screen positively charged oxygen vacancies aggregated at the oxidized bottom electrode interface. Electric field cycling is shown to reduce the internal electric field with a concomitant increase in remanent polarization and decrease in relative permittivity. Through an analysis of pulsed transient switching currents, back-switching is observed in Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films with pinched hysteresis loops and is shown to be influenced by the internal electric field.

  8. opraktan izole edilen Bacillus türlerinin tanımlanması ve biyolojik özelliklerinin araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Katı

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Giresun adasından toplanan toprak örneklerinden Bacillus izolasyonu yapılmıştır. Bu izolatlar morfolojik, biyokimyasal ve moleküler olarak tanımlanmıştır. Tanımlanan Bacillus’larda bazı ekstrasellüler enzimlerinin varlığı kalitatif olarak incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Bacillus izolatlarının bazı bakterilere karşı antibakteriyal aktiviteleri agar difüzyon metoduna göre araştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak 38 izolat B. cereus grubu üyesi, 7 izolat B. thuringiensis, 10 izolat B. megaterium, 6 izolat B. pumilus ve 12 izolat Bacillus sp. olarak tanımlanmıştır. Bacillus izolatlarının ekstrasellüler enzim aktivite sonuçları değerlendirildiğinde 38 izolatın amilaz, 53 izolatın lipaz/esteraz, 16 izolatın kitinaz, 7 izolatın ksilanaz, 2 izolatın pektinaz, 73 izolatın proteaz ve 35 izolatın selülaz enzim aktivitesi pozitif olarak bulunmuştur. Çalışmada kullanılan Bacillus izolatları test edilen mikroorganizmaların gelişmelerini değişik oranlarda engellemiştir. Dokuz izolat yüksek antibakteriyal aktivite göstermiştir.

  9. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...... of Apollo the nature god. Furthermore, Pater is engaging in a complex geopolitical argument, playing out German, French and English culture against each other, as he traces the survival of the pagan gods after the onset of Christianity. The myth of the Hyperborean Apollo is a myth about the North: where...... does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  10. 配聚抑制剂D6对锆鞣剂性能的影响%Research on the Performance of Zirconium Tanning Agents with Coordination Polymer Inhibitor Agent D6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 兰云军

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of zirconium tanning were analyzed briefly in this paper. The influences about tanning performance that caused by the hydrolysis and polymerization of zirconium tanning agent were expatiated based on coordinating chemistry and tanning chemistry. We investigated p coordination polymer inhibitor agent D6 on the cloud point of zirconium tanning agent. It showed that , with the content of D6 increased and when the mass ratio of zirconium sulfate and D6 was 1:1, the cloud piont of zirconium sulfate can be raised to 12.24. And it may be reduce the degree of zirconium tanning agents hydrolysis and polymerization well, even more promote it permeating and combinating rapidly and improve zirconium tanning properties with vastitude application foreground.%简述了锆鞣的优缺点,从配位化学和鞣制化学的角度阐述了锆鞣剂的水解配聚对鞣革性能的影响,研究了配聚抑制剂D6对锆鞣剂浊点的影响.结果表明,随着D6用量增加至与硫酸锆的质量比为1∶1时,硫酸锆的浊点可提高至12.24,很好的减缓了锆鞣剂水解聚合的程度,能改善锆鞣剂在皮中的渗透性能,促进锆鞣剂在革内分布更均匀,使锆鞣更具发展前景.

  11. Enhancement of Endurance in HfO2-Based CBRAM Device by Introduction of a TaN Diffusion Blocking Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Chand, Umesh

    2017-08-05

    We propose a new method to improve resistive switching properties in HfO2 based CBRAM crossbar structure device by introducing a TaN thin diffusion blocking layer between the Cu top electrode and HfO2 switching layer. The Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN device structure exhibits high resistance ratio of OFF/ON states without any degradation in switching during endurance test. The improvement in the endurance properties of the Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN CBRAM device is thus attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migration into HfO2 switching layer.

  12. 超声波辅助铬鞣兔皮工艺的研究%Power Ultrasound Assisted Chrome Tanning of Rabbit Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶; 张欢欢; 刘晗; 张宗才

    2013-01-01

    The effect of power ultrasound on chrome tanning of rabbit skin was investigated in this paper.The influence of chrome tanning liquid concentration,reaction time and the intensity of the ultrasonic wave on the velocity of permeability and shrinking temperature (Ts) were experimented respectively.The results indicated that a short-time reaction with ultrasonic wave could effectively increase the penetrating and binding rate of chrome in the beginning of the tanning process,but the total amount of the combined chrome could not be increased over time.Furthermore,it was found that under the use of low-frequency ultrasonic,the ultrasonic of 45 kHz could improve the tanning effect the most in the first 4 h.%研究了在超声波辅助作用下的兔皮铬鞣过程,分别考察了在不同鞣液浓度,处理时间,不同频率下的超声波对样品中铬鞣剂的渗透速度及收缩温度的影响.结果表明,短时间的超声处理即可有效加快铬鞣剂的渗透,且超声波对铬鞣剂在兔皮皮板内的渗透扩散及结合的促进作用主要表现在经超声处理后的前4h.但超声波的作用并没有随着超声时间的延长而一直保持增加,且超声波作用并不能提高兔皮与铬鞣剂的结合总量.此外,在反应的前4h内,较低频率(45 kHz)超声波对铬鞣效果的增强更为明显.

  13. Deletion of C7L and K1L Genes Leads to Significantly Decreased Virulence of Recombinant Vaccinia Virus TianTan

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Liu; Shuhui Wang; Qicheng Zhang; Meijuan Tian; Jue Hou; Rongmin Wang; Chang Liu; Xu Ji; Ying Liu; Yiming Shao

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity o...

  14. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study of Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan Cultivar E Sclerotium in Sprague Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Boon-Hong; Tan, Nget-Hong; Fung, Shin-Yee; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Lignosus also known as “Tiger Milk Mushroom,” is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia ex...

  15. Study of charged and neutral minimal supersymmetric standard model Higgs boson decays and measurement of tan at the compact linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Coniavitis; A Ferrari

    2007-12-01

    The minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) predicts the existence of new charged and neutral Higgs bosons. The pair creation of these new particles at the multi-TeV + - compact linear collider (CLIC), followed by decays into standard model particles, were simulated along with the corresponding background. High-energy beam-beam effects such as ISR, beamstrahlung and hadronic background were included. We have investigated the possibility of using the ratio between the number of events found in various decay channels to determine the MSSM parameter tan and we have derived the corresponding statistical error from the uncertainties on the measured cross-sections and Higgs boson masses.

  16. Mass changes of glaciers over the Central Karakoram derived from TanDEM-X and SRTM/X-SAR Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankl, Melanie; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Snow cover and glaciers in the Karakoram region are important freshwater resources for many downriver communities as they provide water for irrigation and hydro power. A better understanding of current glacier changes is hence an important baseline information. Glaciers in the Karakoram have shown stable and positive glacier mass balances during recent years as well as stable and advancing termini positions. The Karakoram is also known for a large number of surge-type glaciers. Here, we present geodetic glacier elevation and mass changes using TanDEM-X and SRTM/X-SAR Digital Elevation Models between 2000 and 2012. Based on previous glacier inventories for the Karakoram, we show elevation changes and glacier mass balances for glaciers with advancing and stable termini between 2000 and 2012 as well as surge-type glaciers separately. In order to convert volume changes to mass changes, we applied different density scenarios (i.e., constant densities for ice and snow or zonally variable densities). Our findings show average glacier thickening of +0.01 ± 0.02 m a-1 or mass gain of +0.0099 ± 2.8x10-5 Gt a-1(using a density of 850 kg m-3) between 2000 and 2012 for parts of the Central Karakoram. Surge-type glaciers and advancing glaciers indicated slight surface lowering, while the majority of the studied glaciers showed stable termini and surface thickening. Our measurements are independent from varying penetration depths of the radar signal or temporal decorrelation between image acquisitions. Both datasets were acquired in the X-band frequency under assumed similar surface conditions. The bistatic TanDEM-X mission is highly suitable for interferometric processing due to high spatial resolutions and only 3 sec time lag between TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X overpasses. We want to stress the enormous potential of the TanDEM-X mission to estimate geodetic glacier mass balances, in particular when compared to elevation data sets acquired in a similar frequency and comparable

  17. Identification of Tanned Leather and Fur%动物鞣制皮革与毛皮的种类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王名宫

    2012-01-01

    阐述了动物鞣制皮革和毛皮种类鉴定的方法,包括了传统感官方法、红外光谱法和分子生物法,并分析了各种方法的优点及存在的问题。%The identification methods of tanned leather and fur are presented in this paper,including traditional sensory analysis, FT-IR method and molecular biology methods. Meanwhile, the advantages of various methods and existing problems are analysed.

  18. Sobre machos reales y santos ficticios : Yo no tengo la culpa de haber nacido tan sexy, de Eduardo Mendicutti, entre lo global y lo local

    OpenAIRE

    Ingenschay, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    En Yo no tengo la culpa de haber nacido tan sexy (1997), Eduardo Mendicutti cuenta unos episodios del “peregrinaje” de la todavía hermosa transexual Rebecca de Windsor a siete monasterios que visita en busca de la perfección religiosa y de la unión con el Amado divino. El texto despliega su estética camp a través del pastiche de los estilos, dicciones y temas de la lírica mística barroca, sobre todo por las referencias a Las Moradas de Santa Teresa de Ávila, su intertexto directo. A la vez lo...

  19. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  20. Ação de diferentes agentes curtentes utilizados no curtimento de peles de coelhos: testes físico-mecânicos dos couros - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5592 Action of different tanning agents used on rabbit hide tanning: physical-mechanic tests - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson do Prado Franco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar a ação de diferentes agentes curtentes no processamento das peles de coelhos, sobre a resistência do couro. Cinquenta peles de coelhos foram submetidas a diferentes agentes curtentes na etapa de curtimento (T1 = 6% sais de cromo Chromossal B®, T2 = 22% tanino vegetal Clarotan-x8®; T3 = 22% tanino sintético Syntac CW®; T4 = 12% tanino vegetal Weibull® + 10% tanino sintético Syntac F®; T5 = 22% tanino vegetal Weibull®. Foram retirados os corpos de prova do couro, na região dorsal, no sentido longitudinal e transversal em relação ao eixo céfalo-caudal. Os agentes curtentes e retirada dos corpos de prova não influenciaram no teste de tração (9,28 a 11,63 N mm-2 e força aplicada (17,91 N a 24,85 N nos testes. Os curtimentos com sais de cromo (62,85% e Clarotan–x8® (70,28% proporcionaram maiores valores de alongamento em relação aos demais agentes curtentes utilizados. Os corpos de prova do couro no sentido transversal (59,12% apresentaram maior alongamento comparado ao longitudinal (49,72%. Os curtimentos com sais de cromo (22,70 N mm-1, Clarotan–x8® (25,94 N mm-1 e Weibull® (21,58 N mm-1 proporcionaram couros com maior resistência ao rasgamento. O sentido de retirada dos corpos de prova no couro não influenciou no rasgamento progressivo. As técnicas de curtimento com sais de cromo e Clarotan-x8® proporcionaram couros com melhores valores de resistência ao alongamento e rasgamento progressivo.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the action of different tanning agents in the processing of rabbit hides over skin resistance. Fifty skins of rabbit hides were submitted to different tanning agents in the tanning stage (T1 = 6% Chromossal B® chrome salts; T2 = 22% Clarotan–x8® vegetable tannin; T3 = 22% Syntac CW® synthetic tannin; T4 = 12% Weibull® vegetable tannin + 10% Syntac F® synthetic tannin; T5 = 22% Weibull® vegetable tannin. The specimens were removed from

  1. Palaeoenvironmental changes across the Danian–Selandian boundary in the North Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anne; Thomsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    and eastern part of the North Sea Basin resulted in a huge influx of reworked Cretaceous chalk and an almost complete stop of carbonate production. Finally, later in the early Selandian, in connection to a general sea-level rise and a reduction in the gateway between the North Sea Basin and the Tethys Sea...

  2. The High Cost of Low Graduation Rates in North Carolina. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    North Carolina has a dropout crisis--only two thirds of North Carolina high school students graduate. One reason this crisis has not received the attention it deserves is because the state was reporting badly inflated graduation rates (supposedly as high as 97 percent) until it finally adopted a more realistic reporting method earlier this year.…

  3. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  4. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  5. SEISMODYNAMICS AND DEEP INTERNAL ORIGIN OF THE NORTH CHINA ZONE OF STRONG EARTHQUAKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A. Stepashko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-and-time regularities of seismicity of the North China (Tan-Lu zone are studies, and tectonic nature of strong earthquakes is analyzed. The concept of its genesis is still a matter of debate as this zone is located in the centre of the ancient SinoKorean craton, i.e. thousand kilometers away from convergent margins of Eurasia and the Pacific оcean and IndoAustralian plates (Figure 1. The information on the regional cycling dynamics [Xu, Deng, 1996] is updated. Two cycles, in which strong earthquakes (14 shocks with М≥7.0 occurred in the region under study, are distinguished, i.e. from 1500 to 1700, and from 1800 to 1980 (Figure 2. The seismodynamics of the North China zone is consistent with the Circum Pacific оcean deformation wave that occurs once in 300 years at the margin between Asia and the ocean and thus causes the strongest earthquakes (М≥8.8 and eruptions of volcanoes in the Pacific оcean belt [Vikulin et al., 2009, 2010]. This wave came to the northern regions of China in the years of 1500 and 1800 (Figure 3 and triggered seismic activity cycles. The second factor predetermining the seismicity of the Northern China is a specific structure of the region which can manifest seismic activity due to the impact of deformation waves. The genesis of the metastable structure of the region is related to tectonic restructuring of the lithosphere of the SinoKorean craton due to shear displacements in the Tan-Lu megazone. Regional variations of compositions of mantle xenoliths of the Sikhote Alin orogeny demonstrate that the latent strike of the Tan-Lu faults can be traced across the south-eastern areas of Russia to the Tatar Strait. These faults are borders of the Vshaped mantle block (400 x 1500 km (Figure 5, which composition is characterized by an anomalous content of iron and a low depletion of peridotites. The tectonic mantle block maintains its activity; being impacted by compression from the west, it is squeezed out towards

  6. On the Astonishing Beauty Style in the Novels by Wang Shizhen--Taking TanYi in ChiBeiOuTan as Example%论王士禛小说创作的奇异美--以《池北偶谈·谈异》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王然

    2014-01-01

    清代文人王士禛一生创作了《池北偶谈》、《皇华记闻》、《香祖笔记》等七部笔记杂录,其中多有小说作品。《池北偶谈·谈异》代表了其小说创作的主要成就,是其小说创作的精华。王士禛小说创作具有鲜明的个人特色,在用词、内容等方面表现出崇奇尚异的审美取向,而这与其人生经历、心理体验以及当时的社会状况密切相关。%Wang Shizhen in Qing Dynasty has written 7 Notes comprising lots of novels,such as ChiBeiOuTan,HuangHuaJiWen,Xi-angZuBiJi. TanYi in ChiBeiOuTan is exquisite and is the most important notes of Wang Shizhen. Wang Shizhen' novel has formed sharp features and has the tendency of seeking strange and astonishing beauty in the vocabulary and contents. The tendency is most associated with his life experience,psychological experience and social conditions.

  7. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  8. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  9. Aurora final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  10. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  11. Spaceborne Autonomous and Ground Based Relative Orbit Control for the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaens, J. S.; D'Amico, S.; Kazeminejad, B.; Montenbruck, O.; Gill, E.

    2007-01-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX) and TanDEM-X (TDX) are two advanced synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites flying in formation. SAR interferometry allows a high resolution imaging of the Earth by processing SAR images obtained from two slightly different orbits. TSX operates as a repeat-pass interferometer in the first phase of its lifetime and will be supplemented after two years by TDX in order to produce digital elevation models (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy. Such a flying formation makes indeed possible a simultaneous interferometric data acquisition characterized by highly flexible baselines with range of variations between a few hundreds meters and several kilometers [1]. TSX has been successfully launched on the 15th of June, 2007. TDX is expected to be launched on the 31st of May, 2009. A safe and robust maintenance of the formation is based on the concept of relative eccentricity/inclination (e/i) vector separation whose efficiency has already been demonstrated during the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) [2]. Here, the satellite relative motion is parameterized by mean of relative orbit elements and the key idea is to align the relative eccentricity and inclination vectors to minimize the hazard of a collision. Previous studies have already shown the pertinence of this concept and have described the way of controlling the formation using an impulsive deterministic control law [3]. Despite the completely different relative orbit control requirements, the same approach can be applied to the TSX/TDX formation. The task of TDX is to maintain the close formation configuration by actively controlling its relative motion with respect to TSX, the leader of the formation. TDX must replicate the absolute orbit keeping maneuvers executed by TSX and also compensate the natural deviation of the relative e/i vectors. In fact the relative orbital elements of the formation tend to drift because of the secular non-keplerian perturbations acting on both satellites

  12. CLIC Final Focus Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC final focus system has been designed based on the local compensation scheme proposed by P. Raimondi and A. Seryi. However, there exist important chromatic aberrations that deteriorate the performance of the system. This paper studies the optimization of the final focus based on the computation of the higher orders of the map using MAD-X and PTC. The use of octupole tail folding to reduce the size of the halo in the locations with aperture limitations is also discussed.

  13. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  14. Los mapas conceptuales y su aplicación en el estudio de los cuidados al final de la vida y la tanatologia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Álvaro,M.; García Hernández, Ana María; Brito Brito, P.R.; Toledo Rosell, C.

    2006-01-01

    Concebidos desde el aprendizaje significativo, los mapas conceptuales representan una herramienta válida para adquirir conocimientos en una disciplina tan compleja como la tanatología y los cuidados al final de la vida. Desde hace unos 5 años, el Master Universitario en Cuidados al Final de la Vida (Tanatología), título propio de la Universidad de La Laguna, utiliza este instrumento heredado de Joseph Novak para construir una visión integradora del fenómeno de la muerte. AB...

  15. El redescubrimiento del Germán Valdés pre-Tin Tan en XEJ Radio (1934-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Noriega Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del más reciente proyecto de investigación sobre la trayectoria artística del locutor Germán Valdés Castillo en XEJ Radio de Cd. Juárez, Chih. durante el periodo 1934-1943. Reportamos el primer spot publicitario conocido de Valdés como locutor y sus personajes y actuaciones inéditas, incluyendo evidencia de su periodo exploratorio en XEF y XEP. Se analiza la estructura del programa El Barco de la Ilusión de XEJ Radio en su segunda etapa de transmisión en vivo en la era Valdés (1940-1943, así como la cronología del encuentro Valdés-Miller en 1943. Presentamos el primer registro periodístico/publicitario conocido del personaje de Topillo, antecedente directo del pachuco Tin Tan, así como sus primeros sketches y se concluye que el famoso pachuco fue un personaje de surgimiento artístico tardío. Finalmente, se define la Tétrada 4583 para caracterizar las cuatro fechas más significativas de la carrera artístico-profesional de Germán Valdés en XEJ Radio y reportamos una referencia inédita relacionada con el nombre de Tin Tan.

  16. Evaluation of Green Logistics Level of Chang-zhu-tan City Cluster%长株潭城市群绿色物流评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞燕; 夏扬坤

    2014-01-01

    首先对城市群绿色物流进行探讨,并构建出了长株潭城市群绿色物流要素系统;然后结合长株潭城市群区域物流特点,构建了长株潭城市群绿色物流评价指标体系;最后利用基于层次分析法的模糊综合评价模型(Fuzzy-AHP模型),对长株潭城市群物流发展绿色度进行评价,结果显示,长株潭城市群绿色物流发展总体水平为良好,但在资源集约和环境保护方面还需要加大力度。%In this paper, we first discussed the green logistics level of city clusters, built the green logistics element system of the Chang-zhu-tan city cluster, then in view of the characteristic of the regional logistics process of the city cluster, established the corresponding green logistics evaluation index system, and at the end, using fuzzy-AHP, assessed the degree of greenness of the logistics development of the Chang-zhu-tan city cluster.

  17. The attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by the removal of the viral M1L-K2L genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weijun; Fang, Qing; Zhuang, Ke; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Wenbo; Zhou, Jingying; Liu, Li; Tien, Po; Zhang, Linqi; Chen, Zhiwei

    2007-09-01

    To generate a safe vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT)-based vaccine vector, it is necessary to develop a method to attenuate the virus. A modified VTT (MVTT(2-GFP)) was constructed by replacing the viral M1L-K2L genes with a GFP gene. In comparison to the parental VTT, MVTT(2-GFP) lost its replication capacity in rabbit RK13 and human HeLa cell lines. The life cycle of viral replication was blocked at different stages in these two cell lines as determined by electron microscope examination. MVTT(2-GFP) was less virulent than VTT for 100-fold by measuring mouse body weight loss after intranasal viral inoculation and for 340-fold by determining the intracranial LD(50) value in mice. The foreign GFP gene was stable genetically after 10 rounds of passage in Vero cells. Importantly, MVTT(2-GFP) elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the GFP gene in mice. With two intramuscular inoculations of 10(5)PFU virus, the anti-GFP antibody reciprocal endpoint titer reached over 700 as determined by an ELISA. The number of IFN-gamma secreting T cells reached over 350SFU per million splenocytes against a CD8+ T cell-specific epitope of GFP. Collectively, the removal of the M1L-K2L genes is a useful method to generate an attenuated vaccinia Tian Tan vaccine vector.

  18. Kinetic model of the thermal pyrolysis of chrome tanned leather treated with NaOH under different conditions using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, E; Marcilla, A; García, A N; Martínez, P; León, M

    2016-02-01

    The thermal decomposition of chrome tanned leather before and after a soaking treatment with NaOH was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of the solution concentration (0.2M and 0.5M) and the soaking time (5min and 15min) was evaluated. TGA experiments at four heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20°Cmin(-1)) were run in a nitrogen atmosphere for every treatment condition. A kinetic model was developed considering the effect of the three variables studied, i.e.: the NaOH solution concentration, the soaking time and the heating rate. The proposed model for chrome tanned leather pyrolysis involves a set of four reactions, i.e.: three independent nth order reactions, yielding the corresponding products and one of them undergoing a successive cero order reaction. The model was successfully applied simultaneously to all the experimental data obtained. The evaluation of the kinetic parameters obtained (activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order) allowed a better understanding of the effect of the alkali treatment on these wastes.

  19. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    with Victorian science, mythography and folklore in the texts, in an attempt to map the topicality of his fiction. Although he chose historical settings in medieval France and eighteenth-century Germany for his tales, they reflect recent debates about the disappearance of the sun and the folkloristic animalism......Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...

  20. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  1. Cassini's Grand Finale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L. J.; Edgington, S. G.; Altobelli, N.

    2016-12-01

    After more than 12 years in Saturn orbit, the Cassini-Huygens mission has entered its final year of data collection. Cassini will return its final bits of unique data on 15 September 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Since early 2016 Cassini's orbital inclination was slowly increased towards its final inclination. In November Cassini transitioned to a series of 20 orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring that include some of the closest flybys of the tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. Cassini's final close flyby of Titan will propel it across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale begins in April 2017 and is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. It will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles' composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on Saturn's interior structure and mass distribution in the rings. Probing the magnetic field will give insight into the nature of the magnetic dynamo and the true rotation rate of Saturn's interior. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer will sniff the exosphere and upper atmosphere and examine water-based molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer will sample particle composition from different parts of the main rings. Recent science highlights and science objectives from Cassini's final orbits will be discussed. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of

  2. Yurt Dışı Kökenli Plasmodium falciparum Suşlarının Tanısında Serolojik ve Moleküler Yöntemlerin Kullanılması

    OpenAIRE

    Eroglu, Fadime; GENÇ, Ahmet; Çürük, Mehmet Akif; Koltaş, İsmail Soner

    2017-01-01

    ÖzetPlasmodium falciparum, sıtmaya neden olan Plasmodium türlerinden biridir. Plasmodium falciparum sıtması, sıtma çeşitleri içerisinde ölüm oranı en yüksek ve en tehlikeli olandır. Bu nedenle Plasmodium falciparum sıtmasının erken tanısı çok önemlidir. Anahtar Kelime: Plasmodium falciparum, serolojik tanı, moleküler tanıThe Use of Serological and Molecular Methods in Diagnosis of Foreign Origin Plasmodium falciparum StrainsAbstractPlasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the spe...

  3. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a

  5. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  6. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region. Fish skin represents a significant portion of this waste and may be used for manufacturing leather by the tanning process, thereby generating income for the community and reducing environmental impacts. The acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa has a high potential for tanning because of its large size and high yield of skin. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for artisanal skin tanning of acoupa weakfish and the subsequent transfer of this methodology to a fishing community through a workshop. The methodology developed in the laboratory is more streamlined than traditional methods and is based on tanning methods cited in the literature and techniques applied in regional tanneries. To assess the quality of acoupa weakfish leather, resistance tests were performed, which proved its potential for manufacturing clothing and footwear. An economic analysis of the hypothetical production of leather based on the tanning methodology developed in this work revealed that the project is feasible and the effluents generated during the process are less harmful to the environment, compared to those generated by traditional tanning methods.

  7. The final program for the study of the impact of renewable electricity production. Part 2. Integrated management plan for the North Sea and Skagerrak.; Endelig program for utredning av konsekvenser av fornybar elektrisitetsproduksjon. Del 2. Helhetlig forvaltningsplan for Nordsjoen og Skagerrak.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) is responsible for the preparation of sectoral studies for renewable electricity production. The present document is the final program for the study of the impact of renewable electricity production and should be viewed in conjunction with the Assessment Program Part I: Common template for assessment of environmental impacts. (eb)

  8. Egyptian wind energy resources study. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, W.L.

    1979-11-01

    The data gathered in Egypt in Phase I of the program indicated favorable wind energy possibilities along the Mediterranean Coast west of Alexandria and along the Red Sea south of Suez. There did not appear to be inland areas of high promise. It was decided that in Phase II, several continuous wind recording instruments would be established on the North Coast and Red Sea Coasts. Locations finally selected for the North Coast (South Coast of the Mediterranean) were distributed from Mersa Matruh to Borg El Arab, a coastal community about seventy kilometers west of Alexandria. The recorded data from the monitoring stations are presented.

  9. Zaman Tanım Alanında Analiz Yöntemi Kullanılarak Binalardaki A3 Düzensizliğinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin ÖNCÜ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Depreme dayanıklı yapı tasarımları için farklı yöntemler kullanılmaktadır. En güncel yöntemlerden biri de Zaman Tanım Alanında Doğrusal Olmayan Analizdir. Bu yöntemle sismik analizler yapılırken daha önce meydana gelmiş depremlerin ivme kayıtları kullanılmaktadır. Bu deprem ivme kayıtları değişik kaynaklardan çok farklı yöntemlerle elde edilir. Bunlar: Tasarım ivme spektrumu uyumlu yapay kayıtlar, benzeştirilmiş kayıtlar ve deprem esnasında kaydedilen kayıtlardır (Fajhan, 2008. Bu kayıtlar kullanılırken farklı bölgelerdeki zemin özellikleri de dikkate alınmalıdır. Bu çalışmada, Deprem Bölgelerinde Yapılacak Binalar Hakkındaki Yönetmelikte belirtilen Zaman Tanım Alanında Analiz yöntemi ile doğrusal olmayan analizi yapılan A3 düzensizliğine sahip belli tip yapılar incelenmiştir. Önce üç deprem ivme kaydı alınarak Türk Deprem Yönetmeliğinde ifade edilen elastik tasarım ivme spektrumuna göre ölçeklendirilmiştir. Elde edilen maksimum ivme kaydı, daha sonra A3 düzensizliğine sahip bu tip yapılara uygulanmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre yapıların zemin kat kolonlarındaki kesme kuvvetleri bulunmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Zaman Tanım Alanında Analiz, A3 Düzensizliği, Deprem İvme Kaydının Ölçeklendirilmesi

  10. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL land model LM3-TAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on terrestrial and aquatic nitrogen (TAN) cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N) cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e., sewage), and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of the transport and fate of N in the vegetation–soil–river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land-use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River Basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 16 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for interannual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture interannual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream Susquehanna River Basin Commission station Marietta (40°02' N, 76°32' W), it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land-use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contributing to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis of six sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the

  11. Seasonal changes of surface velocity and elevation of Columbia Glacier, Alaska using time-series TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Saurabh; Braun, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Alaskan glaciers are a major contributor to global sea-level rise from glaciers and ice caps outside the polar ice sheets. Columbia Glacier is a large tidewater glacier located on the coast of south-central Alaska. The glacier has retreated ˜ 21 km and lost half of its volume during 1957-2007, more rapidly after 1980. It is now split into two branches, known as Main/East and West branch. In this study, we used time series of high-resolution TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X stripmap satellite imagery during 2011-2014 to investigate the temporal development of glacier surface velocities, elevation and mass changes. The active SLC images of the bistatic TanDEM-X acquisitions, acquired over 11 or 22 days repeat intervals, are utilized to derive surface velocity fields using SAR intensity offset tracking. We observed a very strong seasonal variability in the surface velocities. Maximum values at the ice front reach up to 14.43 m/day in May and reduced to 2 m/day in October in the year 2012. However, at a distance of 17.5 km from the ice front, almost no seasonal variability can be observed. A significant influence in the distance to the terminus and elevation was detected. We attributed this temporal and spatial variability of surface velocity to changes in the basal hydrology and lubrification of the glacier bed. Similar fluctuations are observed in consecutive years. In a second step, we exploited TanDEM-X data by interferometrically generating time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) . For quantitative volume change estimates, we used DEMs of almost similar months of the observational years in order to minimize errors resulting from variable X-band radar penetration. The main branch gained a volume of 12.77± 2.89km^3in 2011-12, but lost -18.94± 3.21km^3in 2012-13 . A slight gain was observed with 1.05± .88km^3in 2013-14. However, the west branch gained volume only in 2011-12 and lost in the consecutive years. Moreover, the west branch retreated by ˜ 3km and lost its

  12. Capturing interactions between nitrogen and hydrological cycles under historical climate and land use: Susquehanna watershed analysis with the GFDL Land Model LM3-TAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed a~process model LM3-TAN to assess the combined effects of direct human influences and climate change on Terrestrial and Aquatic Nitrogen (TAN cycling. The model was developed by expanding NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land model LM3V-N of coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen (C-N cycling and including new N cycling processes and inputs such as a~soil denitrification, point N sources to streams (i.e. sewage, and stream transport and microbial processes. Because the model integrates ecological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes, it captures key controls of transport and fate of N in the vegetation-soil-river system in a comprehensive and consistent framework which is responsive to climatic variations and land use changes. We applied the model at 1/8° resolution for a study of the Susquehanna River basin. We simulated with LM3-TAN stream dissolved organic-N, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N loads throughout the river network, and we evaluated the modeled loads for 1986–2005 using data from 15 monitoring stations as well as a reported budget for the entire basin. By accounting for inter-annual hydrologic variability, the model was able to capture inter-annual variations of stream N loadings. While the model was calibrated with the stream N loads only at the last downstream station Marietta (40.02° N, 76.32° W, it captured the N loads well at multiple locations within the basin with different climate regimes, land use types, and associated N sources and transformations in the sub-basins. Furthermore, the calculated and previously reported N budgets agreed well at the level of the whole Susquehanna watershed. Here we illustrate how point and non-point N sources contribute to the various ecosystems are stored, lost, and exported via the river. Local analysis for 6 sub-basins showed combined effects of land use and climate on the soil denitrification rates, with the highest rates in the Lower Susquehanna sub

  13. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Chris [Altamont Environmental, Inc.

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  14. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Weber; R. Carter; C.J. Stanford; A. Weber

    2003-01-01

    textabstract[MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at

  15. CAFE Project : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, A.; Carter, R.; Stanford, C.J.; Weber, A.

    2003-01-01

    [MAS E-0302] This is the final public report of the CAFE project (ESPRIT 7023). CAFE developed a secure conditional access architecture and implemented a multi-currency electronic purse system based on smart cards and infrared wallets. The electronic purse was tested in user trials at the European C

  16. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...... designed digital road map for ITS applications. The platform is freely accessible, which means that third party applications could be run on the platform. It is estimated that using this platform enables the ITS applications to be developed for 20% of the normal cost, hence third party are invited to test...... their applications in this platform. This paper presents the platform’s potentials and explains a series of test applications which are under development on it. Moreover, a number of new projects planned for the platform are demonstrated....

  17. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. JGOFS IV - a long-time study of the variability of the flow of particles in the North-Atlantic Ocean. Quantification of the formation, transformation and sedimentation of biogenic particles. Final report; JGOFS IV - Langzeitstudie zur Variabilitaet des Partikelflusses im Nordatlantik. Quantifizierung der Bildung, Umsetzung und Sedimentation biogener Partikel. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeve, W.; Wanniek, J.; Fehner, U.; Zeitzschel, B.

    2000-07-01

    The project investigated central processes of the carbon cycle, and especially the carbon cycle balance in the North Atlantic Ocean. During the field phase (JGOFS I-III), two complementary programme components were carried out: Pelagial programme: SEasonally resolved studies of particle formation, modification and transport processes in the epipelagial; In-depth programme: Regional studies on the volume and composition of biogenic particles exported from the ocean in the mixed conditions of the winter season. (WML export). [German] Ziel der Arbeiten ist es, das Verstaendnis zentraler Prozesse des Kohlenstoffkreislaufes im Nordostatlantik zu verbessern und insbesondere zur Bilanzierung des Kohlenstoffkreislaufes im Nordostatlantik beizutragen. Waehrend der Feldphase (JGOFS I-III) wurden hierzu zwei komplementaere Programmkomponenten durchgefuehrt: - Pelagialprogramm: Saisonal aufloesende Untersuchungen zu Prozessen der Partikelbildung, Modifikation und Transport im Epipelagial. (Prozessstudien, Transekte und Modellarbeiten) - Verankerungsprogramm: Regionale Untersuchungen zum Umfang und zur Zusammensetzung des Exportes biogener Partikel aus der winterlich durchmischten Schicht des Ozeans (WML-Export). (orig.)

  19. Investigation to avoid and reduce possible impacts of wind energy parks on the marine environment in the offshore areas of North and Baltic Sea. Final report; Untersuchungen zur Vermeidung und Verminderung von Belastungen der Meeresumwelt durch Offshore-Windenergieanlagen im kuestenfernen Bereich der Nord- und Ostsee - Offshore WEA. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knust, R.; Dahlhoff, P.; Gabriel, J.; Heuers, J.; Hueppop, O.; Wendeln, H.

    2003-06-30

    The potential impact of offshore wind energy parks on the marine environment in the North and Baltic seas was investigated by combining literature surveys, analysis of available data, consultation of experts and a few complementary field studies. Potential mechanisms of prevention and reduction of detrimental effects were documented. An additional aspect of the project was to identify possible research requirements, the following biological system compartments were identified: Benthos and fish communities, resting and migratory birds and marine mammals. The potential impact of the construction and running of such a plant, the electro magnetic fields caused by cables and energy shunting systems, the servicing and maintenance of the plants, the danger of ship collisions as well as the subsequent dismantling of the plant were also considered. Various operating agencies determined potential sites for the construction of wind energy plants within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in the German Bight and the Baltic Sea. The sizes of the parks range between 80 and over 200 single towers per park. Large offshore parks such as those envisaged and located in deep water do not exist anywhere else in the world. No information is therefore available on their impact on marine mammals, birds, the endo and epi benthos or fish. Permission to build a park consisting of 12 single plants north of Borkum has currently been granted by the BSH. The present state of knowledge is based primarily on discussions with experts, literature surveys, workshops and talks such as the one on Ecological Impacts due to Technical Interference in the Marine Environment held on the island Vilm in Autumn 1999 (summarized by Kube, 2000). (orig.)

  20. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  1. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  2. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  3. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  4. Attenuation of vaccinia Tian Tan strain by removal of viral TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifu Kan

    Full Text Available Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT was attenuated by deletion of the TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes to generate MVTT3. The mutant was generated by replacing the open reading frames by a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP flanked by loxP sites. Viruses expressing EGFP were then screened for and purified by serial plaque formation. In a second step the marker EGFP gene was removed by transfecting cells with a plasmid encoding cre recombinase and selecting for viruses that had lost the EGFP phenotype. The MVTT3 mutant was shown to be avirulent and immunogenic. These results support the conclusion that TC7L-TK2L and TA35R deletion mutants can be used as safe viral vectors or as platform for vaccines.

  5. Correlation Studies of Rare Earth Elements in Syntectonic Intrusions of Strike-Slip Stage along Southern Segment of Tan-Lu Fault Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Manlan; Zhu Guang; Liu Guosheng; Song Chuanzhong

    2005-01-01

    Intrusions in the Zhangbaling uplift zone and the eastern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt belong to the syntectonic intrusions developed during the strike-slip stage in the southern segment of the Tan-Lu fault zone. However, characteristics of rare earth elements show that intrusions in the Zhangbaling uplift zone have the characteristics of mantle source type and those in the eastern margin of Dabie belt are the typical crust source type. Therefore, Au-deposits related to the intrusions in the Zhangbaling uplift zone are developed better than those in the eastern margin of the Dabieshan. The research results of the rare earth elements coincide with the studies of geophysics, tectonic setting and stable isotope. It is further indicated that the rare earth elements offer effective approach to tracing the material sources of magmatic rocks.

  6. Observations on Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaN thin film deposited by co-sputtering with oxygen contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mi Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation we investigated Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaSiN thin films having oxygen contamination. TaSiN thin films were deposited by co-sputtering on fixed or rotated substrates and with various power conditions of TaN and Si targets. Three types of embedded micro-clusters with the chemical states of pure Si, SiOx-capped Si, and SiO2-capped Si were observed and analyzed using SEM and Si 2p and Ta 4f core-level spectra were derived. Their different resistivities are presumably due to the different chemical states and densities of Si-based micro-clusters.

  7. Tanıdan Eğitime Kosova Cumhuriyeti’nde İşitme Engelli Çocuklara Yönelik Düzenlemelerin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Gürgür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bağımsızlığını 2008’de tek taraflı ilan etmesinin ardından Kosova Cumhuriyeti diğer tüm alanlarda olduğu gibi eğitim alanında da yeniden yapılanma sürecine girmiştir. Bunun bir yansıması olarak Kosova Cumhuriyeti Eğitim Bakanlığı ile Anadolu Üniversitesi arasında yapılan bir protokol çerçevesinde gerçekleştirilen bu araştırmanın amacı, Kosova’daki işitme engelli çocukların tanı, değerlendirme ve eğitimlerine yönelik düzenlemelerin incelenmesi yoluyla sorun ve gereksinimlerin ortaya konmasıdır. Karma yöntem araştırmalarından eşzamanlı çeşitleme deseniyle ve toplam 92 katılımcıyla yürütülen çalışmada Kosova’daki işitme engelli çocukların ailelerine (n = 34, öğretmenlerine (n = 28 ve sağlık personeline (n = 20 anket uygulanmış, ayrıca bir grup aile (n = 4 ve öğretmenle (n = 6 yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşme gerçekleştirilmiştir. Nicel bir araç olan anket ve nitel bir teknik olan yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşmelerin betimsel analizi iki temel alanda ciddi sorunlara işaret etmiştir: (a tanı, değerlendirme ve müdahale ve (b eğitimsel düzenlemeler. İlk grupta öne çıkan sorunlar işitme kaybının tanılanması, değerlendirilmesi, çocuğun cihazlandırılması, tanı sonrası aileye destek hizmetleri ve okul öncesi eğitim alanlarında belirgin yoksunluk ya da yetersizliklerdir. İkinci gruptaki sorunlar ise ailelerin istediği iletişim yaklaşımı ile okullarda kullanılanın örtüşmemesi, öğretmen sayı ve niteliğinin, eğitim ortamındaki fiziksel düzenlemelerin, öğretim planlanması ve uygulanmasının ve kaynaştırma uygulamalarının ciddi derecede sorgulanabilir olmasıdır. Araştırma, anılan problem alanlarında ciddi yapısal düzenlemelerin acil olarak gerçekleştirilmesi gerektiğini açık biçimde ortaya koymuştur.

  8. Sobre machos reales y santos ficticios: Yo no tengo la culpa de haber nacido tan sexy de Eduardo Mendicutti, entre lo global y lo local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Ingenschay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En Yo no tengo la culpa de haber nacido tan sexy (1997, Eduardo Mendicutti cuenta unos episodios del “peregrinaje” de la todavía hermosa transexual Rebecca de Windsor a siete monasterios que visita en busca de la perfección religiosa y de la unión con el Amado divino. El texto despliega su estética camp a través del pastiche de los estilos, dicciones y temas de la lírica mística barroca, sobre todo por las referencias a Las Moradas de Santa Teresa de Ávila, su intertexto directo. A la vez logra describir las consecuencias de la globalización de las prácticas homosexuales y tematizar los rasgos específicos

  9. Attenuation of Vaccinia Tian Tan Strain by Removal of Viral TC7L-TK2L and TA35R Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shifu; Wang, Yuhang; Sun, Lili; Jia, Peng; Qi, Yanxin; Su, Jiaqiang; Liu, Lei; Yang, Guohua; Liu, Liming; Wang, Zhuoyue; Wang, Jinhui; Liu, Guangchen; Jin, Ningyi; Li, Xiao; Ding, Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was attenuated by deletion of the TC7L-TK2L and TA35R genes to generate MVTT3. The mutant was generated by replacing the open reading frames by a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) flanked by loxP sites. Viruses expressing EGFP were then screened for and purified by serial plaque formation. In a second step the marker EGFP gene was removed by transfecting cells with a plasmid encoding cre recombinase and selecting for viruses that had lost the EGFP phenotype. The MVTT3 mutant was shown to be avirulent and immunogenic. These results support the conclusion that TC7L-TK2L and TA35R deletion mutants can be used as safe viral vectors or as platform for vaccines. PMID:22363781

  10. The first outline of Calvin’s theology – the preface to the New Testament in the Olivétan Bible of 1535

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Neuser

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The prefaces which Calvin wrote for the Bible translation of Olivétan (1535 conform to the general custom during the Reformation to translate the Bible into the vernacular and to publish these translations simultaneously with interpretation aids. In the preface published in the Olivétan Bible and preceding the New Testament translation, Calvin wants to indicate to the reader (in this case the heathen the correct way to approach the Bible. Although no captions or headings are included, the preface is structured very precisely, thus also presenting Calvin’s systematic kind of exposition. In order to show the heathen the way to salvation, Calvin indicates a way via prehistory (Gen. 1-11; Rom. 1-2; Acts 14 and 17, the Ten Commandments (Decalogue to the New Testament witness about Christ. The focus and goal of this path are the fulfilment of the law. Clearly the most noticeable result of the analysis of this preface is the “system of corresponding doctrines” found between creation and salvation. This specific approach of Calvin is a key to understanding his later theology. In the second part of the preface Calvin explains the main Biblical concepts of “Testament”, “Evangelium” and “Messiah”. Regarding this his view corresponds to Luther’s writing, “De captivitate Babylonica ...” (1520, and is perhaps dependent on it. The third part of the preface contains admonitions to Christians who are persecuted to assure them of their salvation. Admonitions to kings, princes, rulers, bishops and pastors are also included.

  11. Effect of polarization orientation angle shift on X-band TDM SAR COSSC product of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asmita; Kumar, Shashi; Pandey, Uttara

    2016-05-01

    Polarization orientation angle (POA) shift in the backscattered SAR wave induced, due to irregularity of the target surface. Polarimetric signatures of the backscatter SAR wave gets affected by the POA shift, causes error in the decomposition modelling as shift in POA makes coherency matrix asymmetric. POA shift compensation is very necessary to avoid misinterpretation of decomposition modelling results. POA shift effect has been observed using coherency matrix and decomposition model results. This study is conducted over Dudhwa National Park in the state of Uttar Pradesh, using high resolution, TDM SAR COSSC Product of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X in Bistatic mode. Present study mainly focused on the comparative analysis of resultant scattering component of decomposition model before and after POA shift compensation. Shift in POA is investigated using circular polarization technique. Yamaguchi four component decomposition model is used to express total backscatter information in terms of volume, double bounce, surface and helix scattering. Volume scattering is overestimated however double bounce and surface scattering is under estimated in decomposition model due to POA shift present in the backscatter SAR wave. Different scattering mechanisms resulted after POA compensation were analyzed using 100 random points taken from forest structure. The results obtained by TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X shows an overall increase in double bounce scattering and decrease in volume scattering component after POA shift compensation. It is observed that there is negligible effect of POA shift on surface scattering. POA shift compensation necessarily required to improve the accuracy of decomposition models used in the forest parameter retrieval applications.

  12. GPS radio occultation with TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X: sensitivity of lower troposphere sounding to the Open-Loop Doppler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO technique provides valuable input for numerical weather prediction and is considered as a data source for climate related research. Numerous studies outline the high precision and accuracy of RO atmospheric soundings in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In this altitude region (8–25 km RO atmospheric soundings are considered to be free of any systematic error. In the tropical (30° S–30° N Lower (<8 km Troposphere (LT, this is not the case; systematic differences with respect to independent data sources exist and are still not completely understood. To date only little attention has been paid to the Open Loop (OL Doppler model. Here we report on a RO experiment carried out on-board of the twin satellite configuration TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X which possibly explains to some extent biases in the tropical LT. In two sessions we altered the OL Doppler model aboard TanDEM-X by not more than ±5 Hz with respect to TerraSAR-X and compare collocated atmospheric refractivity profiles. We find a systematic difference in the retrieved refractivity. The bias mainly stems from the tropical LT; there the bias reaches up to ±1%. Hence, we conclude that the negative bias (several Hz of the OL Doppler model aboard TerraSAR-X introduces a negative bias (in addition to the negative bias which is primarily caused by critical refraction in our retrieved refractivity in the tropical LT.

  13. 滩羊胎儿弯曲杆菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and Identiifcation of Campylobacter fetus from Tan Sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚文; 李莉娟; 赵燕; 张玉玲; 李志红; 王玉梅; 张雯; 王晓亮; 张和平; 张学军; 杨佳冰

    2016-01-01

    [目的]对一规模化养殖场滩羊流产的原因进行确诊,为流产羊的疫病诊断和防控提供建议。[方法]无菌采集流产胎儿血性腹水和流产母羊阴道分泌物进行细菌培养、分离和鉴定。[结果]分离到2株病原菌,经形态特性、培养特性及生理生化特性观察,鉴定为胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种;动物实验表明,其对小白鼠有很强的致病性。[结论]致病性胎儿弯曲杆菌胎儿亚种是造成该羊场发生大面积流产的主要病原。%Objective] To ascertain the cause of abortion in Tan sheep population so as to provide advice for diagno-sis,prevention and control of Campylobacter fetus infection. [Methods] Samples from fetal bloody ascites and aborted ewes vaginal secretions were aseptically collected for bacterial culture,isolation and identification of bacterial testing. [Results] Two strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated,which were determined as Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus by observing the morphological characteristics,cultural characteristics and physiological and biochemical char-acteristics. The isolates had strong pathogenicity for mice. [Conclusion] The main pathogens leading to many Tan sheep aborted were the pathogenic Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus.

  14. Tropical-Forest Profiles and Biomass from TanDEM-X, Single-Baseline Interferometric SAR: InSAR Performance at Higher Frequencies and Bandwidths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuhaft, R. N.; Goncalves, F. G.; Neumann, M.; Keller, M. M.; Santos, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The principal method for remotely sensing forest biomass, particularly high-biomass tropical forests, is to measure vertical structural properties of the forest and relate them to biomass. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) and lidar are the two principal technologies applied to this task. InSAR profile information is constrained in the traditional, look-averaged analysis, because it measures the vertical Fourier transform of the radar power at one and only one vertical frequency specified by the baseline. Lidar produces a full profile, including all Fourier frequencies—all vertical scales of fluctuation. In TanDEM-X data over tropical forests at the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, we show the results of potentially improving InSAR's Fourier coverage. This is done by estimating many Fourier frequencies with a single baseline, based on the assumption that sampling of the phase height of small (~1.5 m x 2.5 m) looks of TanDEM-X is equivalent to sampling the vertical structure of the forest; a spatial ergodicity. We show a similarity between the distribution of InSAR look-phase-heights (LPH) and lidar and field profiles over 0.25-ha areas. Using Fourier transforms of the histogram of LPH over 0.25 ha areas, biomass estimation improved by about 17% over using InSAR coherence and mean forest height, making it competitive with some lidar results. The RMS of biomasses estimated about field biomass was 48 Mg/ha, with biomasses as high as 430 Mg/ha, and an average of 174 Mg/ha. Perhaps LPH distributions bear a similarity to lidar and field profiles because shorter wavelengths (~3 cm) can penetrate holes in the canopy to scatter off a sample of the vegetation with each look. This "hole mechanism" favors higher frequencies, which are able to penetrate smaller holes. Because they increase the number of look samples, higher bandwidths are also preferred.

  15. Addressing wind integration issues in north eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-27

    Wind energy has been growing rapidly in the north eastern region of North America in response to an increasing focus on security of supply issues and greater public concern over climate change. The purpose of this report was to address the issues associated with wind integration in the north east by evaluating issues that inhibit the transmission of wind; identifying actions that will improve the integration of wind; and profiling processes that could facilitate the uptake of wind. Specifically, the report sought to identify wind integration issues that may arise in the north east region in the next 5 to 10 year period. The report provided an overview of the north east and its wind resource, including an overview of the north east electricity market; wind energy overview; and intermittent wind farms. The global experience of wind integration to date was also presented. This included long-term wind vision; wind resource data set; multi-integration studies; upgrading and expanding transmissions systems; balancing area size; forecasting; geographical diversity; increasing system flexibility; and whole sale markets. A north east wind integration seminar was also highlighted. It was concluded that large scale wind could produce sufficient revenues to pay for the addition of substantial transmission with added benefits to the loads. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  17. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  18. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  19. Catarse e Final Feliz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ávila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: É a certeza de que nada mais – ou nada importante – pode acontecer após o final de um conto que permite o acontecimento da catarse. Se na maioria das narrativas existe algum tipo de dénouement, em algumas delas isso acontece de maneira especialmente satisfatória e afirmativa. O conto de fadas é uma dessas formas narrativas onde o efeito catártico é extremo e preenche objetivos específicos, de acordo com Bruno Bettelheim. Hollywood mimetizou essa forma como estratégia de sedução, iniciando a tradição do final feliz no cinema. A partir do conto de fadas Cinderela, em diferentes versões, juntamente com a animação homônima da Disney e ainda duas versões do filme Sabrina, será traçada aqui uma relação entre a catarse e o final feliz nos contos de fada, bem como seu uso pela indústria cultural. Palavras-chave: catarse, contos de fada, Hollywood

  20. Final Progress Report: Coupled Biogeochemical Process Evaluation for Conceptualizing Trichloroethylene Cometabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Ronald L; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2010-02-19

    Our goal within the overall project is to demonstrate the presence and abundance of methane monooxygenases (MMOs) enzymes and their genes within the microbial community of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Area North (TAN) site. MMOs are thought to be the primary catalysts of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater at this location. The actual presence of the proteins making up MMO complexes would provide direct evidence for its participation in TCE degradation. The quantitative estimation of MMO genes and their translation products (sMMO and pMMO proteins) and the knowledge about kinetics and substrate specificity of MMOs will be used to develop mathematical models of the natural attenuation process in the TAN aquifer. The model will be particularly useful in prediction of TCE degradation rate in TAN and possibly in the other DOE sites. Bacteria known as methanotrophs produce a set of proteins that assemble to form methane monooxygenase complexes (MMOs), enzymes that oxidize methane as their natural substrate, thereby providing a carbon and energy source for the organisms. MMOs are also capable of co-metabolically transforming chlorinated solvents like TCE into nontoxic end products such as carbon dioxide and chloride. There are two known forms of methane monooxygenase, a membrane-bound particulate form (pMMO) and a cytoplasmic soluble form (sMMO). pMMO consists of two components, pMMOH (a hydroxylase comprised of 47-, 27-, and 24-kDa subunits) and pMMOR (a reductase comprised of 63 and 8-kDa subunits). sMMO consists of three components: a hydroxylase (protein A-250 kDa), a dimer of three subunits (α2β2γ2), a regulatory protein (protein B-15.8 kDa), and a reductase (protein C-38.6 kDa). All methanotrophs will produce a methanol dehydrogenase to channel the product of methane oxidation (methanol) into the central metabolite formaldehyde. University of Idaho (UI) efforts focused on proteomic analyses using mass