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Sample records for north sumatra province

  1. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

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    Laowo Idaman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO, pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO, revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in

  2. An Analysis Of Manufacturing Market Structure In North Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rasidin Karo-Karo Sitepu; Muhammad Asaad

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil indu...

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING MARKET STRUCTURE IN NORTH SUMATRA PROVINCE

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    Muhammad Asaad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze market structure and manufacturing industry performance on the economy of North Sumatra. The analysis uses two approaches, namely SCP analysis and econometric model. The data used is the Survey of Large Medium 2005-2009. The result shows that the structure of the industry is more dominant, including tight oligopoly, only small parts which belong to loose oligopoly and oligopoly markets. Some industries which have important roles for the economy are the palm oil industry, food and beverage industry, rubber industry and rubber products, and iron and steel basic industries, and basic non-ferrous metals.Keywords: market structure, industry performance, manufacturing industry, local economyJEL classification numbers: L10, L20, L60

  4. THE GAP ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN REGENCY OR CITY IN THE PROVINCE OF NORTH SUMATRA FOR THE PERIOD 2004-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    One of the main functions of the government of North Sumatra Province is how to reduce the gap between the district / city in the province of North Sumatra. A regional disparity is the ratio of real per capita income among regions with per capita real income of the province. This study aims to analyze the development gap among districts / cities in North Sumatra. In addition, this study also analyzes the Klasen typology at each district / city in North Sumatra. The data’s that used in this st...

  5. The Influence of ENSO to the Rainfall Variability in North Sumatra Province

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    Irwandi, H.; Pusparini, N.; Ariantono, J. Y.; Kurniawan, R.; Tari, C. A.; Sudrajat, A.

    2018-04-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global phenomenon that affects the variability of rainfall in North Sumatra. The influence of ENSO will be different for each region. This review will analyse the influence of ENSO activity on seasonal and annual rainfall variability. In this research, North Sumatra Province will be divided into 4 (four) regions based on topographical conditions, such as: East Coast (EC), East Slope (ES), Mountains (MT), and West Coast (WC). The method used was statistical and descriptive analysis. Data used in this research were rainfall data from 15 stations / climate observation posts which spread in North Sumatera region and also anomaly data of Nino 3.4 region from period 1981-2016. The results showed that the active El Niño had an effect on the decreasing the rainfall during the period of DJF, JJA and SON in East Coast, East Slope, and Mountains with the decreasing of average percentage of annual rainfall up to 7%. On the contrary, the active La Nina had an effect on the addition of rainfall during the period DJF and JJA in the East Coast and Mountains with the increasing of average percentage of annual rainfall up to 6%.

  6. Performance of coffee origin and genotype in organoleptic and physical quality of arabica coffee in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia

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    Malau, Sabam; Siagian, Albiner; Sirait, Bilter; Pandiangan, Samse

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effect of coffee origin and genotype on organoleptic and physical quality of Arabica coffea L. growing in North Sumatra. Seven districts treated as origins and 28 genotypes were chosen. The research was conducted with nested design with 3 factors. Organoleptic parameters were fragrance/aroma, flavor, aftertaste, acidity, body, uniformity, balance, clean cup, sweetness, overall and total score. Physical quality was green bean weight. The results revealed that origins affected significantly organoleptic quality. Coffee from Dairi showed the highest total score (90,82). Genotypes were significantly different in organoleptic quality. Genotype Da17, Da18, Da19, Da20 and Hu4 had the best total score (89,85 -91,68). Total score did not correlate with green bean weight but had positive correlation with altitude. Among organoleptic parameters, acidity was more significant for total score (r2 = 0,836). Altitude had more effect on acidity (r2 = 0,486).

  7. Social Motivation And Peoples Participation In Development Of Rural Development In District Of West Of Nias Province North Sumatra

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    Sismudjito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the problem of social related to the development. Some of the province in Indonesia which is North Sumatera consisting of 8 cities and 25 districts. Most of the populated shows a number poverty are still relatively high. According to the Susenas in North Sumatera Province particulary West of Nias is the county that classified as having a number of high poverty and decrease in the number of poverty was only 1 each year. To that local governments West of Nias make the implementation of the building area shaped participative which stems from the social motivation sociated in the West of Nias. In this study formulated to the problem is the social motivation and community participation is a factor objectify the construction of underdevelopment area.This research using a combination of a quantitative approach and qualitative approach by the combined method. This method can be done in together turns even combined with starting from the framework exploration then inditifity and classifying data with sourched from the questionnaires development and depth interviews. In this research also used technique of population and research sample. Management of the data could be done by 3 statistics techniques 1 Product Moment Correlation 2 Partial Correlation 3 Analysis of the line.The result of research suggests that through the work of social motivation and community participation can positive affect towards underdeveloped area. The level of community participation appears through an increase participation degrees towards the development of underdeveloped area. The working of community participation could a achieved development in its area with shows a sense of empathy from members of society So it can be concluded that the high participation facilitate the realization of the development of underdeveloped area.

  8. Research mapping in North Sumatra based on Scopus

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    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitepu, R.; Rosmayati; Bakti, D.; Hardi, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    Research is needed to improve the capacity of human resources to manage natural resources for human well-being. Research is done by institutions such as universities or research institutions, but the research picture related to human welfare interests is not easy to obtain. If research can be proven through scientific publications, scientific research publication databases can be used to view research behaviour. Research mapping in North Sumatra needs to be done to see the suitability of research conducted with development needs in North Sumatra, and as a presentation is the Universitas Sumatera Utara which shows that research conducted has 60% strength, especially in the exact sciences.

  9. Cultural meanings of tuberculosis in Aceh Province, Sumatra.

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    Caprara, A; Abdulkadir, N; Idawani, C; Asmara, H; Lever, P; De Virgilio, G

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows how disease transmission and particularly what biomedicine calls tuberculosis are interpreted in the non-Western context of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It tries also to focus on factors influencing perceptions and health-seeking behaviors. Results show that what biomedicine calls TB is represented by a semantic network of illnesses. Parts of this network are clearly identified as transmissible while others are related to specific phenomena affecting the individual, such as terbuk (poisoning) or trouk (fatigue produced by hard work), and are not considered contagious. Forms of transmission are interpreted mostly through empirical and analogic categories. TB is attributed to four different aspects: (a) biomedical categories such as germ theory; (b) socio-economic conditions; (c) transgression of social rules; and (d) poisoning and the influences of supernatural powers. Health-seeking behaviors are related to the perceived causes of the disease, economic factors, and the accessibility of health services.

  10. Deforestation trend in North Sumatra over 1990-2015

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    Basyuni, M.; Sulistiyono, N.; Wati, R.; Hayati, R.

    2018-02-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation have been previously reported to contributing greenhouse gas emission, the primary driver of global warming. The present paper studies deforestation and reforestation trend in North Sumatra, Indonesia using land-use/land-cover change from 1990-2015. The land-use consists of three classes derived from forest land (primary and secondary dry land forest, primary and secondary swamp forest, primary and secondary mangrove forest). Non-Forest (shrub, oil palm plantation, forest plantation, settlement, barren land, swamp shrub, dry land farming, mixed dry land farming, paddy field, aquaculture, airport, transmigration, and mining), and water body (water and swamp). Results showed that from 33 regencies/city in North Sumatra, among them, 25 districts deforested, which was the highest deforestation rate in Labuhanbatu and South Labuhanbatu (2,238.08 and 1,652.55 ha/year, respectively), only one area reforested, and seven districts showed no deforestation or reforestation. During 25 years observed, the forest has been deforested 22.92%, while nonforest has been increased 11.33% of land-use. The significant increasing loss of North Sumatran forest implies conservation efforts and developing sustainable forest management.

  11. Taeniasis and cysticercosis in Bali and North Sumatra, Indonesia.

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    Wandra, Toni; Depary, A A; Sutisna, Putu; Margono, Sri S; Suroso, Thomas; Okamoto, Munehiro; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    It has been reported that three human Taenia species are distributed in Indonesia: Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. T. asiatica is well known in North Sumatra, especially on Samosir island in Lake Toba. T. solium and T. saginata are known from Bali. T. solium is most serious public health issue in Papua (former Irian Jaya). In this report, we briefly review the present situation of these three human Taenia species mainly in Bali and North Sumatra. For community based epidemiological survey, we have adopted and applied questionnaire, microscopic observation of eggs, coproantigen tests, coproDNA tests, mitochondrial DNA analysis and morphology for isolated specimens, serology for cysticercosis and taeniasis. For detection of taeniasis cases of both T. saginata and T. asiatica, questionnaire by expert doctors is perfect to detect worm carriers. Corpoantigen test developed for detection of taeniasis of T. solium is also highly reliable to detect taeniasis carriers in the community. Epidemiological data from these two islands 2002-2005 are reviewed with backgrounds of historical culture, religions and customs.

  12. Challenges in developing e-government for good governance in North Sumatra

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    Siahaan, AY

    2017-01-01

    E-government as one form of public administration reform in Indonesia is increasingly related to the pursuance of good governance. This paper examines the relationship between of e-government and good governance by utilizing the case study design on the implementation of e-procurement in North Sumatra. It reveals centrality of local politics and business culture in understanding resistances of both local government officials and local business which creates loopholes’ for the practice of ‘bad governance’ in all phases of e-procurement in North Sumatra province. Data transparency does not equate and guarantee the realization of good governance. Public knowledge and understanding on government decision making processes and accountability (process and policy transparency) are central to achieve good governance through e-procurement. E-procurement system does not automatically change organizational and working culture of the implementers and suppliers. This paper provides insight to the attitude and the perception of private sector engage in e-procurement towards government in implementing e-government. Resistance, digital divide and local politics interrelatedly obstruct the realization of pursuing good governance through e-procurement.

  13. DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE LEAF DISEASES OF BANANA IN SEVERAL BANANA PRODUCTION CENTERS IN NORTH SUMATRA, WEST SUMATRA BENGKULU AND WEST JAVA

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    Sahlan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to determine the type, the distribution and the incidence of banana leaf diseases in several production centers in West Sumatra, Bengkulu, North Sumatra and West Java. Direct observations on banana orchards were conducted in some districts in Simalungun, Deli Serdang and Medan (North Sumatra, Tanah Datar, Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Pariaman and Pasaman (West Sumatra, Rejang Lebong and Kepahyang (Bengkulu, Sukabumi, Purwakarta and Subang (West Java from November to December 2006. Two banana orchards were randomly selected in each district. Plant population at the selected orchard was at least 100 plants. From each sampled orchard, if banana population consisted of similar or only one variety, 10 plants were randomly chosen according to wind direction. Meanwhile, when the banana varieties were varied, five plants were randomly selected. The result showed that Black Sigatoka and Eumusae leaf spot were found in West Sumatra, Bengkulu and North Sumatra at severity level of between 15 % to 62.31%, whilst speckle disease was mainly found in North Sumatra and in parts of West Sumatra at severity level of between 72,72% to 100% and 15 to 30%, respectively. Banana varieties that were primarily attacked by leaf diseases were Cavendish, Telor, Barangan and Emas.

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions from forestry and peat land using land-use/land-cover changes in North Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Basyuni, M.; Sulistyono, N.; Slamet, B.; Wati, R.

    2018-03-01

    Forestry and peat land including land-based is one of the critical sectors in the inventory of CO2 emissions and mitigation efforts of climate change. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes between 2006 and 2012 in North Sumatra, Indonesia with emphasis to CO2 emissions. The land-use/land-cover consists of twenty-one classes. Redd Abacus software version 1.1.7 was used to measure carbon emission source as well as the predicted 2carbon dioxide emissions from 2006-2024. Results showed that historical emission (2006-2012) in this province, significant increases in the intensive land use namely dry land agriculture (109.65%), paddy field (16.23%) and estate plantation (15.11%). On the other hand, land-cover for forest decreased significantly: secondary dry land forest (7.60%), secondary mangrove forest (9.03%), secondary swamp forest (33.98%), and the largest one in the mixed dry land agriculture (79.96%). The results indicated that North Sumatra province is still a CO2 emitter, and the most important driver of emissions mostly derived from agricultural lands that contributed 2carbon dioxide emissions by 48.8%, changing from forest areas into degraded lands (classified as barren land and shrub) shared 30.6% and estate plantation of 22.4%. Mitigation actions to reduce carbon emissions was proposed such as strengthening the forest land, rehabilitation of degraded area, development and plantation forest, forest protection and forest fire control, and reforestation and conservation activity. These mitigation actions have been simulated to reduce 15% for forestry and 18% for peat land, respectively. This data is likely to contribute to the low emission development in North Sumatra.

  15. Phenomenon of Women Marginalization in Poor Family in Pakpak Community (A Case Study in Pegagan Julu Village, Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi Regency - North Sumatra - Indonesia)

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    Hadriana Marhaeni Munthe

    2017-01-01

    This article is taken from the study of marginalization cases experienced by Pakpak women of rural poor families. The study was conducted in Pegagan village of Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi, North Sumatra province. The marginalization phenomenon is shown in some aspects; restrictions on women's access to formal education, tendency of dropping out of school, having no inheritance rights and no role in the decision making of custom. Related to this phenomenon, the research question of this study is...

  16. Gender inequality : Behind maternal mortality in Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Towards a gender audit

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    Zaluchu, F.

    2018-01-01

    Singling out Nias Island in North Sumatra Indonesia as the research location, this research attempts to analyze local aspects pertaining to gender inequality in the context of maternal health in Indonesia. This research aims to portray the presence of gender inequality in Nias, and how it affects

  17. 137Cs Dan 90Sr Concentration In Several Vegetables From Lahat South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Tutik-Indiyati

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in several vegetables, i.e beans, green peas, spinachs, gourd, nightshade, cabbages, carrots and potatoes, collected from Lahat. South Sumatra had been carried out. Analysis radiochemically were carried out, 137 Cs precipitated with ammmoniumphosphomolybdate. The samples were measured using the gamma spectrometer with the high purity germanium detector (HP-Ge). 90 Sr precipitated with fuming HNO 3 and measured using alpha/beta Low Background Counter system (LBC). Concentration of 137 Cs in the samples were varied from undetectable to (0.041 ± 0.015) Bq/kg and concentration of 90 Sr were varied from undetectable to (0.049 ± 0.017) Bq/kg. Compared with similar foodstuffs collected from several places in Lampung province, these results are relatively not different. (author)

  18. Impact of Coal Sales on Revenue Sharing Fund And Environment in The South Sumatra Province

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    Fettymia Fettymia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal prices between 2006-2015 trend was fluctuate but tend to decrease every year and affect regional income, especially South Sumatra Province. Coal prices fluctuation are influenced by several factors, the decline of world oil prices, coal production surplus, and China imports restriction. Coal mining industry also give a direct impact to the environment especially effect to work environment for the company workers and the people environment around mining. The coal mining company absorbs local labor so as to increase local revenues from individual income taxes. This research use quantitative approach using Ordinary Least Square (OLS analytical method with E-views 7 software. Multiple linier regression technique also applied. The Secondary data is time series of 2006 - 2015. The results presented in form of tables, images and narration. From this research can be drawn conclusion that price fluctuations have no effect on regional income, but production sold has an effect on regional income.

  19. Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia Based on Physico-Chemical Studies

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    Beata Naglik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin.

  20. Population Study of the Golden Chicken Fern (Cibotium barometz (L. J. Sm. in Riau Province, Sumatra

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    Titien Ngatinem Praptosuwiryo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cibotium barometz (L. J.Sm. (Cibotiaceae is an important export commodity for both traditional and mod-ern medicine. Populations of this species in several countries have decreased rapidly due to the uncontrolled collection of the rhizome parts for medicinal purposes. Since 1976, this species has been included in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. This means that no export is allowed without a prior permit issued by the CITES committee.  In order to utilize an endangered species sustainably, the global NDF (Non-Detriments Finding system is applied for determining annual quotas. Therefore, monitoring and updating the inventory of C. barometz in its natural habitat should be carried out annually. A population study of C. barometz carried out in 2011 in Riau Province, Sumatra, is reported here. The aims of the study were: 1 to inventory C. barometz and determine its variation in Riau Province, Suma-tra, 2 to study the distribution and ecology of C. barometz, and 3 to assess the population size of this spe-cies by using random search methodology incorporating belt line transects. Two variants of C. barometz are recognized; they are the golden yellow and golden brown variants. C. barometz is distributed in eight loca-tions of Kampar District of Riau Province, in the secondary forest and rubber agroforest between 80 m and 600 m above sea level (asl. This species grows well in open to partially opened areas of secondary forest and rubber plantation in hills with a range of slope between 30° and 90°, with a relatively high humidity, 60 – 90%, in acid to nearly neutral soil, with a range of soil fertility from very poor to very humus rich soil.  The average population density determined in our study was 20 plants per 100 square meter. The highest popula-tion size was in the secondary forest of Bukit Kuda Beban at 590 – 600 m asl., viz. 9405 plants with a popula-tion density  of 47 plants per 100

  1. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

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    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  2. Isolation and identification of indigenous lactic acid bacteria from North Sumatra river buffalo milk

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    Heni Rizqiati; Cece Sumantr; Ronny Rachman Noor; E. Damayanthi; E. I. Rianti

    2015-01-01

    Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA). The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology test...

  3. Gender inequality: Behind maternal mortality in Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia: Towards a gender audit

    OpenAIRE

    Zaluchu, F.

    2018-01-01

    Singling out Nias Island in North Sumatra Indonesia as the research location, this research attempts to analyze local aspects pertaining to gender inequality in the context of maternal health in Indonesia. This research aims to portray the presence of gender inequality in Nias, and how it affects the reproductive health of and poses Niasan women to the risk of maternal death. It also carefully examines the social situations in which gender inequality is established and reproduced by the exist...

  4. Socioeconomic and Ecological Dimension of Certified and Conventional Arabica Coffee Production in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Jef Rudiantho

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in six subdistricts of Simalungun district, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The research objective is knowing the influence of socioeconomic and ecological factors on production of specialty Arabica coffee. Determination of the households sample was using Probability Proportional to Size and Simple Random Sampling for 79 units certified coffee farms and 210 units conventional coffee farms. Farmer’s data was analyzed with multiple linear regression model. Benefit of coffee ce...

  5. Phylogeny of kemenyan (Styrax sp.) from North Sumatra based on morphological characters

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    Susilowati, A.; Kholibrina, C. R.; Rachmat, H. H.; Munthe, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Kemenyan is the most famous local tree species from North Sumatra. Kemenyan is known as rosin producer that very valuable for pharmacheutical, cosmetic, food preservatives and vernis. Based on its history, there were only two species of kemenyan those were kemenyan durame and toba, but in its the natural distribution we also found others species showing different characteristics with previously known ones. The objectives of this research were:The objectives of this research were: (1). To determine the morphological diversity of kemenyan in North Sumatra and (2). To determine phylogeny clustering based on the morphological characters. Data was collected from direct observation and morphological characterization, based on purposive sampling technique to those samples trees atPakpak Bharat, North Sumatra. Morphological characters were examined using descriptive analysis, phenotypic variability using standard deviation, and cluster analysis. The result showed that there was a difference between 4 species kemenyen (batak, minyak, durame and toba) according to 75 observed characters including flower, fruits, leaf, stem, bark, crown type, wood and the resin. Analysis and both quantitative and qualitative characters kemenyan clustered into two groups. In which, kemenyan toba separated with other clusters.

  6. Land use changes and plantation crop development in selected provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan

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    Tarigan, S. D.

    2018-05-01

    Most institutions stated that biofuel will not qualify the standard of GHG emission reduction if it was produced in the plantation associated with the forest conversion. Therefore, knowing previous land use before the development of plantation is very important. In Indonesia, plantation development occurs mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. A number of studies had been published showing historical LUCC before plantation development. Objective of this study was to review various studies on LUCC carried out in four selected provinces, namely West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, and Riau. The analysis and comparison was based on the different source of historical data including online spatial data sources and various studies published in various journals. Each data source of LUCC shows significant variation on the amount of plantation developed directly from forest and other land use types. But, our review showed that the plantation areas associated with the forest cover changes far less than those claimed by several international journals. But, the debate concerning which plantation developments indirectly contributed to LUCC and which are directly will probably continue until the information on the land ownership and history of plantation development is available publicly.

  7. The utilization of alfalfa that planted at Tobasa highland, North Sumatra for growing Boerka goat feed

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    Juniar Sirait

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a herbaceus legume which is potential to be used as goat feed for it’s high production and nutritive value. This research was aimed to study the adaptation of alfalfa planted at highland-moderate climate and it’s utilization for goat feed. This research concists of two activities, ie 1 Agronomy of alfalfa that adapted to highland as a goat feed resource, and 2 The alfalfa usage technology as goat feed. On the first activity alfalfa was planted on highland-moderate climate Gurgur, Tobasa District, North Sumatra Province. Data was collected included: growth percentage, morphology and production aspects, and nutritive value. The harvesting was conducted for three times, where the first cutting had done at 100 days after planting. Investigation of morphology characterirtics was done before alfalfa harvesting. The utilization of alfalfa as goat feed was carried out on the second activity which was arranged in a completely randomized design. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred (Boerka goats of 5-6 months of age with average body weight 14.2±0.8 kg were randomly assigned to four feed treatments where each treatment consited of five replications. The four feed treatments were: P1 = 100% grass + 0% alfalfa; P2 = 90% grass + 10% alfalfa, P3 = 80% grass + 20% alfalfa, and P4 = 70% grass + 30% alfalfa. Data observation included dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and income over feed cost. Results showed that alfalfa growth percentage was 65% with good growth and high either production or nutritive value. The average shoot dry matter production was 438.6 g/m2 which was equivalent to 26.3 t/ha/yr. The crude protein content of alfalfa on the first, second and third harvesting were 17.93; 21.89 and 17.73 per cent, respectively. The utilization of alfalfa that had been processed to be crude-meal can be applied as goat feed. Supplementation of 70% grass and 30% alfalfa meal showed the best results: ADG 59

  8. Dangers, delights, and destiny on the sea: fishers along the East coast of north sumatra, indonesia.

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    Markkanen, Pia

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between the International Labour Organization's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) and the Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, in identifying work hazards of fishers along the east coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia, in July 2004. The study employed qualitative investigation techniques: participant observations at fishing villages and harbors; and interviews with local fishers and skippers. Fishers work long hours in life-threatening conditions, often with low pay. It would be synergistic to incorporate fishing safety and health policies and advocacy efforts into reconstruction undertakings of fisheries devastated by the 2004 tsunami.

  9. Evaluation of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Yani, P.; Hartini, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Aquaculture expansion has been reported as the primary driver of mangrove loss and a significant cause of mangrove deforestation in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Development of silvofishery based on creating balance condition between conserving mangrove forest and offering better livelihood for local communities surrounding mangrove. The present study evaluates of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in three villages, namely Paluh Manan, Paluh Kurau, and Lama, Hamparan Perak of Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Three communities used the same ecological type-silvofishery, characterized by planted mangrove surrounded aquaculture. Results showed that in the Paluh Manan village, planted mangrove and aquaculture in the ratio of 75:25 with planting distance of mangrove 50x50 cm, containing 2,500 trees/ha, resulted in US 36.2/month/ha of fish and shrimp farming. In the Paluh Kurau village, a mixture mangrove and aquaculture in an 84:16 ratio, planting distance of 1x1 m, consists of 1,600 trees/ha, US 23.8 of generating revenue from crab farming. Furthermore, in the third village, Lama village, consists of mangrove and aquaculture in the proportions 90:10, with planting spacing 2x2 m, composing 1,000 trees/ha, led to US 45.8/month/ha from fish, shrimp and crab farming. The present study suggested the mangrove management through community-based mangrove-friendly aquaculture.

  10. Morphological characterization of several strains of the rice-pathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae in North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, M.; Safni, I.; Lisnawita; Lubis, K.

    2018-02-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a quarantine seed-borne bacterial pathogen causing panicle blight disease on rice. This pathogen has been detected in some locations in Java, and recently, farmers in North Sumatra have reported rice yield loss with symptoms similar with those on rice infeced by the rice-pathogenic bacterium B. glumae. This research was aimed to isolate several bacterial strains from several rice varieties in various locations in North Sumatra and characterize the morphology of the strains to detect and identify the unknown bacterial strains presumably B. glumae. Several rice seed varieties were collected from Medan and Deli Serdang Districts. The seed samples were extracted, isolated and purified, then grown in semi-selective media PPGA. The morphological characteristics of the bacterial strains were determined including Gram staining, bacterial colony’s and bacterial cell’s morphology. The results showed that of eleven strains isolated, two strains were Gram negative and nine strains were Gram positive. On the basis of colony morphology, all strains had circular form, flat elevation and cream colour while the colony margin varied, i.e. entire and undulate. Most strains had bacillus/rod shape (8 strains) and only 3 strains were coccus.

  11. Mitigation of landslide area around railway tunnel, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toha, M. Taufik; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Komar, Syamsul; Bochori, Ghadafi, Moamar A.; Adiwarman, Mirza; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    Adequate and safe railway line infrastructures as well as facilities are required to support the rail transport system in South Sumatra. The slope stability along railway line of Lahat-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra were studied during landslide that occured on January 23th, 2016. The landslide occurred on the mouth of railway tunnel in Gunung Gajah Village, Lahat District that causing the railway transportation system had to be stopped for a few days. A comprehensive research was conducted to analyze the causes of the landslide and to identify other landslide risky areas along the railway line Lahat-Lubuk Linggau. The research activities included surveying, sampling, laboratory testing, investigating condition of geology, geotechnics, hydrogeology/hydrology, morphology and land use. The factors that cause landslide in the past studies were found to be morphology, structural geology, physical and mechanical characteristics, hydrogeology, hydrology, external forces (train vibration, earthquake). Results back analysis of slope stability when the landslide occurred showed that the value Safety Factor (SF) = 1, angle of friction = 0°, and cohesion = 0.49 kg/cm2 (49 kPa). Based on the observation and analysis of the condition of the morphology and orientation of the structure of the rock layers, there was a location prone to landslide (labile) in the surrounding area of the landslide. Mitigations to potential landslide in adjacent area were building a retaining wall, draining channels, and shortcrete at the rock wall after landslides and maintaining the land use around the slopes.

  12. Developing community-based mangrove management through eco-tourism in North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Bimantara, Y.; Siagian, M.; Wati, R.; Slamet, B.; Sulistiyono, N.; Nuryawan, A.; Leidonad, R.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera, Indonesia existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and commonly thrived in Langkat, Deli Serdang, Batubara, Tanjung Balai, Asahan, Labuhanbatu until Serdang Bedagai. The present study describes the developing community-based mangrove management (CBMM) through eco-tourism in two locations, Lubuk Kertang (LK) of Langkat and Sei Nagalawan (SN) of Serdang Bedagai, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove ecosystem, coastal villagers and visitors, and related stakeholder were analyzed to present the potential of mangrove ecosystem, the ecological suitability, and the carrying capacity then continued with SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis. Results showed that mangrove diversity in LK consist of fifteen species which Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia lanata dominated the area, where mangroves in SN found seven species dominated by R. apiculata and A. officinalis. Based on the suitability level of mangrove ecosystem for ecotourism development, LK and SN were categorized as suitable and conditionally suitable, respectively. The carrying capacity of mangrove ecotourism for LK and SN were 36 and 36 people/day respectively. SWOT analysis revealed that both locations of eco-tourism have a potential eco-tourism attraction, high mangrove biodiversity, possible human resources, and real people’s perception on the importance of mangrove conservation, and relatively easy access. The study present suggested that mangrove ecotourism is a sustainable form of land use, to contributing the environmental protection and providing socio-economic benefits to the local people through indirect values of the natural resources.

  13. Isolation and identification of indigenous lactic acid bacteria from North Sumatra river buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Rizqiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo milk is a source of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB which is potential as culture starter as well as the probiotic. This study was conducted to isolate and identify LAB from indigenous North Sumatra river buffalo milk. Lactic acid bacteria was isolated and grown in medium De Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar (MRSA. The isolation was conducted to obtain pure isolate. The identification of LAB was studied in terms of morphology, physiology, biochemistry and survival on low pH. Morphology tests were conducted by Gram staining and cell forming; physiology tests were conducted for growing viability at pH 4.5 and temperature at 45oC; whereas biochemistry tests were conducted for CO2, dextran and NH3 productions. Determination of LAB species was conducted using Analytical Profile Index (API test CHL 50. Results of identification showed that 41 isolates were identified as LAB with Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod and round shaped characteristics. Resistance test done to low pH (pH 2 for the lactic acid bacteria showed decrease of bacteria viability up to1.24±0.68 log cfu/ml. The resistant isolates at low pH were L12, L16, L17, L19, L20, M10, P8, S3, S19 and S20. Identification with API test CHL 50 for 10 isolates showed that four isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus and Lactococuslactis.

  14. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in karo ethnic, north sumatra, indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nasution, Barita; Alief Aththorick, T.; Rahayu, Suci

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants derived from traditional medicines have played an important role in managing a variety of healthcare and diseases in Karo ethnic in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study aimed to document the ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Karo ethnic in the treatment of diabetes and to assess the crude extract of phytochemical constituents qualitatively from medicinal plant organ. The study was conducted on two Karo sub-ethnic living at the highland (Karo Gugung) in Karo Regency and the lowland (Karo Jahe) in Langkat Regency with the length of the study was eight months of observation. The survey was conducted using open-ended interviews among four traditional healers those who were selected by snowball sampling method; quantitative analysis of ethnobotanical data was performed by calculating the familiarity index (Fi). Fresh plant samples which were used for phytochemical analysis were collected using participatory method. The results showed that 15 plants were used to treat diabetes by Karo traditional healers. The plants are Blumea balsamifera, Nypa fruticans, Bischofia javanica, Eleutherine americana, Allium cepa, A. sativum, Eugenia polyantha, Piper betle, P. nigrum, Citrus aurantiifolia, Boesenbergia pandurata, Curcuma longa, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber montanum, and Z. officinale. Familiarity index (Fi) value of each plant was 25 which explained that each of medicinal plant was used by only one traditional healer. The phytochemical screening showed that the crude plant extracts contained phenolic, terpenoid, steroid, and saponin.

  15. Habitat characteristic of macrozoobenthos in Naborsahan River of Toba Lake, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Lubis, M. S.; Suryanti, A.

    2018-02-01

    This research described the relative abundance, dominance index, and index of macrozoobenthos equitability in Naborsahan River of Toba Lake, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The purposive random sampling at three stations was used to characterize the biological, chemical, and physical parameters of macrozoobenthos. The highest relative abundance of macrozoobenthos found at station 2 (99.96%). By contrast, the highest dominance index was at station 3 (0.31), and the maximum equitability index found at station 1 (0.94). The present results showed diversity parameters among the stations. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the habitat characteristics of macrozoobenthos. PCA analysis depicted that six parameters studied, brightness, turbidity, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) play a significant role on the relative abundance, dominance index, and equitability index. PCA analysis suggested that station 3 was suitable habitat characteristic for the life of macro-zoobenthos indicating of the negative axis. The present study demonstrated the six parameters should be conserved to support the survival of macrozoobenthos.

  16. The Multiplier Effect of the Gandoriah Beach Marine Tourism to the Coastal Community of Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mazidah, Nurnaini; Nugroho, Firman; Bathara, Lamun

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted on March 25, 2016 until 11 April 2016 which is placed in Gandoriah Beach, Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province. This study aims to identify economic activities and socio-cultural as the impact of the presence of marine tourism and determine the impact of tourism activities on the beach Gandoriah to the economy of coastal communities. The method used in this research is survey method. There are 64 respondents, that consist ...

  17. Elite Capture and Corruption in two Villages in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anton

    This paper examines leadership, elite capture and corruption in two villages in Sumatra. It compares implementation and outcomes of several conservation and development projects in the context of democratization and decentralization reforms introduced in Indonesia since 1998. In examining aspects of elite control and elite capture, this paper focuses on the activities of local elites, particularly village officials, who use their positions to monopolize planning and management of projects that were explicitly intended to incorporate participatory and accountability features. While elites' use of authority and influence to benefit personally from their roles clearly reflects elite capture, there are nonetheless members of elite groups in these case studies who use their control of projects to broad community benefit. In both villages there is considerable friction between villagers and elites as well as among members of the local elite themselves over control of local resources. Differences in the structure of these cross-cutting internal relationships and of ties between local authorities and outside government and non-government agents largely explain the differences in degree of elite capture and its outcomes in the two cases.

  18. Morphometry and Lens of Eyes Bilih Fish (mystacoleucus padangensis, Bleeker) from Lake Toba, North Sumatra and Lake Singkarak, West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research has been carried out 2015. Bilih fish today need conservation and attention for sustainability. Habitat this fish is treated by human activities in Lake Singkarak, West Sumatera and Lake Toba in North Sumatera. The objectives of the research are describes morphometry of the body and relation with lens of eyes. The methods of the reasearch for measure all parts of surface body fish according www.fishbase.org. For measure and chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish (M. padangensis) are according Razak (2005). T he result of the research are indicated the size of morphology body Bilih Fish from Lake Toba and from Lake Singkarak is diffrent. Furthermore, diameter of lens is trend linier follow the growth of the body Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak and Lake Toba. The chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak contains Sulfur until 73.77% per 100 ppm, another substances like Calcium, Silicone, Magnesium, Phosporus 4.09%-4.83% per 100 ppm. The chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba contains Sulfur only 50.08% per 100 ppm, another substances like Kalium, Calcium, Silicone, Magnesium, Phosporus 1.09%-10.43% per 100 ppm. Kalium substance only found in lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba. As conclusion, morphometry body Bilih Fish from Lake Toba is bigger better than Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak and chemical composition lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba is influenced by environmental waters factors.

  19. Evaluation of mangrove reforestation and the impact to socioeconomic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Harahap, MA; Wati, R.; Slmaet, B.; Thoha, AS; Nuryawan, A.; Putri, LAP; Yusriani, E.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forests in North Sumatera existed in the east coast of Sumatera Island and are rapidly threatened due to anthropogenic activities such as conversion for aquaculture, oil palm plantation, filling and use of mangrove for urban development. The present study describes the current and first-year evaluation on mangrove restoration and its impact to socio economic-cultural of community in Lubuk Kertang village, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. The rehabilitation was carried on December 2015 using direct planting of 6,000 Rhizophora apiculata propagules and May 2016 using 5,000 R. apiculata seedlings. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaf thickness and number, and seedling growth rate. Ninety-two of 1,124 households were surveyed using Slovin formula to obtain community perspective on the socio-economic-cultural impact of reforestation. Results show that the growth rate for current and first-year evaluation was 93 and 86 %, respectively. By contrast, the height, diameter, and some leaves seedlings planting were shown better than the performance of propagules planting. No change in the green foliage plant thickness between both farming methods. The reforestation affected 71.74, 55.43 and 39.13% of economic, social, and cultural of Lubuk Kertang community, respectively. The data is likely to provide valuable information for mangrove reforestation in North Sumatra.

  20. Determination Of 137Cs Content In The Soil At Several Places In South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Buchari

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs in the soil samples have been conducted at several places in south Sumatera Province such as Palembang, Kayu Agung, Prabumulih, Muara Enim, Lahat, Lubuk Linggau, and Sekayu. The samples were collected from the different depth, i.e. 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm from the surface. Measurement of 137 Cs was done by using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the 137 Cs concentration was within the range of undetectable to (1.99 ± 0.36) Bq/kg with an average value of (1.64 ± 0.35) Bq/kg for the depth of 0-5 cm and within the range of undectable to (1.50 ± 0.33) Bq/kg with an average value of (0.91 ± 0.30) Bq/kg for the depth of 5-20 cm. (author)

  1. Concentrations, loads and yields of organic carbon from two tropical peat swamp forest streams in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Yupi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF stores large quantities of carbon. To estimate how much organic C is released from this type of landscape we determined organic carbon (C concentrations, loads and yields in two contrasting watercourses draining from PSF in Riau Province, Sumatra (Indonesia. Meranti Ditch (MD is an artificial watercourse whose small catchment (estimated area 4.8 km2 is in semi-intact condition, whereas Turip River (TR has a large natural catchment (estimated area 458 km2 covered with fairly intact PSF where > 75 % of the original canopy trees remain. The organic C load (Gg C yr-1 of each watercourse was calculated by combining TOC concentration with water discharge rate to give organic C yield (g C m-2 yr-1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was the dominant (95.0–99.8 % component of total organic carbon (TOC in the water. TOC concentration was 85–94 mg C L-1 in MD and 50–58 mg C L-1 in TR. The high concentration in MD was not surprising because this catchment had been disturbed by repeated phases of logging and a dense network of ditches was excavated ten years ago. The TOC loads were 0.23 Gg C yr-1 in MD and 14.0 Gg C yr-1 in TR. TOC yields (i.e. TOC fluxes through the fluvial system were 41.6–55.5 g C m-2 yr-1 in MD and 26.2–34.9 g C m-2 yr-1 in TR.

  2. The drug sensitivity and transmission dynamics of human malaria on Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryauff, D J; Leksana, B; Masbar, S; Wiady, I; Sismadi, P; Susanti, A I; Nagesha, H S; Syafruddin; Atmosoedjono, S; Bangs, M J; Baird, J K

    2002-07-01

    Nias Island, off the north-western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the first locations in which chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria was reported. This resistance is of particular concern because its ancient megalithic culture and the outstanding surfing conditions make the island a popular tourist destination. International travel to and from the island could rapidly spread chloroquine-resistant strains of P. vivax across the planet. The threat posed by such strains, locally and internationally, has led to the routine and periodic re-assessment of the efficacy of antimalarial drugs and transmission potential on the island. Active case detection identified malaria in 124 (17%) of 710 local residents whereas passive case detection, at the central health clinic, confirmed malaria in 77 (44%) of 173 cases of presumed 'clinical malaria'. Informed consenting volunteers who had malarial parasitaemias were treated, according to the Indonesian Ministry of Health's recommendations, with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on day 0 (for P. falciparum) or with chloroquine (CQ) on days 0, 1 and 2 (for P. vivax). Each volunteer was then monitored for clinical and parasite response until day 28. Recurrent parasitaemia by day 28 treatment was seen in 29 (83%) of the 35 P. falciparum cases given SP (14, 11 and four cases showing RI, RII and RIII resistance, respectively). Recurrent parasitaemia was also observed, between day 11 and day 21, in six (21%) of the 28 P. vivax cases given CQ. Although the results of quantitative analysis confirmed only low prevalences of CQ-resistant P. vivax malaria, the prevalence of SP resistance among the P. falciparum cases was among the highest seen in Indonesia. When the parasites present in the volunteers with P. falciparum infections were genotyped, mutations associated with pyrimethamine resistance were found at high frequency in the dhfr gene but there was no evidence of selection for sulfadoxine resistance in the dhps gene

  3. Influence of land area and capital strengthening fund of rural economic enterprises toward corn production in North Sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanta

    2018-02-01

    Corn is one of the staple food crops. Corn can also be processed into various foods and also as animal feed. The need for corn will continue to increase from year to year so it is necessary to increase production. The government has targeted corn crop self-sufficiency to achieve the corn production standards required by the animal feed industry. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of land area and capital strengthening funds to rural economic enterprises on corn production. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency of North Sumatra Province. The research method used is panel regression method. The result shows that the area of land has a significant effect on corn production and the capital strengthening fund to the rural economy institution has an insignificant effect on corn production in North Sumatera Province.

  4. Influence of Public Service Quality in Citizen Satisfaction (Study in Private Hospital Y in Padang, West Sumatra Province

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    Aldri Frinaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in public service particularly health care service is the public’s increasing demand for better quality of service. Therefore, hospitals as one of the means of health care providers should be able to increase public satisfaction. This is important to win the trust of patients and/or families of patients who come for treatment. The lack of patients’ satisfaction in the quality of service in hospitals in Indonesia contributes to the Indonesians’ choice of medical treatment abroad. Therefore, the study aims to determine the influence of quality of services provided by the hospital toward patients’ satisfaction. This quantitative research surveyed patients in Hospital Y in Padang city using questionnaire as a research instrument. The population is all the patients and/or families of patients who are served in the hospital during the data collection in the month of May to August 2014. A sample of 100 people was selected using accidental sampling. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and averages using SPSS version16 for windows. Simple linear regression analysis technique was used for data analysis. Location of the study was a private hospital located in the city of Padang, West Sumatra Province, which in this research is referred as private hospital Y. The results of this study indicates that there is a significant relation between the quality of service to the citizen satisfaction with the regression equation Y = 44.967 + 2.612 X with value of correlation (r = 0.760, and the influence of quality of service to the public satisfaction in 57.8%. Then the results Achievement Level Respondents (TCR in the quality of public services obtained a value of 74.8% with quite good category and to the satisfaction of the public to the TCR value of 75.3%with quite good category. It shows the quality of care in hospitals Y must be improved in order to obtain an increase in user satisfaction of the people who

  5. Phenomenon of Women Marginalization in Poor Family in Pakpak Community (A Case Study in Pegagan Julu Village, Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi Regency - North Sumatra - Indonesia

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    Hadriana Marhaeni Munthe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is taken from the study of marginalization cases experienced by Pakpak women of rural poor families. The study was conducted in Pegagan village of Sumbul Subdistrict, Dairi, North Sumatra province. The marginalization phenomenon is shown in some aspects; restrictions on women's access to formal education, tendency of dropping out of school, having no inheritance rights and no role in the decision making of custom. Related to this phenomenon, the research question of this study is how the process of marginalization experienced by women in their family is.Marxist structural feminist perspective and qualitative approach with feminist perspective were used to answer the research question. The findings of the study finally show that the structured patriarchy ideology as gender ideology in family becomes the cause of women marginalization. Patriarchy becoming gender ideological construction in Pakpak family is interpreted and expressed in the form of private patriarchy, that is a hegemonizing system or structure of men power that has dominated and subordinated social position of women in Pakpak families.

  6. Peasant women and access to land : customary law, state law and gender-based ideology : the case of the Toba-Batak (North Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolon, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    This study is about opportunities, constraints and strategies regarding access to land of peasant women who live in the changing Toba-Batak patrilineal community of North Sumatra. Their access to land is seen in the wider context of the ongoing pressure of land scarcity due to

  7. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  8. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  9. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswata Kartawinata

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available KARTAWINATA, KUSWATA; SAMSOEDIN, ISMAYADI; HERIYANTO, M. AND AFRIASTINI, J. J. 2004. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 145 – 157. The results of the inventory of trees with DBH ≥ 10 cm shows that 184 species in 41 families, represented by 583 individuals with the total basal areas of 40.56 m² occurred in the one-hectare plot sampled. Together with the saplings and shrubs the number of species was 240 belonging to 47 families. The forest is richer in tree species than other lowland forests in North Sumatra, but poorer than those in Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Dipterocarps constituted 18.42 % of total species with basal area of 18.99 m² or 46.82 % of the total basal area in the plot. The most prominent species was Shorea gibbosa. Hopea nigra, reported to be rare in Bangka and Belitung, occurred here as one of the ten leading species. The species-area curve shows that a considerable number of additional species was encountered more or less steadily up to one hectare and there was no indication of levelling off. A simulated profile diagram shows the forest may be stratified into five layers: (1 emergent layer, (2 upper canopy, (3 middle canopy, (4 lower canopy and (5 ground canopy. Dipterocarps were leading species in the emergent layer, upper canopy and middle canopy. Only 82 species were regenerating as represented by their presence in the sapling stage ranging from 5 to 50 plants/hectare. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. f. dominated the section which seemed to be previously occupied by gaps.

  10. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  11. Prospect of Cattle Development to Support Self Sufficiency of Meat in North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Rifai Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of beef supply to meet national needs is also found locally in North Sumatera Province. The trend for beef in this area was triggered by the increasing of population, economic improvement and desire for better nutrient comsumption. Level of beef consumption is increased 17% from year 2004 to 2008, so in the same period the number of cattle entered into the North Sumatera Province also increased. Some efforts had been conducted to develop beef cattle program in North Sumatera Self Sufficiency Program in Beef through technical and policy approaches. Several programs have been developed to accelerate the development of productivity and the population in North Sumatra, among others, 1 Agribusiness Development Program, 2 Food Security Improvement Program, 3 Farmer's Welfare Program; which are financed by both central and local budgets. Institutional aspects that have been developed to support the PSDS-2014 is the Regional Artificial Insemination Center to serve the needs of semen for districts and municipalities in the Province of North Sumatera. In the year 2008, it has been distributed as many as 44 000 doses of semen for frozen semen to meet the demands of 11 Districts. The amount of land resources for development indicated the availability of pastural land area of 1,311,159 ha from oil palm and rubber plantation, area of 1,192,172 ha for crops and livestock integration system. It is estimated that biomass production of rice straw, bean straw and sugarcane straw reaches 7,062,227; 68 145 and 14 664 tons per year, respectively. Also available as many as 689,478 tons of rice bran and palm oil industry waste as much as 4,159,203 tons per year. Some challenges in the North Sumatera PSDS programs in accordance with a predetermined time include: 1 Not all of the stakeholders get a complete information about the program, 2 the difficulties to prevent productive cows being slaughtered, 3 limited capital in an effort to pick up and redistribute

  12. Tropical Indo-Pacific hydroclimate response to North Atlantic forcing during the last deglaciation as recorded by a speleothem from Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Jennifer B.; Abram, Nerilie J.; Lewis, Sophie C.; Bajo, Petra; Hellstrom, John C.; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Heslop, David

    2018-06-01

    Abrupt changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are known to have affected the strength of the Indian and Asian Monsoons during glacial and deglacial climate states. However, there is still much uncertainty around the hydroclimate response of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) region to abrupt climate changes in the North Atlantic. Many studies suggest a mean southward shift in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the IPWP region during phases of reduced Atlantic meridional overturning, however, existing proxies have seasonal biases and conflicting responses, making it difficult to determine the true extent of North Atlantic forcing in this climatically important region. Here we present a precisely-dated, high-resolution record of eastern Indian Ocean hydroclimate variability spanning the last 16 ky (thousand years) from δ18O measurements in an aragonite-calcite speleothem from central Sumatra. This represents the western-most speleothem record from the IPWP region. Precipitation arrives year-round at this site, with the majority sourced from the local tropical eastern Indian Ocean and two additional long-range seasonal sources associated with the boreal and austral summer monsoons. The Sumatran speleothem demonstrates a clear deglacial structure that includes 18O enrichment during the Younger Dryas and 18O depletion during the Bølling-Allerød, similar to the pattern seen in speleothems of the Asian and Indian monsoon realms. The speleothem δ18O changes at this site are best explained by changes in rainfall amount and changes in the contributions from different moisture pathways. Reduced rainfall in Sumatra during the Younger Dryas is most likely driven by reductions in moisture transport along the northern or southern monsoon transport pathways to Sumatra. Considered with other regional proxies, the record from Sumatra suggests the response of the IPWP to North Atlantic freshwater forcing is not solely driven by southward shifts of the

  13. The local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisyawati, Aini, R. N.; Silalahi, M.; Purba, E. C.; Avifah, N.

    2017-07-01

    Research on the local knowledge of food plants used by Karo ethnic in the Semangat Gunung Village, North Sumatra has been done. The aim of this study is to reveal plant species that used by the people of Karo ethnic as food. We used the ethnobotanical approach which included open-ended, semi-structural interview, and exploration method. One eldervillage, 2 traditional healers, and 30 respondents have been selected as sources of information. Descriptive statistics have been used to analyze the gathered data. A number of 109 species which belong to 83 genus and 45 families known to be used as food sources by Karo people. Four families have the highest number of food plant species, which are Solanaceae (8 species), Poaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species), and Zingiberaceae (6 species). All of those families are found in the village, both wild and Cultivated. Solanaceae is used as source of fruits, vegetables, and spices. Poaceae is used as the source of the staple food, alternative food sources, snacks, spices, and traditional foods. Fabaceae is used as source of vegetables and traditional foods. Zingiberaceae is used as source of spices.

  14. Flowering and fruiting phenology of Kemenyan toba (Styrax sumatrana J.J.Sm.) in AekNauli forest, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholibrina, C. R.; Aswandi; Susilowati, A.

    2018-02-01

    The observation on flowering, fruiting phenology and germination of Kemenyan toba (Styrax sumatrana) has not been widely reported. It isrequired to support the breeding activities for this tree improvement, the most Non-Timber Forest Product commodity in Lake Toba Catchment Area, North Sumatra. The objectives of the research were to identify the development of flowering, fruiting andto calculate the number of fruits that germinate for S. sumatrana in certain cycle period. The flowering and fruiting observation were conducted on ten sample trees in Aek Nauli forest from July 2012 to February 2013. The seeds viability was observed from January to November 2014 in the greenhouse. The study showed that the flowering development occurred for 30 to 152 days, began from the growing of generative buds, the flower’s shoots and bursts were developed, and young fruits were matured. All of processes proceeded for 30 to 152 days. The average percentage of flowering is 53.5%, and 72.8% for flowering to fruiting, and 47.3% for young to mature fruit. The percentage of mature fruit to germinate was 89.3%.

  15. NOTES ON THE PALM FLORA OF CENTRAL SUMATRA

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    John Dransfield

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In July and August 1972, I spent five weeks on an expedition to study rattans and other palms in the provinces of Jambi and West Sumatra. This central area of Sumatra was chosen because expeditions have already been made to South Sumatra in February 1971 and March 1972 and to North Sumatra and Aceh with the Kyoto University Expedition in August 1971, and therefore collections made in this central area would link up collections from the south and north and would hence add considerably to our knowledge of the palm flora of this rich island. After advice from the Department of Nature Conservation in Jambi and from Dr. M. Jacobs in Rijksherbarium (Leiden had been considered, it was decided to work westwards from Berbak Nature Reserve on the east coast near Nipah Panjang, to the Bukit Barisan, the main range of Sumatra, to Gunung Kerinci Nature Reserve and G. Tujuh near Sungai Penuh and from there, across the western part of the Bukit Barisan to Padang and Bukittinggi. From Bukittinggi it was planned to visit the Kafflesia arnoldii Nature Reserve at Batang Palupuh, and then return to Jambi by way of Muara Tebo and Muara Tembesi, where reputedly there still exists lowland forest. By more or less confining our collecting activities to the normally neglected Palmae it was hoped that within the time available a large area could be covered reasonably, and a palm transect for central Sumatra made. Two assistants from Bogor accompanied me to help in the difficult task of collecting rattans: Dedy Darnaedi (Herbarium Bogoriense and Abdul Hanan (Kebun Raya. These assistants were also given individual collecting assignments as part of a scheme for training assistants in field botany. Dedy was to collect Pteridophyta and Hanan to collect material for growing in the Kebun Raya. Soetrisno Soewoko, head of Nature Conservation in Jambi accompanied us throughout tha expedition.

  16. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy In North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeharwinto [University of Sumatra Utara, Medan (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. A key component of the recent political reforms undertaken in Indonesia is the decentralization and regional autonomy that were implemented in 2001. This process has devolved almost all powers and responsibilities from the central government to the local government, including responsibilities for energy sector development. This means that regional governments are now responsible for formulating their energy policy and, consequently, must reform their institutional structure and strengthen their human capacity to be able to carry out this new responsibility. In Indonesia, people living in urban areas generally have access to efficient and modern energy supplies. However, the rural communities are generally less fortunate and continue to rely on traditional fuels of firewood, because the energy and electricity production system available to them are costly and inefficient. The aim of CASINDO's Technical Working Group V (TWG V) on Identification of Energy Needs and Assessment for Poor Communities was to establish energy-related needs and priorities of poor communities in selected locations in the Province of Central Java. The target location for Casindo TWG V activities was the village of Sruni, in the Boyolali district, because it is a district which produces a great amount of milk from dairy cows (greatest amount in Central Java); and secondly, because it does not receive any funds from other development programs, as well as from other institutions, while other subdistricts do. In order to identify actual energy needs successfully, the Participatory

  17. FIRST BREEDING RECORD OF JAVAN MUNIA (LONCHURA LEUCOGASTROIDES IN SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Javan Munia (Lonchura leucogastroides is recently common bird species in southern Sumatra, but no breeding record reported in Sumatra. On 11 October 2015, an active nest of Javan Munia and few juveniles were seen among bunches of Banana (Musa sp fruits in Sukarejo village, Musi Rawas district, South Sumatra province. This observation is constitute first record of Javan Munia in Sumatra.

  18. List of Orchidaceae collected in 1937 by Dr C. G. G. J. van Steenis in Atjeh (North Sumatra)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1943-01-01

    Platanthera angustata (Bl.) Lndl., Gen. et sp. Orch. (1835), 290; etc. Sumatra: Atjeh, Gajolanden, Poetjoek Angasan, bivouac 1 to 2, 2700 m, blang ground, marshy heath, common (C. G. G. J. van Steenis n. 8350, 28 Jan. 1937). G. Leuser, bivouac 4—5, watershed, 2700—2800 m (C. G. G. J. van Steenis n.

  19. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  20. Mimicry of the Legal: Translating de jure Land Formalization Processes Into de facto Local Action in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Kunz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, as in many other countries of the global South, processes to formalize rights over land have been implemented with the intention to reduce deforestation, decrease poverty and increase tenure security. Literature on de jure processes of land formalization is widely available. There is a gap, however, on the discrepancy of de jure land titling procedures and de facto strategies to legitimize land claims. Led by the theoretical concepts of “law as process” and “politics of scale”, this study closes this gap by analyzing the impact of national tenure formalization processes on de facto local patterns of land titling. Using empirical material from 16 villages in Jambi province, we show that the outcomes of the state-led land reforms and land tenure formalization processes are imitated and translated into locally feasible actions. We refer to these translation processes as “mimicry of the legal”. The land formalization endeavors fostering mimicry of the legal allow for resource exploitation and rent-seeking behavior.

  1. Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Ecosystems of Musi and Banyuasin Estuarine, South Sumatra Province (Stok Karbon Ekosistem Mangrove di Estuarin Musi dan Banyuasin, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Melki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hutan mangrove di daerah estuari mampu menghasilkan stok karbon yang sangat besar sebagai daerah perlindungan dan pemulihan yang efektif sebagai strategi mitigasi perubahan iklim yang efektif. Pemilihan ekosistem pesisir dalam strategi mitigasi memerlukan kuantifikasi stok karbon untuk menghitung emisi atau penyerapan berdasarkan waktu. Penelitian ini menghitung stok karbon pada ekosistem Musi Estuari Waters (MEW dan Banyuasin Estuari Water (BEW, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tipe vegetasi yang berbeda dan hubungan variabel lingkungan dengan stok karbon. Di tujuh lokasi dalam MEW dan BEW sampel vegetasi dan tanah. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah nilai yang lebih tinggi dari stok karbon di vegetasi dari lokasi III/MEW (7.600,92 mg.ha-1, stok karbon dalam tanah dari lokasi II/MEW (61.081,87 mg.ha-1 dan stok karbon di ekosistem dari lokasi II (64.548,54 mg.ha-1. Mangrove A. marina merupakan yang paling baik menyimpan stok carbon termasuk antara vegetasi dan tanah karena toleransi salinitas yang rendah. Kata kunci: mangrove, karbon, estuari, Musi, Banyuasin Mangrove forests in estuarines can have exceptionally large carbon stocks and their protection and restoration would constitute an effective mitigation strategy to climate change. Inclusion of coastal ecosystems in mitigation strategies require quantification of carbon stocks in order to calculate emissions or sequestration through time. This study quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of the Musi Estuarine Waters (MEW and Banyuasin Estuarine Water (BEW, Province of South Sumatra into different vegetation types and examined relationships of environmental variables with carbon stocks. At seven sites within MEW and BEW of vegetation and soil samples. The results that the higher value of carbon stock in vegetation from Site III/MEW (7.600,92 mg.ha-1, the carbon stock in soil from Site II/MEW (61.081,87 mg.ha-1 and carbon stock in ecosystem from Site II (64.548,54 mg.ha-1. Mangrove of A. marina the

  2. Herpetofauna, Parc National des Volcans, North Province, Republic of Rwanda

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    Roelke, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein is presented a list of the reptiles and anurans from the Parc National des Volcans (PNV(01°43’ S, 29°52’ W, an area in the west and north provinces of the Republic of Rwanda in the Albertine Riftregion of Africa. Fieldwork was conducted between two and six days per week from June through August2007 and 2008. We also conducted literature searches of all historical expeditions within the park for speciesrecords. Seventeen species of reptiles and anurans are recorded from the PNV. Nine of the species were anurans,distributed in five families: Arthroleptidae (3, Bufonidae (1, Hyperoliidae (3, Phrynobatrachidae (1, andPipidae (1. Eight species of reptiles were recorded from five families: Chamaeleonidae (1, Lacertidae (2,Scincidae (2, Colubridae (2, and Viperidae (1. Eight of the seventeen species found in the PNV are endemicto the Albertine Rift.

  3. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

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    Nadali Musanejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran.Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated.Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%.Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.

  4. 2004 Sumatra Tsunami

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    Vongvisessomjai, S.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A catastrophic tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused devastation in the coastal region of six southern provinces of Thailand on the Andaman Sea coast. This paper summaries the characteristics of tsunami with the aim of informing and warning the public and reducing future casualties and damage.The first part is a review of the records of past catastrophic tsunamis, namely those in Chile in 1960, Alaska in 1964, and Flores, Java, Indonesia, in 1992, and the lessons drawn from these tsunamis. An analysis and the impact of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami is then presented and remedial measures recommended.Results of this study are as follows:Firstly, the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranked fourth in terms of earthquake magnitude (9.0 M after those in 1960 in Chile (9.5 M, 1899 in Alaska (9.2 M and 1964 in Alaska (9.1 M and ranked first in terms of damage and casualties. It was most destructive when breaking in shallow water nearshore.Secondly, the best alleviation measures are 1 to set up a reliable system for providing warning at the time of an earthquake in order to save lives and reduce damage and 2 to establish a hazard map and implement land-use zoning in the devastated areas, according to the following principles:- Large hotels located at an elevation of not less than 10 m above mean sea level (MSL- Medium hotels located at an elevation of not less than 6 m above MSL- Small hotel located at elevation below 6 m MSL, but with the first floor elevated on poles to allow passage of a tsunami wave- Set-back distances from shoreline established for various developments- Provision of shelters and evacuation directionsFinally, public education is an essential part of preparedness.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  6. Mapping and analysis land-use and land-cover changes during 1996-2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Fitri, A.; Harahap, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forest plays a significant role for biogeochemical carbon cycle in the context of climate change along the tropical coastal area. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes from 1996, 2006 and 2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove diversity in Lubuk Kertang consists of fifteen species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, A. lanata, A. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, L. littorea, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Xylocarpus granatum. The land use/land cover consists of seven classes namely, mangrove forest, river, residential, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, and open space area. A land use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest 109.4 ha from 1996-2006 converted to aquaculture 51.5 ha (47.1%). By contrast, mangrove lost 291.2 ha during 2006-2016, with main driver deforestation was oil palm plantation 128.1 ha (44%). During twenty years mangrove forest has been lost more than 400.4 ha, which is equal to 20.02 ha/year. On the other hand, oil palm plantation and aquaculture have been increased 155.3 ha and 114.1 ha during 1996-2016, respectively, suggested that both land-uses are mainly responsible for mangrove deforestation. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning and practice and mitigating actions for emission reduction scenario.

  7. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly - Priatna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PRIATNA, D.; KARTAWINATA, K.; ABDULHADI, R. 2004. Recovery of a lowland dipterocarp forest twenty two years after selective logging at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (3: 237–255. — A permanent 2-ha plot of lowland forest selectively logged in 1978 at Sekundur, Gunung Leuser National Park, which is also a Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site, North Sumatra, was established and investigated in 1982. It was re-examined in 2000, where remeasurement and reidentification of all trees with DBH 10 cm were made. The areas of gap, building and mature phases of the canopy were also measured and mapped. Within this plot, 133 species, 87 genera and 39 families were recorded, with the total number of trees of 1145 or density of 572.5/ha. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family with 18 species (13.5 % of the total and total number of trees of 248 (21.7 % of the total or density of 124 trees/ha. The most important families were Dipterocarpaceae with IV (Importance Value = 52.0, followed by Euphorbiaceae with IV = 51.8. The most prevalent species was Shorea kunstleri (Dipterocarpaceae with IV =24.4, followed by Macaranga diepenhorstii (Euphorbiaceae with IV = 12.4. They were the species with highest density, 34 trees/ha and 23.5 trees/ha, respectively. During the period of 18 years there has been no shift in the richest families, most important families and most important species. Euphorbiaceae was the richest family and Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family, with Shorea kunstleri as the most important species with highest importance value throughout the period. The number of species increased from 127 to 133 with increase in density by 36.8% , from 418.5 trees/ha to 572.5 trees/ha. The mortality was 25.57 % or 1.4 % per year. The diameter class distribution indicated that the forest recovery has not been complete. Trees were small, comprising 67.6 % with diameters of 10-20 cm and only two trees

  8. Implication of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change into Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Wildlife Reserve, North Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Mohammad Basyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest in the context of climate change is important sector to be included in the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The present study describes land-use and land-cover change during 2006–2012 of a mangrove forest conservation area, Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Laut Wildlife Reserve (KGLTLWR in North Sumatra, Indonesia and their implications to carbon dioxide emissions. A land-use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest due to increases of other land-use such as aquaculture (50.00% and oil palm plantation (28.83%. Furthermore, the net cumulative of carbon emissions in KGLTLWR for 2006 was 3804.70 t CO2-eq year-1, whereas predicting future emissions in 2030 was 11,318.74 t CO2-eq year-1 or an increase of 33.61% for 12 years. Source of historical emissions mainly from changes of secondary mangrove forests into aquaculture and oil palm plantation were 3223.9 t CO2-eq year-1 (84.73% and 959.00 t CO2-eq year-1 (25.21%, respectively, indicating that the KGLTLWR is still a GHG emitter. Mitigation scenario with no conversion in secondary mangrove forest reduced 16.21% and 25.8% carbon emissions in 2024 and 2030, respectively. This study suggested that aquaculture and oil palm plantation are drivers of deforestation as well as the largest of GHG emission source in this area. Keywords: carbon emission, climate change, deforestation, forest degradation, mangrove conservation

  9. Environmental quality in the Dutch province North-Holland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, S.

    2002-08-01

    An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport) [nl

  10. Evaluation of Rhizophora Mucronata Growth at first-year Mangrove Restoration at Abandoned Ponds, Langkat, North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Telaumbanua, TFC; Wati, R.; Sulistyono, N.; Putri, LAP

    2018-03-01

    Degraded mangrove areas can be restored and rehabilitated. In Indonesia, one of the main recommended of mangrove species for restoration of degraded was Rhizophora mucronata. The purpose of the study was to evaluate R. mucronata growth at first-year mangrove restoration at abandoned shrimp ponds, Pulau Sembilan village, Langkat, North Sumatera, Indonesia. The recovery area divided into three zones based on the salinity concentration, landward, middle, and seaward zones. The evaluation parameters of mangrove reforestation consist of seedling diameter and height, leaves number, and seedling growth rate. Results showed that 3 of 4 evaluation parameters of R. mucronata growth belong to landward zone, namely seedlings diameter, the number of leaves, and percentage of growth. By contrast, height R. mucronata seedlings dominated in the middle area. The study also found that the proper zone for mangrove restoration with R. mucronata was in the landward with 96% growth rate and 30 part per thousand salinity concentration. The present study, therefore, suggested that the recommended species for the degraded area was the prerequisite for successful mangrove restoration.

  11. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

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    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  12. Class ranking of secondary schools in the North West province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model also provides for the construction of a step-by-step improvement plan for underperforming schools. The suggested framework was applied to 54 secondary schools in one of the four major municipal districts in the North West province of South Africa. Results are contrasted with the application of an ordinary DEA ...

  13. Evaluation of primary mental health care in North West province – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Owing to many complaints by health care workers and patients and a perceived poor standard of care, the mental health care services in North West province were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The Mental Health Care Act of 2002 makes provision for the integration of services into ...

  14. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  15. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  16. A sedimentological approach to refining reservoir architecture in a mature hydrocarbon province: the Brent Province, UK North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampson, G.J.; Sixsmith, P.J.; Johnson, H.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering

    2004-04-01

    Improved reservoir characterisation in the mature Brent Province of the North Sea, aimed at maximising both in-field and near-field hydrocarbon potential, requires a clearer understanding of sub-seismic stratigraphy and facies distributions. In this context, we present a regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Brent Group, UK North Sea based on extensive sedimentological re-interpretation of core and wireline-log data, combined with palynostratigraphy and published literature. This framework is used to place individual reservoirs in an appropriate regional context, thus resulting in the identification of subtle sedimentological and tectono-stratigraphic features of reservoir architecture that have been previously overlooked. We emphasise the following insights gained from our regional, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic synthesis: (1) improved definition of temporal and spatial trends in deposition both within and between individual reservoirs, (2) development of regionally consistent, predictive sedimentological models for two enigmatic reservoir intervals (the Broom and Tarbert Formations), and (3) recognition of subtle local tectono-stratigraphic controls on reservoir architecture, and their links to the regional, Middle Jurassic structural evolution of the northern North Sea. We discuss the potential applications of these insights to the identification of additional exploration potential and to improved ultimate recovery. (author)

  17. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  18. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  19. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont province of North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.R.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont province in North Carolina, emphasizing those features most pertinent to selection of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal. Discussion of criteria for selection indicates that the outcrop area of the rock body, probable homogeneity, low incidence of fractures, and low permeability are among the prime considerations. Application of the criteria leads to the selection of three large granite batholiths (Castalia, Churchland, and Rolesville) as potential field study areas. The report has an extensive bibliography

  20. Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A Babaniyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

  1. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 22. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2007. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hasibi, R.A. [Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2007.

  2. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 23. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2008. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Hasibi, R.A. [Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta PUSPER-UMY, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2008.

  3. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 21. Energy Profile of Yogyakarta Province 2006. Regional CASINDO Team of Yogyakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report gives an overview of the province Yogyakarta, Indonesia, focusing on the energy balance in 2006.

  4. BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN THE LAMPUNG PROVINCE, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jacobs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the report of a trip in 1968 conducted by Dr. M. Jacobs of the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, Netherlands, and Dr. B. Prijanto of the Forest Research Institute, Bogor, Indonesia. Financial support was given by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO. Our sincere thanks are due to the liberal way in which this organisation made the enterprise possible, as a continuation of an expedition to the Philippines, on which a report by the same author is now in the press with the journal Blumea.

  5. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  6. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  7. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  8. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  9. December 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) generated a tsunami that was observed worldwide and caused...

  10. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  11. Occupational Stress and Strain of Support Staff at a Higher Education Institution in the North West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, F. E.; Naude, J. L. P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stressors and strains for support staff at a higher education institution in the North West Province, and to assess the differences between the stressors and strains of different biographical groups. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 315) was used. The ASSET and a biographical…

  12. An Evaluation of the Viles Tok Ples Skul Scheme in the North Solomons Province. ERU Report No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpit, Lisa D.; Kemelfield, Graeme

    The local-language-medium schools of North Solomons Province are described and evaluated. The Viles Tok Ples Skuls (VTPS) provide education in both the indigenous languages (tok ples) and English as a means of integrating the past with modern development, as is preferred by the local people. The report contains seven chapters. The first gives the…

  13. Assessing the Vulnerability of Wheat Farmers to Drought in North of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is constantly exposed to natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and drought. In the meantime, drought is the major natural disaster which leads to numerous losses in agriculture and water resources, and this phenomenon is slow and creeping.Available evidence suggests that drought management is based on crisis management. As the present management in our country is based on crisis management, and drought-proneareasin thecountryhave become a society vulnerable to drought. So, the authorities require a new set of data for drought preparedness to deal with these challenges, in order to obtain the resources to be properly and effectively prioritized and reduce the effects of drought and its consequences. Undoubtedly, the starting point of vulnerability assessment and risk management is a prerequisite that has been sadly neglected in our country. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the vulnerability of technical, economic and social vulnerability assessment determined before and after the drought and vulnerability patterns for wheat farmers in the North of Fars province. Materials and Methods: The vulnerability of wheat farmers in the North of Fars province is determined using three methods. The first method measured ex ante vulnerability based on estimated income distributions, and the other identified ex post vulnerability according to farmers asset positions and drought coping strategy in the 1390 drought. The final section determined the patterns of vulnerability using cluster analysis and data mining. A sample of 203 farmers in three plains was selected for interview and collection of necessary farm level data for two years (1390 and 1391 was carried out. In this study, to assess the vulnerability of households in the North of Fars province against drought, the formula Me-bar and Valdez has been used. In North of Fars province, as many other fields, agriculture is the main source of income and income

  14. Mental Health in Sumatra After the Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Friedman, Jed; Gillespie, Thomas; Ingwersen, Nicholas; Pynoos, Robert; Rifai, Iip Umar; Sikoki, Bondan; Steinberg, Alan; Sumantri, Cecep; Suriastini, Wayan; Thomas, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the levels and correlates of posttraumatic stress reactivity (PTSR) of more than 20000 adult tsunami survivors by analyzing survey data from coastal Aceh and North Sumatra, Indonesia. Methods. A population-representative sample of individuals interviewed before the tsunami was traced in 2005 to 2006. We constructed 2 scales measuring PTSR by using 7 symptom items from the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist–Civilian Version. One scale measured PTSR at the time of interview, and the other measured PTSR at the point of maximum intensity since the disaster. Results. PTSR scores were highest for respondents from heavily damaged areas. In all areas, scores declined over time. Gender and age were significant predictors of PTSR; markers of socioeconomic status before the tsunami were not. Exposure to traumatic events, loss of kin, and property damage were significantly associated with higher PTSR scores. Conclusions. The tsunami produced posttraumatic stress reactions across a wide region of Aceh and North Sumatra. Public health will be enhanced by the provision of counseling services that reach not only people directly affected by the tsunami but also those living beyond the area of immediate impact. PMID:18633091

  15. INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC IN CORAL REEF OF BACAN ISLAND WATERS, NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE

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    Hendrik A.W. Cappenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacan Island waters of North Maluku Province consisted of three main tropical ecosystems, namely mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef with the highest marine biodiversity. Mollusc is a group of marine fauna that most of them associated with coral reef.  However, little is known about their information in the Bacan Island due to lack of study conducted there. The purpose of this study is to observe the diversity and distribution of mollusc fauna in the coral reef flat of Bacan Island. Mollusc inventory was done using Rapid Reef Resource Assessment (RRA method by snorkling in the reefs of east coast (25 sites and west coast (10 sites of Bacan Island. The molluscs found were directly identified into species level and recorded.  Results of inventory show that there are 47 species belong to 19 families with the family of Muricidae is the highest diversity (6 species, while the lowest are Buccinidae, Bursidae, Haliotidae, Olividae, Cardiidae, Isognomonidae and Spondylidae, respectively with only 1 species in each of those families. The highest species number of mollusc was distributed along the east coast of the island (40 species, and the lowest one was in the west coast (37 species. Some species such as Tridacna spp., Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin are important species, because they have economical values. Keywords:       biodiversity, molluscs, coral reef, Bacan Island, North Maluku

  16. Livelihood and Rural Tourism Development in Coastal Area North Maluku Province Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrianto Singgalen, Yerik; Maxwell Simange, Silvanus

    2018-05-01

    The livelihood of the people who live in the villages in coastal and remote areas can be developed into tourism area based on local wisdom to achieve sustainable tourism. Tunuo village is a village that has a wealth of Natural Resources and the Cultural Resources to support tourism. Nevertheless, Tunuo Village has problems related to Human Resources to support tourism. Meanwhile, the livelihood of Tunuo Village as producers of copra have constraints, namely access to economic capital. The gain from copra sale is erratic and prone to change, it encourages people to seek income from other options to meet their needs. These economic pressures encourage the development of environmentally damaging activities, such as fishing using homemade bombs so that reefs may be damaged. There are also other activities, such as the production, distribution, and consumption of traditional liquor made from palm tree sap, locally known as Saguer. Therefore, the present tourism as a sector that could provide opportunities for the villagers of Tunuo to earn extra income as well as efforts to preserve the environment, and culture. This research was conducted in the village of Tunuo, North Kao District, North Halmahera Regency, North Maluku province, Indonesia. The method is qualitative Participatory Action Research (PAR). The results indicate that people have a desire and a strong motivation to develop, so that the process of forming the Tourism Awareness Group (Pokdarwis) and its seven charms (saptapesona) can take place properly. As of the socialization of tourism awareness, as well as capacity building seminar for Pokdarwiswould be able to mobilize the community to clean up trash on the beach and to encourage communities to develop local knowledge into a leading tourism product.

  17. To Manage Of Lubuk Larangan AS A Environmental Wisdom In Salambue Village Panyabungan Kota Subdistrict Mandailing Natal Regency North Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Rikiyan Qadri; Bathara, Lamun; ', Kusai

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted in December 2014 in Salambue village Panyabungan Kota subdistrict. This research was aimed to know the history of lubuk larangan, how to manage lubuk larangan, and describing the advantages of lubuk larangan. It began in 1982 based on togetherness agreement. Managing were by Hatobangon, village functionary and local citizen was 37 peoples, donate voluntarily each one Rp 50.000, - for purchasing Goldfish seed (Cyprinus caprio) and Garing fish (Tor soro), steakingout...

  18. Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh ARZAMANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran.Methods: One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Results: Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp. Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent.Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.

  19. Decomposition rate of Rhizopora stylosa litter in Tanjung Rejo Village, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambey, R.; Delvian; Sianturi, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    Research on the decomposition rate of Rhizopora stylosa litter in Tanjung Rejo village, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatera Province was conducted from September 2016 to May 2017. The objectives of this research were (1) to measure the decomposition rate of Rhizophora stylosa litter and (2) to determine the type of functional fungi in decomposition of litter. R. stylosa litter decomposition is characterized by a reduction in litter weight per observation period. Decomposition rate tended to increase every week, which was from 0.238 in the seventh day and reached 0.302 on the fiftysixthth day. The decomposition rate of R. stylosa litter of leaf was high with the value of k per day > 0,01 caused by macrobentos and fungi, and also the decomposition of R. stylosa litter conducted in the pond area which is classified far from the coast. Therefore, to enable the high population of fungi which affect the decomposition rate of the litter. The types of fungi decomposers were: Aspergillus sp.-1, Aspergillus sp.-2, Aspergillus sp.-3, Rhizophus sp.-1., Rhizophus sp.-2, Penicillium sp., Syncephalastrum sp. and Fusarium sp.

  20. Intestinal Helminths in Different Species of Rodents in North Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzamani, Kourosh; Salehi, Mitra; Mobedi, Iraj; Adinezade, Amir; Hasanpour, Hamid; Alavinia, Mohammad; Darvish, Jamshid; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are an important source of zoonotic diseases for human. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of rodents with intestinal helminths in North Khorasan Province, Iran. One hundred and thirteen rodents were collected using different collection methods such as kill and live traps, digging of their burrow, filling of their hiding places with water and hand net during 2011-2013. Their alimentary canals were removed in the laboratory and helminths were determined in the department of parasitology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Thirteen species of helminths parasites were found in 13 species of rodents, including Aspiculuris tetraptera, Hymenolepis diminuta, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Protospirura Seurat, Rictolaria ratti, Skrjabinitaenia lobata, Streptopharagus kuntzi, Syphacia obvelata, Taenia taeniaeformis, Trichuris muris, Cysticercus fasciolaris, Acanthocephal. spp and Trichuris spp . Some of them were reported for the first time in new host in Iran. S. obvelata and A. tetraptera were the most frequent parasites and P. Seurat, R. ratti and C. fasciolaris were found only in one rodent. This is the first study to investigate the intestinal parasites in rodents in this area. Among different species identified, some of helminths were reported in new host.

  1. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  2. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  3. Abundance of sea cucumbers on the ecosystem of seagrasses Inunggeh island, Tapanuli Tengah Regency North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisesa, M. M.; Bakti, D.; Fadhilah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Unggeh Island is one area that has the potential of Sea Cucumber in the North Sumatra. Sea cucumbers have an important role in ecosystem waters, namely as a deposit feeder. Sea cucumbers can live in shallow waters, such as seagrass ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to knowing the abundance of sea cucumbers in the seagrass ecosystems on the island of Unggeh and to knowing the type of Sea Cucumber. The method used is a transect quadrant method with a size of 5x5 meters, on a transect line with a length of 100 meters. Sampling was done at three points observations, station 1 was at coordinate point 01°34’26,88 "LU and 098°45’40,25" BT, station 2 was at coordinate point 01°34’32,71 "LU and 098°45’37, 58 "BT, station 3 is at the coordinate point 01°34’24,22" LU and 098°45’38,06 "BT. The type of sea cucumber found in the seagrass ecosystem on the Unggeh island Actinopyga ecinites, A. Miliaris, Holothuria scabra. The density at station 1 was 0.16 ind / m2, at station II a density was0.12 ind / m2, at station III a density was 0.08 ind / m2, and the total density at the research location was 0, 32 ind / m2.

  4. Seismic Hazard characterization study using an earthquake source with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method in the Northern of Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, A.; Palupi, M. I. R.; Suharsono

    2016-01-01

    Sumatra region is one of the earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia because it is lie on an active tectonic zone. In 2004 there is earthquake with a moment magnitude of 9.2 located on the coast with the distance 160 km in the west of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and triggering a tsunami. These events take a lot of casualties and material losses, especially in the Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatra. To minimize the impact of the earthquake disaster, a fundamental assessment of the earthquake hazard in the region is needed. Stages of research include the study of literature, collection and processing of seismic data, seismic source characterization and analysis of earthquake hazard by probabilistic methods (PSHA) used earthquake catalog from 1907 through 2014. The earthquake hazard represented by the value of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) in the period of 0.2 and 1 second on bedrock that is presented in the form of a map with a return period of 2475 years and the earthquake hazard curves for the city of Medan and Banda Aceh. (paper)

  5. Fire intensity and phosphorus availability in Sumatra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Bigham, J.M.; Noordwijk, M. van

    1999-01-01

    Fire is still widely used as a tool for land clearing in Indonesia. The environmental problems caused by these became an international issue in the fall of 1997 when smoke originating from land clearing activities in Sumatra and West Kalimantan blanketed not only large parts of Indonesia but also the neighboring countries of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines and Thailand. Alternatives must be found. For alternatives to slash-and-burn to be acceptable, they should address both the problems and the benefits of burning as a land clearing method for small rubber and oil palm farmers. A social/economic/agronomic survey conducted in Sepunggur, Jambi Province, Sumatra, indicated that burning: 1) was the cheapest and easiest way to create space to plant and walk in the field; 2) added free fertilizer in the form of ash; 3) improved soil structure allowing faster establishment of seedlings; 4) reduced weed/tree competition; and 5) reduced problems with pest/diseases. Farmers also indicated that harveys delays and yield reductions would lead to an increase in poverty, mainly due to a loss in ash (fertilizer) addition if fire was no longer used. Slash-sell wood-and-burn is a alternative that has the advantage of maintaining at least part of the benefits of burning while reducing air pollution. The sale of wood (if permitted) could supply the farmer with an extra source of income. Before this alternative can be promoted, it should be known what a reduction in fuel load and fire intensity will mean for soil fertility and plant growth and thus for the economic situation of farmers that depend on it. Two questions need to be answered: 1) how is fir intensity related to nutrient availability; and 2) how important are short-term fertilizer (ash) additions versus longer lasting, heat induced changes in soil mineralogical properties? Refs. 11 (author)

  6. Motivational factors affecting informal women entrepreneurs in North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor and the need for self-determination (a pull factor were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic

  7. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

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    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success. Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace. Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees. Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively. Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of the host culture do not always favour multiculturalism.

  8. Biogas Technology on Supporting “Sustainable” Coffee Farmers in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been conducted in an area of coffee plantation in Samosir District, North Sumatera Province. The study was conducted in August until September 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate the benefits of using biogas technology in supporting coffee farmers’ productivity to be sustainable, i.e. methane as energy source for coffee roasting proceed instead of fired wood and slurry as organic fertilizer. Coffee cherry causes environmental problem when it is dumped openly, hence it is used to mix with buffalo feces in biodigesters to produce methane and organic fertilizer. Five biodigesters were used with 5 differents designs of composition: T1) 100% buffalo feces, T2) 75% buffalo feces + 25% coffee cherry, T3) 50% buffalo feces + 50% coffee cherry, T4) 25% buffalo feces + 75% coffee cherry, and T5) 100% coffee cherry. The key parameters measured were methane production and slurry chemical compositions including NPK, pH, and C/N. It is found that designs T1 and T2 were superior in methane production, and about 400 liters of methane were used in roasting 3 kg coffee bean as opposed to 6,6 kg fired wood. Designs T1 and T2 were also better in slurry chemical compositions than the other 3 designs. It is recommeded that local coffee farmers utilize coffee cherry based biogas technology in order for their productivity to be sustainable. It is noteworthy that this study is continued with the next one in which the resulting slurries are implemented to foster the growth of the coffee plants during the period of October until December 2016.

  9. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Multiculturalism seemed to have become the dominant strategy for dealing with pluralism in the South African public sphere.Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success.Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace.Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees.Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively.Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of

  10. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  11. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  12. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

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    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  13. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulay, Dini Novalanty Ohara; Hidayat, Jafron Wasiq

    2018-02-01

    Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB) is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m), height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars) and EU € 5 (US 6). The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C) and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village) and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village). By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS) and the EU ETS (AUD 11.82/t CO2e and € 5 (US

  14. Carbon Value Analysis of Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalanty Ohara Daulay Dini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is an important issue in the world which it gives a negative effect on human life. One indicator of global warming is increasing greenhouse gas i.e. carbondioxide from human activities. Deforestation and forest degradation are the second largest contributor of carbon into the atmosphere, after the use of fossil fuels by industry and transportation. As lungs of the world, forest is enable to produce renewable energy sources i.e. biomass. Forest carbon stock in above ground biomass (AGB is the greatest effect source on deforestation and forest degradation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a study the potential of carbon in forest. The purpose of this research is to determine carbon stock value in Batang Gadis National Park, Mandailing Natal Regency, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The carbon potential stored in this forest vegetation is calculated using AGB allometric equation by using data in diameter at breast height (dbh = 1.3 m, height, and density of the wood for trees. Data obtained from secondary data is Asset Assessment Report which State Controlled Forest Natural Resources Batang Gadis National Park, 2016. Study locations were Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages. Carbon stock values were calculated and analyzed with assumption that a half of biomass part is carbon stock which using Australian carbon price about AUD $ 11.82 Australia (Australian dollars and EU € 5 (US $ 6. The results showed that the total biomass in Pagar Gunung and Sopo Tinjak Villages amounted to 259.83 tonnes and 160.89 tonnes. From the results of the total biomass, the total carbon stocks (C and CO2 stocks in both villages are 210.36 tonnes (129.92 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 80.45 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village and 772.03 tonnes (476.79 tonnes in Pagar Gunung Village and 295.24 tonnes in Sopo Tinjak Village. By using the carbon price prevailing in the market place Australia Emission Trading System (ETS and the EU ETS (AUD $ 11.82/t

  15. Determination of natural and artificial radioactivity in soil at North Lebanon province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Samad, O; Baydoun, R; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides at 57 sampling locations along the North Province of Lebanon are reported. The samples were collected from uncultivated areas in a region not previously reported. The samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometers with High Purity Germanium detectors of 30% and 40% relative efficiency. The activity concentrations of primordial naturally occurring radionuclides of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K varied between 4-73 Bq kg(-1), 5-50 Bq kg(-1), and 57-554 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The surface activity concentrations due to the presence of these radionuclides were calculated and Kriging-geostatistical method was used to plot the obtained data on the Lebanese radioactive map. The results for (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged from 0.2 kBq m(-2) to 9 kBq m(-2), from 0.2 kBq m(-2) to 3 kBq m(-2), and from 3 kBq m(-2) to 29 kBq m(-2) respectively. For the anthropogenic radionuclides, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs founded in soil ranged from 2 Bq kg(-1) to 113 Bq kg(-1), and the surface activity concentration from 0.1 kBq m(-2) to 5 kBq m(-2). The total absorbed gamma dose rates in air from natural and artificial radionuclides in these locations were calculated. The minimum value was 6 nGy h(-1) and the highest one was 135 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1) in which the natural terrestrial radiation contributes in 99% and the artificial radionuclides mainly (137)Cs contributes only in 1%. The total effective dose calculated varied in the range of 7 μSv y(-1) and 166 μSv y(-1) while the average value was 69 μSv y(-1) which is below the permissible limit 1000 μSv y(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rewards: A predictor of well-being and service quality of school principals in the North-West province

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    Kamohelo Nthebe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: School principals have an important role to play in the quality of service delivery in schools. Evidence suggests that school principals are generally poorly compensated, which has an adverse impact on their well-being and subsequent service quality orientation. Research purpose: This study investigated whether rewards are a predictor of well-being and service orientation of school principals in the North-West province. Motivation for the study: Effective school principals are fundamental to the success of any school, which necessitates the establishment of an effective reward and remuneration system. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative research was carried out among school principals (N = 155 in four districts of the North-West province. The Total Rewards Scale, Maslach’s Burnout Inventory – General Survey, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the SERVQUAL measure were administered among the principals. Main findings: The results showed that rewards are a significant predictor of the well-being and service quality of school principals. The results further showed that burnout significantly reduces the service quality of school principals. No significant relationships were found between work engagement and the service quality of school principals. Practical/managerial implications: An effective total rewards system enhances the well-being of school principals and, subsequently, their willingness and commitment to delivering quality services. Contribution: The results of this study point out some key elements that need to be considered by the Department of Education to enable quality service delivery in South African schools.

  17. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  18. Petrology, geochronology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of Bajestan granitoids, North of Ferdows, Khorasan Razvi Province

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    Reyhaneh Ahmadirouhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The investigated area is situated in the south west of the Khorasan Razavi Province along the North West of the Lut Block. Different types of metal ore bodies along with non-metal deposits have already been documented in the Lut Block (Karimpour et al., 2008. Most of the study area is covered with granitoid rocks. Metamorphic rocks with unknown age are present in the north of the area. Skarns are observed in contact with fault zones and intrusive bodies. Eocene volcanic rocks with andesite and andesibasalt composition are located in the east and north east of the area (Ahmadirouhani et al., 2015. The study area that is a part of the Lut Block has a high potentials for Cu, Fe, Au, and Barite mineralization along the observed alteration zones. In the present study, the petrography, petrogenesis, Sr–Nd isotopes, and U–Pb zircon age of acidic granitoids in the east of Bajestan were investigated. Materials and methods In the current study, 400 rock samples were collected from the field and 170 thin sections were prepared for petrography studies. Thirty samples of volcanic rocks, intrusions, and dykes were analyzed using XRF at the Geological Survey of Iran. Twenty-five samples were selected for the elemental analysis using ICP-MS by the Acme Lab Company (Canada, 16 samples of them were related to acidic intrusive bodies and dykes. In addition, zircon crystals from four samples of the granitoids bodies were collected for U–Pb dating. Approximately 50 zircon grains (i.e. euhedral, clear, uncracked crystals with no visible heritage cores and no inclusions were hand-picked from each sample. Through cathodoluminescence imaging, the internal structure and the origin of zircon grains were examined at the Geological Survey of Vienna, Austria. Moreover, zircons were dated using the (LA-ICP-MS method at the Laboratory of Geochronology, the University of Vienna, Austria using the methodology outlined in Klötzli et al., (2009. Sr and Nd

  19. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  20. THE EPIPHYTIC LICHEN VEGETATION OF THE TRIESTE PROVINCE (NORTH EASTERN ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of a numerical classification of 85 phytosociological releves, 11 unions of epiphytic lichen vegetation are described for the Province of Trieste. Their ecology and dynamics are discussed. The results confirm the transitional character of the study area from the phytogeographical and phytosociological points of wiew.

  1. Identification of seafloor provinces - specific applications at the deep-sea Hà ¥kon Mosby Mud Volcano and the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Jerosch, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The identification of distinct provinces is currently an emphasis of marine research geosciences. Typological approaches for the Hà ¥kon Mosby Mud Volcano and the North Sea combining geological, biological and chemical properties are accomplished by geostatistical, multivariate statistical, and GIS techniques. Besides scientific needs seafloor provinces support management decisions related to upcoming economic use of the seafloor and bear up to model spatio-temporal connections and changes o...

  2. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  3. Characterization of Groundwater Quality Based on Regional Geologic Setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Harned, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    A compilation of groundwater-quality data collected as part of two U.S. Geological Survey studies provides a basis for understanding the ambient geochemistry related to geologic setting in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Physiographic Provinces (hereafter referred to as Piedmont and Mountains Provinces) of North Carolina. Although the geology is complex, a grouping of the sampled wells into assemblages of geologic units described as 'geozones' provides a basis for comparison across the region. Analyses of these two data sets provide a description of water-quality conditions in bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces of North Carolina. Analyzed data were collected between 1997 and 2008 from a network of 79 wells representing 8 regional geozones distributed throughout the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces. This area has experienced high rates of population growth and an increased demand for water resources. Groundwater was used by about 34 percent of the population in the 65 counties of this region in 2005. An improved understanding of the quality and quantity of available groundwater resources is needed to plan effectively for future growth and development. The use of regional geologic setting to characterize groundwater-quality conditions in the Piedmont and Mountains Provinces is the focus of this investigation. Data evaluation included an examination of selected properties and the ionic composition of groundwater in the geozones. No major differences in overall ionic chemistry of groundwater among the geozones were evident with the data examined. Variability in the cationic and anionic composition of groundwater within a particular geozone appeared to reflect local differences in lithologic setting, hydrologic and geochemical conditions, and(or) land-use effects. The most common exceedances of the drinking-water criteria (in accordance with Federal and State water-quality standards) occurred for radon, pH, manganese, iron, and zinc. Radon had the most

  4. Evaluation of factors influencing patient satisfaction in social security hospitals in Mazandaran province, North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kelarijani, Seyed Ebrahim; Jamshidi, Reza; Heidarian, Ali Reza; Khorshidi, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is affected by hospital services and may have an effect on the cultural, social and personal conditions of the people living in the region. This research aimed to evaluate the patient satisfaction in social security hospitals in Mazandaran province. From Spring 2012 to Summer 2013, all patients admitted to social security hospitals in Mazandaran province were entered in the study. Data regarding to inhabitation, sex, income and patients' educational level and satisfaction with the hospital services were collected. Seven hundred seventy-six patients with mean age of 47.35±7.41 years were analyzed. Patient's inhabitant, educational attainment and income level had a significant relationship with patient satisfaction level (ppatients' gender. The results show that the patient's inhabitant, educational and income level are related to attain patients' satisfaction.

  5. Timing and Duration of Volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for Geodynamics and Links to the Iceland Hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, M.; Duncan, R. A.; Tegner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    estimates of erupted magmas and their cumulates to calculate melt production rates for the early Tertiary flood basalts of East Greenland and the Faeroes Islands. The lavas lie at opposite ends of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, the postulated Iceland hotspot track, and record volcanic activity leading...... of plate separation. The upper part of this crust comprises seismically imaged, seaward-dipping, subaerially erupted lavas. By  50 Ma, eruption rates had diminished drastically and volcanic activity had narrowed to a much restricted portion of the East Greenland margin, at the western end of the Greenland......We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  6. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  7. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  8. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  9. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  10. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a elastic subsurface parameters and (b zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003. The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami

  11. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  12. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles. 

  13. FDI in Tourism Sector and Economic Growth in Sumatra Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parhimpunan Simatupang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and neo liberal policies such as liberalization and privatization have generated a significant growth for FDI and considered an important source for capital and foreign currency, capable of spurring economic growth in developing countries. One sector that received particular attention, due to its significant contributions towards economic development, especially in Indonesia, is tourism. Tourism investments in Indonesia are mainly focused on the development of fully-integrated resort sites that help boost the construction of tourist facilities such as hotels and the development of the surrounding environment through social and cultural aspects. The total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was IDR736.3 billion or 8.9% of GDP in 2012. Foreign direct tourism investments grew by 210% between 2011 and 2012, or at an annual compound average growth rate of 38% between 2006 and 2012. While the implications are at national level, not much could be gathered on the local perspectives. This paper intends to explore the implication of FDI in tourism sector towards economic growth in one of tourism attraction provinces in Indonesia—Sumatra Utara. Specifically, which economic factors contributed towards FDI inflows and their impacts on economic growth in Sumatra Utara.

  14. Job and Workload Analysis System for Civil Servants in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnanda, M.; Mewengkang, A.; Rompas, P. T. D.; Togas, P. V.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to create automation system to assist sub division of job analysis and workload of North Sulawesi, Indonesia in completing its annual tasks to record all civil servants. The method used in this research is prototyping where a system will be developed according to the revision supplied by the user. The result of this research is a system used to generate reports and calculations based on user filled forms. The result gathered from the interviews, users can make reports faster and easier. Users can also optimise reports on time using the built system.

  15. Sustainable brooder for supporting local chicken in North Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-02-01

    Demand for local chicken has lasted for ages in Sumatera Utara Province, Indonesia. Demand is higher than supply because local chicken has low productivity which caused by several factors, for example heater or brooder for day old chicken (DOC). People who live in villages where mostly local chicken are raised have difficulty in serving brooder as electricity is expensive. In Biological Laboratory, Animal Production Programme Study, University of Sumatera Utara, a study has been conducted from August until November 2016. The objective of this study is to investigate sustainable brooder for local chicken. A study of 300 local DOC with designs: T1) local DOC + electric lamp brooder, T2) local DOC + biogas lamp brooder, T3) local DOC + propane lamp brooder has conducted. The key parameters measured were temperature stability, DOC spread, body weight gain, and mortality. Designs T1, T2 and T3 were almost equal in temperature stability, DOC spread, body weight gain and mortality while T2 was superior as it was environmentally friendly. A recommendation for local people to use biogas brooder instead of electric or LPG brooder.

  16. Bacteriological Study of the Marine Water in the Coastal of the North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Indah Sutiknowati

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the marine bacteriology of the coast of North Sulawesi. The study was accomplished by calculating the abundance of coliform, heterotrophic, and pathogenic bacteria, and analyzing the coexistence relationship between bacteria and phytoplanktons. This research, which included the sampling and laboratory works, has been carried out on 25 - 28 October, 2000. The results suggested that the abundance of each bacteria was as follows: coliform bacteria range between 227-5940 cfu/100 ml with averages 1814.1 cfu/100 ml, found in all stations; heterotrophic bacteria range between (1-82 x 103 cfu/ml with averages 12.1 x 103 cfu/ml, it was high density and has association with phytoplankton Trichodesmium thieubautii. It was also found 6 species of pathogen bacteria e.g. Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Yersinia and Shigella. The presence of coliform and pathogen bacteria was indicator of low quality of the seawater in the sampling area. Based on bacteriological study, the North Sulawesi Coastal is not suitable for aquaculture and need treatment and controlled for further coastal exploitation.

  17. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  18. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  19. Horizontal Displacement Vector Analysis in Ujong Muloh GPS Station (UMLH) Sumatra Island on March 27 – April 25, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, S. S.; Koesuma, S.; Legowo, Budi

    2018-03-01

    Sumatra Island is an area that has high tectonic activities. This is because the island of Sumatra is located in two major plates of the world, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasia plate. The subduction zone causes Sumatra to deform from time to time. The deformation of Sumatra Island can be observed by continuous recording coordinates using the GPS Station. Continous-GPS (C-GPS) in Sumatra Island is named Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), one of them named UMLH. The UMLH GPS station used to observe the displacement in the Aceh City of Sumatra Island, is located in Ujung Muloh. The changes of GPS coordinate recording data can represent the deformation pattern that occurred in Sumatra. On April 11, 2012, according to USGS data, there had been an earthquake in the city of Aceh about 8.6 at coordinates of 2.433°N, 93.072°E. The purpose of this research is to analyze the horizontal displacement due to the occurrence of the earthquake. Data processing is carried out using software GAMIT/GLOBK. The magnitude of the displacement of Sumatra Island before the earthquake, during the earthquake, and after the quake on component X were respectively: 0.04 mm/day, 56.63 mm/day, and 8.28 mm/day; while on component Y were respectively: 0.03 mm/day, 23.78 mm/day, and 1.22 mm/day. The direction of displacement was 253.8° towards Southwest with the assumption that 0° was in the North.

  20. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  1. Dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseyane, Monicca; Mandende, Peter; Makgato, Mary; Cekiso, Madoda

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9-12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia.

  2. Dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. Methods The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9–12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. Findings The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. Conclusion The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia. PMID:29535918

  3. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  4. Soil Properties in Natural Forest Destruction and Conversion to Agricultural Land,in Gunung Leuser National Park, North Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of the Gunung Leuser National Park area of North Sumatera Province through land clearing and land cover change from natural forest to agricultural land. Less attention to land use and ecosystem carrying capacity of the soil can cause soil degradation and destruction of flora, fauna, and wildlife habitat destruction. Environmental damage will result in a national park wild life will come out of the conservation area and would damage the agricultural community. Soil sampling conducted in purposive sampling in natural forest and agricultural areas.  Observation suggest that damage to the natural forest vegetation has caused the soil is not protected so that erosion has occurred. Destruction of natural forest into agricultural are as has caused damage to soil physical properties, soil chemical properties, and biological soil properties significantly. Forms of soil degradation caused by the destruction of natural forests, which is an increase in soil density (density Limbak by 103%, a decrease of 93% organic C and soil nitrogen decreased by 81%. The main factors causing soil degradation is the reduction of organic matter and soil erosion due to loss of natural forest vegetation.  Criteria for soil degradation in Governance Regulation Number 150/2000 can be used to determine the extent of soil degradation in natural forest ecosystems.Keywords: Gunung Leuser National Park, natural forest, agricultural land, land damage, soil properties

  5. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  7. Linking Volcanism and Gas Release from the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province to the PETM: Challenges and Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, H.; Jones, M. T.; Jerram, D. A.; Planke, S.; Kjoberg, S.; Schmid, D. W.; Iyer, K.; Tegner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The main phase of the development of the North East Atlantic Volcanic Province took place about 56 Ma and coincides with the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The volcanic activity was characterized by voluminous flood basalts, large plutonic complexes, sub-marine eruptions, widespread tephra deposition, and emplacement of sills and dikes along the continental margins of Norway, Greenland, Ireland, and the UK. Here we review the style and tempo of volcanism during this important period of Earth's history and discuss the sources and volumes of the carbon gases emitted to the ocean and atmosphere. Moreover, we present new data and models from 1) West Greenland showing the impact on sill intrusions on gas generation from heated Cretaceous mudstones, 2) a 3D seismic survey of gas release structures offshore Norway, and 3) Paleocene-Eocene tephra layers from Svalbard and Denmark. Gas migrated out of the contact aureoles by either explosive venting or by slower seepage towards the seafloor as demonstrated by 3D seismic data. Some of the gas was permanently trapped (dry gas and CO2-rich gas) in the source rocks and aureoles. Combined with high-precision zircon ages and a time model for the PETM, our approach may give robust fluxes that can explain both the onset and the body of the PETM.

  8. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  9. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  10. PAH mutation spectrum and correlation with PKU manifestation in north Jiangsu province population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wen Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is a common autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism and mainly results a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH. The incidence of various PAH mutations have race and ethnicity differences. We report a spectrum of PAH mutations complied from 35 PKU children who are all Chinese Han population from north Jiangsu in this study. All 13 exons and their flanking intron sequences of PAH were determined by Ion Torrent PGM™ sequencing. The relationship of genotype and phenotype was analyzed based on the sum of the arbitrary value (AV values of the two alleles. We identified 61 mutations, with a frequency of 87.14%, among 70 alleles of 35 patients. The most prevalent mutations were R243Q (26.23%, R241C (9.84% and V399V (8.20%. Furthermore, the consistency between prediction of the biochemical phenotype and the observed phenotype was 81.25%, with the highest consistency observed in classic PKU (87.50%. A significant correlation was found between pretreatment levels of phenylalanine and AV sum (r = −0.87, P < 0.05. Finally, our study constructs PAH mutation spectrum by next generation sequencing (NGS, and reveals that the PAH genotypes and biochemical phenotypes were significantly correlated. These offers facilitate the provision of appropriate genetic counseling for PKU patients.

  11. PAH mutation spectrum and correlation with PKU manifestation in north Jiangsu province population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Wen; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhou, Bao-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a common autosomal recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism and mainly results a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH). The incidence of various PAH mutations have race and ethnicity differences. We report a spectrum of PAH mutations complied from 35 PKU children who are all Chinese Han population from north Jiangsu in this study. All 13 exons and their flanking intron sequences of PAH were determined by Ion Torrent PGM™ sequencing. The relationship of genotype and phenotype was analyzed based on the sum of the arbitrary value (AV) values of the two alleles. We identified 61 mutations, with a frequency of 87.14%, among 70 alleles of 35 patients. The most prevalent mutations were R243Q (26.23%), R241C (9.84%) and V399V (8.20%). Furthermore, the consistency between prediction of the biochemical phenotype and the observed phenotype was 81.25%, with the highest consistency observed in classic PKU (87.50%). A significant correlation was found between pretreatment levels of phenylalanine and AV sum (r = -0.87, P PAH mutation spectrum by next generation sequencing (NGS), and reveals that the PAH genotypes and biochemical phenotypes were significantly correlated. These offers facilitate the provision of appropriate genetic counseling for PKU patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Educational assessment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province: Practices, Issues, and Challenges for Educating Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Gouleta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan’s former North-West Frontier Province, and its provincial educational assessment policies and practices. These policies and practices affect millions of Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional (CLDE children who live in rural and remote areas, and areas afflicted by conflict and insurgency. The article raises questions about political interference, ethical conduct, and fairness in the administration and marking of the assessments. It discusses efforts for systematic administration and collection of learning assessment data, teacher professional development programs to improve assessment practices, policies which address the educational needs of the diverse students in the province, and challenges and barriers to province-wide sustainable education development. In conclusion, the author offers suggestions and recommendations for policy makers and education stakeholders towards capacity building and improvement of assessment practices for all learners while it attempts to shed light and dispel misconceptions about KP and its people.

  13. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  14. orphological Evaluation and Classification of Melon Genotypes in Khorasan Provinces (Razavi, North and South

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    Aireza sobhany

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melon is a tropical species that originates from Iran or Africa and Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia, Saudi Arabia, India and China are the most important centers of genetic diversity of cultivated varieties (1. The original area for cantaloupe and melon is Iran. Dry and warm climate is the best condition for Melon. This plant needs heat and light for good grows. Cloudy and rainy weather at the time of fruit ripening may affect melon taste and quality(2. According to the FAO statistics in 2012, the total area devoted to melon was 1,339,006 hectares with an average yield of 23.8 tons per hectare and 31,925,787 tons production. The highest production belonged to China (55% of world production. Iran produces about 5.4 percent of world production which is about 1450000 tons from 80,000 hectares (2. Recently, a great number of studies have studied the correlation between melon yield and its components. The first branch (5, the number of primary branches, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant (6, length and width of fruit and fruit shape index were the most important melons traits which have been evaluated by other studies (4. Fruit yield has significant positive correlation with the length of the stem, primary branches, the date of the first appearance of female flowers and fruit weight. Studies revealed that there is a negative correlation between the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2008 with 17 landrace seeds collected from different locations of Khorasan provinces included Kashmar, sarakhs, Boshruye, Sabzevar, Dargaz and Bajestan. Experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications at agricultural Research Station of Khorasan Razavi. Results and Discussion: The cultivars did not show any different in the time of emergence as all of them emerged 4 to 7 days after the first irrigation. The comparison

  15. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  16. Participatory Mapping for Flood Disaster Zoning based on World View-2 Data in Long Beluah, North Kalimantan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryatno; Awanda, Disyacitta; Eka Pratiwi, Sufiyana

    2017-12-01

    Flood is one of the most frequent disasters in Indonesia. These conditions cause the necessary efforts to reduce the impact of these hazards. To reduce the impact of these hazards is to understand spatially the impact of previous disasters. Participatory mapping is one of the solutions to be able to assist in reducing the impact of flood disaster by conducting flood zoning so it can be known the range of the flood. The community plays an important role in participatory mapping because the experiences and mental maps of the community are the main sources of information used. North Kalimantan Province has a very large watershed area that is in Kayan watershed, there are several villages, one of them is Long Beluah Village. Kayan watershed has a flood problem annually that affects most of the areas including the Long Beluah Village. This study aims to map the zoning of floods in the village of Long Beluah in a participatory manner using remote sensing World View-2 data within community, so that people also understand the conditions they face. The method for achieving that goal is participatory mapping which means community involvement as well as the ability of community mental maps that will make an important contribution in this research. The results of this study show that flood zoning can be mapped based on experience and community mental maps that the greatest floods in February 2015 inundated most of the community settlements in Long Beluah Village. There are few places from the uninhabited areas of settlements and serve as refugee camps. The participatory zonation map of the participatory floods is quite appropriate with the situation at the time of the greatest flood that hit the village of Long Beluah, so that through the map can be drawn up plans to reduce the impact of such disasters such as evacuation routes and a more strategic refuge point.

  17. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  18. Discussion on geological features and genesis of Chulute uranium metallogenetic region of North Hanggay Province in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Fengmin

    2005-01-01

    Chulute uranium metallogenetic region is situated in the northern part of North Hanggay Province in Mongolia. Geotectonically, it is located at the very western end of Mongolia-Transbaikal fold system. The granite with elevated uranium content is widely developed in this region, where the uranium content in the granite aged from Later Triassic to Early Jurassic ranges from 5 x 10 -6 to 6 x 10 -6 . Due to the neotectonic activation, quaternary palaeo-valleys that incised the basement were formed on the basement granite and were filled with organic matter-rich clastic sediments and basalt crusts. The palaeo-valley type uranium mineralization (Dajinhe, Bayaer and Shuer uranium occurrences) is discovered in the two palaeo-valleys which incised the granitoids. Of them, Shuer uranium occurrence has been studied more in detail. An ore-body with the thickness from 9.1 m to 19.75 m has been found in an area with the width of 500 m, and the uranium grade ranging from 0.01% to 0.05%. The uranium mineralization occurs in the bleached and limonitized grey loam and clayey soil and sand which bear rich calliferous plant debris and lamella of black mudstones. Coffinite is the uranium mineral. The uranium resources in Shuer deposit has been proven as 2500 t. The total predictive resources in above mentioned two palaeo-valleys reach as much as 15000-16000 t (P 2 ). The uranium mineralization in this region is characterized by young mineralization age and adjacent sources. The ore formation is possibly related to the surface thermal field which is originated from the eruption of the basaltic magmas. (authors)

  19. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  20. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult chronic care patients in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Bhana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB, heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. Objective. To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three public health clinic facilities in the North West Province of SA. A total of 1 322 patients were recruited from non-emergency waiting areas. Results. Proportions of patients with abstinence, hazardous, harmful and dependent consumption were determined using logistic regression. Of the patients screened, nearly half (45% drank alcohol and, of these, 10% were classified as hazardous drinkers, 1.7% as harmful drinkers, and 1.6% as dependent drinkers (overall 3% alcohol use disorder. Abstinence proportions were 60% and 38% among women and men, respectively. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores for men were 63% higher than for women. The lowest patient abstinence proportion (47% and highest dependent drinking (10% was for TB. The highest abstinence proportion was for diabetes (65%, and the highest hazardous and harmful drinking was among TB (14% and HIV (7% patients. Conclusions. The high levels of risky drinking among chronic care patients, particularly among patients receiving treatment for HIV and TB, are concerning. Instituting appropriate screening measures and referral to treatment would be an important first step in mitigating the effects of risky alcohol use among chronic care patients.

  1. Hydrochemical modelling of water quality in terms of emerging micropollutants in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Emerging micropollutants (EMPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems and are associated with a wide range of eco-toxicological effects worldwide. There remains a lack of scientific understanding of the major underlying hydrochemical factors behind variations in concentration heterogeneities of EMPs in time and space. This study was therefore conducted to determine major hydrochemical processes controlling water quality and the occurrence of EMPs mainly, carbamazepine (CBZ), tonalide (AHTN), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), technical 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces in South Africa. Grab water samples were collected bi-monthly between June 2014 and April 2016 from 44 water sources using standard sampling procedures. BPA, NP, CAF, HHCB, AHTN, CBZ were extracted, cleaned and enriched using autotrace-SPE at neutral pH and analyzed using GC × GC-TOFMS. Kruskal Wallis-test was used to test for temporal variations in occurrence of the analytes. The Geochemist's Workbench® Release 11 software, Surfer Golden Graphics for surface mapping, PHREEQC software and bivariate ion plots were used determine the major hydrogeochemical processes. The mean concentrations of EMPs varied from 3.48 μg/L for CAF to 421.53 μg/L for HHCB. Although the Kruskal Wallis test revealed no any statistically significant temporal variations in concentrations of the analytes in water samples at 95% confidence level, their occurrence and distribution vary spatially with BPA being the most widely distributed EMP and was present in 62% of the sampled sites. Municipal waste water inputs, agricultural pollution, ion-exchange reactions, carbonate and silicate weathering were the major processes controlling water quality in the study area. This study may assist water resource managers to ably address and manage water pollution resulting from a number of natural and anthropogenic hydrochemical processes in the study area.

  2. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  3. A "new" Nitidulid Beetle from Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1953-01-01

    Some time ago I was asked to identify a fossil coleopteron which had been found in the drill cuttings of an oil well in the Southern part of Sumatra. As the fossil is only a few millimetres long it may be mentioned as an amazing fact that so small an object has been found during rather rough work

  4. FISHING ACTIVITIES AND FISHERMEN INCOME IN RANAU LAKE, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Muthmainah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish resources contribute to the socio-economic development for people who live surrounding the waters. The fishermen of Ranau Lake, South Ogan Komering Ulu Regency, South Sumatra Province and West Lampung Regency, Lampung Province are the prime stakeholder and direct interest in fish resources, because they depend on it for their livelihoods or they are directly involved in its exploitation in some ways. However, to well manage these resources, it needs data and information about fish utilization and fishing activity. The objectives of this work are to assess fishing activities such as the fishing craft and gears, catch composition, fish yield, catch per unit of effort (CPUE and to estimate the fihermen income with economical parameter such as cost and price. Field surveys were conducted from February to November 2014. Fishing activities data were collected from field survey and interview. The results showed that fish resources utilization in Ranau Lake was categorized as traditional and small scale fisheries using different selective fishing gears such gillnet, harpoon, net trap and basket trap with the fish catch in average of 696.66 g/day; 205.03 g/day; 1.584.06 g/day and 123.67 g/day, respectively. Fisherman income (IDR 2,163,300 means the fishermen in Ranau Lake reach standard Indonesian welfare.

  5. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fanuel@students.itb.ac.id; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: prijatna@gd.itb.ac.id; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: irwan.meilano@gd.itb.ac.id

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  6. Magmatism and Eurekan deformation in the High Arctic Large Igneous Province: 40Ar–39Ar age of Kap Washington Group volcanics, North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    The High Arctic Large Igneous Province is unusual on two counts: first, magmatism was prolonged and has been suggested to include an initial tholeiitic phase (130–80 Ma) and a second alkaline phase (85–60 Ma); second, it was subsequently deformed during the Eurekan Orogeny. New 40Ar–39Ar dating...... of alkaline volcanics from Kap Kane, part of the Kap Washington Group volcanics at the northern tip of Greenland, provides an emplacement age of 71.2±0.5 Ma obtained from amphibole in lapilli tuffs, and a thermal resetting age of 49–47 Ma obtained in feldspar and whole-rocks from trachyte flows. Patch...... in the Labrador Sea and the Baffin Bay, and to eastwards displacement of Greenland relative to North America. The alkaline suite, therefore, may be unrelated to the main tholeiitic phase of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province. The subsequent initiation of continental rifting and ensuing seafloor spreading...

  7. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  8. Changing of Sumatra backswamp peat properties by seawater and zeolite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifuddin; Nasution, Z.; Rauf, A.; Mulyanto, B.

    2018-02-01

    This research attempts to improve the properties of backswamp peatsoil originated from Asahan District, North Sumatra Indonesia by adding sea water and zeolite using factorial randomized block design with volume of sea water as first factor, consisting of without seawater, 500 ml, 1000 ml and 1500 ml and second factor are dosages of zeolite consisting of without zeolite, 100 g, 200 g each 10 kgs of wet peat soil. at green house in faculty of agriculture University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan, Indonesia. The result showed that the application of seawater decreased pH, C/N and Cation Exchange Capacity and increased of base saturation of peat soil. Adding of zeolite minerals can buffered the increasing of acidity and Electric Conductivity caused by sea water application. Interaction seawater + zeolite decreased of C/N and increased of percent of base saturation.

  9. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  10. Geochemistry of cenozoic basaltic rocks from Shandong province and its implication for mantle process in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yungtan; Chen Juchin; Huang Shaowei; Shih Jyhyi; Lin Menglung; Juang Wenshing; Yang Huaijen

    2006-01-01

    Cenozoic (Miocene to Pleistocene) basaltic rocks found in Shandong province of northern China include tholeiite, olivine tholeiite and alkali basalt. We present major, trace and rare earth elements data of these basalts and together with Sr-Nd isotopic data in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts. The basalts from Penglai area have higher K, Na and P and incompatible elements, but lower Ca, Mg and compatible elements contents than those from Changle area of Shandong province. Spidergrams indicate that Cenozoic basalts from Shandong province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) with slight positive Nb anomaly. The negative Ba, Rb and K anomalies found in the alkali basalts suggest the presence of residual phlogopite in the mantle source, indicating a metasomatic event occurred before the partial melting. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd vs. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr plot suggested that basalts from Shandong province can be produced by MORB and EM-I components mixing. We propose that the EM-I type lithospheric mantle may have been produced by the recent H 2 O-CO 2 -fluids metasomatism and the fluids may be derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. Based on Shaw's equation, the basalts from eastern and central Shandong province have undergone different degrees of particle melting from the mantle source. Degrees of partial melting and chemical composition of basalts from Shandong province suggest that the lithosphere has thickened progressively since the Miocene. On the basis of Ar-Ar ages of this study and the fractional crystallization model proposed by Brooks and Nielsen (1982), we suggest that basalts from Changle and Penglai areas belong to different magmatic systems which have undergone fractional crystallization and evolved progressively to produce other types of basalts. (author)

  11. Implementation of Biplot Analysis for Mapping Elementary and Junior High Schools in West Sumatra Based on National Examination Results 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalita, N.; Fitria, D.; Distian, V.

    2018-04-01

    National examination is an assessment of learning outcomes that aims to assess the achievement of graduate competence nationally. The result of the national examination is used as a mapping of educational issues in order to arrange the national education policy. Therefore the results of National Examination are used, also, as a reference for the admission of new students to continue their education to a higher level. The results of National Examination in West Sumatra in 2016 decreased from the previous year, both elementary schools (SD) and Junior High School level (SMP). This paper aims to determine the characteristics of the National Examination results in each regency / city in West Sumatra for elementary and junior levels by using Bi-plot analysis. The result of Bi-plot Analysis provides the information that the results of the National Examination of Regency / City in West Sumatra Province are quite diverse. At Junior High School level there are 9 of Regencies / Cities which have similar characteristics. English subjects are the greatest diversity among all of subjects. The calculation results of the correlation of each variable in junior high school level are positively correlated. The variables with positive correlation are mathematics that correlates with English. Based on the mark of National Examination for elementary school level in West Sumatra, there are 8 Regencies / Cities have similar characteristics. The correlations of each variable at the elementary level are positively correlated. The variables that have positive correlation are Sciences (IPA) with Language.

  12. Disease caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria: diagnostic procedures and treatment evaluation in the North of Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Imperiale

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM have emerged as pathogens frequently associated to HIV co-infection. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical importance of NTM in patients from the North of Buenos Aires Province and the drug-susceptibility patterns in relation with the therapy used. A total of 23,624 clinical specimens were investigated during the period 2004-2010. Ziehl-Neelsen stain and cultures were used for diagnosis. Molecular and biochemical tests were performed to identify the mycobacteria. TB and mycobacterioses cases were 2 118 and 108 respectively. Sixteen NTM species were found: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare as the main causative agents. Infections produced by more than one species at the same time were confirmed (4 cases. Macrolides and fluoroquinolones were the most active in vitro drugs. Treatment evaluation showed that 68.0 % of the cases completed the therapy, 20 % died; and 12 % were relapses. The cases in which the treatment outcome was evaluated received an individual tailor-made therapeutic scheme including those drugs showing in vitro activity and presumed in vivo usefulness. More than a quarter of the patients had HIV co-infection and the majority of the deaths were associated with this co-infection.Enfermedad causada por micobacterias no tuberculosas: diagnóstico y evaluación del tratamiento en el norte del Gran Buenos Aires. Las micobacterias no tuberculosas (MNT emergieron como patógenos frecuentemente asociados a la co-infección con el HIV. EL objetivo del estudio fue describir la importancia clínica de las MNT en pacientes de la región norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires y los patrones de drogo-sensibilidad en relación con la terapia empleada. Se investigó un total de 23.624 especímenes clínicos durante, el período 2004-2010. La tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen y los cultivos se utilizaron para diagnóstico. Las micobacterias fueron identificadas mediante pruebas bioqu

  13. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  14. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  15. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K.; Wysoczanski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D 1 -D 4 ) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S 2 on the rims of D 4 porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D 4 emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D 2 -D 4 ) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 ± 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D 2 for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. A case study: Fish production in the integrated farming system of the Black Thai in Yen Chau district (Son La province) in mountainous North-western Vietnam - current state and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbronn, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Son La province is located in mountainous north-western Vietnam and belongs to the poorest regions of the country. In the valleys of this province, fish farming is one of the major activities among farmers who belong to the ethnic Black Thai minority. Up until now, the aquaculture system practiced here has not been scientifically investigated. There is generally very little data available regarding the aquaculture of resource-poor farmers in Southeast Asia. This lack of information can be par...

  17. Proposed seismic hazard maps of Sumatra and Java islands and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3-D) seismic source models (fault source model) using the latest research works regarding the tec- tonic setting of Sumatra and ... is selected because this city is the main business ... and Sumatra, the improvements of the method in seismic ...

  18. Fire Distribution in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with Special Emphasis on Peatland Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Shi, Chenghua; Liew, Soo Chin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we analyze the spatio-temporal distribution of vegetation fires in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo in the severe El Niño year of 2015, concentrating on the distribution of fires between mineral soils and peatland areas, and between land cover types in peatland areas. The results reveal that 53% of all Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire detections were recorded in peatlands that cover only 12% of the study area. However, fire occurrence in the peatland areas was highly dependent on land cover type. Pristine peat swamp forests (PSF) experienced only marginal fire activity (30 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ) compared to deforested undeveloped peatlands (831-915 fire detections per 1000 km 2 ). Our results also highlight the extreme fire vulnerability of the southern Sumatran and Bornean peatlands under strong El Niño conditions: 71% of all peatland hotspots were detected in the provinces of South Sumatra and Central Kalimantan, which contain 29% of peatlands in the study area. Degraded PSF and all deforested peatland land cover types, including managed areas, in the two provinces were severely affected, demonstrating how difficult it is to protect even managed drained agricultural areas from unwanted fires during dry periods. Our results thereby advocate rewetting and rehabilitation as the primary management option for highly fire prone degraded undeveloped peatland areas, whenever feasible, as a means to reduce fire risk during future dry episodes.

  19. A report from YMC Sumatra field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, K.; Yokoi, S.; Mori, S.; Nasuno, T.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Yasunaga, K.; Haryoko, U.; Nurhayati, N.; Syamsudin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is a two-year international field campaign from July 2017 through the early 2020. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of weather-climate systems over the Maritime Continent and its relation to higher latitudes through observations and numerical modeling. YMC field observations consist of several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) and routine basis long-term observations done by local agencies. One of IOPs is a joint effort done by Japanese and Indonesian research groups and we call it YMC-Sumatra, which studies precipitation mechanism along the west coast of Sumatra Island (Bengkulu city) especially focusing on a relationship between diurnal cycle convection and large-scale disturbances such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Observations will be carried out from November 16, 2017 through January 15, 2018. Since it is known that diurnally developed convection over the coast propagates offshore in the night time, we will deploy a ship off the coast in addition to the land-based site in Bengkulu meteorological station. From both sides, we conduct scanning weather radars, 3-hourly radiosonde soundings, and continuous surface meteorological measurements. Ocean surface is also intensively measured by 3-hourly CTD, ADCP, turbulent sensor, and so on from the ship. In addition, two types of forecast run (global 7-/14-km mesh for 14-/30-day forecast) using NICAM will be performed. Since this campaign in Sumatra is being done during the AGU meeting, a preliminary live report will be provided, so that scientific results as well as logistics information can be used for further IOPs.

  20. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  1. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, R Kartika; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960–2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ∼25% increase in severe drought events from 1951–2000 to 2001–2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention. (letter)

  2. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  3. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    Prolonged drought, allocation of surface-water flow, and increased demands on ground-water supplies resulting from population growth are focuses for the need to evaluate ground-water resources in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of North Carolina. Urbanization and certain aspects of agricultural production also have caused increased concerns about protecting the quality of ground water in this region.More than 75 percent of the State's population resides in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces in an area that covers 30,544 square miles and 65 counties. Between 1940 and 2000, the population in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces increased from 2.66 to 6.11 million; most of this increase occurred in the Piedmont. Of the total population, an estimated 1.97 million people, or 32.3 percent (based on the 1990 census), relied on ground water for a variety of uses, including commercial, industrial, and most importantly, potable supplies.Ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont traditionally has not been considered as a source for large supplies, primarily because of readily available and seemingly limitless surface-water supplies, and the perception that ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces occurs in a complex, generally heterogeneous geologic environment. Some reluctance to use ground water for large supplies derives from the reputation of aquifers in these provinces for producing low yields to wells, and the few high-yield wells that are drilled seem to be scattered in areas distant from where they are needed. Because the aquifers in these provinces are shallow, they also are susceptible to contamination by activities on the land surface.In response to these issues, the North Carolina Legislature supported the creation of a Resource Evaluation Program to ensure the long-term availability, sustainability, and quality of ground water in the State. As part of the Resource Evaluation Program, the North Carolina Division of Water Quality

  4. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  5. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  6. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  7. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of M w = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest...... earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004...

  8. High tsunami risk at northern tip of Sumatra as a result of the activity of the Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) combined with coastal landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Huang, B. S.; Wen, K. L.; Mirza, A.; Rizal, S.; Purnawan, S.; Fajri, I.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Liu, C. S.; Lee, C. S.; Wilson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The lesson learned from the 12 January 2010, Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake has shown that an earthquake with strike-slip faulting can produce a significant tsunami. This occasion is rare since in the fact of the fault consist predominantly of lateral motion, which is rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. Yet, another hint from this event, that this earthquake was accompanied by a coastal landslide. Again, there were only few records of a submarine slides as a primary source that generate a tsunami. Hence, the Haiti Mw 7.0 earthquake was generated by these combined mechanisms, i.e. strike-slip faulting earthquake and coastal landslide. In reflecting this event, the Sumatra region exhibit almost identical situation, where the right lateral strike-slip faulting of Sumatra Fault Zone (SFZ) is located. In this study, we are focusing at the northern tip of SFZ at Aceh Province. The reason we focused our study at its northern tip is that, since the Sumatra-Andaman mega earthquake and tsunami on 26 December 2004, which occurred at the subduction zone, there were no records of significant earthquake along the SFZ, where at this location the SFZ is divided into two faults, i.e. Aceh and Seulimeum faults. This study aimed as a mitigation effort, if an earthquake happened at these faults, do we observe a similar result as that happened at Haiti or not. To do so, we access the high-resolution shallow bathymetry data that acquired through a Community-Based Bathymetric Survey (CBBS), examines five scanned Single Channel Seismic (SCS) reflections data, perform the slope stability analysis and that simulate the tsunami using Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) model with a combined source of fault activity and submarine landslide. The result shows that, by these combined mechanisms, if the earthquake as large as 7 Mw or larger, it could produce a tsunami as high as 6 meters along the coast. The detailed shallow bathymetric and the slope stability

  9. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

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    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  10. SOIL QUALITY CHANGES FOLLOWING FOREST CLEARANCE IN BENGKULU, SUMATRA

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    I.P. HANDAYANI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense destruction and degradation of tropical forests is recognized as one of the environmental threats and tragedies. These have increased the need to assess the effects of subsequent land-use following forest extraction on soil quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of land-use type on soil quality properties in Bengkulu Province, Sumatra. Soil samples were collected from adjacent sites including natural secondary forest, bare land, cultivated land and grassland. The results show that land-use following forest clearance lowered saturated hydraulic conductivity (85%, porosity (10.50%, soil water content at field capacity (34%,C organic (27%, N total (26%, inorganic N (37%, soil microbial biomass C (32%, mineralizable C (22%, and particulate organic matter (50%, but slightly increased water soluble organic C. Specific respiration activi ty rates increased about 14% in cultivated soils compared to natural forest soils, indicating greater C turnover per labile C pool in the form of soil microbial biomass, thus decreased biologically active soil organic matter. Forest conversion tends to reduce the C,ffg/Crer for all deforested sites. All of deforested areas relatively have infertile soil, with the worst case found in cultivated field. The C^g/Crd of cultivated field s was about 24% less than that of remnant fo rest (1.07. Grassland apparently mainta ins only slightly higher soil C levels than the bare land. On average, degradation index of so il following forest clearance was 35% with the highest deterioration occurred in the bare land (38%. Fallowing the fields by naturally growth of Imperata cylindrica for about 15 yr in abandoned land after 3-5 years of cultivation did not improve the soil quality. Moreover, forest clearance has an impact on soil quality as resulted in the loss of a physically protected organic matter and reduction in some labile C pools, thus declined biological activity at disturbed

  11. Atmospheric processes in reaction of Northern Sumatra Earthquake sequence Dec 2004-Apr 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Singh, R.; Taylor, P.

    2005-05-01

    This work describes our first results in analyzing data from different and independent sources ûemitted long-wavelength radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SHLF) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) collected from ground based (GPS) and satellite TIR (thermal infra-red) data sources (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS). We found atmosphere and ionosphere anomalies one week prior to both the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Dec 26, 2004) and M 8.7 - Northern Sumatra, March 28, 2005. We analyzed 118 days of data from December 1, 2004 through April 1, 2005 for the area (0°-10°,north latitude and 90°-100° east longitude) which included 125 earthquakes with M>5.5. Recent analysis of the continuous OLR from the Earth surface indicates anomalous variations (on top of the atmosphere) prior to a number of medium to large earthquakes. In the case of M 9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands event, compared to the reference fields for the months of December between 2001 and 2004, we found strongly OLR anomalous +80 W/m2 signals (two sigma) along the epicentral area on Dec 21, 2004 five days before the event. In the case of M8.7 March 28, 2005 anomalues signatures over the epicenter appears on March 26 is much weaker (only +20W/m2) and have a different topology. Anomalous values of SHLF associated with M9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands were found on Dec 22, 2005 (SLHF +280Wm2) and less intensity on Mar 23, 2005 (SLHF +180Wm2). Ionospheric variations (GPS/TEC) associated with the Northern Sumatra events were determine by five Regional GPS network stations (COCO, BAKO, NTUS, HYDE and BAST2). For every station time series of the vertical TEC (VTEC) were computed together with correlation with the Dst index. On December 22, four days prior to the M9.0 quake GPS/TEC data reach the monthly maximum for COCO with minor DST activity. For the M 8.7-March 28 event, the increased values of GPS/TEC were observed during four days (March 22-25) in quiet geomagnetic background. Our results need additional

  12. INVESTIGATION OF DISSOLVED SULPHATE IN VARIOUS GEOTHERMAL FIELDS OF SUMATRA USING OXYGEN AND SULPHUR ISOTOPES

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    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 30 high temperature systems; eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano controlled by Sumatra Fault Zone over a length of 1700 km. To understand this geothermal field system, some information about geochemistry including isotope composition in its fluid is needed. Sulphur-34 and oxygen-18 isotopes in dissolved sulphate pair have been used to determine the origin of acidic fluid of sulphate and to evaluate the process involved. The fluids from eight hot springs, two fumaroles, four deep wells and crater have been collected in along Sumatra geothermal fields. Sulphur-34 (d 34S (SO4, 0/00 CDT and oxygen-18 (d 18O (SO4, 0/00 SMOW in sulphate is analyzed according to Robinson-Kusakabe and Rafter method, respectively. The d 34S (SO4 values from Sibayak wells are more enriched of 16.8 0/00 to 18.2 0/0 that may indicate the dissolution of anhydrite minerals or isotope partitioning in hydration of SO2. The d 34S (SO4 values from two fumaroles (Pusuk Bukit - North Sumatra and Rantau Dadap - South Sumatra are at depleted value of -0.150/00 and 1.80/00, those are close to d 34S from magmatic sulphur.  In general, the d 34S (SO4 of springs spread in a wide range of 5.250/00 to14.20/00 and show a mixing process between atmospheric sulphate and sulphate from deep wells. The d 18O (SO4 from wells exhibits depleted value around -3.60/00 suggesting that 87.5% of sulphate oxygen is derived from groundwater oxygen and 12.5% is derived from atmospheric molecular oxygen in sulphide oxidation reaction. In the other hand, hot springs (except Semurup, crater and fumaroles have enriched value of d 18O (SO4. These enriched values suggest that a higher percentage of atmospherically derived oxygen compared to those from the depth.   Keywords: isotope, geothermal, Sumatra

  13. A new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae from Sumatra

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    Pitra Akhriadi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available AKHRIADI, PITRA, HERNAWATI & TAMIN, RUSJDI. 2004. A new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae from Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 141 – 144. ─ A New Species of Nepenthes rigidifolia is described.

  14. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  15. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa

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    Jeremia S. Sojane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680 with the sample (n = 204 included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. Results: RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%. They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5% but were dissatisfied with wages (50%, study leave (40.9% and opportunities for advancement (40.1%. Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00 and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50. Conclusion: The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies. Keywords: Leadership,  job satisfaction, intention to leave, Nurse

  16. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojane, Jeremia S; Klopper, Hester C; Coetzee, Siedine K

    2016-01-01

    The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs) working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680) with the sample (n = 204) included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%). They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5%) but were dissatisfied with wages (50%), study leave (40.9%) and opportunities for advancement (40.1%). Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00) and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50). The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies.

  17. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  18. The effects of local culture on hospital administration in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarty, Rima; Fanany, Rebecca

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Problems in health-care leadership are serious in West Sumatra, Indonesia, especially in hospitals, which are controlled locally. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of three hospitals in balancing the conflicting demands of the national health-care system and the traditional model of leadership in the local community. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies of the hospital leadership dynamic in West Sumatra were developed from in-depth interviews with directors, senior administrators and a representative selection of employees in various professional categories. Findings An analysis of findings shows that traditional views about leadership remain strong in the community and color the expectations of hospital staff. Hospital directors, however, are bound by the modern management practices of the national system. This conflict has intensified since regional autonomy which emphasizes the local culture much more than in the past. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out in one Indonesian province and was limited to three hospitals of different types. Practical implications The findings elucidate a potential underlying cause of problems in hospital management in Indonesia and may inform culturally appropriate ways of addressing them. Originality/value The social and cultural contexts of management have not been rigorously studied in Indonesia. The relationship between local and national culture reported here likely has a similar effect in other parts of the country.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra

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    Todd K. Fuller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS collar and a land cover map developed from TM imagery, we identified the habitats used by a wild adult female elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus in the Seblat Elephant Conservation Center, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra during 2007–2008. The marked elephant (and presumably her 40–60 herd mates used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. in the forest interior. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types.

  20. Permian to recent volcanism in northern sumatra, indonesia: a preliminary study of its distribution, chemistry, and peculiarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, N. M. S.; Syah, H. H.; Davis, A. E.; Hutchison, D.; Styles, M. T.; Lena, Rahayu

    1982-06-01

    Sumatra has been a ‘volcanic arc’, above an NE-dipping subduction zone, since at least the Late Permian. The principal volcanic episodes in Sumatra N of the Equator have been in the Late Permian, Late Mesozoic, Palaeogene, Miocene and Quaternary. Late Permian volcanic rocks, of limited extent, are altered porphyritic basic lavas interstratified with limestones and phyllites. Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks, widely distributed along and W of the major transcurrent. Sumatra Fault System (SFS), which axially bisects Sumatra, include ophiolite-related spilites, andesites and basalts. Possible Palaeogene volcanic rocks include an altered basalt pile with associated dyke-swarm in the extreme NW, intruded by an Early Miocene (19 my) dioritic stock; and variable pyroxene rich basic lavas and agglomerates ranging from alkali basaltic to absarokitic in the extreme SW. Miocene volcanic rocks, widely distributed (especially W of the SFS), and cropping out extensively along the W coast, include calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites and dacites. Quaternary volcanoes (3 active, 14 dormant or extinct) are irregularly distributed both along and across the arc; thus they lie fore-arc of the SFS near the Equator but well back-arc farther north. The largest concentration of centres, around Lake Toba, includes the >2000 km3 Pleistocene rhyolitic Toba Tuffs. Quaternary volcanics are mainly calc-alkaline andesites, dacites and rhyolites with few basalts; they seem less variable, but on the whole more acid, than the Tertiary. The Quaternary volcanism is anomalous in relation to both southern Sumatra and adjacent Java/Bali: in southern Sumatra, volcanoes are regularly spaced along and successively less active away from the SFS, but neither rule holds in northern Sumatra. Depths to the subduction zone below major calc-alkaline volcanoes in Java/Bali are 160-210 km, but little over 100 km in northern Sumatra, which also lacks the regular K2O-depth correlations seen in

  1. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-west China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Xuemei, S.; Yin, Z. Y.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom.) from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  2. Tree-Ring Dating of the Reshui-1 Tomb in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, North-West China.

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    Mingqi Li

    Full Text Available Tuyuhun and Tubo were two important states that thrived in north-western China during AD 311-900 in parallel with the Han Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang periods. The Reshui Tomb Cluster located in Dulan County of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau is an important cultural relic of the Tuyuhun-Tubo age. The official excavations of the Reshui tombs were regarded as top events in archaeology in the 1980s and 1990s in China. The Reshui-1 Tomb is the largest one among the tombs in the area. Since its excavation, there have been debates on whether the owner of the tomb belonged to the Tuyuhun or Tubo ethnicity. Therefore, accurately dating the Reshui-1 Tomb has a critical place in studying the Tubo and Tuyuhun histories. We collected 7 discs and 11 increment cores of Qilian juniper (Juniperus przewalskii Kom. from the exposed and fallen beams of the roof of the Reshui-1Tomb. The lengths of the 16 tree-ring records are between 69 and 152 years. Based on a previously developed master dating chronology using Qilian juniper samples from the eastern Qaidam Basin, the calendar dates of the 16 specimens were determined by the COFECHA program and visual dating procedure. The average inter-series correlation among the dated sample series is 0.696, indicating good quality of cross-dating. The year of the outermost rings is AD 715 for the 7 discs and 4 out of the 9 increment cores. Moreover, the ring-width variations of the samples are consistent with the existing chronologies from the region. The presence of late-wood of AD 715 in the samples indicated that the Reshui-1 Tomb was completed in late AD 715 or early 716, which means that the Reshui-1 Tomb was finished in the Tubo age. This date provides direct evidence for archaeologists to determine the owner's ethnicity and identify of the Reshui-1 Tomb.

  3. The structure of the Okavango giant mafic dyke swarm in the Karoo magmatic province of North Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Tshoso, G.; Tiercelin, J. J.; Dyment, J.; Aubourg, C.; Feraud, G.; Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.

    2003-04-01

    intricate pattern of magma flow direction, involving vertical and lateral (E and W) movements. According to these new structural results, the Okavango (Karoo) giant dyke swarm is likely to have been injected along a major craton/Proterozoic discontinuity, as a failed-rift arm prior to Gondwana dispersal during Jurassic times. Similar structural works should be performed on the other Karoo giant dyke swarms diverging towards the Nuanetsi triple junction-like area in order to firmly question the "mantle plume" models generally applied to the development of the Karoo volcanic province in the southern African continent.

  4. Hospitalitermes krishnai, a new nasute termite (Nasutitermitinae, Termitidae, Isoptera, from southern Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Syaukani Syaukani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of nasute termite, Hospitalitermes krishnai sp. n., is described from soldiers and workers discovered in Lampung Province, Sumatra. This species can be distinguished from other related Hospitalitermes species from Southeast Asia by the anterior part of head capsule that is much smaller than the posterior part, head capsule that is moderately constricted behind the antennal sockets, and relatively deep depression between the head and nasus and, finally, the short and robust nasus measuring less than half as long as head capsule. Moreover, in profile the nasus is slightly up-curved but slightly decurved at the apical tip. We name this new species after Professor Kumar Krishna in recognition of his life-long contributions to termite taxonomy, systematics and biology.

  5. Diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, West Sumatra and its acclimatization

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    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve is a conservation area in West Sumatra Province, which contains high diversity of plants including Araliaceae. Araliaceae mostly consist of attractive plants which have potentiallity as ornamental plants. The aim of this research is to record the diversity of Araliaceae in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve. The result of the study indicates that there are, species of Araliaceae found in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, which are : Arthrophyllum diversifolium, Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. farinosa, S. lucescens, S. scandens, Schefflera sp., and Trevesia beccarii, in which Bogor Botanic Garden collected 6 species of them, i.e.: Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Brassaiopsis sumatrana var. variaefolia, Macropanax dispermus, Schefflera elliptica, S. scandens, Schefflera sp. Most of the collections are successfully acclimated in the gardens.

  6. Effective Indices in Site Selection of Furniture Industry from Point of View of Suppliers in North Khorasan Province: Application of AHP Method

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    Ali Darijani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate conducting studies on site selection will have economic impact on performance of industrial firm; besides the effects of social, environmental, cultural and economic in their area. Also, the regional characteristics as key factors in determining where to locate the problem is that it creates incentives for public, private and cooperative sectors for investing on that place. Determining the effective indices in furniture industry to set sellers' view is the aim of this study that conducted in North Khorasan province, Iran in 2010. After reviewing literatures and interviews, the effecting factors were identified and classified into five main groups; "materials and products", "infrastructure", "mortal", "economic" and "rules and regulations". Value of weighted indices determined by getting comments from experienced furniture sellers as well as using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP applied and flexible technique by Expert Choice software. The results showed that materials, distance to market, existing invertors indices with value-weighted 0.126, 0.114 and 0.099, respectively had highest priority.

  7. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia

    2010-03-24

    The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  9. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods.

  10. Values and the need for a character education programme within the college context in the North-West Province: exploration and preliminary proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Freeks

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Values and character education possess the inherent building blocks for the preservation of a healthy society. Values and character education have the potential to address moral issues in society and especially in educational institutions, such as schools, colleges and universities. One of the primary aims of values and character education is to allow students to experience life to the fullest. Values and character education could probably ensure a better life and future for South Africa‟s youth.From the available literature, it is evident that society is experiencing a crisis regarding values, character and morality. The decline of human and societal values portrayed in the media has compelled the current government to initiate values education programmes in colleges and other institutions such as universities.In order to determine the values orientation among students of Further Education and Training Colleges (FET in the North-West Province, an empirical study was done to ascertain students‟ opinions and the contributions of values education and character education. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the student council, the head of support services, as well as an official of student support services.

  11. A cultural-spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health--the case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangert, Jan-Olof; Nawab, Bahadar

    2011-01-01

    The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural-spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour-and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of wells in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-11-28

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey published an assessment of technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Barnett Shale in the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas. Of the two assessment units involved in the overall assessment, one included a roughly equal number of oil wells and gas wells as classified by the U.S. Geological Survey’s standard of gas wells having production greater than or equal to 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil and oil wells having production less than 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil. As a result, estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) were calculated for both oil wells and gas wells in one of the assessment units. Generally, only gas EURs or only oil EURs are calculated for an assessment unit. These EURs were calculated with data from IHS MarkitTM using DeclinePlus software in the Harmony interface and were a major component of the quantitative resource assessment. The calculated mean EURs ranged from 235 to 2,078 million cubic feet of gas and 21 to 39 thousand barrels of oil for various subsets of wells.

  13. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  14. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  15. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 7. Report on the selection of SMKs for the project's target provinces and working agreements between SMKs and the project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, E. [ETC Nederland, Leusden (Netherlands); Permana, I. [Technical Education Development Centre TEDC, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2010-05-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report explains the stepwise approach taken in the selection of SMKs (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan of the Ministry of Education; SMKs are Vocational and Technical Schools) for CASINDO's target provinces. For this, data of the Indonesian Ministry of Education were used, site visits were made and interviews were conducted. The exercise resulted in ranking the 11 best SMKs observed. Terms for working agreements between the SMKs and CASINDO have been formulated as well as a work planning.

  16. Fractal-like thickness and topography of the salt layer in a pillows province of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Maya, K.; Mitchell, N. C.; Huuse, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt topography and thickness variations are important for testing theories of how halokinetic deformation proceeds. The ability to predict thickness variations of salt at small scale is also important for reservoir evaluations, as breach of the salt layer can lead to loss of petroleum fluids and can be difficult to evaluate from seismic reflection data. Relevant to these issues, we here report analysis of data on salt layer topography and thickness from the southern North Sea, where the salt is organized into pillows. These data were derived by the Geological Survey of the Netherlands (TNO) from industry 3D seismic reflection data combined with a dense network of well information. Highs and lows in the topography of the upper salt interface occur spaced over a variety of lengthscales. Power spectral analysis of the interface topography reveals a simple inverse power law relationship between power spectral density and spatial wave number. The relationship suggests that the interface is a self-affine fractal with a fractal dimension of 2.85. A similar analysis of the salt layer thickness also suggests a fractal-like power law. Whereas the layer thickness power law is unsurprising as the underlying basement topography dominates the thickness and it also has a fractal-like power spectrum, the salt topography is not so easily explained as not all the basement faults are overlaid by salt pillows, instead some areas of the dataset salt thinning overlies faults. We consider instead whether a spatially varied loading of the salt layer may have caused this fractal-like geometry. Varied density and thickness of overburdening layers seem unlikely causes, as thicknesses of layers and their reflectivities do not vary sympathetically with the topography of the interface. The composition of the salt layer varies with the relative proportions of halite and denser anhydrite and other minerals. Although limited in scope and representing the mobilized salt layer, the information from

  17. Monitoring the Sumatra volcanic arc with InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Hong, S.; Amelung, F.

    2009-12-01

    The Sumatra volcanic arc is the result of the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Sunda plate. The arc consists of 35 known volcanic centers, subaerials on the west coast of the Sumatra and Andaman Islands and submarines between these islands. Six active centers are known in the Sumatra volcanic arc. Surface deformation in volcanic areas usually indicates movement of magma or hydrothermal fluids at depth. Here we present a satellite-based Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey of the Sumatra volcanic arc using ALOS data. Spanning the years 2007 to beginning of 2009, our survey reveals the background level of activity of the 35 volcanoes. We processed data from 40 tracks (24 in descending orbit and 16 in ascending orbit) to cover the whole Sumatra arc. In the first results five of these six known active centers show no sign of activity: Dempo, Kaba, Marapi, Talang and Peuet. The remaining active volcano, Mount Kerinci, has an ambiguous signal. We used pair-wise logic and InSAR time series of the available ALOS data to determine if the observed InSAR signal is caused by ground deformation or by atmospheric delays.

  18. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  19. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  20. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  1. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality.

  2. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  3. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  4. Dominant seismic sources for the cities in South Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Sakya, Andi Eka; Masturyono, Murjaya, Jaya; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri, Putra, Ade Surya

    2017-07-01

    Subduction zone along west of Sumatra and Sumatran fault zone are active seismic sources. Seismotectonically, South Sumatra could be affected by earthquakes triggered by these seismic sources. This paper discussed contribution of each seismic source to earthquake hazards for cities of Palembang, Prabumulih, Banyuasin, OganIlir, Ogan Komering Ilir, South Oku, Musi Rawas and Empat Lawang. These hazards are presented in form of seismic hazard curves. The study was conducted by using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Seismic sources used in analysis included megathrust zone M2 of Sumatra and South Sumatra, background seismic sources and shallow crustal seismic sources consist of Ketaun, Musi, Manna and Kumering faults. The results of the study showed that for cities relatively far from the seismic sources, subduction / megathrust seismic source with a depth ≤ 50 km greatly contributed to the seismic hazard and the other areas showed deep background seismic sources with a depth of more than 100 km dominate to seismic hazard respectively.

  5. Indische bergcultuurondernemingen voornamelijk in Zuid-Sumatra : gegevens en beschouwingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, T.G.E.

    1930-01-01

    Highland crops was here used of tropical perennial crops (cinchona, coffee, rubber, tea), cultivated mainly in mountain districts. These crops were grown on estates, owned by western companies and managed by European staff. The organization of the highland plantation industry in Java and Sumatra,

  6. Two new spiders from Sumatra (Araneae, Telemidae and Ochyroceratidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brignoli, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Apneumonella jacobsoni n. sp. is described (♀, ♂ unknown; typ. loc.: Fort de Kock, Sumatra, Indonesia); this species, which can be distinguished from all other known Telemids by general morphology, genitalia, chelicerae, etc., is provisionally included in Apneumonella; the differential characters

  7. Richtlijnen voor een ontwikkelingsplan voor de Oostkust van Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, van de R.

    1959-01-01

    Suggestions were made to improve the agricultural situation resulting from the Second World war. The former estate agriculture on the East Coast of Sumatra, established in 1865 by westerners in a sparsely populated and isolated area, occupied 1,000,000 ha in 1940 mainly under tobacco, rubber, oil

  8. On a new Flying Squirrel from Deli, Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1890-01-01

    Sciuropterus setosus, collected by Horner in the neighborhood of Padang (Sumatra) and described by Temminck in the »Fauna japonica”, seems to be such an extremely rare animal, that the type-specimen — an adult female — is the only individual hitherto observed by collectors and naturalists. Mr.

  9. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  10. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist satisfaction, trophy hunting, environmental education, ecological restoration, and wildlife conservation and management. This paper briefly explored the park’s early history, explaining its landscape, its early peopling and historical land use. The narrative then concentrated on the first five years of the park’s existence, from its inception in 1977, under the aegis of Agricor, Bophuthatswana’s rural development agency, to 1984, when responsibility for the park was given over to Bophuthatswana National Parks, a parastatal agency, and a new era began. The article contended that 1984 is an appropriate date on which to conclude the early history of the Pilanesberg National Park (PNP because it was then that the experimental phase of the park ended: its infrastructure was sufficiently developed to offer a satisfactory visitor experience, the management plan was revised, its bureaucratic structures were consolidated and an attitude survey amongst the local community was undertaken. Embedding the originating period of the PNP in its historical, political and socio-economic context, the paper foregrounded those elements in the park’s beginnings that were new in the southern African protected area arena. Thus, elements that relate to socio-politics, landscape and ecological design and restoration, and early relations with neighbouring communities were emphasised. This paper has been written by an historian and is therefore conceptual and historical, conforming

  11. Perceptions of malaria and acceptance of rapid diagnostic tests and related treatment practises among community members and health care providers in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Emma; Asgary, Ramin; Gore-Langton, Georgia; Nahashon, Erupe; Mungai, James; Harrison, Rebecca; Abagira, Abdullahi; Eves, Katie; Grigoryan, Zoya; Soti, David; Juma, Elizabeth; Allan, Richard

    2014-12-17

    Conventional diagnosis of malaria has relied upon either clinical diagnosis or microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears. These methods, if not carried out exactly, easily result in the over- or under-diagnosis of malaria. The reliability and accuracy of malaria RDTs, even in extremely challenging health care settings, have made them a staple in malaria control programmes. Using the setting of a pilot introduction of malaria RDTs in Greater Garissa, North Eastern Province, Kenya, this study aims to identify and understand perceptions regarding malaria diagnosis, with a particular focus on RDTs, and treatment among community members and health care workers (HCWs). The study was conducted in five districts of Garissa County. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with community members that were recruited from health facilities (HFs) supported by the MENTOR Initiative. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and FGDs with HCWs were also carried out. Interview transcripts were then coded and analysed for major themes. Two researchers reviewed all codes, first separately and then together, discussed the specific categories, and finally characterized, described, and agreed upon major important themes. Thirty-four FGDs were carried out with a range of two to eight participants (median of four). Of 157 community members, 103 (65.6%) were women. The majority of participants were illiterate and the highest level of education was secondary school. Some 76% of participants were of Somali ethnicity. Whilst community members and HCWs demonstrated knowledge of aspects of malaria transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, gaps and misconceptions were identified. Poor adherence to negative RDT results, unfamiliarity and distrust of RDTs, and an inconsistent RDT supply were the main challenges to become apparent in FGDs and IDIs. Gaps in knowledge or incorrect beliefs exist in Greater Garissa and have the potential to act as barriers to complete and correct malaria case

  12. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  13. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  14. Cost estimation of sumatra electricity expansion planning with nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to obtain the cost analysis on optimum solution of Sumatra electricity system using WASP-IV Program. Considering the economic aspect, nuclear power plant (NPP) is feasible in the future. From the geographical aspect Sumatra is prospecting for NPP site, especially the east coastal area due to the absence of hydro power potential and geothermal field. The use of petroleum as fuel in large scale power plants is not feasible. Beside causing high cost for electricity sector, it is also an important fuel for any other sectors such as transportation, electrification of isolated areas. Gas fuelled power plants is still feasible for next several decades in limited capacity. The study presents three scenarios, i.e. Low Scenario, Base Scenario and High Scenario applying discount rate of 8%, 10% and 12% respectively. Cost estimation for Sumatra System Expansion Planning is 57 465 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 59 349 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 57 796 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. The objective function is 15 172 US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 8%, 12 663 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 10%, and 11 017 million US$ on the Base Scenario - discount rate 12%. (author)

  15. Social innovation to promote sustainability and independence of small-scale palm oil farmers in the Province of Jambi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Firman, Anita Nathalia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the situation of the independent small-scale palm oil farmers in the Province of Jambi, Indonesia regarding the practices of palm oil production that cause deforestation in Sumatra. The goal of this thesis was to provide sustainable opportunities for the independent small-scale farmers in Jambi through social innovation. The field research took place at the village of Mekar Jaya and Sungai Rotan Village in the Provinces of Jambi, Indonesia. In the fra...

  16. Knowledge transfer to builders in post-disaster housing reconstruction in West-Sumatra of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Benny; Afif, Zal

    2017-11-01

    Housing is the most affected sector by disasters as can be observed after the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra province in Indonesia. As in Indonesian construction industry, the housing post-disaster reconstruction is influenced by knowledge and skills of builders or laborers, or locally known as `tukang'. After the earthquake there were trainings to transfer knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure for the builders in the post-disaster reconstruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the training in term of understanding of the builders and application of the new knowledge. Ten semi-structured interviews with the builders were conducted in this study. The results indicate that the builders with prior housing construction experience can absorb and understand the new knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure. Combination of lecturing and practice sessions also help the builders to understand the knowledge. However, findings of this research also suggest there is a problem in implementation of the new knowledge. Utilization of earthquake-safe house structure may leads to a rise in house cost. As a result, some house owners prefer to save money than to adopt the new knowledge.

  17. Antibiotic prescription practices in six primary health centers in South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsuir Munaf

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug utilization study, especially antibiotic usage in therapy of mild acute upper respiratory infections and acute diarrheas has been conducted in six Primary Health Center (PHC in urban, suburban and rural area in the Province of South Sumatra.  We conducted systematic random sampling during which 15% of patients in each PHC were taken. We collected information about drug utilization from medical record of out patient in each PHC for three months period (January to March 1997. We recorded the characteristics of patients, the diagnosis, the number and type of drug (including injection used. The number of cases studied was 1781, with the average number of drug per prescription being 2.7; the percentage of cases receiving an injection was 43%, and the percentage of cases receiving antibiotic was 48%. Sixty-four percent of 1277 acute respiratory tract infections (common cold, and 79% of 140 cases of acute diarrhea received antibiotic. This study showed that there is overuse or inappropriate use of drugs, especially antibiotic for acute nonspecific diarrhea and mild acute respiratory tract infections. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 44-9Keywords: drug utilization study, antibiotic use, acute upper respiratory infection, acute diarrhea

  18. Air quality biomonitoring: assessment of air pollution genotoxicity in the Province of Novara (North Italy) by using Trifolium repens L. and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, F; Aina, R; Palin, L; Prato, N; Sgorbati, S; Santagostino, A; Citterio, S

    2006-12-15

    Mixed air pollutants are considered a major cause of DNA damage in living species. In this study Trifolium repens L. cv Regal was used as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxicity of air stressors in the Italian province of Novara. Two on-site biomonitoring experiments were performed during the spring and autumn of 2004. Test plants were exposed at 19 monitoring sites distributed homogeneously throughout the province, and each experiment lasted for a period of 6 weeks. Genotoxicity was evaluated with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. The results show the predominantly rural central-west region of the Novara Province to have the worst air quality with regard to genotoxicity. Analyses of geomorphology, land use and climatic factors suggest that the compromised air quality in the region could be attributed to wind strength and direction, transporting pollution from vehicular traffic on the A4 highway and from the urban/industrialized centres of Novara and Vercelli. Plant growth, changes in plant photochemical efficiency and the presence of ozone related leaf injuries were also measured to better interpret the results of genotoxicity. Statistical analyses show that although climatic factors such as light intensity and temperature influence plant growth, they do not contribute to atmospheric stressor-induced DNA damage. Further analyses indicated that, as expected, a mixture of genotoxic and non-genotoxic pollutants coexist in the Novara Province troposphere, and that the elevated ozone concentrations experienced during the study may have contributed to the DNA damage in the tested plants by enhancing genotoxicity via interaction with other air stressors.

  19. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 25. Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report is expected to become a reference for government and private sectors in the development of renewable energy in West Nusa Tenggara Province, not only the development of renewable energy for electricity generation, but also for other needs such as fuel for industry and cooking fuel for households. The Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province is a follow-up of the enactment of Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006 concerning National Energy Policy, which the Central Government has set a target utilization of renewable energy by 2025 by 17%. Furthermore, this document contains data and information regarding current utilization of renewable energy, renewable energy potential and development opportunities, target of renewable energy development and action plans necessary to achieve the targets.

  20. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  1. SUBMARINE LANDSLIDE AND LOCALIZED TSUNAMI POTENTIALITY OF MENTAWAI BASIN, SUMATRA, INDONESIA

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    Haryadi Permana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The new bathymetry and seismic data were acquired during the PreTI-Gap marine survey (February 15 to March 6, 2008. The survey was carried out along the NE margin of Mentawai Island using multi-beam swath bathymetry equipment, and 28-channels seismic streamer and four-airgun source. The first target was the Mega Island region near the epicenter of the 2007 great earthquake. The shallow bathymetry is characterized as a flat coral platform suggesting that 200 km elongated plateau is slowly subsiding without any active faults. Further north, from South Pagai to North of Siberut Islands, the seafloor morphology changes significantly. The deep and wide canyons or valleys produce very rough seafloor morphology between 50 and 1100 m water. In general, the submarine topography shows two break slopes at different depths. Between slope breaks, the undulating, hilly and circular features dominate, possibly caused by landslides. A push-up ridge is observed that dams the sediments eroded within a steep slope northeastward side. The seismic reflection data acquired along 14 dip seismic lines at the NE flank of Mentawai Islands, from Siberut to the South of Pagai Islands. We observed a set of southwestward dipping back thrust bounding the NE margin of the Mentawai Island. Keywords: submarine landslide, tsunami, Mentawai basin, Sumatra. Data batimetri dan seismik baru telah dihasilkan selama survey kelautan PreTi-Gap (15 Februari hingga 6 Maret 2008. Survei dilaksanakan sepanjang tepian timurlaut P. Mentawai menggunakan peralatan multibeam, seismic saluran ganda 28 kanal dengan sumber energi airgun. Sasaran pertama adalah memetakan kawasan pulau dekat pusat gempa tahun 2007. Kenampakan batimetri dangkal dicirikan dengan adanya dataran terumbu karang yang secara perlahan mengalami penurunan tanpa aktifitas sesar. Lebih jauh ke Utar, dari Pagai Selatan ke utara P. Siberut, morfologi dasar laut memperlihatkan perubahan secara signifikan, dimana lembah dasar laut

  2. Effects of the sanitation of natural gas sources in the Dutch province Noord-Holland, north of the river IJ, on the nutrients and chloride burden of the surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Gaast, J.W.J.; Peerboom, J.M.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Dutch polder 'De Beemster' (part of the province Noord-Holland) the consequences of sanitation of natural gas sources on seepage and the quality of surface waters are studied by means of a model. Material balances are drafted for nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine. The sealing of all the gas sources in 'De Beemster' appears to have the largest impact on the emission of phosphorus (-40%). The emission of nitrogen and chlorine is reduced by 20%, respectively 25%. Based on the recommendations in this report a follow-up study has been carried out in which the results in this report are translated to other polders in Noord-Holland, north of the river IJ. 24 refs

  3. Timing and implications for the late Mesozoic geodynamic settings of eastern North China Craton: Evidences from K-Ar dating age and sedimentary-structural characteristics records of Lingshan Island, Shandong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Jin, Aiwen; Hou, Guiting

    2017-12-01

    The Lingshan Island in Shandong Province in the eastern North China Craton, well known for the Late Mesozoic multi-scale slide-slump structures is related to paleo-earthquake. Terrigenous clastic rocks, volcanic clastic rocks and volcanic lavas are extensively exposed in the Lingshan Island and its adjacent regions of the Shandong Province, which led to fierce debates on their ages, sedimentary characteristics and tectono-sedimentary evolution. In this contribution, we present the characteristics of the Late Mesozoic stratigraphy in the Lingshan Island. Whole-rock K-Ar dating of dyke at Beilaishi and rhyolites at Laohuzui of the Lingshan Island yielded ages of 159 Ma and 106-92 Ma which coincides with the Laiyang Period rifting and the Qingshan Period rifting in the Jiaolai Basin, respectively. On the basis of the analysis to the Late Mesozoic sedimentary environment of `flysch' and `molasse'-like formations as well as tectonic stress fields reconstruction, four episodes of the tectono-sedimentary evolution were established in the Lingshan Island and its adjacent regions in the eastern North China Craton. They consist of two episodes of extensional events for the syn-rift, and two episodes of compression events for the inversion of the post-rift. The entire episodes can be summarized as follows: (1) the first syn-rift NW-SE extension in Laiyang Period can be identified by the `flysch' formation (Unit 1) and by emplacement of the NE-trending dyke in the Laiyang Group. This syn-rift episode can be related to the NW-SE post-orogenic extension resulted from the gravity collapse of the thickened lithosphere along the Sulu Orogen. (2) The first post-rift NW-SE inversion, which was caused by the NW-directed subduction of Izanaqi Plate, can be well documented by the `X' type conjugate joints as well as slide slump folds in Unit 1. (3) The second syn-rift NW-SE extension in Qingshan Period is characterized by rhyolite rocks (Unit 2). This syn-rift episode can be considered

  4. Moessbauer studies of Haltern 70 amphorae from Castro do Vieito, North of Portugal, and of amphora sherds from kilns in the Roman provinces Hispania Baetica and Lusitania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, B. F. O., E-mail: benilde@ci.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, CEMDRX, Physics Department (Portugal); Silva, A. J. M. [Centro de Estudos Arqueologicos das Universidades de Coimbra e do Porto/CAM, Palacio de Sub-Ripas (Portugal); Wagner, F. E.; Wagner, U. [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Haltern 70 amphora sherds from Castro do Vieito and from kilns in the Roman provinces Baetica and Lusitania were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy, EDX and XRD. An amphora whose handle was carefully studied must have been fired reducingly at a temperature of or above about 900 Degree-Sign C and cooled in oxidizing conditions in the end. Oxidation and hematite formation went hand in hand, and the amount of hematite formed depended sensitively of the speed of penetration of the oxygen and the cooling rate in the interior of the ceramic body.

  5. Status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands cover around 13 Mha in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human activities have rapidly increased in the peatland ecosystems during the last two decades, invariably degrading them and making them vulnerable to fires. This causes high carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change. For this article, we used 94 high resolution (10-20 m) satellite images to map the status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan using visual image interpretation. The results reveal that less than 4% of the peatland areas remain covered by pristine peatswamp forests (PSFs), while 37% are covered by PSFs with varying degree of degradation. Furthermore, over 20% is considered to be unmanaged degraded landscape, occupied by ferns, shrubs and secondary growth. This alarming extent of degradation makes peatlands vulnerable to accelerated peat decomposition and catastrophic fire episodes that will have global consequences. With on-going degradation and development the existence of the entire tropical peatland ecosystem in this region is in great danger.

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  7. PERILAKU SEKS TAK-AMAN PEKERJA BERPINDAH DI PANTAI UTARA JAWA DAN SUMATRA UTARA TAHUN 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadun Dadun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: During they work, mobile population must separate from their spouse in a long time, makes them tending to have extramarital sexual relationship. Objective: To describe the high risk sexual behavior and prevention of STD and HIV among mobile population. Methode: Respondents were 825 in size selected purposively in northern coast of Java and North Sumatra, then interviewed using structure questionnaire, while subsample were questioned in-depthly. They were truck and bus drivers, assistant of truck and bus drivers, fishermen or sailormen. Result: Majority of respondents had middle education level (70% and were married (75%, while their average monthly income was one million rupiah. Nearly half confessed of having extramarital sexual relationship, although only below 20% used condom recently. This unsafe sex was done with casual partner such as sex worker, girl friends or just friends. Their access to get condom or adequate STD treatment were limited. Easy accessed health facility unit was very few. Information about STD and HIV&AIDS majority was from television. Conclusion: This low knowledge level on STD and HIV&AIDS including its treatment might increase the transmission of these diseases from mobile to general population. Providing health service unit close to shelter or terminal of bus and truck, or sea-port, would improve access to information of STD and HIV&AIDS as well as its treatment, besides disseminating it through popular media such as television.   Keywords: mobile population, unsafe sex

  8. Is Interseismic Deformation along the Sumatra Subduction Zone Ever 'Stable'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.; Meltzner, A. J.; Moore, J. D. P.; Philibosian, B.; Feng, L.; Lindsey, E. O.; Bradley, K. E.; Qiu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of megathrust coupling ratios are regularly calculated using geodetic data then used to forecast seismic and tsunami hazard. Given that the geodetic data capture only a small snapshot in time, an important question is the extent to which these accurately reflect long-term strain build up. We analyze this question using the Sumatra subduction zone as a case study. Here we have 15 years of continuous GPS data, with some collected before the recent great earthquake sequence started in 2004, and most collected afterwards. We also have paleogeodetic data from coral microatolls dating back over many earthquake supercycles (sequences of great earthquakes that are clustered in time). The coral data indicate significant changes in interseismic deformation rates over time for the Sunda megathrust; these could result from spontaneous changes in the spatial distribution of megathrust locking, from coseismically induced changes in locking, or from long-term viscoelastic processes. One question we ask is whether in Sumatra a transient rheology with high steady-state viscoelastic relaxation times, coupled with a relatively short recurrence interval for the supercycles (as little as 200 years), results in a situation where interseismic rates evolve throughout the entire earthquake cycle. To illustrate, a GPS station in northern Sumatra has been rapidly uplifting since 2004 at rates of 3 cm/yr; we do not know when this will slow down, but if this is a small piece of a viscoelastic decay curve it seems likely that the relaxation time is very long, and a geodetic snapshot at any point in many decades to come will not be representative of long-term average rates. We also consider whether there is a fundamental difference between viscoelastic behavior for megathrusts and strike-slip faults, with the former driving much longer, broader-scale deformation patterns that have more influence over the interseismic period. Indeed, the nearby strike-slip Sumatran Fault does appear to

  9. New insight on the Toba volcano super eruption (Sumatra Island, Indonesia) from BAR-9425 core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, B.; del Manzo, G.; Moreno, E.; Annachiara, B.; Baudin, F.; Bassinot, F. C.; Villemant, B.

    2017-12-01

    The famous 73 ka Toba eruption has produced about 2800 km3 of magma and is considered as one of the largest known eruptions during the Quaternary (Rose and Chesner, 1990). The BAR-9425 piston core collected during the 1994 joint French-Indonesian BARAT Cruise in the north Sumatra Island has recorded the volcano history of Toba from 60 to 100 ka (including the 73 ka Young Toba Tuff (YTT)). Tephra layers within this sediment core have been systematically studied using a combined analysis including stable isotope (δ18O, van der Kaars et al., 2012), high resolution tephrostratigraphic, morphological and a major-trace element studies. Our preliminary results show that not only one major eruption occurred between 60 and 100 ka but probably 11 distinct eruptions occurred. The 11 eruptions display an homogeneous major element composition. The oldest tephra with an estimated age of 101 ka, have a rhyolitic composition and 30% of relative abundance of volcanic glass shards. The other eruptive phases are dated at: 91,5-89,2 ka with a maximum of 16% of volcanic tephra; 85,7-84,8 ka with 64%; 81,8 ka with 22%; 74,4 ka with 43%, 72,3 ka with 89%, 71,4 ka with 92%; 68,9% with 96%; 66,5 ka with 94%; 65,2 ka with 75% and 63,1-60,3 ka with a maximum of 96% of volcanic tephra respectively (ages were calculated with a constant sediment rate of 4,3 cm/ka from data from van der Kaars et al., 2012). Some of these eruptions have had direct effect on regional vegetation as suggested by Van der Kaars et al. (2012) who propose that the gradual expansion of pine cover for the 7000 years following the eruption, is a consequence of the ash deposit from the 89 ka eruption. Our detailed tephrostratigraphy study of Toba eruptions will help to understand the impact on the ecosystems of northern Sumatra and on global climate change. Moreover, we expect to correlate the new tephra layers of Toba volcano to other sites by using AL-ICP-MS traces analyses and to use it as chronological makers.

  10. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, Guillermo A.; Carabin, Hélène; Goñi, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Robinson, Guy; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C.; Clavel, Antonio; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Carmena, David

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%–2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%–5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%–9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%–6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  11. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its associated risk factors in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.; Martina, S. J.; Syarifah, S.

    2018-03-01

    The gestation period is the period that determines the quality of human resources in the future because the development of the child is determined from the time of the fetus in utero. The most common nutrition problems suffered by pregnant women in Indonesia is Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) and anemia. The aim of this research to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and the risk factors associated with anemia in urban and rural areas of North Sumatera Province. This research is as descriptive analyticwith cross-sectional approach. Total sample 140 pregnant women from the Medan City, Langkat District and South Labuhan Batu District, and was from June to October 2016. Data collected by using interviews, hemoglobinometer tool and analyzed with Chi-square test. Anemia was in 40.7% of pregnant women, and the incidence of anemia is more common in pregnant women in urban areas than in rural areas. The factors associated with anemia in pregnant women is parity, knowledge of nutrition, diet and the risk of chronic energy deficiency (p anemia in pregnant women in North Sumatra was higher than the national prevalence.

  12. Features of Composition and Cement Type of the Lower Triassic Reservoirs in the North of the Timan-Pechora Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Timonina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the study of cement type and composition of the Lower Triassic deposits of the Timan-Pechora province, their influence on reservoir properties of rocks. The work was based on laboratory studies of core, generalization of published data. Morphological and genetic analysis of clay minerals was carried out using X-ray and electron-microscopic methods. As a result of the conducted studies it was established that the type, composition and distribution of the cement is influenced by the composition of demolition sources, sedimentation conditions, and post-sedimentation transformations. Kaolinite, chlorite, smectite and hydromica associations are distinguished according to the predominance of clay mineral in the sandstone cement. Kaolinite cement of sandstones is most typical for continental fluvial facies, especially channel beds. Smectite association is most characteristic of the floodplain, oxbow and lake facies of the zone. The revealed regularities will contribute to the improvement of accurate reconstruction of sedimentation conditions, construction of more adequate geological models of the reservoir, taking into account its reservoir heterogeneity both at the level of the reservoir and its constituent interlayers.

  13. Devonian to Early Carboniferous magmatic alkaline activity in the Tafilalt Province, Eastearn Morocco: An Eovariscan episode in the Gondwana margin, north of the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, André; El Hadi, Hassan; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Benharref, Mohammed; Fekkak, Abdelilah

    2017-05-01

    To the eastern edge of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the Tafilalt Province is the repository of a Lower Palaeozoic platform and basin sedimentation constrained by a W-E and NW-SE fault network. During the mid-late Devonian, an extensional tectonic activity, demonstrated by sharp changes in sediment thickness and development of syn-sedimentary faults, was contemporaneous with a significant magmatic activity. A great number of doleritic dykes, sills, and laccoliths intruded sedimentary Silurian to Lower Visean strata. The intrusions were linked to sub-water volcanic activities with spilitic lava flows and pyroclastites during two main pulses in the Famennian-Tournaisian and in the Early Visean. The rocks consist of basaltic dolerites, lamprophyric dolerites and analcite-bearing camptonites, sharing a sodic alkaline magma composition. The magma derived from low partial melting degree of the metasome layer of the lithospheric subcontinental mantle, below the spinel-garnet transition zone. This Tafilalt tectono-magmatic activity was coeval with the Eovariscan phase in the Moroccan Meseta, which was responsible for the opening of Western Meseta basins and their transitional to alkaline volcanic activities in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time.

  14. Dolerites of Svalbard, north-west Barents Sea Shelf: age, tectonic setting and significance for geotectonic interpretation of the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province

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    Zoltán Pécskay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The dolerites of Svalbard are mineralogically and geochemically homogeneous with geochemical features typical of continental within-plate tholeiites. Their geochemistry is similar to tholeiites belonging to a bimodal suite defined as the High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP. K–Ar dating of numerous dolerites sampled from many locations across Svalbard define a narrow time span of this magmatism from 125.5±3.6 to 78.3±2.6 Mya. Discrete peaks of intensive activity occurred at 115.3, 100.8, 91.3 and 78.5 Mya corresponding to (1 breakup of the continental crust and formation of an initial rift as a result of mantle plume activity, located in the southern part of the Alpha Ridge; (2 magmatic activity related to spreading along the Alpha Ridge that led to the development of the initial oceanic crust and (3 continuation of spreading along the Alpha Ridge and termination of magmatic activity related to HALIP (last two peaks at 91.3 and 78.5 Mya.

  15. The occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the mineralized breccias from Igarape Bahia (North region, Brazil) Au-Cu (± ETR-U) deposit, Carajas mineral Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazava, Edison; Gomes, Newton Souza; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de

    1999-01-01

    In the last years, several works report the presence of pyrosmalite mineral series [(Fe, Mn) 8 Si 6 O 15 (OH, Cl) 10 ] commonly associated with volcanic exhalative massive sulphide or Fe-Mn metamorphosed deposits. In this paper, we present the inedit occurrence of ferropyrosmalite in the Au-Cu (± REE-U) of Igarape Bahia deposit, located in the Au-Cu district of the Carajas Mineral Province. We consider the Igarape Bahia mineralization as being related to the genesis of iron-oxide class deposit, like the Olympic Dam type. Ferropyrosmalite occurs in two different contexts: associated with carbonate veins; associated with heterolithic breccias, composed by BIF and mafic metavolcanic fragments immersed in a magnetic, chalcopyrite, bornite, pyrite, carbonates (calcite to siderite), uranium and REE minerals, and gold, - rich matrix. The growth of ferropyrosmalite is probably due to the substitution of iron rich minerals (chloride, magnetite and siderite), controlled by magmatic fluid influx rich in chlorine. The permeability of breccias and the discontinuity of veins favour fluid percolation. The mode of occurrence of ferropyrosmalite and its relation with amphibole (ferro-hornblende-actinolite) indicate metasomatic growth of the former under temperatures in the transition of greenschist/amphibolite facies. The ferropyrosmalite of the Igarape Bahia deposit represents an uncommon type of occurrence linked to hydrothermal/magmatic conditions. (author)

  16. Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.

    2015-11-01

    A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central Sumatra provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in Sumatra at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.

  17. Connecting the fragmented habitat of endangered mammals in the landscape of Riau–Jambi–Sumatera Barat (RIMBA, central Sumatra, Indonesia (connecting the fragmented habitat due to road development

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    Barano Siswa Sulistyawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend of wildlife habitat fragmentation worldwide continues as a result of anthropogenic activities on development of a linear infrastructure and land use changes, which is often implemented as part of spatial planning policies. In this paper we expand upon an existing approach to design wildlife corridors through habitat quality assessment. We used models of Habitat Quality of Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST and Corridor Design tools. The habitat quality model of InVEST provides a rapid approach to assess status and change of biodiversity, and can contribute to enhanced corridor design of fragmented wildlife habitat. We conducted an assessment of habitat quality of the RIMBA corridor landscape, which is part of Riau, Jambi and West Sumatra provinces of central Sumatra Island. The result of the habitat quality model was used as the main input to evaluate habitat connectivity and assess the target segment of roads that cross the modelled corridor. We found 20 wildland blocks, the total area of the corridor modelled including wildland blocks was calculated as about 0.77 million hectares. We have obtained accurate quantitative measurement of the length of roads crossing the corridor, with a total of 417.78 km (artery 10.31 km; collector 19.52 km; and local 1987.9 km roads. This method can be replicated as an approach in valuing the quality of habitat as part of the implementation of the presidential decree of Sumatra Island Spatial Planning. This may also be applied to the spatial planning of other major islands in Indonesia and elsewhere.

  18. THE TRACES OF PROTO-LANGUAGES OF AUSTRONESIA IN SOME MODERN LANGUAGES IN SUMATRA

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    Ermanto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the traces proto-languages of Austronesian in modern languages in Sumatra. Modern languages in Sumatra are the languages of the subgroups of Sumatra as part of a group which is an Austronesian Southwestern which is Western Austronesian group. The purpose of this study is to find and assess reflex etimon mother language of Austronesian present in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra namely Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. To find reflex (reflection mother language of Austronesian in several languages in Sumatra used comparative methods are qualitative. The use of the method is to reconstruct antarabahasa relationship based on the legacy of rank higher language that PAN into several languages with the lower rank (top-down reconstruction namely the Acehnese language, language Batak Toba, Mandailing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. Research findings indicate that there are reflex (reflection etimon mother language of Austronesian in some modern languages in the language of Sumatra, Aceh, Batak Toba, Mandailaing language, language Kerinci, Minangkabau and Mentawai language. This indicates that all six of these languages is a derivative of the PAN.

  19. 2Dbasin modelling of the hydrocarbon systems in the forearc basin of Sumatra; 2D-Beckenmodellierung des Kohlenwasserstoff-Systems im Forearc-Bereich von Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, V.; Berglar, K.; Lutz, R.; Schloemer, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Djajadihardja, Y.S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-10-23

    In the forearc basin of Sumatra, individual industrial drillings indicated the existence of hydrocarbons. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an investigation of the hydrocarbon system within this forearc basin by means of a two-dimensional modelling of this basin. The structural development of the basins in the forearc area proceeded differently. Therefore, geophysical data for the investigation of the geological structures as well as geological/geochemical data were raised. The preliminary results of the two-dimensional modelling of the Simeulue basin northwest from Sumatra are presented.

  20. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  1. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  2. Forecasting loss of ecosystem service value using a BP network: a case study of the impact of the South-to-north Water Transfer Project on the ecological environmental in Xiangfan, Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Jing-Xuan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Yan-Ping

    2003-12-01

    To recognize and assess the impact of the South-to-north Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) on the ecological environment of Xiangfan, Hubei Province, situated in the water-out area, and develop sound scientific countermeasures. A three-layer BP network was built to simulate topology and process of the eco-economy system of Xiangfan. Historical data of ecological environmental factors and socio-economic factors as inputs, and corresponding historical data of ecosystem service value (ESV) and GDP as target outputs, were presented to train and test the network. When predicted input data after 2001 were presented to trained network as generalization sets, ESVs and GDPs of 2002, 2003, 2004... till 2050 were simulated as output in succession. Up to 2050, the area would have suffered an accumulative total ESV loss of RMB104.9 billion, which accounted for 37.36% of the present ESV. The coinstantaneous GDP would change asynchronously with ESV, it would go through an up-to-down process and finally lose RMB89.3 billion, which accounted for 18.71% of 2001. The simulation indicates that ESV loss means damage to the capability of socio-economic sustainable development, and suggests that artificial neural networks (ANNs) provide a feasible and effective method and have an important potential in ESV modeling.

  3. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail: felipe.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: caegeo@gmail.com, E-mail: maurilio.vasconcelos@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: wamaral@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: joseneusa.rodrigues@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  4. Survey on aedes mosquito density and pattern distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in high and low incidence districts in north sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Fazidah A.; Makmur, Tri

    2018-03-01

    Transmission and control of dengue hemorrhagic fever are related to its vectors. This study investigated vector density and distribution patterns of Aedes aegypty and Aedes albopictus in Medan and Langkat as high and low incidence district, respectively. An entomological survey was carried out in 304 households both in Medan and Langkat. The results showed that adult Ae. aegypti were predominantly in Medan, while adult Ae. albopictus was only in Langkat. Larvae indices (HI, CI, BI) for Aedes in Medan ( 35,13 and 43) were higher than langkat ( 22,8 and 30). Adult indices (AHI, AD, RR) for Ae. aegypti in Medan and for Ae. albopictus in Langkat were 20,38,24 and 3,5, and 5, respectively. Pattern distribution of Aedes larvae and adult mosquitoes in both district had similar pattern. Aedes larval indices and adult indices both in HIDs and LIDs were above the critical level, indicating potential high risk for DHF transmission. By multiple regression analysis, HI is predictor for DHF transmission in North Sumatera. Thus, in designing an effective control measures for dengue hemorrhagic fever, monitoring distribution and vector density is crucial.

  5. Towards more effective academic liaison between academics, students and practitioners in the field of public administration and management in the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nealer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing tertiary education arena in South Africa, the Department of Public Management and Governance in the School for Social and Government Studies of the Arts Faculty, North-West University (NWU had to revisit its policy on macro organisational aspects. Issues such as more effective communication mediums, the merging and alignment of the University’s three campuses, the nature of the ever-increasing competition in the tertiary residential and distance teaching environment, the range, variety and quality of its products and the facilitation and rendering of an improved tertiary teaching service were identified. In this article the typical nature of the intra, inter and extra academic liaison regarding the Department at NWU are highlighted and some recommendations on more effective communication and work procedures as a result of academic liaison are presented. Examples being that academics and practitioners need to meet more frequently, upgrade effective communication media among them and undertake joint research in a more cooperative manner.

  6. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  7. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  8. Earthquakes & Tsunamis flirting with the Ionosphere: the Sumatra gossip !!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, G.; Coïsson, P.; Rolland, L. M.; Lognonne, P.

    2009-12-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and the related Indian Ocean Tsunami generated the largest remote sensing data-set observing natural hazards. The observations showed both, ground motion and ocean sea surface displacement, as well as the related strong ionospheric anomalies. Total electron content (TEC) perturbations have been observed on a global scale, using ground-based GPS receivers [DasGupta et al., 2006, Liu et al., 2006b] and dual-frequency altimeters (e.g., Jason-1 and Topex/Poseidon [Artru et al., 2005]); plasma velocity perturbation has been observed by Doppler soundings [Liu et al., 2006b, Occhipinti et al., 2009]. The observed perturbations may be characterized as two different waves: the first one is an atmospheric wave in the acoustic domain induced by propagation of Rayleigh waves on the Earth surface; the second one is a slower atmospheric wave in the gravity domain strongly coupled with the generated tsunami. Both waves are reproduced by our accurate modeling taking into account the earthquake/tsunami-neutral atmosphere coupling at the base of the atmosphere, as well as the neutral-plasma coupling in the overlying ionosphere [Occhipinti et al., 2006, 2006, 2009]. Here we present a review of the ionospheric observations related to the Sumatra event in the light of modeling to deeply investigate the coupling mechanism between Solid-Earth/Ocean/Atmosphere/Ionosphere. The matching between data and modeling opens new perspectives in the solid earth research as well as in the tsunami detection providing a new insight into the role of the remote sensing in the monitoring of natural hazard. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006a] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02103, 2006. [Liu et al., 2006b] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., 173, 3, 753-1135, 2008. [Occhipinti et

  9. The 2007 Mentawai earthquake sequence on the Sumatra megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, A.; Avouac, J.; Sladen, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Kositsky, A. P.; Sieh, K.; Fang, P.; Li, Z.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J.; Chlieh, M.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Bock, Y.; Fielding, E. J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9.15, Aceh earthquake of 2004. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array (SuGAr), which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements. The most recent of these major earthquakes, an Mw 8.4 earthquake and an Mw 7.9 earthquake twelve hours later, occurred in the Mentawai islands area where devastating historical earthquakes had happened in 1797 and 1833. The 2007 earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the variability of the earthquakes along megathrusts and their relation to interseismic coupling. The InSAR, GPS and teleseismic modeling shows that 2007 earthquakes ruptured a fraction of the strongly coupled Mentawai patch of the megathrust, which is also only a fraction of the 1833 rupture area. It also released a much smaller moment than the one released in 1833, or than the deficit of moment that has accumulated since. Both earthquakes of 2007 consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to 100 km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8.4 and southern slip patch of 7.9 earthquakes abut each other, but they ruptured 12 hours apart. Sunda megathrust earthquakes of recent years include a rupture of a strongly coupled patch that closely mimics a prior rupture of that patch and which is well correlated with the interseismic coupling pattern (Nias-Simeulue section), as well as a rupture sequence of a strongly coupled patch that differs substantially in the details from its most recent predecessors (Mentawai section). We conclude that (1) seismic asperities are probably persistent features which arise form heterogeneous strain build up in the interseismic period; and (2) the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different ways depending on whether asperities break as isolated events or cooperate to produce

  10. Phenology and population dynamics of sand flies in a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Eastern Azarbaijan Province, North western of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazratian, Teimour; Rassi, Yavar; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Fallah, Esmael; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Rafizadeh, Sina

    2011-08-01

    To investigate species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies during April to October 2010 in Azarshahr district, a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north western Iran. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps biweekly and were stored in 96% ethanol. All specimens were mounted in Puri's medium for species identification using valid keys of sandflies. The density was calculated by the formula: number of specimens/m(2) of sticky traps and number of specimens/number of traps. Degree-day was calculated as follows: (Maximum temperature + Minimum temperature)/2-Minimum threshold. Diversity indices of the collected sand flies within different villages were estimated by the Shannon-weaver formula ( H'=∑i=1sPilog(e)Pi). Totally 5 557 specimens comprising 16 Species (14 Phlebotomus, and 2 Sergentomyia) were indentified. The activity of the species extended from April to October. Common sand-flies in resting places were Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus mongolensis. The monthly average density was 37.6, 41.1, 40.23, 30.38 and 30.67 for Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively. Accumulated degree-day from early January to late May was approximately 289 degree days. The minimum threshold temperature for calculating of accumulated degree-day was 17.32°. According on the Shannon-weaver (H'), diversity of sand flies within area study were estimated as 0.917, 1.867, 1.339, 1.673, and 1.562 in Almalodash, Jaragil, Segaiesh, Amirdizaj and Germezgol villages, respectively. This study is the first detailed research in terms of species composition, density, accumulated degree-day and diversity of sand flies in an endemic focus of visceral leishamaniasis in Azarshahr district. The population dynamics of sand flies in Azarshahr district were greatly affected by climatic factors. According to this study the highest activity of the collected sand fly species occurs at the teritary

  11. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  12. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  13. An Investigation of Seismicity for the West Sumatra Region Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafriani, S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the seismicity of the West Sumatra region in the coordinates area of 94° E – 104° E and 2° N - 4° S. Guttenberg-Richer magnitude-frequency relation and seismic risk have been computed. Historical data of earthquakes used from year of 1970 to 2017 with magnitude higher than 4. The study area was divided into 8 sub-regions based on seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic and geological models. The determination of seismotectonic characteristics was based on the level of seismic activity in a region (a value) and rock stress condition (b value). High a value was associated with high seismic activity, whereas high b values were associated with low stress rock conditions, and vice versa. Based on the calculation results, a and b values were obtained in the interval of 5.5-11.3 and 0.7-2. The highest b value was obtained in the sub region 5 (Nias islands), while the lowest b value was obtained in sub region 7 (the Mentawai islands). The sub region 7, Mentawai Islands was indicated as the seismic risk potential areas.

  14. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic

  15. Detailed seismotectonic analysis of Sumatra subduction zone revealed by high precision earthquake location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagala, Ricardo Alfencius; Harjadi, P. J. Prih; Heryandoko, Nova; Sianipar, Dimas

    2017-07-01

    Sumatra was one of the most high seismicity regions in Indonesia. The subduction of Indo-Australian plate beneath Eurasian plate in western Sumatra contributes for many significant earthquakes that occur in this area. These earthquake events can be used to analyze the seismotectonic of Sumatra subduction zone and its system. In this study we use teleseismic double-difference method to obtain more high precision earthquake distribution in Sumatra subduction zone. We use a 3D nested regional-global velocity model. We use a combination of data from both of ISC (International Seismological Center) and BMKG (Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Indonesia). We successfully relocate about 6886 earthquakes that occur on period of 1981-2015. We consider that this new location is more precise than the regular bulletin. The relocation results show greatly reduced of RMS residual of travel time. Using this data, we can construct a new seismotectonic map of Sumatra. A well-built geometry of subduction slab, faults and volcano arc can be obtained from the new bulletin. It is also showed that at a depth of 140-170 km, there is many events occur as moderate-to-deep earthquakes, and we consider about the relation of the slab's events with volcanic arc and inland fault system. A reliable slab model is also built from regression equation using new relocated data. We also analyze the spatial-temporal of seismotectonic using b-value mapping that inspected in detail horizontally and vertically cross-section.

  16. An assessment of the HIV/TB knowledge and skills of home-based carers working in the North West province in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Justin G; Letsoalo, Mabjala R; Chirowodza, Admire C

    2017-04-19

    Home-based carers (HBCs) play a critical role in ensuring the success of the primary health care re-engineering strategy in South Africa. Their role includes ensuring improved access to and delivery of primary health care at the household level, and better co-ordination and improved linkages between community and health facilities for HIV/TB services. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, skills, challenges and training needs of HBCs involved in HIV/TB care in one sub-district in the North-West province of South Africa. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 157 HBCs were interviewed to assess their knowledge and skills regarding HIV and TB. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and thematic analysis respectively. One hundred and forty-four (92%) of the interviewees were female and 13 (8%) were male. The median age of the participants was 35 years (interquartile range (IQR): 22-27). The median score for knowledge of both HIV and TB questions was 66% (IQR: 57-75). In general, HIV knowledge scores were higher than TB knowledge scores (73% versus 66%). A significant association was found between knowledge scores and formal training (p worked. HBCs also reported facing various challenges in their jobs related to stigma and the social contexts in which they work. The study showed that the overall knowledge of HBCs was limited, given the skills required and the services they provide. Given the increasing role of HBCs in various health initiatives, targeted interventions are required to support and improve their competencies and service provision.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE SOILS FROM THE TIDAL FLAT AREAS OF MUSI BANYUASIN, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.H. Prasetyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tidal flats in the Musi Banyuasin region that cover more than 200,000 ha are the largest area for agricultural development in South Sumatra Province. Only about a half of this has been used for tidal swamp rice fields, therefore, the other half needs to be developed. To obtain a better understanding of their properties for appropriate soil management, soil characteristics of the area need to be studied. To characterize the soil, thirty-four soil samples from seven soil profiles were analyzed for their chemical and mineralogical composition at the laboratories of the Center for Soil and Agroclimate Research and Development. The results indicate that soils from the tidal flat areas have an aquic soil moisture regime, the upper parts of the soils are mostly ripe, and most of the pedons show the presence of sulfidic materials below 65 cm of the mineral soil surface. The soils are classified as Sulfic Endoaquept (P1, P2, Histic Sulfaquent (P3, Typic Sulfaquept (P4, Fluvaquentic Endoaquept (P5, and Sulfic Hydraquent (P6, P7. Mineral composition of the sand fraction is dominated by quartz, while the clay minerals consist of predominantly kaolinite, mixed with small amount of smectite, illite, quartz, and crystoballite. Organic carbon content is high to very high, potential phosphate content of most pedons ranges from very low to medium, while potential potassium content varies from very low to medium in the upper layers and medium to very high in the bottom layers. Phosphate retention of topsoil sample varies from 56 to 97%, and is positively correlated (r2 = 0.73 with aluminum from amorphous materials. Exchangeable cations are dominated by Mg cation, and in all pedons cation exchange capacity values are medium to very high, and seem to be influenced by organic carbon. Specific chemical properties, particularly soil pH and content of exchangeable aluminum exhibit a significant change about 1-2 months after soil samples were taken from the field

  18. Stable Isotopes of Precipitation During Tropical Sumatra Squalls in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoneng; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Kurita, Naoyuki; Wang, Xianfeng; Rubin, Charles Martin

    2018-04-01

    Sumatra Squalls, organized bands of thunderstorms, are the dominant mesoscale convective systems during the intermonsoon and southwest monsoon seasons in Singapore. To understand how they affect precipitation isotopes, we monitored the δ value of precipitation daily and continuously (every second and integrated over 30 s) during all squalls in 2015. We found that precipitation δ18O values mainly exhibit a "V"-shape pattern and less commonly a "W"-shape pattern. Variation in δ18O values during a single event is about 1 to 6‰ with the lowest values mostly observed in the stratiform zone, which agrees with previous observations and modeling simulations. Reevaporation can significantly affect δ values, especially in the last stage of the stratiform zone. Daily precipitation is characterized by periodic negative shifts in δ value, largely associated with the squalls rather than moisture source change. The shifts can be more than 10‰, larger than intraevent variation. Initial δ18O values of events are highly variable, and those with the lowest values also have the lowest initial values. Therefore, past convective activities in the upwind area can significantly affect the δ18O, and convection at the sampling site has limited contribution to isotopic variability. A significant correlation between precipitation δ18O value and regional outgoing longwave radiation and rainfall in the Asian monsoon region and western Pacific suggests that regional organized convection probably drives stable isotopic compositions of precipitation. A drop in the frequency of the squalls in 2015 is related to weak organized convection in the region caused by El Niño.

  19. Aspects of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in fish preservation by irradiation 1. The presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus(SAK) in coastal areas of Sumatra and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A study was carried out on the presence of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples of sediment and seafoods originating from the eastern coast of Sumatra and the north coastal areas of Java. In a total of 2.434 samples of sediment and seafoods, 79 (3,3%) were found to contain vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the 467 sediment samples, 1.650 fish, 133 shellfish, 123 shrimps, and 61 crab samples, 22 (4.7%), 41 (2.5%), 12 (9.0%), 2 (1,6%) and 2 (3.3%) were positive for vibrio parahaemolyticus, respectively. Based on the sampling areas, the high incidence of vibrio parahaemolyticus was found in samples collected from Riau (5.4%), while the samples from East Java was only about 0.4%. The contamination level of vibrio parahaemolyticus in samples collected from coastal areas of Sumatra and Java is relatively lower compared with the data obtained from some other coastal areas in the United States and Japan. (author)

  20. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Allen

    Full Text Available Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber" as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC and base saturation (P≤0.05-0.09 had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05 compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09. This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05 and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05. Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  1. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes – loam and clay Acrisol soils – each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, “jungle rubber”) as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4 + immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05–0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05–0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51–0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 – -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  2. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  3. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Mw 9.3: Seismological and Geophysical Investigations in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.

    2007-05-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (MW 9.3) is the fourth largest event (M>9.0) in the world during the last 100 years. It occurred by thrust faulting on the interplate thrust zone of the subducting India plate and overriding Burma platelet. The main shock rupture, ~1300 km long and ~200 km wide, propagated from north of Sumatra to Andaman - Nicobar Islands; the slow rupture generated Tsunami which killed about 300,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake is located at 3.90N and 94.260E with a focal depth at 28 km (USGS). This mega seismic event triggered giant tsunamis that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and even the east coast of Africa. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in India, in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Air-base in the Car- Nicobar island was totally devastated by the tsunami and killed about 200 people. Macroseismic survey was carried out by different teams of GSI in North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Havelock Hut Bay and also in the Nicobar Islands. A maximum intensity VIII was recorded in the Andaman Islands. The mega thrust event was followed by an intense aftershock activity spreading over an area extending between 30-140N along the Andaman - Nicobar - Sumatra Island arc region. The aftershocks are distributed northwards from the epicenter of the main shock suggesting a unilateral rupture propagation. The aftershock (M >4.5) area covers a length of about 1300 km and a width of about 200 km, in a 'banana' shape. The national network (IMD) recorded almost all aftershocks M >5.0; about 350 were recorded till 31.01.2005. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) deployed six temporary seismograph stations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and also in Havelok and Narkunda (volcanic) islands. About 20,000 aftershocks (M >3.0) were recorded until end of March, 2005. About 1000 aftershocks (M >3.0) located by the GSI network until January 31, 2005

  4. Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoeto, N I; Mmedsci; Agus, Z; Oenzil, F; Masrul, M; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    Diet has a strong relationship with food culture and changes in it are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of newly emergent degenerative diseases. To obtain in-depth opinions about the food culture of Minangkabau people, focus group discussions were conducted in a Minangkabau region, represented by four villages in West Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to March 1999. The members of the discussion groups were principally women aged from 35 to 82 years old. Minangkabau culture is matriarchal and matrilineal which accounts for female gender dominants in the discussions. Rice, fish, coconut and chilli are the basic ingredients of the Minangkabau meals. Meat, especially beef and chicken, is mainly prepared for special occasions; pork is not halal and therefore not eaten by Muslim Minangkabau people; and for reasons of taste preference and availability, lamb, goat and wild game are rarely eaten. However, rendang, a popular meat dish, has been identified as one of the Minangkabau food culture characteristic dishes. Vegetables are consumed daily. Fruit is mainly seasonal, although certain kinds of fruit, such as banana, papaya and citrus, can be found all year around. Coconut has an important role in Minangkabau food culture and is the main source of dietary fat. While almost all food items consumed by the Minangkabau can be cooked with coconut milk, fried food with coconut oil is considered to be a daily basic food. Desiccated coconut is also used as a food ingredient on about a weekly basis and in snack foods almost every day. Although there have been no changes in food preparation and there is a slight difference in taste preference between the young and the old generations, there has been a dramatic shift in food preferences, which is reflected in the changing percentage of energy consumed over the past 15 years. The traditional combination of rice, fish and coconut in Minangkabau culture goes back hundreds of years, long before the emergence of the degenerative

  5. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  6. Inventory of uranium prospect area Rantau Prapat North Sumatra: general prospection stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wusana, Y.; Djalil, A.; Sriyono; Sutriyono, A.; Sajiyo

    2000-01-01

    The research has been carried out to gain knowledge of geology, radiometry, geochemistry to bound U prospect area scale 1:50.000. Based on investigation result of preliminary prospection was obtained indication of uranium mineralization as stream sediment anomalies in meta sandstone (Perm-Carboniferous) 0.86-28.00 ppm, sandstone (Middle-Upper Miosen) 1.192-7.20 ppm, granite (Upper Permian) 10.71-12.00 ppm; The total U content in sandstone until 10.29 ppm, granite 33.24 ppm, and radiometry of stand stone 25-150 cps, granite 200-500 cps. Lithology of the prospect area consist of quartzite, phyllitte, sandstone, siltstone, clay stone, conglomerate, granite, quartz feldspatic veins, andesite, tufaceous. Strike slip fault, normal fault, foliation and folding has been obtained in these area. Uranium anomalies of stream sediments were found in Conglomerate-Stand stone (1.04-4.80) ppm, Quartzite-Phyllite (0.91-1.90) ppm and Granite units (9.81-13.20) ppm. Uranium content of Conglomerate-stand stone (2.5-5) ppm, quartzite-phyllite (3.0-46.0) ppm, tuffaceous (9.0-22.0) ppm and granite (biotite muscovite) (23.5-40.0) ppm. Granite in these area is as uranium source. Based on anomaly of stream sediments on Conglomerate-Stand stone unit only about 7.64 km 2 , Quartzite-Phyllite 12.04 km 2 , Granite 10.20 km 2 and no supported by heavy mineral anomalies, radiometry and U rock content, so it was advised to not investigate follow up. (author)

  7. Analysis of Leadership Flexibility Capability of District/City Public Health Department in North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rifai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leadership has an important role in the organization as leader is in charge of supervising and controlling the course of an organization. Ability to lead in mobilizing and empowering employees will affect the performance of the organization. This behavior has a significant impact on the attitudes, behavior and performance of employees. The results of the study showed there is a significant relationship between characteristics such as age (p = 0.004, education(p = 0.034, work experience (p = 0.000, the experience of the organization (p = 0.000, and educational hierarchy (p =0.000 for leadership flexibility. Sex variable is not significant to the leadership flexibility (p = 0.801. There is a relationship with the flexibility of directive leadership style (p = 0.027, supportive leadership style (p = 0.046, and participative leadership style (p = 0.009 with the flexibility of leadership. There is aso a relationship between achievement-oriented leadership style and leadership flexibility (p = 0.000. There is a relationship between the individual characteristics of leadership style and versatility with variable: educational level of leadership (p = 0.021; OR = 19.265. The result suggests that we need more organized seminars / work shop / scientific studies that stimulate the realization of learning about leadership flexibility in improving the performance of the District/City Health Office and it is necessary to study theperformance of the head of the Department of Health assessment intensively and periodically

  8. INTEGRATED FARMING MODEL OF SMALL RUMINANTS IN DELI SERDANG, NORTH SUMATRA - INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kusumastuti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to measure the added value of goat and sheep with cut and carry systemand influencing factors of goat/sheep productivity and to measure the added value of manure to palmproductivity. The research was done in Deli Serdang Regency by determining two districts as researcharea: Tanjung Morawa District and Bangun Purba District. Location was determined by purposivesampling technique based on population of small ruminants and area of oil palm plantation in bothdistricts. Sample consisted of 50 goat farmers and 50 sheep farmers. Results indicated that farmers have18 to 24 heads of goats or sheep. Performance of goat and sheep reproduction tended to similar togenereral performance. Amount of doe, feed from palm oil and intercropped plant, livestock type andlocation influence significantly at livestock productivity (P<0.01. Goat contributed manure 16.86% and11.26% of total palm trees in Tanjung Morawa and Bangun Purba, respectively, while sheep contributedmanure 21.49% and 22.56% of total palm trees, respectively. Therefore, it was necessary to increasepopulation of livestock, to increase technology and diversification of production. It may be done by establishing partnership with local government, animal of science office and private corporation .

  9. Portrait of Characters in The Implementation on Junior High School District Patumbak North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derlina Derlina

    2016-10-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui implementasi pendidikan karakter pada mata pelajaran IPA di SMP se-kecamatan Patumbak T.P. 2015/2016. Jenis penelitian ini adalah deskriptif studi kasus. Populasi dalam penelitian adalah seluruh siswa kelas VIII masing-masing SMP T.P. 2015/2016. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak sebanyak 25% dari jumlah keseluruhan SMP Se-Kecamatan Patumbak yaitu SMPN 1 Patumbak, SMPS Madani Marindal, SMPS Ponpes Al-Husna dan SMPS IT Rahmat. Instrumen yang digunakan yaitu lembar observasi, catatan harian wawancara dan angket (kuesioner yang dibantu oleh satu observer.Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh jumlah nilai pendidikan karakter yang diimplementasikan setiap sekolah SMP, yaitu pada SMP Negeri 1 Patumbak menerapkan 9 nilai karakter dengan persentase 50%, SMP Swasta Madani Marindal 1 menerapkan 11 nilai karakter dengan persentase 55%, SMP Swasta Ponpes Al-Husna menerapkan 13 nilai karakter dengan persentase 72%, dan SMP Swasta IT Rahmat menerapkan 9 nilai karakter dengan persentase 50%. Kata kunci: deskriptif studi kasus, implementasi pendidikan karakter, pelajaran IPA

  10. DESIGNING CURRICULUM, CAPACITY OF INNOVATION, AND PERFORMANCES: A STUDY ON THE PESANTRENS IN NORTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Syahbuddin Ritonga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Desain Kurikulum, Kemampuan Inovasi dan Performa: Studi Pesantren di Sumatera Utara. There have been many articles and studies on Pesantren that have been published. Unfortunately, Almost all of them discuss about the Pesantren from the perspective of Islam exclusively. This paper tries to offer a new perspective in looking at the Pesantren: as an entity of business. This is a research paper which aims to know how Pesantrens’ performances are influenced by designing curriculum at different levels of capacity of innovation. The data are analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, namely frequency, multiple regressions and hierarchical regression. This paper analyzes the influence of designing the curriculum on performances of the Pesantren and the important effects of capacity of innovation on them. This paper reveals that the influence of designing modern Islamic currciculum to the Pesantren’s performances is expected to be varied according to the levels of capacity of innovation at the Pesantren.

  11. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  12. The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami recorded on the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of sea-level data obtained from the Atlantic Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) sea-level station at Takoradi, Ghana, West Africa, clearly reveals a tsunami signal associated with the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 in the Indian Ocean. The tsunami arrived at this location on 27 ...

  13. The 12 September 2007, Mw=7.9 Pagai-Sipora Earthquake, an Impulsive Rupture on the Central Sumatra Megathrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladena, A.; Konca, A.; Avouac, J.; Sieh, K.; Galtezka, J.; Fang, P.; Genrich, J.; Ji, C.; Natawidjaja, D.; Bock, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On 12 September 2007, at 23:40 UT, a large Mw=7.9 earthquake occurred offshore central Sumatra, 12 hours after a Mw=8.4 rupture that initiated about 200 km to the southeast. We analyze this event using teleseismic P and SH waveforms, together with GPS co-seismic displacements measured at cGPS stations from the the SuGAr network. The SuGAr network includes 5 receivers on the outer arc islands of Pagai and Sipora, in addition to stations on Sumatra mainland therefore providing an excellent coverage of the rupture area. Moreover, the high sampling rate of the stations (1 to 15 s sampling for most stations), allows to properly identify the respective contributions of the Mw=8.4 and major nearby aftershocks. Both seismic waveforms and the geodetic data indicate a moment release of about 1.1e21 N.m due to the rupture of two distinct asperities about 130 km apart along the subduction interface. The seismic waveforms require the first subevent to be extremely impulsive, with a short rise time of a few seconds at most, and a highly peaked slip distribution close to the epicenter. The geodetic and seismic data were inverted jointly to derive some kinematic model of the source that is found to reconcile well the two datasets. The first subevent is located near the eastern border of South Pagai Island with a maximum slip of 5.5 m released in less than a few seconds. The slip distribution due to that event abuts with the slip distribution due to the Mw=8.4 event. The second patch is located 130 km to the northwest, along the north- eastern coast of Sipora Island, with a maximum slip of 3.5 m. The rupture velocity is estimated to be about 2 km/s. Both the 2007 Mw=8.4 and Mw=7.9 events occurred within the estimated rupture area of the Mw>8.6 historical earthquake of 1833, a well defined patch that had remained locked during the interseismic period. A same portion of the megathrust can rupture in different ways.

  14. Monitoring the UPS and Downs of Sumatra and Java with D-Insar Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2010-12-01

    We performed, for the first time, a global D-InSAR survey of the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java to define locations where deformation is occurring. The goals of this study are 1) to create an inventory of actively deforming volcanic centers and 2) monitor all types of ground motion. This work provides ground deformation data for previously unmonitored areas and can assist the Indonesian authorities to improve hazards assessment. The D-InSAR survey covers an area of about 500 000 km2 and 3000 km long on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. We used ALOS data from 45 tracks and more than 1500 granules obtained from the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) through the US Government Research Consortium (USGRC). We completed more than 1000 interferograms spanning a period from the end of 2006 to the beginning of 2009. L-band SAR images enable deformation mapping at global scales even in highly vegetated areas where C-band signal experiences loss of coherence. To identify locations where ground deformations are occurring, we used multiple SAR acquisitions of the same area and performed time series analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) method. Interferograms with a maximum spatial baseline of 3000 m were phase-unwrapped and subsequently inverted for the phase with respect to the first acquisition. Temporal coherence of each pixel is computed on the set of interferograms in order to select only pixels with high temporal coherence. The compiled InSAR velocity map reveals the background level of activity of the 84 volcanic centers constituting the Sumatra, Java and Bali volcanic arcs. We identified possible uplift at 6 volcanic centers: Agung (Bali), Lamongan (Java), Lawu (Java), Slamet (Java), Kerinci (Sumatra) and Sinabung (Sumatra). Moreover, we identified subsidence in 5 major cities and 1 coastal area. Subsidence rates range from 6 cm/yr in Medan, the largest city of Sumatra, to more than 15 cm/yr in Jakarta. These major subsidence areas are probably due

  15. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  16. PENGENTASAN KEMISKINAN YANG KOMPREHENSIF DI BAGIAN WILAYAH TERLUAR INDONESIA - KASUS KABUPATEN NUNUKAN, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN UTARA (Comprehensive Poverty Reduction in Indonesian Outermost Regions - Case Study of Nunukan Regency-North Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rum Giyarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kabupaten Nunukan terletak di Provinsi Kalimantan Utara yang merupakan salah satu kabupaten terluar di Indonesia. Kondisi pemilikan aset sumberdaya yang bervariasi antar kecamatan di Kabupaten Nunukan menyebabkan variasi kondisi kemiskinan di wilayah ini. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengetahui kondisi kemiskinan di Kabupaten Nunukan dan merumuskan program pengentasan kemiskinan yang komprehensif di Kabupaten Nunukan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode survai dengan pengumpulan data berupa observasi lapangan, wawancara mendalam, dan diskusi kelompok terfokus. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kondisi kemiskinan di Kabupaten Nunukan bervariasi antar kecamatan. Kondisi ini disebabkan oleh bervariasinya pemilikan aset sumberdaya antar kecamatan. Penelitian ini juga menemukan bahwa terdapat dua pola pengentasan kemiskinan yang komprehensif di Kabupaten Nunukan. Pola pengentasan kemiskinan yang dimaksud adalah pola pengentasan kemskinan untuk kelompok anak-anak berupa pendidikan ekstra kurikuler ekonomi kreatif produktif dan pola pengentasan kemiskinan untuk kelompok dewasa adalah program pelatihan, bantuan modal, pendampingan, monitoring, dan pemasaran hasil melalui wadah Usaha Mikro, Kecil, dan Menengah (UMKM.   ABSTRACT Nunukan Regency, located in the North Borneo Province, is one of Indonesia's outer regions. The variation of resources ownership among districts inside Nunukan Regency causing different poverty level in this region. This study aims to determine the poverty condition in Nunukan Regency and to formulate a comprehensive poverty reduction program in this regency. The method used in this study is based on survey method, consists of data collection from field observations, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Data processing and analysis were analyzed using descriptive-qualitative analysis. The results showed that there

  17. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  18. A STUDY ON COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN MALARIA CONTROL: II. Malaria Intervention Studies in berakit Village, Riau Province, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribadi W.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan survei malariometrik dan survei sosiologi di desa Berakit, Propinsi Riau, dalam menanggulangi penyakit malaria dengan kemoprofilaksis, melalui peran serta masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daerah tersebut adalah hiperendemik dan pengetahuan penduduk mengenai malaria masih rendah. Suatu "learning module" telah dibagikan kepada mereka melalui 9 orang pelopor yang dipilih oleh masya­rakat. Tablet klorokuin dibagikan seminggu sekali sebagai intervensi profilaksis selama 2 tahun. Hasilnya menunjukkan adanya penurunan angka limpa dan angka parasit pada 529 orang penduduk, di antaranya adalah 159 anak umur 2-9 tahun (berturut-turut dari 54.3 % menjadi 21.8 % dan dari 69,2 % menjadi 27.6 % untuk angka limpa dan dari 13.2 % menjadi 2.6 % dan dari 24.5 % menjadi 6.8 % untuk angka parasit. Spesies parasit yang ditemukan adalah Plasmodium falciparum dan P. vivax, sedang­kan infeksi campur dan P. malariae yang ditemukan' pada survei pra-intervensi tidak di­jumpai lagi pada akhir penelitian. Survei sosiologi mengenai respons penduduk terhadap "learning module" menunjukkan bahwa penduduk dapat menggunakannya dengan baik. Mereka sadar bahwa peran serta masyarakat adalah penting untuk menanggulangi penyakit malaria di desanya. Aspek entomologi dilakukan oleh Subdirektorat Entomologi P2M-PLP Jakarta dan data­nya masih dalam pengolahan. Walaupun demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemoprofilaksis dengan penyuluhan kese­hatan yang tepat pada masyarakat dapat dilakukan seperti terlihat pada hasil penelitian ini di desa Berakit, Propinsi Riau.

  19. Analyses of surface motions caused by the magnitude 9.0 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Gudmundsson, Ó.

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on December 26th was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.0 it is the forth largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about one hundred kilometers off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively thin...... of years. The result was a devastating tsunami hitting coastlines across the Indian Ocean killing more than 225,000 people in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. An earthquake of this magnitude is expected to involve a displacement on the fault on the order of 10 meters. But, what...... was the actual amplitude of the surface motions that triggered the tsunami? This can be constrained using the amplitudes of elastic waves radiated from the earthquake, or by direct measurements of deformation. Here we present estimates of the deformation based on continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

  20. Toerbeurtrijstbouw : individuele en collectieve rechten in de landbouw van Kerinci in Sumatra, Indonesië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de J.W.

    2006-01-01

    In Kerinci, on theislandofSumatrainIndonesia, different categories of collective property co-exist with different types of individual

  1. Two boilers from Kvaerner to Sumatra, Indonesia; Sumatralle kaksi kattilaa Kvaernerilta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salja, A. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Kvaerner Pulping Oy has won a contract to supply soda and power boilers to the new Musi Pulp plant under construction in southern Sumatra in Indonesia. The boiler will be built in Tampere. The plant is scheduled for completion in December 1999 and it will produce 450 000 t/a. The contract is an important step forward for Kvaerner Pulping in promoting its fluidized bed technology

  2. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestari, Titik, E-mail: t2klestari@gmail.com [Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jalan Angkasa I No.2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  3. Analisis Perilaku Konsumen Produk Organik di Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Organic consumer still quite new in the province of North Sumatra and is still growing. The growth of the organic consumer is still not satisfactory. Organic products have not been socialized in North Sumatra in Medan thus the amount of organic consumers is still not much in quantity in North Sumatra. This study is intended to find the right model in understanding the behavior of organic consumers in North Sumatra. Basic theory in this study is the theory of consumer behavior using the Theory...

  4. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  5. Nutritional Potential of Selected Insect Species Reared on the Island of Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Anna; Mlček, Jiří; Kouřimská, Lenka; Borkovcová, Marie; Bušina, Tomáš; Adámek, Martin; Bednářová, Martina; Krajsa, Jan

    2017-05-12

    Inhabitants of the Indonesian island of Sumatra are faced with the problem of insufficient food supplies and the consequent risk of undernourishment and health issues. Edible insects as a traditional and readily available food source could be part of the solution. The nutritional value of insects depends on many factors, e.g., species, developmental stage, sex, diet, and climatic conditions. However, edible insects bred in Sumatra for human consumption have never before been assessed with regard to their nutritional value. Our study involved analyses of crude protein, chitin, fat and selected fatty acid contents of giant mealworm larvae ( Zophobas morio ), larvae of the common mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor) and nymphs of the field cricket ( Gryllus assimilis ). Crude protein content in the samples ranged from 46% to 56%. Highest (35%) and lowest (31%) amounts of fat were recorded in giant mealworm larvae and larvae of the common mealworm, respectively. Chitin amounts ranged from 6% to 13%. Based on these values, which are comparable to those known from other food insects reared in different regions of the world, the edible species bred in Sumatra could become food sources with a potential to help stave off hunger and undernourishment.

  6. Factors Which Influenced the Success of the Implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs Number 59 of 2007 in North Sumatera Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Rinanda Lubis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test empirically and analyze the influence of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007. Population in this study is SKPD Officer of North Sumatra Province (108 people which was sampled for 93 people. Simultaneous F test and partial t test were used to studies effects of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities to the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59, year 2007. These results prove that the regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting devices simultaneously influenced the successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007. In partial, regulation, commitment and human resources affected successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No. 59 Year 2007, while the supporting facilities did not have an effect. These results showed that 48% variations of successful implementation of the Regulation of the Minister of Home Affairs No.59 Year 2007, depended on variable of regulation, commitment, human resources and supporting facilities and the remaining 52% depended on other uninvestigated variables.

  7. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  8. Orangutans, enamel defects, and developmental health: A comparison of Borneo and Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark F; Skinner, Matthew M

    2017-08-01

    Orangutans (Pongo sp.) show among the highest occurrence of three types of developmental enamel defect. Two are attributed to nutritional factors that reduce bone growth in the infant's face early in development. Their timing and prevalence indicate that Sumatra provides a better habitat than does Borneo. The third type, repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) is very common but its etiology is not understood. Our objective is to draw attention to this enigmatic, episodic stressor in the lives of orangutans. We are concerned that neglect of this possible marker of ill health may be contributing, through inaction, to their alarming decline in numbers. Width and depth of an LEH are considered proxies for duration and intensity of stress. The hypothesis that Bornean orangutans would exhibit relatively wider and deeper LEH was tested on 163 independent episodes of LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans measured with a NanoFocus AG "µsurf Mobile Plus" scanner. Non-normally distributed data (depths) were converted to natural logs. No difference was found in width of LEH among the two island taxa; nor are their differences in width or depth between the sexes. After controlling for significant differences in LEH depths between incisors and canines, defects are, contrary to prediction, significantly deeper in Sumatran than Bornean animals (median = 28, 18 µm, respectively). It is concluded that repetitive LEH records an unknown but significant stressor present in both Sumatra and Borneo, with an average periodicity of 6 months (or multiples thereof) that lasts about 6-8 weeks. It is worse in Sumatra. Given this patterning, shared with apes from a wide range of ecological and temporal sources, rLEH is more likely attributable to disease than to malnutrition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Weak Tectono-Magmatic Relationships along an Obliquely Convergent Plate Boundary: Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Acocella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The tectono-magmatic relationships along obliquely convergent plate boundaries, where strain partitioning promotes strike-slip structures along the volcanic arc, are poorly known. Here it is unclear if and, in case, how the strike-slip structures control volcanic processes, distribution and size. To better define the possible tectono-magmatic relationships along strike-slip arcs, we merge available information on the case study of Sumatra (Indonesia with field structural data. The Sumatra arc (entire volcanic belt consists of 48 active volcanoes. Of these, 46% lie within 10 km from the dextral Great Sumatra Fault (GSF, which carries most horizontal displacement on the overriding plate, whereas 27% lie at >20 km from the GSF. Among the volcanoes at <10 km from GSF, 48% show a possible structural relation to the GSF, whereas only 28% show a clear structural relation, lying in pull-aparts or releasing bends; these localized areas of transtension (local extensional zone do not develop magmatic segments. There is no relation between the GSF along-strike slip rate variations and the volcanic productivity. The preferred N30°-N40°E volcano alignment and elongation are subparallel to the convergence vector or to the GSF. The structural field data, collected in the central and southern GSF, show, in addition to the dextral motions along NW-SE to N-S striking faults, also normal motions (extending WNW-ESE or NE-SW, suggesting local reactivations of the GSF. Overall, the collected data suggest a limited tectonic control on arc volcanism. The tectonic control is mostly expressed by the mean depth of the slab surface below the volcanoes (130 ± 20 km and, subordinately, local extension along the GSF. The latter, when WNW-ESE oriented (more common, may be associated with the overall tectonic convergence, as suggested by the structural data; conversely, when NE-SW oriented (less common, the extension may result from co- and post-seismic arc normal extension

  10. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Meatball Sold in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferawati; H. Purwanto; Y. F. Kurnia; E. Purwati

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of meatball obtained from five different manufacturers around Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Microbiological analysis of meatball sample resulted in aerobic plate count range from 7 log CFU/gr to 8.623 log CFU/gr, respectively. Total coliform ranges from 1.041 log Most Probable Number (MPN)/gr to 3.380 log MPN/gr, respectively. Chemical analysis of meatball sample consisted of borax and formalin content. T...

  11. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  12. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  13. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)]|[University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, J.M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Science, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States)

    2009-01-31

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1 wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential. (author)

  14. Parameters Affecting Household Income Diversity of Farmer’s Tribes in South Sumatra Tidal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wildayana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine parameters affecting household income diversity of farmer’s tribes in South Sumatra tidal wetland, especially studied from the aspect of land acreage, education level, age of farmers and tribes of farmers. The research was using survey method and carried out from June-August 2016 in the Delta Telang I Banyuasin, South Sumatra. The data were recorded by questionnaire for 145 respondents of farmers. Data was processed, described and correlated to see the relevance of the parameters with other parameters. The research concluded that the character of household economy of farmers explaining the relation between production decisions to increase rice production is land acreage, education, age, experience of farmers, number of household members, and labor allocation. Multi commodities farming (rice and plantation was very favorable compared to monoculture rice fields? But this is a little bit contradictive with government policy that the research area is pointed out as the center of rice production. Therefore, government policy needs to motivate farmers that they can manage their farming from upstream to downstream and they work full in their own farming. The government policy should be site-specific and appropriated with the tribes of farmers

  15. Marked point process for modelling seismic activity (case study in Sumatra and Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Hasih; Sulistya Rini, Lia; Wayan Mangku, I.

    2018-05-01

    Earthquake is a natural phenomenon that is random, irregular in space and time. Until now the forecast of earthquake occurrence at a location is still difficult to be estimated so that the development of earthquake forecast methodology is still carried out both from seismology aspect and stochastic aspect. To explain the random nature phenomena, both in space and time, a point process approach can be used. There are two types of point processes: temporal point process and spatial point process. The temporal point process relates to events observed over time as a sequence of time, whereas the spatial point process describes the location of objects in two or three dimensional spaces. The points on the point process can be labelled with additional information called marks. A marked point process can be considered as a pair (x, m) where x is the point of location and m is the mark attached to the point of that location. This study aims to model marked point process indexed by time on earthquake data in Sumatra Island and Java Island. This model can be used to analyse seismic activity through its intensity function by considering the history process up to time before t. Based on data obtained from U.S. Geological Survey from 1973 to 2017 with magnitude threshold 5, we obtained maximum likelihood estimate for parameters of the intensity function. The estimation of model parameters shows that the seismic activity in Sumatra Island is greater than Java Island.

  16. Variations in sea surface roughness induced by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Godin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of tsunamis away from shore are critically important for improving early warning systems and understanding of tsunami generation and propagation. Tsunamis are difficult to detect and measure in the open ocean because the wave amplitude there is much smaller than it is close to shore. Currently, tsunami observations in deep water rely on measurements of variations in the sea surface height or bottom pressure. Here we demonstrate that there exists a different observable, specifically, ocean surface roughness, which can be used to reveal tsunamis away from shore. The first detailed measurements of the tsunami effect on sea surface height and radar backscattering strength in the open ocean were obtained from satellite altimeters during passage of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami. Through statistical analyses of satellite altimeter observations, we show that the Sumatra-Andaman tsunami effected distinct, detectable changes in sea surface roughness. The magnitude and spatial structure of the observed variations in radar backscattering strength are consistent with hydrodynamic models predicting variations in the near-surface wind across the tsunami wave front. Tsunami-induced changes in sea surface roughness can be potentially used for early tsunami detection by orbiting microwave radars and radiometers, which have broad surface coverage across the satellite ground track.

  17. Jambak Jambu Kalko: Nature conservation management of the Serampas of Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HARIYADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hariyadi B. 2012. Jambak Jambu Kalko: Nature conservation management of the Serampas of Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 40-45. Serampas is an indigenous group that still inhabits forested areas around the Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP in the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The group has occupied the area since several centuries ago, long before the KSNP was officially proclaimed as a national park. The blending of local natural conditions, socio-cultural setting and cosmology has gradually produced a number of local wisdoms and practices to manage the local natural resources. The Serampas traditional resource management practices were not only friendly to the environment, but also encourage the more equitable distribution of natural resources among the members of the Serampas community. Jambak jambu kalko is literally means a list of locally important perennial fruit tree species protected by the Serampas customary system. Beyond the jambak jambu kalko the Serampas also recognize customs, traditions, and values that have important role in managing the local natural resources.

  18. ANALISA PERUBAHAN IONOSFER AKIBAT GEMPA MENTAWAI TAHUN 2010 (Studi Kasus : Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Septiningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gempa merupakan fenomena alam akibat aktifitas tektonik yang sering terjadi di Indonesia. Sepanjang pulau Sumatra merupakan pertumbukan antara lempeng Indo-Australia dan lempeng Eurasia menjadikan Sumatra sebagai daerah paling aktif dengan aktifitas tektoniknya. Pada tahun 2010 tercatat tiga gempa besar yang terjadi, yaitu gempa berkekuatan 6,8 SR pada 5 Maret, disusul 6,5 SR pada 5 Mei dan terakhir 7,8 SR pada 25 Oktober 2010. Post-earthquake anomali merupakan fluktuasi TEC yang terjadi sesaat setelah terjadinya gempa, fenomena ini terjadi 3 menit hingga 1 jam setelah gempa terjadi. Post-earthquake anomali dapat digunakan sebagai early warning sebelum tsunami datang. Pengamatan TEC (Total Electron Content dilakukan dengan menggunakan GPS. Satelit GPS akan secara kontinyu memancarkan sinyal gelombang double frequency pada L band. Pada saat terjadi gempa, sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh satelit GPS akan mengalami delay ketika melewati lapisan ionosfer kira-kira 300 km dari permukaan bumi. Variasi ionosfer diamati pada saat terjadi time-delay ini, sehingga didapat nilai TEC dimana I TECU sama dengan 1016 elektron/m2. Nilai tersebut yang akan menggambarkan besaran gangguan akibat adanya gempa. Pada gempa Mentawai 2010 dengan menggunakan stasiun pengamat GPS pada ketiga kejadian gempa tidak menunjukkan adanya gangguan pada ionosfer, hanya terjadi fluktuasi pada beberapa stasiun pengamat.

  19. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  20. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Hower, James C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1 wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential. (author)

  1. Pathotype profile of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates from North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noer, Z.; Hasanuddin; Lisnawita; Suryanto, D.

    2018-02-01

    The Bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most important diseases and has caused crop failure in rice crops. This pathogen infects the leaves in all plant growth phases. The purpose of this study is to investigation 10 Xoo isolates pathotype obtained from North Sumatra based on their interactions with 10 near-isogenic rice lines (NIL) of IRRI. The results showed that there are 6 pathotypes of virulence in North Sumatra, they are; pathotype I with incompatible interaction to all Xa genes, pathotype II with compatible interaction to Xa1 and Xa3 genes, while it has incompatible interaction to other genes, pathotype III with compatible interaction to Xa1, Xa5, Xa7, Xa8, Xa10 and Xa11 genes, but it has incompatible interaction to other genes, pathotype IV with compatible interaction to all Xa genes, pathotype V with compatible interaction to Xa1 gene and incompatible interaction to other genes, and pathotype VI with compatible interaction to Xa3 gene and incompatible interaction to other genes. Based on the resistant genes in each individual Xa2, Xa4, and Xa21 genes are the combination of Xa genes which are most suitable for use in the development of rice cultivars in North Sumatra.

  2. PERILAKU BERISIKO KESEHATAN DAN FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHINYA PADA REMAJA SEKOLAH MENENGAH PERTAMA DI JAWA DAN SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmalina Soerachman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSeveral behaviour health risks such as lack of physical activity, smoking and violence have contributed tothe health status among adolescents. Those behaviour health risks can be associated with familyrelationship, school environment and other related social cultural and economy determinants.Consequently, those behaviour risk factors may lead to certain non-communicable disease. To describe thebehaviour risk factors among adolescents and their determinant factors. This study employed a two-stagecluster sample design to produce a representative sample of students in 7th-9th grade, aged 13 — 15 years.In this study 3,116 questionnaires were completed in 49 schools in Java and Sumatra islands. Data wasanalyzed descriptively to provide proportion of certain behavior risk factors. Data analysis was done usingEpi-info. Study showed 10.9%-21.6% of boys students in Java and Sumatra smoked a day or over in theperiod of one month. Among the smoking students about 71.1% of adolescents started smoking at aged 13years or younger. Approximately 37%- 41% adolescents experienced having physical fighting at least onceor more during the last one year. The prevalence of physical fighting was higher among boys than girls.The behavior health risks are alarming and need further specific intervention based on issues priority toimprove the health behavior among adolescents in order to prevent certain non-communicable disease inthe older age.Keywords: Health behaviour, Factors, Students ABSTRAKKurangnya aktifitas fisik, merokok dan kekerasan adalah beberapa perilaku yang diidentifikasi sangatberpengaruh pada kesehatan pelajar khususnya anak remaja. Perilaku-perilaku berisiko tersebut disebabkanoleh beberapa faktor diantaranya adalah lingkungan keluarga, sekolah dan lainnya yang akibatnya dapatmenjurus ke masalah penyakit tidak menular. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perilaku-perilakuberisiko pada pelajar dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya

  3. Pengaruh Partisipasi Penyusunan Anggaran Dan Komitmen Organisasi Terhadap Kinerja Dinas Kesejahteraan Dan Sosial Provinsi Sumetera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Marisna, Lily

    2013-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF BUDGET PARTICIPATION, MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TO SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES PERFORMANCE IN PROVINCE OF NORTH SUMATRA The purpose of this research is to know the impact of budgetary participation, motivation and organization commitment as partial and simultan toward to social welfare services performance in province of north sumatra. The method of this minithesis is to use a causal research design. The type of data used is the primary data. Primary data obta...

  4. Medan City: Development and governance under the decentralisation era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarigan, A.K.M.; Samsura, D.A.A.; Sagala, S.; Pencawan, A.V.M.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Medan's economy has grown rapidly and has been the driver of the regional development in North Sumatra Province as well as the northern part of the Sumatra region. The recent adoption of decentralised public policies in Indonesia has to some extent influenced urban

  5. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  6. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  7. The existence of Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 and their prey in different forest habitat types in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOAN DINATA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the relationships between prey animals and the occurence of sumatran tiger was conducted in Kerinci Seblat National Park, western Sumatra from May up to September 2001. The data have been collected from eight study sites based on the forest habitat types and its threats. The results showed that frequency of encounters with prey animals in different forest habitats were no difference. This might indicates that the prey animals were distributed fairly in all types of forest habitat. The frequency encounters of the sumatran tiger signs, however, have shown differently between locations. The encounters of tiger signs were more frequent in the forest habitats that close to the streams; in forest habitats with few animal huntings; and in forest habitats with no logging activities. This findings support the hypotheses that the existence of sumatran tiger as a predator is determined by the dense vegetations surrounding streams as hiding place used in an ambush; availability of prey animals as food, and habitat disturbances as shown by logging.

  8. Winter food of the fox Vulpes vulpes in the Province of Cuneo (North-Western Italy / Alimentazione invernale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes nell'Albese (Provincia di Cuneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the Fox Vulpes vulpes was studied by the analysis of 157 gastric contents coming from hilly areas of the Province of Cuneo. Samples were gathered during January-March of the years '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 and '88 (N. 44. The mean percentage of frequency was determined for the following feeding categories: Fruits (26.1%, Other vegetable components (19.7%, Insects (2.5%, Wild birds (11.5%, Insectivores and Rodents (42.7%, Lepus capensis (13.4%, Indeterminate Lagomorphs (17.2%, Domestic animals (59.2% and Other (2.5%. The diet is analysed in relation to some available trophic resources (dumps, restoking of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto Vengono presentati i dati dell'analisi di 157 contenuti gastrici di Vulpes vulpes, provenienti da aree collinari della provincia di Cuneo; i campioni si riferiscono ai primi tre mesi delle annate '86 (N. 41, '87 (N. 72 e '88 (N. 44. Sono state determinate le frequenze percentuali delle seguenti categorie alimentari: Frutti (26,1%, Altre componenti vegetali (19,7%, Insetti (2,5%, Uccelli selvatici (11,5%, Insettivori e Roditori (42,7%, Lepus capensis (13,4%, Lagomorfi indeterminati (17,2%, Animali domestici (59,2% e Altro (2,5%. La dieta viene esaminata in relazione ad alcuni aspetti legati alle disponibilità trofiche del territorio (presenza di discariche, ripopolamenti di selvaggina.

  9. Co-seismic Earth’s rotation change caused by the 2012 Sumatra earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Changyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes heavily deform the crust in the vicinity of the fault, which leads to mass redistribution in the earth interior. Then it will produce the change of the Earth’s rotation (polar motion and length of day due to the change of Earth inertial moment. This paper adopts the elastic dislocation to compute the co-seismic polar motion and variation in length of day (LOD caused by the 2011 Sumatra earthquake. The Earth’s rotational axis shifted about 1 mas and this earthquake decreased the length of day of 1 μs, indicating the tendency of earthquakes make the Earth rounder and to pull the mass toward the centre of the Earth. The result of variation in length of day is one order of magnitude smaller than the observed results that are available. We also compared the results of three fault models and find the co-seismic change is depended on the fault model.

  10. Technique of uranium exploration in tropical rain forests as applied in Sumatra and other tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, L.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of uranium prospecting in areas covered by tropical rain forest is discussed using a uranium exploration campaign conducted from 1976 to 1978 in Western Sumatra as an example. A regional reconnaissance survey using stream sediment samples combined with radiometric field measurements proved ideal for covering very large areas. A mobile field laboratory was used for the geochemical survey. Helicopter support in diffult terrain was found to be very efficient and economical. A field procedure for detecting low uranium concentrations in stream water samples is described. This method has been successfully applied in Sarawak. To distinguish meaningful uranium anomalies in water from those with no meaning for prospecting, the correlations between U content and conductivity of the water and between U content and Ca and HCO 3 content must be considered. This method has been used successfully in a geochemical survey in Thailand. (author)

  11. A comprehensive field and laboratory study of scale control and scale squeezes in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, J.E.; Reizer, J.M.; Sitz, C.D. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Setia, D.E.A. [FMT Production Duri P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia (Indonesia); Hinrichsen, C.J. [Texaco Panama, Bellaire, TX (United States); Sujana, W. [P.T. Champion Kumia Djaja Technologies, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-11-01

    Scale squeezes were performed on thirteen wells in the Duri Field, Sumatra. At the time the squeezes were completed, seven were designed to be `Acid Squeezes` and six were designed to be `Neutral Squeezes.` In the course of preparing for the scale squeezes, produced waters were collected and analyzed. In addition, scale inhibitor evaluations, and inhibitor compatibility studies were completed. Simulated squeezes were done in the laboratory to predict field performance. The methodologies and results of the background work are reported. In addition, the relative effectiveness of the two sets of squeezes is discussed. The inhibitor flowback concentrations alter the squeezes, in all cases, can be explained using speciation chemistry and the amorphous and crystalline phase solubilities of the inhibitor used. The wells squeezed with a more acidic inhibitor have more predictable and uniform inhibitor return concentration curves than the wells squeezed with a more neutral scale inhibitor.

  12. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience a l...... the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability-resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  13. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth S; Kim, Patrick S; Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Gaveau, David L A; Mickley, Loretta J; Margono, Belinda A; Myers, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  14. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  15. Paleoproductivity and Nutrient Cycling on the Sumatra Margin during the Past Half Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K.; Mitt Schwamborn, T.; Thunell, R.; Tuten, E. C.; Swink, C.; Tappa, E.

    2017-12-01

    In the IndoPacific, changes in paleoproductivity on orbital timescales are often linked to changes in precession, particularly in areas of coastal upwelling. These changes are in turn related to variations in zonal wind patterns and thermocline tilt associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and commensurate changes in Asian, Indian, and Australian monsoon precipitation and wind-driven upwelling. Previous studies have revealed varying phase relationships amongst monsoon precipitation, upwelling variability and precession minima in the Indo-Pacific region. Regional records have additionally displayed power in the 41-kyr band, attributed to changes in deepwater ventilation and preservation, and the 100-kyr band, related to the influence of sea level on the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). To provide further insight into the regional and distal forcing on paleoproductivity and nutrient cycling in this clearly complex region, we present %TOC, %CaCO3, and sedimentary δ15N data from core MD98-2152, off the Sumatra margin in a region influenced by both ITF variability and wind-driven upwelling. By comparing our paleoproductivity and paleonutrient data with planktonic δ18O (tuned to composite Chinese cave speleothem records) and benthic δ18O (tuned to the Lisiecki-Raymo Stack), we compare timing of local productivity changes to high latitude ice-volume changes and local hydrographic changes. A strong 23-kyr signal in the %TOC record supports the strong influence of precession on paleoproductivity in this region. In contrast, strong power in the 100 and 41-kyr bands is observed in %CaCO3 and δ15N with a relatively minor contribution from precession, indicating a complex relationship between nutrient cycling, upwelling, production, and preservation on the Sumatra coast.

  16. The Continuity and the Culture Change of Pesantren in South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Munir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article entitled culture of pesantren (madrasah boarding schools in South Sumatra. This article is the result of research in Pesantren Nurul Islam Ogan Ilir South Sumatra. It is based on the fact that many pesantren graduation create academicians from the Kiayi or Ulama. Therefore, this paper describe the characteristics of the culture of madrasah schools from anthropology-sociology aspects of education, with a phenomenological approach to research subjects are madrasah chairman, board of teachers, students and community supporters. The data collection techniques used documentation study, observation and in-depth interviews, and analysis of data using qualitative descriptive, with triangulation and contrasting techniques. Applying local knowledge systems in boarding school curriculum and integrated with Madrasah boarding school curriculum. Orientation discipline tends towards positive law than the laws of Personality Syara’. Clothing the students follow a uniform generally used in madrasah. For students wear clothes instead of the veil of windings. Artistic activities undertaken include: litany, muhad Barzanji, Tilawah al-Qur’an, calligraphy, and drum band.   Artikel berjudul budaya pesantren (sekolah berasrama madrasah di Sumatera Selatan. Artikel ini merupakan hasil penelitian di Pesantren Nurul Islam Ogan Ilir Sumatera Selatan. Hal ini didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa banyak lulusan pesantren melahirkan akademisi dari kiayi atau Ulama. Oleh karena itu, makalah ini menggambarkan karakteristik budaya dari sekolah madrasah dari aspek antropologi-sosiologi pendidikan, dengan pendekatan fenomenologis dengan subyek penelitian kepala madrasah, dewan guru, siswa dan masyarakat sekitar. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan studi dokumentasi, observasi dan wawancara mendalam, dan analisis data menggunakan deskriptif kualitatif, dengan triangulasi dan teknik kontras. Menerapkan sistem pengetahuan lokal dalam kurikulum pesantren dan

  17. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  18. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgatle, Mathildah Mpata; Madiba, Sphiwe

    2017-01-01

    Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges in two provinces in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges. The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9%) were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI): 1.08-2.75), having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26-2.38), and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42-0.88). Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test. The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT) should be considered to educate communities about HIVST.

  19. High Acceptability of HIV Self-Testing among Technical Vocational Education and Training College Students in Gauteng and North West Province: What Are the Implications for the Scale Up in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathildah Mpata Mokgatle

    Full Text Available Although HIV self-testing (HIVST is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV testing approaches, South Africa has lagged behind in its adoption. As a result, data on the acceptability and uptake of HIVST testing is limited. The study investigated the acceptability of HIVST among students in Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET colleges in two provinces in South Africa.A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data among 3,662 students recruited from 13 TVET colleges.The mean age of the students was 21.9 years. The majority (80.9% were sexually active; while 66.1% reported that they had one sexual partner, and 33.9% had two or more sexual partners in the past year, and66.5% used condoms during the last sexual act. Three-quarters tested for HIV in the past year but less than half knew about HIVST prior to the survey. The acceptability of HIVST was high; about three-quarters showed a willingness to purchase a self-test kit and a majority would self-test with partners. Acceptability of HIVST was associated with being sexually active (OR = 1.73, p = 0.02, confidence interval (CI: 1.08-2.75, having ever been tested for HIV (OR = 1.74, p = 0.001, CI: 1.26-2.38, and having multiple sexual partners (OR = 0.61, p = 0.01, CI: 0.42-0.88. Three-quarters would confirm test results at a local health facility. In terms of counselling, telephone hotlines were acceptable to only 39.9%, and less than half felt that test-kit leaflets would provide sufficient information to self-test.The high acceptability of HIVST among the students calls for extensive planning and preparation for the scaling up of HIVST in South Africa. In addition, campaigns similar to those conducted to promote HIV counselling and testing (HCT should be considered to educate communities about HIVST.

  20. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

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    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  1. Building an infrastructure project performance in the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    projects are numerous, and it is believed that the inputs and views of as many participants ... all companies listed. ..... Inadequate contingency allowance by the contractor; .... facing small contractors in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  2. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  3. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  4. Anthropometry of the Medan - North Sumatera Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Muchtar, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted on 780 students at a university in Medan, North Sumatra. The taken data is divided into two sub-groups, namely men and women, where the data of 343 men and women as many as 437 people. Taken anthropometry data is standing position, sitting position, hands, feet and body weight. This study presents statistical data in the form of standard deviation, average and percentiles. This research needs to be done because the population of the city of Medan is around 2,497,183 people, and Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia. The objectives this study is to collect the anthropometry data for ergonomics application and design product base on the customer need in Medan territory. Data retrieval is necessary because with this data is expected to be applied in the application of science of ergonomics, work station design, equipment design; tooling makes it convenient in everyday use.

  5. Morfologi dan kekerabatan antara Leopoldamys siporanus (Thomas, 1985 dan L. sabanus (Thomas, 1987 (Muridae asal Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra, Kalimantan dan Jawa

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    Ibnu Maryanto

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Jawa, Anamba, and Leopoldamys siporanus from Siberut and Pagai-Mentawai Islands was analyzed using discriminant analysis. The analysis showed that the morphological shape of Sumatran L. sabanus was an intermediate between Jawa and Kalimantan populations. The population of L. sabanus from Anamba Island was predicted to be closed to the intermediate from between Kalimantan and Sumatra. Specimens of L. siporanus from Siberut and Pagai indicated that their morphology was closer to that of L. sabarus from Kalimantan than it was from Sumatra or Jawa. In Sumatra L. sabarus has three subspecies which are distributed in northern side of West Sumatra (L.s. tapanulius, southern side of West Sumatra (L.s. ululans and Mount Kerinci at Sumatra (L.s. vociferans. Furthermore, specimens examined in this study were collected from Leuser and Bengkulu where they are located at the corner of tapanulius and ululans type locality, and they were predicted as one population. This finding raises the possibility that the Sumatrans has one shape of L. sabanus, but this argument should be confirmed from prototype specimens of ululans, vociferans, and tapanulius.

  6. Relation between Fiber Diet and Appendicitis Incidence in Children at H. Adam Malik Central Hospital, Medan, North Sumatra-Indonesia

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    Boyke Damanik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appendicitis is the most occurred acute abdominal case found in children.1 In United States of America alone, there were 250,000 cases annually. The ratio between boys and girls are 3:2, with most cases caused by late diagnosis and the morbidity factor. Previous studies found that there’s a relation between eating patterns, fiber diet and food hygiene as risk factors for appendicitis.1, 2 At the time this paper is written, there hasn’t been any study that explains the relation between appendicitis and the diet pattern of children from various places in Indonesia. Another condition that further motivates this study is a common conception that children hate to consume vegetables and fruits, which contain the much-needed fiber. Obstruction of the appendix lumen is the main cause of inflammation in the appendix. Fecalith makes up one third of appendicitis cases, which is consists of fats (coprosterols, inorganic salts (calcium phosphate, and organic residual (fibers.3 Other causes including obstruction process by hypertrophy of mural lymphoid follicle as a response from the inflammation of the appendix lumen.3 Obstruction of appendix lumen can be caused by low fiber diet, which causes fecalith to build up in appendix lumen.4 The mechanism of lumen appendix inflammation can be caused by lymphoid hyperplasia, fecalith buildup, foreign object or parasite.4 Therefore, a study needs to be done to determine the mortality prediction easier, more efficient, and not static, in which it’s harder to measure the therapeutic response. In this case, lactate clearance is hoped to have the capability to determine the mortality rate in patients with severe sepsis. Method: This research is an analytic with cross-sectional design. The subjects were 35 child patients with appendicitis in RSHAM which fulfilled the criteria of severe sepsis diagnosis, and were receiving treatment in the period of January-December 2014. Results: Male children are the majority of the patients (62.9% with average age of 11.89 ± 4.16. Laparotomy is the most administered treatment (54.3%, and most of the subjects have low-fiber diet (54.3%. 19 of the subjects have perforated appendicitis (54.3%. Conclusion: There’s a significant correlation between low-fiber diet with appendicitis incidence (p=0.0001. From the 19 patients with low-fiber diet, 14 of them (73.7% have acute appendicitis. Meanwhile only 2 of the patients (12.5% with high-fiber diet have acute appendicitis.

  7. Growth and exploitation rate of Anadara gubernaculum (reeve, 1844) Arcidae Family in Asahan Aquatic of North Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzan, M.; Bakti, D.; Susetya, I. E.; Desrita

    2018-02-01

    High market demand for A. gubernaculum, tends to increase the greater catching capacity so that the decreasing population. The aims of this study were to determine the growth and rate of exploitation of A. gubernaculum in Asahan aquatic. It was conducted for 1 Month 14 Days from October to November 2016. Data analyzed by (Electronic Lenght Frequencys Assesment Tool) ELEFAN I method by using (FAO-ICLARM Fish Stock Assesment Tool) on FiSAT II software. Shells obtained 855 individual. The growth pattern of shells is negative allometric. The range of condition factor was 0.81 - 2.15. The frequency distribution of the A. gubernaculum ranges from 14 to 43 mm, the dominant size group was 20 - 22 mm. The prediction of growth parameter Von Bertalanfy showed that the asimptot length (L∞) is 43.05 mm, the growth coefficient (K) is 1.2/year and the theoretical life (t0) of the A. gubernaculum is -0.12. The total Mortality (Z) of Anadara gubernaculum was 2.121/year. Natural mortality estimation rate (M) was 1.9/year. The exploitation rate of Anadara gubernaculum is 0.1/year.

  8. The Impact of Rob Flood and Community Adaptation in Coastal Area of Medan Belawan, Medan City, North Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Riki Rahmad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of rob flood and adaptation of coastal communities in Medan Belawan District Medan City. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research method. The direct location of flooding review is at Jalan Serdang which belongs to Belawan I urban village. The result shows that the rob flood that hit Medan Belawan District has varying height. Several villages affected by the flood were Belawan I, Belawan II, Belawan Bahagia, Belawan Bahari, Belawan Sicanang and Bagan Deli. Rob flood occurs twice a day at around 02.00 am and 13.00 pm to 16.00 pm. Rob floods give impacts of damage to buildings especially shelter, increased salinity of water resources, damage to pond land, damage to work equipment or vehicles used by everyday people. Rob floods also disrupt the activities of fishers and traders because when the floods occur, fishers are forced to stop while fishing and income is reduced, as well as the supply of fish to the market. Community adaptation to rob floods in Medan Belawan District is adaptation to residential buildings and adaptation to the availability of clean water sources. Key words: coastal communities, rob flood, adaptation Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui  dampak banjir rob dan adaptasi masyarakat kawasan pesisir di Kecamatan Medan Belawan Kota Medan. Metode penelitian yang  digunakan adalah metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif . Lokasi langsung peninjauan banjir ialah di Jalan Serdang yang termasuk kedalam Kelurahan Belawan I. Hasil penelitian menunjukkna bahwa banjir rob yang melanda Kecamatan Medan Belawan mempunyai ketinggian yang bervariasi. Beberapa kelurahan yang terkena banjir rob antara lain Kelurahan Belawan I, Kelurahan Belawan II, Kelurahan Belawan Bahagia, Kelurahan Belawan Bahari, Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang dan Kelurahan Bagan Deli. Banjir rob terjadi dua kali dalam sehari yakni sekitar pukul 02.00 pagi dan 13.00 siang hingga pukul 16.00 sore hari. Banjir rob memberikan dampak berupa kerusakan bangunan khususnya tempat tinggal, salinitas sumber air meningkat, kerusakan lahan tambak, kerusakan pada peralatan kerja atau kendaraan yang digunakan masyarakat sehari-sehari. Banjir rob juga mengganggu aktivitas nelayan  dan pedagang karena saat banjir terjadi, nelayan terpaksa berhenti sementara melaut dan penghasilan pun berkurang, begitu juga dengan pasokan ikan ke pasar. Adaptasi yang dilakukan masyarakat terhadap banjir rob di Kecamatan Medan Belawan antara lain adaptasi pada bangunan tempat tinggal dan adaptasi pada ketersediaan sumber air bersih. Kata kunci : masyarakat pesisir, banjir rob, adaptasi

  9. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

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    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  10. Provenance of sediments from Sumatra, Indonesia - Insights from detrital U-Pb zircon geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, C.; Hall, R.; Gough, A.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Sumatra is situated at the southwestern margin of the Indonesian archipelago. Although it is the sixth largest island in the world, the geology of the Sumatra sedimentary basins and their underlying basement is relatively poorly understood in terms of their provenance. This work is a multi-proxy provenance study utilizing U-Pb detrital zircon dating by LA-ICP-MS combined with optical and Raman spectroscopy-based heavy mineral analysis. It will help to unravel the stratigraphy of Sumatra, contribute to paleogeographic reconstruction of western SE Asia, and aid a wider understanding of Sumatran petroleum plays. Thin section analyses, heavy mineral assemblages, and >3500 concordant U-Pb zircon ages, from samples acquired during two fieldwork seasons indicate a mixed provenance for Cenozoic sedimentary formations, including both local igneous sources and mature basement rocks. Characteristic Precambrian zircon age spectra are found in all analysed Cenozoic sedimentary strata. These can be correlated with zircon age populations found in Sumatran basement rocks; Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic age groups are dominant (c. 500-600 Ma, c. 850-1000 Ma, c. 1050-1200 Ma). Paleoproterozoic to Archaean zircons occur as minor populations. The Phanerozoic age spectra of the Cenozoic formations are characterised by distinct Carboniferous, Permo-Triassic, and Jurassic-Cretaceous zircon populations. Permo-Triassic zircons are interpreted to come from granitoids in the Malay peninsula or Sumatra itself. Eocene to Lower Miocene strata are characterised by ultrastable heavy minerals such as zircon, tourmaline, and rutile, which together with garnet, suggest the principal sources were igneous and metamorphic basement rocks. Cenozoic zircons appear only from the Middle Miocene onwards. This change is interpreted to indicate a new contribution from a local volcanic arc, and is supported by the occurrence of unstable heavy minerals such as apatite and clinopyroxene, and the

  11. Quelques espèces nouvelles d’hispides de Sumatra appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.

    1897-01-01

    Sur le point d’entreprendre l’étude des Hispides recueillies à Sumatra par M. le Doct. E. Modigliani, j’ai demandé à M. Ritsema, le savant conservateur de la collection d’insectes du Musée de Leyde, la communication de quelques espèces dans le but de faciliter mon travail. Mon aimable collègue a

  12. Rural herbaceous plant diversity under different land uses in North Zhejiang Province%浙北地区不同土地利用下乡村草本层植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 张建锋; 陈光才; 汪庆兵; 王丽; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    该文以浙江省安吉县两个典型乡村—繅舍村和赋石村为例,选取公园、农耕区、河道、人工林地四种不同土地利用类型,用Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、Sorensen指数为标识多样性的指标,分析不同生境下草本植物多样性差异。结果表明:乡村生境中共记录物种162种,分属47科123属,其中禾本科与菊科物种数占总数的31.48%;农耕区生境的Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数最高,分别为2.76和0.91,农耕区与河道的Sorensen指数最高为0.57。从农耕区、河道、公园到林地生境,草本物种多样性整体呈减小趋势。另外,发现人工绿化措施会导致草本物种减少,如从种植水稻单一作物到复合作物,草本层植物随之改变。单一稻田与复合种植区比较,草本植物主要的科属组成无明显变化,莎草科、菊科、禾本科植物仍占主体;但草本植物群落主要物种组成发生变化,稻田转变成农耕区后,牛筋草、黑麦草,碎米荠、小飞蓬、喜旱莲子草成为草本层群落主要构成植物,水竹叶覆盖度减少,小飞蓬和喜旱莲子草的覆盖度增加。此外,还发现4种生境中共有喜旱莲子草、加拿大一枝黄花、土荆芥三种入侵物种,但未能对本土物种构成显著影响。这表明不同土地利用方式会严重影响草本群落物种组成及物种多样性;土地利用方式的变化,会引起草本植物主要群落构成发生改变;土地利用类型的多样化有利于本土草本物种多样性生存。该研究结果有助于为城镇化进程中保护乡村植物多样性、加速推进美丽中国建设提供技术支撑。%Local plants were important for ecosystem diversity, of which herbaceous plants took a great account. In the article Fushi Village and Saoshe Village in Zhejiang Province were taken as test plots, where land use systems were di-vided into four artificial habits such as artificial forest, gardens, rivers

  13. Analysis of Seismotektonic Patterns in Sumatra Region Based on the Focal Mechanism of Earthquake Period 1976-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, F. P.; Syafriani, S.; Andiyansyah, Z. S.

    2018-04-01

    Sumatra is in an active subduction zone between the indo-australian plate and the eurasian plate and is located at a fault along the sumatra fault so that sumatra is vulnerable to earthquakes. One of the ways to find out the cause of earthquake can be done by identifying the type of earthquake-causing faults based on earthquake of focal mechanism. The data used to identify the type of fault cause of earthquake is the earth tensor moment data which is sourced from global cmt period 1976-2016. The data used in this research using magnitude m ≥ 6 sr. This research uses gmt software (generic mapping tolls) to describe the form of fault. From the research result, it is found that the characteristics of fault field that formed in every region in sumatera island based on data processing and data of earthquake history of 1976-2016 period that the type of fault in sumatera fault is strike slip, fault type in mentawai fault is reverse fault (rising faults) and dip-slip, while the fault type in the subduction zone is dip-slip.

  14. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  15. Variasi Genetik Trenggiling Sitaan di Sumatra, Jawa, dan Kalimantan Berdasarkan Control Region DNA Mitokndria (GENETIC VARIATION ON CONFISCATED PANGOLIN OF SUMATRA, JAWA, AND KALIMANTAN BASED ON CONTROL REGION MITOCHONDRIAL DNA

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    Wirdateti Wirdateti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High levels of illegal trading on Java pangolin (Manis javanica, Desmarest. 1822 for the basic ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicine have caused sharp decline in its wild population. The purposes of this study were to assess the level of quality and genetic diversity, and to identify the origin of the confiscated individuals by molecular analysis. The original species used as a control were obtained from known areas in Java, Kalimantan, and Sumatera. Molecular analysis was carried out using non-coding region control region (D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. The results of phylogenic tree analysis showed that 44 confiscated pangolins were from Kalimantan (24 individuals, from Sumatra (seven individuals, and from Java (13 individuals. As many as 19 haplotypes were found on the basis of their base substitutions consisting of nine from Kalimantan, seven from Java and three from Sumatra. Average genetic distance (d between those from Kalimantan-Java was d = 0.0121 ± 0.0031; those from Borneo-Sumatra was d =0.0123 ± 0.0038 and those from Sumatra-Java was d = 0.0075 ± 0.038, respectively. Overall genetic distance between populations was d = 0.0148 ± 0.0035, with the nucleotide diversity (ð of 0.0146. These results indicate that over 50% of pangolins seized came from Kaimantan, and Kalimantan populations show a separate group with Java and Sumatra with boostrap 98%. ABSTRAK Tingginya tingkat perburuan trenggiling (Manis javanica; Desmarest 1822 Indonesia untuk diperdagangkan secara illegal sebagai bahan dasar obat terutama di China, menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi di alam. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat tingkat kualitas dan keragaman genetik trenggiling serta mengetahui asal usul satwa sitaan berdasarkan analisis molekuler. Sebagai kontrol asal usul trenggiling sitaan digunakan sampel alam berdasarkan sebaran populasi yang diketahui pasti yang berasal dari Jawa, Kalimantan, dan Sumatera. Analisis molekuler menggunakan

  16. POLITIK RELASI ETNIK: MATRILINEALITAS DAN ETNIK MINORITAS CINA DI PADANG, SUMATRA BARAT

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    Laila Kholid Alfirdaus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relasi etnik Minang dan etnik Cina di Padang, Sumatra Barat, menarik untuk dikaji. Melalui desk-study atas kajian Minang dan Cina, yang diperkuat dengan penelitian lapangan pada 2010 dan 2013 secara kualitatif dengan wawancara dan observasi, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa tidak cukup melihat relasi etnik Minang dan Cina dari perspektif ekonomi politik. Kita perlu memberikan perhatian terhadap faktor budaya dan budaya politik masyarakat Minang di Padang yang bercorak matrilineal. Jika literatur yang ada cenderung deterministik, menghasilkan dua pandangan yang secara ekstrem berbeda, yang dalam artikel ini disebut pandangan “manis” dan “sinis”, tulisan ini berargumen sebaliknya. Relasi etnik Minang dan etnik Cina tidak bisa secara buru-buru disebut “manis” hanya karena etnik Cina telah menetap dan berpartisipasi dalam kehidupan sosial ekonomi Padang sejak zaman penjajahan, atau karena Padang relatif minim kerusuhan dibandingkan kota lainnya. Demikian juga, ia tidak bisa serta merta dilihat secara “sinis” hanya karena segregasi sosial terlihat lebih kentara. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa dua wajah yang secara bersamaan terjadi tidak lepas dari bentukan budaya Minang yang lekat dengan nilai-nilai matrilineal yang tertuang dalam ide feministik Bundo Kanduang Inter-etnic relations between Minang and Chinese in Padang, West Sumatra, that looks different compared to other societies in Indonesia is interesting to discuss. Through  a desk study about Minang and Chinese, being strengthened with fieldworks in 2010 and 2013 using qualitative methods in which in-depth interview and non-participatory observations, this article found that political economy perspective being used to explain Minang-Chinese relations is not enough. We need to pay attention on culture and political culture of Minangkabau society in Padang, that is matrilineal in the nature. While the existing lieratures tend to strictly classify the relations into “sweet” and

  17. Coseismic and postseismic deformation of the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

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    Hughes, Kristin Leigh Hellem

    The 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) induced a devastating tsunami when it ruptured over 1300 km of the boundary between the Indo-Australian plate and Burma microplate (Vigny et al., 2005; Bilek, 2007). Three months later on 28 March 2005, the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE) ruptured over 400 km along the same trench overlapping and progressing to the south of the M9.2 rupture (Banerjee et al., 2007). The spatial and temporal proximity of these two earthquakes suggests that the SAE mechanically influenced the timing of the NE. I analyze the coseismic and postseismic deformation, stress, and pore pressure of the 2004 SAE using 3D finite element models (FEMs) in order to determine the mechanical coupling of the SAE and NE. The motivation for using FEMs is two-fold. First, FEMs allow me to honor the geologic structure of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone, and second, FEMs simulate the mechanical behavior of quasi-static coseismic and postseismic deformation systems (e.g., elastic, poroelastic, and viscoelastic materials). The results of my study include: (1) Coseismic slip distributions are incredibly sensitive to the distribution of material properties (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (2) Slip models derived from tsunami wave heights do not match slip models derived from GPS data (Hughes and Masterlark, 2008), (3) These FEMs predict postseismic poroelastic deformation and viscoelastic deformation simultaneously (Masterlark and Hughes, 2008), (4) Pore pressure changes induced by the SAE triggered the NE via fluid flow in the subducting oceanic crust and caused the NE to occur 7 years ahead of interseismic strain accumulation predictions (Hughes et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2011), (5) Global Conductance Matrices provide a way to smooth an underdetermined FEM for arbitrarily irregular surfaces, and (6) FEMs are capable and desired to model subduction zone deformation built around the complexity of a subducting slab which is usually ignored in geodetic

  18. Receiver function structure beneath a broad-band seismic station in south Sumatra

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    MacPherson, K. A.; Hidayat, D.; Goh, S.

    2010-12-01

    We estimated the one-dimensional velocity structure beneath a broad-band station in south Sumatra by the forward modeling and inversion of receiver functions. Station PMBI belongs to the GEOFON seismic network maintained by GFZ-Potsdam, and at a longitude of 104.77° and latitude of -2.93°, sits atop the south Sumatran basin. This station is of interest to researchers at the Earth Observatory of Singapore, as data from it and other stations in Sumatra and Singapore will be incorporated into a regional velocity model for use in seismic hazard analyses. Three-component records from 193 events at teleseismic distances and Mw ≥ 5.0 were examined for this study and 67 records were deemed to have sufficient signal to noise characteristics to be retained for analysis. Observations are primarily from source zones in the Bougainville trench with back-azimuths to the east-south-east, the Japan and Kurile trenches with back-azimuths to the northeast, and a scattering of observations from other azimuths. Due to the level of noise present in even the higher-quality records, the usual frequency-domain deconvolution method of computing receiver functions was ineffective, and a time-domain iterative deconvolution was employed to obtain usable wave forms. Receiver functions with similar back-azimuths were stacked in order to improve their signal to noise ratios. The resulting wave forms are relatively complex, with significant energy being present in the tangential components, indicating heterogeneity in the underlying structure. A dip analysis was undertaken but no clear pattern was observed. However, it is apparent that polarities of the tangential components were generally reversed for records that sample the Sunda trench. Forward modeling of the receiver functions indicates the presence of a near-surface low-velocity layer (Vp≈1.9 km/s) and a Moho depth of ~31 km. Details of the crustal structure were investigated by employing time-domain inversions of the receiver

  19. Environmental dynamics and carbon accumulation rate of a tropical peatland in Central Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Hapsari, Kartika Anggi; Biagioni, Siria; Jennerjahn, Tim C.; Reimer, Peter Meyer; Saad, Asmadi; Achnopha, Yudhi; Sabiham, Supiandi; Behling, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    Tropical peatlands are important for the global carbon cycle as they store 18% of the total global peat carbon. As they are vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, a rapidly changing environment endangers peatlands and their carbon storage potential. Understanding the mechanisms of peatland carbon accumulation from studying past developments may, therefore, help to assess the future role of tropical peatlands. Using a multi-proxy palaeoecological approach, a peat core taken from the Sungai Buluh peatland in Central Sumatra has been analyzed for its pollen and spore, macro charcoal and biogeochemical composition. The result suggests that peat and C accumulation rates were driven mainly by sea level change, river water level, climatic variability and anthropogenic activities. It is also suggested that peat C accumulation in Sungai Buluh is correlated to the abundance of Freycinetia, Myrtaceae, Calophyllum, Stemonuraceae, Ficus and Euphorbiaceae. Sungai Buluh has reasonable potential for being a future global tropical peat C sinks. However, considering the impact of rapid global climate change in addition to land-use change following rapid economic growth in Indonesia, such potential may be lost. Taking advantage of available palaeoecological records and advances made in Quaternary studies, some considerations for management practice such as identification of priority taxa and conservation sites are suggested.

  20. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

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    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; ,

    2012-01-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  1. Anomalous variation in GPS based TEC measurements prior to the 30 September 2009 Sumatra Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Sheetal; Pathak, Kamlesh

    This paper investigates the features of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in the total elec-tron content (TEC) data obtained on the basis of regular GPS observations from the GPS receiver at SVNIT Surat (21.16 N, 72.78 E Geog) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region. The data has been analysed for 5 different earthquakes that occurred during 2009 in India and its neighbouring regions. Our observation shows that for the cases of the earthquake, in which the preparation area lies between the crests of the equatorial anomaly close to the geomagnetic equator the enhancement in TEC was followed by a depletion in TEC on the day of earthquake, which may be connected to the equatorial anomaly shape distortions. For the analysis of the ionospheric effects of one of such case-the 30 September 2009 Sumatra earthquake, Global Ionospheric Maps of TEC were used. The possible influence of the earth-quake preparation processes on the main low-latitude ionosphere peculiarity—the equatorial anomaly—is discussed.

  2. Genetic characteristic of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from Pampangan, South Sumatra based on blood protein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windusari, Yuanita; Hanum, Laila; Wahyudi, Rizki

    2017-11-01

    Swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an endemic species and one of the genetic wealth of South Sumatra with a distribution area in the district of Pampangan (OganIlir and OganOganIlir). Suspected inbreeding causes decreased phenotypic properties. Inbreeding among various swamp buffalo is certainly not only lower the qualities but also genotypes and phenotypes. It is of interest to determine kinship variants swamp buffaloes from Pampangan through the analysis of a blood protein profile. Blood protein profile of four variants swamps buffalo was studied by using five electrophoresis system i.e. pre-albumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf) and transferrin post (Ptf). In this paper, it is obtained that there was no significant differences among the four variants of the buffaloes were used as a sample. Prealbumin has two alleles (Palb1 and Palb2), albumin has three alleles (Alba, AlbB, AlbC), ceruloplasmin has one allele (BPA), post-transferrin has one allele (PTFA) with an allele frequency 1.0000 at any time transferrin has two alleles (TFA and TFB) with the allele frequency of 0.7500 and 1.0000. Characteristics prealbumin (Palb), albumin (Alb), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and post-transferrin (P-tf) is monomorphic, while transferrin is polymorphic average heterozygosity values all loci (H) 0.1286. Based on average heterozygosity, the swamp buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) from Pampangan has low genetic variation and closest genetic relationship.

  3. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

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    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  4. AGRICULTURE PHENOMENA AND PERSPECTIVES OF LEBAK SWAMP IN JAKABARING SOUTH SUMATRA, INDONESIA

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    Elisa Wildayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze agriculture phenomena and perspectives of lebak swamp in Jakabaring South Sumatra Indonesia. The research used mix methods of quantitative and qualitative approaches. The description of the research area was assisted with interpretation of Landsat images in 1987 and 2015. The research resulted that farmer’s groups living in Jakabaring are divided into four group, namely indigenous people (people of Ogan, Komering, Musi, Enim, and Palembang, new comers (Javanese, spontaneous migration (Buginese, Banjarnese, Bataknese and outside spontaneous migration (Chinese, Arabic. The total area of Jakabaring is approximately 5,525 ha, around 2,700 ha (48.87 % was already landfilled by the Government in 1990, while the remaining 2,825 ha (51.13 % is still not reclaimed. The landfill materials were directly sucked from mud, sand, silt and stones of the Musi River. Each lebak swamp typology shows specific soil characters, but after landfills all soils became homogenous because of uniform materials of landfills. Patterns of land degradation after landfills are classified into three groups, namely making layers of water impermeability, changing vegetation types of land cover, and decreasing type and density of vegetation.

  5. Spatial Mapping for Managing Oxidized Pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra Wetlands, Indonesia

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    M. Edi Armanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to analyze spatial mapping for managing oxidized pyrite (FeS2 in South Sumatra wetlands, Indonesia. The field observations are done by exploring several transect on land units. The field description refers to Soil Survey Staff (2014. Water and soil samples were taken from selected key areas for laboratory analysis. The vegetation data was collected by making sample plots (squares method placed on each vegetation type with plot sizes depending on the vegetation type, namely 10 x 10 m for secondary forests and 5 x 5 m for shrubs and grass. The observations of surface water level were done during the river receding with units of m above sea level (m asl. The research results showed that pyrite formation is largely determined by the availability of natural vegetation as Sulfur (S donors, climate and uncontrolled water balance and supporting fauna such as crabs and mud shrimp.  Climate and water balance as well as supporting faunas is the main supporting factors to accelerate the process of pyrite formation. Oxidized pyrite serves to increase soil acidity, becomes toxic to fish ponds and arable soils, plant growth and disturbing the water and soil nutrient balances. Oxidized pyrite is predominantly accelerated by the dynamics of river water and disturbed natural vegetation by human activities.  The pyrite oxidation management approach is divided into three main components of technologies, namely water management, land management and commodity management.

  6. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

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    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  7. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  8. Incidence of Stroke in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan

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    Qamruz Zaman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to find factors which are directly and indirectly related with the incidence of stroke. For this purpose the data of 300 stroke patients was analyzed. The average age was found to be 57.3(+/-15.76 SD years. The average male age is 59.11 (+/- 17.64 SD years as compared to 55.66 (+/-13.65 SD years in females. The investigation showed significant difference between the average age for males and females. The study provides evidence of association between incidence of stroke and DM or/ and HTN. Study also revealed that stroke is highly associated with age. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 35-41

  9. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  10. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  11. Extreme scale multi-physics simulations of the tsunamigenic 2004 Sumatra megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, T.; Gabriel, A. A.; Madden, E. H.; Wollherr, S.; Uphoff, C.; Rettenberger, S.; Bader, M.

    2017-12-01

    SeisSol (www.seissol.org) is an open-source software package based on an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin method (ADER-DG). It solves spontaneous dynamic rupture propagation on pre-existing fault interfaces according to non-linear friction laws, coupled to seismic wave propagation with high-order accuracy in space and time (minimal dispersion errors). SeisSol exploits unstructured meshes to account for complex geometries, e.g. high resolution topography and bathymetry, 3D subsurface structure, and fault networks. We present the up-to-date largest (1500 km of faults) and longest (500 s) dynamic rupture simulation modeling the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We demonstrate the need for end-to-end-optimization and petascale performance of scientific software to realize realistic simulations on the extreme scales of subduction zone earthquakes: Considering the full complexity of subduction zone geometries leads inevitably to huge differences in element sizes. The main code improvements include a cache-aware wave propagation scheme and optimizations of the dynamic rupture kernels using code generation. In addition, a novel clustered local-time-stepping scheme for dynamic rupture has been established. Finally, asynchronous output has been implemented to overlap I/O and compute time. We resolve the frictional sliding process on the curved mega-thrust and a system of splay faults, as well as the seismic wave field and seafloor displacement with frequency content up to 2.2 Hz. We validate the scenario by geodetic, seismological and tsunami observations. The resulting rupture dynamics shed new light on the activation and importance of splay faults.

  12. Carbon stock and turnover in riparian soils under lowland rainforest transformation systems on Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Nina; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    In many tropical areas, rainforests are being cleared in order to exploit timber and other forest products as well as plant crops for food, feed and fuel use. The determinants of different patterns of deforestation and the roles of resulting transformation systems of tropical riparian rainforests for ecological functions have yet received little attention in scientific research. Especially C stocks in riparian zones are strongly affected by climate and land use changes that lead to changes in water regime and ground water level drops. We investigated the effects of land transformations in riparian ecosystems of Sumatra, on soil C content, stocks and decomposability at the landscape scale. We compare C losses in transformation systems and rainforests and estimate the contribution of soil erosion and organic matter mineralization. Further, these losses are related to changing water level and temperature increase along increasing distance to the stream. This approach is based on changing δ13C values of SOC in the topsoil as compared to those in subsoil. The shift of δ13C of SOC in the topsoil from the linear regression calculated by δ13C value with log(SOC) in the topsoil represents the modification of the C turnover rate in the top soil. Erosion is estimated by the shift of the δ13C value of SOC in the subsoil under plantations. Further, the δ13C and δ15N soil profiles and their comparison with litter of local vegetation, can be used to estimate the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organics to soil C stocks. Preliminary results show strong increase of erosive losses, increased decomposition with land-use transformation and decrease of C stocks with decreasing water table.

  13. Status of coastal forests of the Northern Sumatra in 2005 (after 2004’s tsunami catastrophe

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    ONRIZAL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Onrizal, Mansor M. 2015. Status of coastal forests of the Northern Sumatra in 2005 (after 2004’s tsunami catastrophe. Biodiversitas 17: 44-54. The first intensive ecological study of coastal vegetation including mangrove, littoral and peat swamp forests after the 2004 tsunami catastrophe in Northern Sumatra was conducted from January to December 2005 where 16 sampling sites along 2960km coastline in Northern Sumatra were selected. In each site, one quadrat of 100 m x 100 m was established and divided into 10 m x 10 m subplots where all standing trees of ≥ 2 cm diameter at breast height (DBH were identified to species level and measured. Overall 54,871 standing trees were recorded in 16 sites comprising 84 species in 65 genera and 37 families. Mangrove trees Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata were widely distributed and are dominant in most of the sampling sites. This indicated that these species have stronger resilient compared to other species. The highest value of Shannon-Wiener index of species and Evenness index of species was 3.03 and 0.85, respectively. It means that some sites were rich in biodiversity which harbors various species of plants. Subsequently, undisturbed coastal forests including mangroves, littoral forests and peat swamp forests characterized by dense stands, mixed species and structures play an important role in coastal protection against tsunami. Therefore, the coastal vegetation is needed to conserve the biodiversity and to maintain the production capacity as part of sustainable and longlasting vegetation bioshield.

  14. Spinicauda sumatrana sp. nov. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Ludeking's Crested Dragon, Lophocalotes ludekingi (Agamidae), from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Harvey, Michael B

    2017-09-26

    Spinicauda sumatrana sp. nov. is described from the large intestine of Ludeking's Crested Dragon, Lophocalotes ludekingi (Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra. The new species is assigned to Spinicauda based on the presence of off-set lips in both male and female and a ventrally directed sucker combined with the absence of caudal alae in males. It is the 17th species assigned to the genus and differs from all congeners in the combination of spicule length, presence of a gubernaculum, presence of a tail filament and fourteen pairs of caudal papillae.

  15. Characterizing Social Interactions and Grouping Patterns of Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITO SUGARDJITO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The character of social interactions and grouping patterns of Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii have been studied in Ketambe research station of the Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra. A total number of 141 groupings and 47 incidences of interactive behavior were observed during the course of study. The character of groups (feeding group or travel-band and the type of food trees (fig tree or fruit tree appear to influence the interactive behavior of individual orangutans. Intolerance behavior has been characterized by feeding group in large fig trees, whereas tolerance and sexual behavior were shown mostly in travel-band.

  16. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AMONG POPULATIONS OF Chromobotia macracanthus BLEEKER FROM SUMATRA AND KALIMANTAN BASED ON SEQUENCING GENE OF MTDNA CYTOCHROME B AND NUCLEUS DNA RAG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarto Sudarto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on genetic differentiation among populations of Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker from Sumatra, based on sequencing gene of mtDNA Cytochrome b and nucleus DNA RAG2 has been done. The objectives of the study were to obtain the representation of genetic differentiation among population of clown loach fishes or botia (Chromobotia macracanthus from Sumatra and Kalimantan and to estimate the time divergence of both population group of botia. Samples of botia population were taken from 3 rivers in Sumatra namely Batanghari, Musi, and Tulang Bawang and one river from Kalimantan namely Kapuas. The genetic analysis was based on the sequencing of mtDNA Cytochrome b and nucleus DNA RAG2. The statistical analysis was done by using APE package on R language. The parameters observed were: nucleotide diversity, genetic distance, and neighbor-joining tree. The result showed that the highest nucleotide diversity was fish population of Musi, while the other two populations, Tulang Bawang (Sumatra and Kapuas (Kalimantan, were considered as the lowest genetic diversity especially based on nucleus DNA RAG2 sequencing. Based on mtDNA Cytochrome-b sequencing, the most distinct population among those populations based on genetic distance were fish populations of Musi and Kapuas. According to the result of neighbor-joining tree analysis, the populations of botia were classified into two groups namely group of Sumatra and group of Kalimantan. The estimation of time divergence among group of population of Sumatra and Kalimantan based on mtDNA Cytochrome b was about 9.25—9.46 million years (Miocene era. The high genetic differences between groups of Sumatra and Kalimantan suggested that the effort of restocking botia from Sumatra into Kalimantan has to be done carefully, because it may disturb the gene originality of both botia populations.

  17. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  18. Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Ecosystems of Musi and Banyuasin Estuarine, South Sumatra Province (Stok Karbon Ekosistem Mangrove di Estuarin Musi dan Banyuasin, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan)

    OpenAIRE

    Melki Melki; Isnaini Isnaini

    2014-01-01

    Hutan mangrove di daerah estuari mampu menghasilkan stok karbon yang sangat besar sebagai daerah perlindungan dan pemulihan yang efektif sebagai strategi mitigasi perubahan iklim yang efektif. Pemilihan ekosistem pesisir dalam strategi mitigasi memerlukan kuantifikasi stok karbon untuk menghitung emisi atau penyerapan berdasarkan waktu. Penelitian ini menghitung stok karbon pada ekosistem Musi Estuari Waters (MEW) dan Banyuasin Estuari Water (BEW), Provinsi Sumatera Selatan pada tipe vegetasi...

  19. The relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIO ADIWIBOWO

    Full Text Available Adiwibowo A, Sulasmi IS. 2012. Relationships of forest biodiversity and rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco sustainable harvesting by Anak Dalam tribe in Jambi, Sumatra. Biodiversitas 13: 00-00. Conservation of tropical trees can be achieved if supported by the sustainable use of forest by community live nearby through harvesting of non timber woods, for instance rattan. Furthermore, rattan jernang individuals and trees have significant associations. Therefore, objective of this paper is to investigate the utilization of rattan jernang (Deamonorops draco Wild related to the forest tree biodiversity by Anak Dalam tribe in several villages in Jambi, Sumatra. The study has identified that populations of Deamonorops draco were varied among villages, ranged from 40 to 71 clumps in the forests and up to 500 clumps in plantations. Moreover, 73 individual trees consisted of 32 species were identified as rattan host and conserved by the community. Dialium platyespalyum. Quercus elmeri, and Adinandra dumosa were rattan host trees with the highest populations. Meanwhile, a biodiversity of non-host trees consisted of 30 individual trees from 16 species. Interviews revealed that traditional harvesters have acknowledged that trees have significant important ecological roles for the rattan livelihood and therefore it is very important to conserve the forests for the sustainability of harvest in the future. Furthermore, to secure the availability of rattan, the traditional harvesters had started rattan plantation.

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safniyeti Safniyeti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myrmecophyte is a common medicinal plant used by local people in Indonesia for treating various diseases especially in Papua. Bengkulu province is one of the Myrmecophyte habitats, but there has no report on its identity and distribution. The objectives of this research were to identify the diversity and analyze the Myrmecophytes distribution as well as factor affecting its presence. This study used purposive sampling method by exploring the area where Myrmecophytes commonly found. The Myrmecophyte distribution based on host tree was analyzed using Morishita index and the autecological analysis of abiotic factors was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA generated from Minitab 16. The results of this research showed that there were two species of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu province, namely Hydnophytum formicarum and Myrmecodia tuberosa, as well as two variants of M. tuberosa i.e. M. tuberosa ‘armata’ and M. tuberosa ‘siberutensis’. The distribution of Myrmecophytes based on host tree was mostly randomly scattered in Central Bengkulu regency, Seluma, North Bengkulu, South Bengkulu, and Kaur. Their distributions were affected by light intensity and temperature. The data of this research can be used as basic information for carried out conservation efforts in Bengkulu province. The abundance of Myrmecophytes is also used as a source of additional income for local people in Bengkulu province.     

  1. Quantifying above- and belowground biomass carbon loss with forest conversion in tropical lowlands of Sumatra (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Meriem, Selis; Hertel, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Natural forests in South-East Asia have been extensively converted into other land-use systems in the past decades and still show high deforestation rates. Historically, lowland forests have been converted into rubber forests, but more recently, the dominant conversion is into oil palm plantations. While it is expected that the large-scale conversion has strong effects on the carbon cycle, detailed studies quantifying carbon pools and total net primary production (NPPtotal ) in above- and belowground tree biomass in land-use systems replacing rainforest (incl. oil palm plantations) are rare so far. We measured above- and belowground carbon pools in tree biomass together with NPPtotal in natural old-growth forests, 'jungle rubber' agroforests under natural tree cover, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in Sumatra. In total, 32 stands (eight plot replicates per land-use system) were studied in two different regions. Total tree biomass in the natural forest (mean: 384 Mg ha(-1) ) was more than two times higher than in jungle rubber stands (147 Mg ha(-1) ) and >four times higher than in monoculture rubber and oil palm plantations (78 and 50 Mg ha(-1) ). NPPtotal was higher in the natural forest (24 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) than in the rubber systems (20 and 15 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), but was highest in the oil palm system (33 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) due to very high fruit production (15-20 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). NPPtotal was dominated in all systems by aboveground production, but belowground productivity was significantly higher in the natural forest and jungle rubber than in plantations. We conclude that conversion of natural lowland forest into different agricultural systems leads to a strong reduction not only in the biomass carbon pool (up to 166 Mg C ha(-1) ) but also in carbon sequestration as carbon residence time (i.e. biomass-C:NPP-C) was 3-10 times higher in the natural forest than in rubber and oil palm plantations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITES AND MALARIA IN MUSI BANYU ASIN AND OGAN KOMERING ULU REGENCIES, SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada bulan Mei 1973 diadakan survey tinja dan darah di lima desa di Sumatra Selatan untuk mengetahui aspek-aspek penyakit parasit pada penduduk asli dan para transmigran yang datang antara tahun 1935 dan 1955. Desa-desa Tanjung Kerang, Simpang Langkap dan Biuku di Kabupaten Musi Banyu Asin yang terletak di sebelah barat laut kota Palembang merupakan daerah hutan-ladang-huma dan perkebunan karet rakyat dikelilingi oleh rawa-rawa, yang di diami oleh penduduk asli. Desa-desa Sidomulyo dan Tanjung Raya di Kabupaten Ogan Komering Ulu, terletak di sebelah tenggara' kota Palembang, adalah tempat transmigrasi yang merupakan daerah persawahan." Dari 358 orang yang diperiksa tinjanya yang terdiri dari 193 laki-laki dan 165 wanita, di keiemukan 97 per cent terinfeksi oleh sedikitnya satu macam parasit, 87 per cent oleh 2 macam parasit atau lebih dan 55 per cent oleh 3 macam parasit atau lebih. Telur-telur cacing yang di temukan antara lain ialah: Trichuris trichiura. (83 per cent, Ascaris lumbricoides (78 per cent dan cacing tambang (59 per cent. Enterobius vermicularis (1 per cent dan Strongyloides stercoralis (0,3 per cent jarang di jumpai. Entamoeba coli (29 per cent merupakan parasit protozoa yang biasa di temukan. Jumlah rata-rata protozoa yang ada dalam usus ialah: Entamoeba histofytica (4 per cent, Entamoeba hartmanni (1 per cent, Endolimax nona (5 per cent, Iodamoeba butschlii (5 per cent, Giardia lamblia (3 per cent dan Chilomastbc mesnili (4 per cent. Distribusi dari parasit usus hampir sama di antara golongan laki-laki dan wanita; meskipun tanah memegang peranan yang sama dalam pemindahan cacing-cacing, tetapi A. lumbricoides dan T. trichiura lebih banyak di jumpai pada wanita, sedangkan cacing tambang lebih banyak pada laki-laki. Prevalensi parasit usus menurut golongan umur adalah sebagai berikut: A. lumbricoides lebih banyak pada golongan muda, T. trichiura merata pada semua golongan umur, tetapi yang terbanyak pada golongan umur antara 30

  3. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the southeastern Pacific: Coastal and offshore measurements and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Eble, M. C.; Rabinovich, A.; Titov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a catastrophic tsunami that crossed the Indian Ocean and was widespread in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans being recorded by a great number of coastal tide gauges located in 15-25 thousand kilometers from the source area. The data from these instruments throughout the world oceans enabled estimates of various statistical parameters and energy decay of this event. However, only very few open-ocean records of this tsunami had been obtained. A unique high-resolution record of this tsunami from DART 32401 located offshore of northern Chile, combined with the South American mainland tide gauge measurements and the data from three island stations (San Felix, Juan Fernandez and Easter) enabled us to examine far-field characteristics of the event in the southeastern Pacific and to compare the results of global numerical simulations with observations. The maximum wave height measured at DART 32401 was only 1.8 cm but the signal was very clear and reliable. Despite their small heights, the waves demonstrated consistent spatial and temporal structure and good agreement with DART 46405/NeMO records in the NE Pacific. The travel time from the source area to DART 32401 was 25h 55min in good agreement with the computed travel time (25h 45min) and consistent with the times obtained from the nearby coastal tide gauges. This agreement was much better than it followed from the direct travel time estimation based classical kinematic theory that gave the travel time approximately 1.5 hrs shorter than observed. The later actual arrival of the 2004 tsunami waves corresponds to the most energetically economic path along the mid-ocean ridge wave-guides, which is distinctly reproduced by the numerical model. Also, the numerical model described well the frequency content, amplitudes and general structure of the observed waves at this DART and the three island stations. Maximum wave heights in this

  4. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took

  5. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  6. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  7. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  8. Characterization of Coal Quality Based On Ash Content From M2 Coal-Seam Group, Muara Enim Formation, South Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frillia Putri Nasution

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muara Enim Formation is well known as coal-bearing formation in South Sumatra Basin. As coal-bearing formation, this formation was subjects of many integrated study. Muara Enim Formation can be divided into four coal-seam group, M1, M2, M3, and M4. The M2 group comprising of Petai (C, Suban (B, Lower Mangus (A2, and Upper Mangus (A1. Depositional environments of Group M2 is transitional lower delta plain with sub-depositional are crevasse splay and distributary channel. The differentiation of both sub-depositional environments can be caused the quality of coal deposit. One of quality aspects is ash content. This research conducted hopefully can give better understanding of relationship between depositional environments to ash content. Group M2 on research area were found only Seam C, Seam B, and Seam A2, that has distribution from north to central so long as 1400 m. Coal-seam thickness C ranged between 3.25-9.25 m, Seam B range 7.54-13.43 m, and Seam C range 1.53-8.37 m, where all of coal-seams thickening on the central part and thinning-splitting to northern part and southern part. The ash content is formed from burning coal residue material. Ash contents on coal seam caused by organic and inorganic compound which resulted from mixing modified material on surrounded when transportation, sedimentation, and coalification process. There are 27 sample, consists of 9 sample from Seam C, 8 sample from Seam B, and 10 sample from Seam A2. Space grid of sampling is 100-150 m. Ash content influenced by many factors, but in research area, main factor is existence of inorganic parting. Average ash content of Seam C is 6,04%, Seam B is 5,05%, and Seam A2 is 3,8%. Low ash content influenced by settle environment with minor detrital material. High ash content caused by oxidation and erosional process when coalification process. Ash content on coal in research area originated from detritus material carried by channel system into brackish area or originated

  9. Connectivity between surface and deep waters determines prokaryotic diversity in the North Atlantic Deep Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, A.H.; Garcia, J.A.L.; Herndl, G.; Reinthaler, T.

    2016-01-01

    To decipher the influence of depth stratification andsurface provincialism on the dark ocean prokaryoticcommunity composition, we sampled the major deepwatermasses in the eastern North Atlantic coveringthree biogeographic provinces. Their diversity wasevaluated using ordination and canonical

  10. Burnout and health of primary school educators in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    job characteristics, burnout, and ill-health for primary school educators in the North West Province. ...... stress, satisfaction and absenteeism. Journal of .... supervising research on burnout, work engagement and work-life balance. She.

  11. Grammar of Kove: An Austronesian Language of the West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of Kove, an Austronesian language spoken in the West New Britain Province of Papua New Guinea. Kove is primarily spoken in 18 villages, including some on the small islands north of New Britain. There are about 9,000 people living in the area, but many are not fluent speakers of Kove. The dissertation…

  12. Spatiotemporal urban land use changes in the Changzhutan Region of Hunan Province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Changzhutan region in the north-central part of Hunan Province in China has experienced a rapid urbanization in the past few decades that has led to substantial changes in its environment. In 2007, the National Development and Reform Commission of China designated the metropolitan district of Ch...

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  14. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  15. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks’ role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.

  16. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  17. INVENTORY OF HERPETOFAUNA IN REGIONAL GERMPLASM PRESERVATION IN PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY OGAN KOMERING ILIR REGENCY SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Noberio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine of herpetofauna in Regional Germplasm Preservation, PT. Bumi Mekar Hijau, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra. The research was conducted in May until June 2015, conducted on 4 transect observation purposively determined by considering the type of habitat herpetofauna and the results of a preliminary survey. The method used in this research is the Visual Encounter Survey (VES. Observations carried out in the morning and evening. The total number of herpetofauna were found during the observation as many as 15 species of 9 families. The number of amphibians was found as many as 6 species of 3 families and reptiles as many as 9 species of 6 families. There are two species categorized as Vulnerable in IUCN 2015 and Appendix II CITES which are the Siebenrockiella crassicollis and Cuora amboinensis cuoro   Keywords : Inventory, herpetofauna, regional germplasm preservation, industrial plantation forest

  18. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  19. Emotional Intelligence Effect and Side of Gender Spritual Intelligence against Performance of Employees in the West Sumatra Staffing Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnaena Yusnaena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human resources play an important role in the organization of the company. Although supported by the infrastructure and sufficient financial resources, without the support of human resources who are competent in their respective fields of activities in the organization, the company will not run properly. It is proved that human resources are the key issue and have to be managed as well as possible, because as the key, human resources will determine the success of an organization's operational activities. Provincial Parliament stressed the need for employees who have emotional and spiritual balance accumulated in the form of morality working and able to work together in solid team work. It is necessary for emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. But the phenomenon in the field indicates the employee's performance is far from the desired expectation as there are many employees who are less concerned about jobs, less concerned about the peer delay - temporize absence of a sense of community work, is selfishness and want to win yourself all this illustrates the field of emotional intelligence oversight and intelligence spiritual so disturbing to the achievement of actual performance. This study is a descriptive study that compares the explanatory theories with circumstances that occur in the field. The sampling method selected is a total sampling technique. Data was processed using a multiple linear regression analysis formula. The results of this study conclude that the variables Emotional Intelligence have significant positive effect on employee performance in the Secretariat of the West Sumatra Provincial Parliament. The variable Spiritual Intelligence does not significantly influence the performance of employees of the West Sumatra Provincial Parliament Secretariat.

  20. STRUCTURE OF THE LITHOSPHERE AND SEISMOTECTONIC DEFORMATIONS IN CONTACT ZONE OF LITHOSPHERIC PLATES IN THE SUMATRA ISLAND REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kuchay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inversion seismic tomography algorithm (ITS was used to calculate 3D seismic anomalies models for velocities of P- and S-waves in the zone of the Sunda arc, Indonesia. In the area under study, strong earthquakes (M>4.8 are clustered in the zone of high P-wave velocities. Earthquake hypocenters are located in zones of both high and low velocity anomalies of S-waves. The giant Sumatra earthquake (December 26, 2004, Mw=9.0 ruptured the greatest fault length of any recorded earthquake, and the rupture started in the area wherein the sign of P-wave velo­city anomalies is abruptly changed. We calculated seismotectonic deformations (STD from data on mechanisms of 2227 earthquakes recorded from 1977 to 2013, and our calculations show that the STD component, that controls vertical extension of rocks, is most stable through all the depth levels. In the marginal regions at the western and eastern sides of the Sunda arc, the crustal areas (depths from 0 to 35 km are subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the central part. Besides, at depths from 70 to 150 km beneath the Sumatra earthquake epicentre area, the zone is subject to deformations which sign is opposite to that of deformations in the studied part of the Sunda arc. For earthquakes that may occur in the crust in the Sunda arc in the contact zone of the plates, maximum magnitudes depend on the direction of pressure imposed by the actively subducting plate, which is an additional criteria for determining the limit magnitude for the region under study. 

  1. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  2. Supposed capable fault analysis as supporting data for Nuclear Power Plant in Bojonegara, Banten province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnomo Raharjo; June Mellawati; Yarianto SBS

    2016-01-01

    Fault location and the regions radius 150 km of a fault line or fault zones was rejected area or at the Nuclear Power Plant site. The objective of this study was to identify the existence of surface fault or supposed capable fault at 150 km from the interest site. Methodology covers interpretation of fault structure, seismic analysis reflection on land and sea, seismotectonic analysis, and determining areas which are free from the surface fault. The regional study area, which has the radius of 150 kilometers from the interest, includes the province of Banten, Jakarta, West Java, And South Sumatra (some part of Lampung). The results of Landsat image interpretation showed fault structure pattern northeast-southwest which represent Cimandiri fault, northwest-southeast represent Citandui fault, Baribis fault, Tangkuban Perahu fault. The northeast - southwest fault is estimated as left lateral faults, and northwest - southeast fault trending is estimated as right lateral faults. Based on the seismic data on land, the fault that rise through to Cisubuh formation are classified as supposed capable fault. Data of seismic stratigraphy sequence analysis at the sea correlated with a unit of the age deposition in the Pleistocene, where divided into Qt (Tertiary boundary and Early Pleistocene), Q1 (Early Pleistocene boundary and Middle Pleistocene) and Q2 (Midle Pleistocene boundary and Late Pleistocene), supposed capable fault pierce early to late Pleistocene sequence. The results of the seismotectonic analysis showed that there are capable fault which is estimated as supposed capable fault. (author)

  3. Assessment Of Carbon Leakage In Multiple Carbon-Sink Projects: ACase Study In Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Rizaldi; Wasrin, Upik R.; Hendri, Perdinan; Dasanto,Bambang D.; Makundi, Willy; Hero, Julius; Ridwan, M.; Masripatin, Nur

    2007-06-01

    Rehabilitation of degraded forest land throughimplementation of carbon sink projects can increase terrestrial carbonstock. However, carbon emissions outside the project boundary, which iscommonly referred to as leakage, may reduce or negate the sequestrationbenefits. This study assessed leakage from carbon sink projects thatcould potentially be implemented in the study area comprised of elevensub-districts in the Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Sumatra,Indonesia. The study estimates the probability of a given land use/coverbeing converted into other uses/cover, by applying a logit model. Thepredictor variables were: proximity to the center of the land use area,distance to transportation channel (road or river), area of agriculturalland, unemployment (number of job seekers), job opportunities, populationdensity and income. Leakage was estimated by analyzing with and withoutcarbon sink projects scenarios. Most of the predictors were estimated asbeing significant in their contribution to land use cover change. Theresults of the analysis show that leakage in the study area can be largeenough to more than offset the project's carbon sequestration benefitsduring the period 2002-2012. However, leakage results are very sensitiveto changes of carbon density of the land uses in the study area. Byreducing C-density of lowland and hill forest by about 10 percent for thebaseline scenario, the leakage becomes positive. Further data collectionand refinement is therefore required. Nevertheless, this study hasdemonstrated that regional analysis is a useful approach to assessleakage.

  4. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  5. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  6. Determination of Some Land and Soil Characteristics of Siirt Province with Geographic Information System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif ÖZYAZICI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to determine some land and soil characteristics of Siirt province and to make database using Geographic Information System (GIS. The study area covers about 562619.5 ha. Firstly, digital elevation model was formed using topographic map of the Siirt province and after this process slope, aspect, elevation and hill shade maps were also produced. In addition to that, some data produced General Directory of Rural Services and climate data were used in this study. According to study results, west part of the Siirt province has almost flat area whereas, hilly and mountain area locate in north and east part of it. Therefore, slope degree increase from west to north and east ways. More than half of the study area’s soil types (65% is Brown forest soils. Besides, according to land use and land cover map about 44% and 31% of the study area covers by shrubbery-brush and pastures, respectively. According to erosion maps, approximately %90 of the Siirt province lands has medium, severe and very severe erosion problem. Lands that are suitable for agricultural activities are very limited in Siirt Province. Only about 9% of the total land was classified as I, II and III land capability classes. Moreover, investigated depth map of the study area about 85% of the study area has very shallow and shallow soil depth. Deep soils found on plain and valley located at west part of the study area.

  7. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  8. The Illusion of Governance: The Challenges of Providing Effective Governance as a Tool of Counterinsurgency in Eastern Afghanistan’s Paktika Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    Atlantic Treaty Organization NDS National Directorate of Security NWFI North Western Frontier of India NWFP North Western Frontier Province OCO...narrowed to Afghanistan and its history of poverty, illiteracy , conflict, foreign invasions, control and development of the current rural (district and...

  9. Phytoplankton blooms induced/sustained by cyclonic eddies during the Indian Ocean Dipole event of 1997 along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. Rahul Chand; Salvekar, P. S.

    2008-09-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is the gateway in the tropics connecting two oceans (Pacific and the Indian Ocean) and two continents (Asia and Australia). During the Indian Ocean Dipole 1997, record anomalous and unanticipated upwelling had occurred along the southern coasts of Java and Sumatra causing massive phytoplankton blooms. But the method/mode/process for such anomalous upwelling was not known. Using monthly SeaWifs chlorophyll-a anomalies, TOPEX Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomalies, Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and currents from a state-of-the-art OGCM, we report the presence of a series of cyclonic eddies along southern coasts of Sumatra and Java during November, December 1997 and January 1998. Upwelling caused by these cyclonic eddies, as also supported by the SSH and SST anomalies, has been responsible for the phytoplankton blooms to persist and dissipate during the 3 months (November, December 1997 and January 1998).

  10. Factors that Affect Poverty Areas in North Sumatera Using Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, D. H.; Bangun, P.; Sitepu, H. R.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, especially North Sumatera, the problem of poverty is one of the fundamental problems that become the focus of government both central and local government. Although the poverty rate decreased but the fact is there are many people who are poor. Poverty happens covers several aspects such as education, health, demographics, and also structural and cultural. This research will discuss about several factors such as population density, Unemployment Rate, GDP per capita ADHK, ADHB GDP per capita, economic growth and life expectancy that affect poverty in Indonesia. To determine the factors that most influence and differentiate the level of poverty of the Regency/City North Sumatra used discriminant analysis method. Discriminant analysis is one multivariate analysis technique are used to classify the data into a group based on the dependent variable and independent variable. Using discriminant analysis, it is evident that the factor affecting poverty is Unemployment Rate.

  11. Evaluation of comprehensive environmental effect about coastal zone development activities in Liaoning Province and management advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Cai, Yue-Yin; Sun, Yong-Guang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Using spatial analysis function of Arcgis software, the present study investigated the building environment impact evaluation index system of coastal development in Liaoning Province. The factors of it included of current state of environmental quality, environmental impact of marine development and marine environmental disaster. Weighted factor analysis and comprehensive index method were utilized. At the end, comprehensive environment effect of coastal development in Liaoning Province were evaluated successfully. The result showed that the environmental effect of development activity were most serious, along the Zhao Jiatun coast in north of Zhimao bay and coast of Mianhua island in Dalian bay.

  12. CHANGE ANALYSIS ON SOIL EROSION OF FUJIAN PROVINCE FROM 1990 TO 2015

    OpenAIRE

    X. Q. Wang; S. J. Zeng; X. G. Chen; J. L. Lin; S. M. Chen

    2017-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of major environment problems in the world, and China is one of the most serious soil erosion country. In this paper, Fujian province was used as a study area for its typical red soil region. Based on USLE model, the soil erosion modulus in 1990 and 2015 were calculated and turned to soil erosion intensity. The soil erosion distribution trend in Fujian province was decrease from south-east coastal zone to north-west inland region. In soil erosion areas, the main e...

  13. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aflizar; Alarima Cornelius Idowu; Roni Afrizal; Jamaluddin; Husnain; Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Edi Syafri; Muzakir

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D) provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop...

  14. Late Quaternary eruption of the Ranau Caldera and new geological slip rates of the Sumatran Fault Zone in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, Danny Hilman; Bradley, Kyle; Daryono, Mudrik R.; Aribowo, Sonny; Herrin, Jason

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decade, studies of natural hazards in Sumatra have focused primarily on great earthquakes and associated tsunamis produced by rupture of the Sunda megathrust. However, the Sumatran Fault and the active volcanic arc present proximal hazards to populations on mainland Sumatra. At present, there is little reliable information on the maximum magnitudes and recurrence intervals of Sumatran Fault earthquakes, or the frequency of paroxysmal caldera-forming (VEI 7-8) eruptions. Here, we present new radiocarbon dates of paleosols buried under the voluminous Ranau Tuff that constrain the large caldera-forming eruption to around 33,830-33,450 calender year BP (95% probability). We use the lateral displacement of river channels incised into the Ranau Tuff to constrain the long-term slip rate of two segments of the Sumatran Fault. South of Ranau Lake, the Kumering segment preserves isochronous right-lateral channel offsets of approximately 350 ± 50 m, yielding a minimum slip rate of 10.4 ± 1.5 mm/year for the primary active fault trace. South of Suoh pull-apart depression, the West Semangko segment offsets the Semangko River by 230 ± 60 m, yielding an inferred slip rate of 6.8 ± 1.8 mm/year. Compared with previous studies, these results indicate more recent high-volume volcanism in South Sumatra and increased seismic potency of the southernmost segments of the Sumatran Fault Zone.

  15. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  16. Biological control of emerald ash borer in North America: current progress and potential for success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Jonathan P. Lelito

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to north-east Asia, was first discovered in North America near Detroit in 2002. EAB has since spread to at least 15 U.S. States and two Canadian provinces, threatening the existence of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A classical biocontrol program was initiated...

  17. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  18. Interseismic, postseismic and co-seismic strain on the Sumatra megathrust and their relation to the megathrust frictional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, A. O.; Avouac, J.-P.; Sladen, A.; Meltzner, A. J.; Kositsky, A.; Sieh, K.; Galetzka, J.; Genrich, J.; Natawidjaja, D. H.

    2009-04-01

    The Sumatra Megathrust has recently produced a flurry of large interplate earthquakes starting with the giant Mw 9.15, Aceh earthquake of 2004. All of these earthquakes occurred within the area monitored by the Sumatra Geodetic Array (SuGAr), which provided exceptional records of near-field co-seismic and postseismic ground displacements. In addition, based on coral growth pattern, it has also been possible to estimate the pattern of interseismic strain in this area over the last few decades preceding 2004. This earthquake sequence provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the eventual relationship between large megathrust ruptures, interseismic coupling and the frictional properties of the megathrust. The emerging view is a megathrust with strong down-dip and lateral variations of frictional properties. The 2005, Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake ruptured nearly entirely a patch that had ruptured already during a similar earthquake in 1861 and that had remained well locked in the interseismic period allowing for stress to build up to an amount comparable to, or even larger than the stress released in 1861 or 2005. This patch is inferred to obey dominantly velocity-weakening friction and the pattern or interseismic coupling and afterslip suggests that it is surrounded by areas with velocity-strengthening friction. The 2007 Mw 8.4 and 7.9 earthquakes ruptured a fraction of a strongly coupled in the Mentawai area. They each consist of 2 sub-events which are 50 to 100 km apart from each other. On the other hand, the northernmost slip patch of 8.4 and southern slip patch of 7.9 earthquakes abut each other, but they ruptured 12 hours apart. They released a moment much smaller than the giant earthquakes known to have occurred in the Mentawai area in 1833 or in 1797. Also the moment released in 2007 amounts to only a fraction of the deficit of moment that had accumulated as a result of interseismic strain since these historical events, the potential for a large megathrust

  19. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  20. TREES AND REGENERATION IN RUBBER AGROFORESTS AND OTHER FOREST-DERIVED VEGETATION IN JAMBI (SUMATRA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti L. Tata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rubber  agroforests  (RAF  of Indonesia provide  a dynamic interface  between natural  processes  of forest  regeneration and  human’s management   targeting  the harvesting  of latex  with  minimum investment  of time  and financial  resources.  The composition  and species richness  of higher  plants  across an intensification gradient from forest to monocultures of tree crops have been investigated  in six land use types (viz. secondary forest, RAF, rubber monoculture, oil palm plantation, cassava field and Imperata grassland  in Bungo,  Jambi  Province,  Indonesia.  We emphasize  comparison of four different  strata  (understory, seedling,  sapling  and tree of vegetation  between forest and RAF,  with  specific interest  in plant  dependence  on ectomycorrhiza fungi. Species richness  and species accumulation curves for seedling  and sapling  stages were similar  between forest and RAF,  but in the tree stratum  (trees > 10 cm dbh selective thinning by farmers was evident in a reduction  of species diversity and an increase in the proportion of trees with edible parts. Very few trees dependent on ectomycorrhiza fungi were encountered  in the RAF. However, the relative distribution of early and late successional species as evident from the wood density distribution showed no difference between RAF and forest.

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  2. Shale gas characterization based on geochemical and geophysical analysis: Case study of Brown shale, Pematang formation, Central Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Nastria, N.; Soebandrio, D.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geochemical and geophysical analyses of shale gas have been carried out in Brown Shale, Middle Pematang Formation, Central Sumatra Basin. The paper is aimed at delineating the sweet spot distribution of potential shale gas reservoir, which is based on Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Maturity level data, and combined with TOC modeling that refers to Passey and Regression Multi Linear method. We used 4 well data, side wall core and 3D pre-stack seismic data. Our analysis of geochemical properties is based on well log and core data and its distribution are constrained by a framework of 3D seismic data, which is transformed into acoustic impedance. Further, the sweet spot of organic-rich shale is delineated by mapping TOC, which is extracted from inverted acoustic impedance. Our experiment analysis shows that organic materials contained in the formation of Middle Pematang Brown Shale members have TOC range from 0.15 to 2.71 wt.%, which is classified in the quality of poor to very good. In addition, the maturity level of organic material is ranging from 373°C to 432°C, which is indicated by vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.58. In term of kerogen type, this Brown shale formation is categorized as kerogen type of II I III, which has the potential to generate a mixture of gasIoil on the environment.

  3. Hydrocarbon Potential in Sandstone Reservoir Isolated inside Low Permeability Shale Rock (Case Study: Beruk Field, Central Sumatra Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diria, Shidqi A.; Musu, Junita T.; Hasan, Meutia F.; Permono, Widyo; Anwari, Jakson; Purba, Humbang; Rahmi, Shafa; Sadjati, Ory; Sopandi, Iyep; Ruzi, Fadli

    2018-03-01

    Upper Red Bed, Menggala Formation, Bangko Formation, Bekasap Formation and Duri Formationare considered as the major reservoirs in Central Sumatra Basin (CSB). However, Telisa Formation which is well-known as seal within CSB also has potential as reservoir rock. Field study discovered that lenses and layers which has low to high permeability sandstone enclosed inside low permeability shale of Telisa Formation. This matter is very distinctive and giving a new perspective and information related to the invention of hydrocarbon potential in reservoir sandstone that isolated inside low permeability shale. This study has been conducted by integrating seismic data, well logs, and petrophysical data throughly. Facies and static model are constructed to estimate hydrocarbon potential resource. Facies model shows that Telisa Formation was deposited in deltaic system while the potential reservoir was deposited in distributary mouth bar sandstone but would be discontinued bedding among shale mud-flat. Besides, well log data shows crossover between RHOB and NPHI, indicated that distributary mouth bar sandstone is potentially saturated by hydrocarbon. Target area has permeability ranging from 0.01-1000 mD, whereas porosity varies from 1-30% and water saturation varies from 30-70%. The hydrocarbon resource calculation approximates 36.723 MSTB.

  4. 16,000 Years of Tropical Eastern Ocean Climate Variability Recorded in a Speleothem From Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Abram, N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Rifai, H.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Heslop, D.; Troitzsch, U.; Eggins, S.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate variability in the Indo-Pacific has largely been inferred from sediment cores primarily from the central and eastern Warm Pool region. A limited number of speleothem oxygen-isotope records have provided decadally-resolved time-series of past rainfall variability over the central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region, however no records currently exist for the Indian Ocean sector of the IPWP. Here we present the first continuous, high-resolution (~15year) speleothem record from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, collected from central western Sumatra, Indonesia. Petrographic and geochemical analysis reveals that the sample is primarily composed of aragonite but is punctuated by intervals of primary calcite growth. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS reveals strongly antiphased behaviour between magnesium and strontium, attributed to the strong preference of those elements for the calcite and aragonite lattices, respectively. This relationship is utilized to develop a quantitative correction for the stable isotope fractionation offset between the two calcium carbonate polymorphs identified in the speleothem. The corrected oxygen isotope record shows a rapid transition from drier conditions during the Younger Dryas (YD) into a wetter Holocene, similar in timing and pattern to that recorded in Dongge Cave, China. This is strikingly different from other IPWP speleothem records, which show no YD or a wetter YD, suggesting that different mechanisms may be controlling rainfall amount in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. These disparate responses are further explored through proxy-model comparison.

  5. Structure and Evolution of the Accretionary Margin of Java-Sumatra. Seismic Data and Numerical Modeling Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.

    2007-12-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of an accretionary prism along a subduction margin. We find the mechanical partitioning of the growing prism into active region, abutting against a deformable backstop, and a relatively undeformed forearc basin is a function of the double tapered basal geometry, where the dip of the detachment is assumed to be opposite above oceanic or continental lithopshere. Varying properties of both materials and detachment can be used to adjust the surface slope and hence geometry of the system, but mechanical partitioning remains essentially the same with the regions becoming broader or narrower. The model appears to closely reproduce the geometry of the Sumatra-Java prism, where a high accretion margin has produced the same distinct mechanical units. Newly prestack depth-migrated marine seismic data reveal the extent and geometry of the active deformation of the deformable backstop, and give indications of some material passing into a subduction channel below the accretionary complex. The deformable backstop appears to be composed of multiple duplex structures, but present day tectonic activity is mostly in the form of transtensive or transpressive deformation, possibly reactivating older dip-slip, accretionary structures. The numerical approach used in the simulation (distinct elements) shows great promise in modelling large deformation in situations such as accretionary prisms, and has also been adapted to incorporate the role of fluid pressure and migration in tandem with large deformation (shortening of the order of 100's of kilometres).

  6. Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Sumatra and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSUMADEWI SRI YULITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yulita KS (2011 Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Bengkulu and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints. Biodiversitas 12: 125-130. Duku (Lansium domesticum Corr. is one of popular tropical fruits in SE Asia. The spesies has three varieties, known as duku, langsat and kokosan; and duku is the most popular one for being the sweetiest fruit. Indonesia has several local varieties of duku, such as duku Condet, duku Sumber and duku Palembang. This present study aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 accessions of duku from Java, Sumatra, and Ceram based on RAPD fingerprints. Ten RAPD’s primers were initially screened and five were selected for the analysis. These five primers (OPA 7, 13, 18, OPB 7, and OPN 12 generated 53 scorable bands with an average of 10.6 polymorphic fragment per primer. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 16.89% (OPA 7 and OPN 12 to 24.54% (OPB 7 with an average of 20.16% polymorphism. OPB 7 at 450 bp was exclusively possessed by accession 20 (Java, OPA 18 at 500 bp was by accession 6 (Java, 550 bp by 3 clones from Bengkulu. While OPN 12 at 300 bp and OPA 13 at 450 bp were shared among the accessions. Clustering analysis was performed based on RAPD profiles using the UPGMA method. The range of genetic similarity value among accessions was 0.02-0.65 suggesting high variation of gene pool existed among accessions.

  7. SEBARAN DAN EFIKASI BERBAGAI GENUS CENDAWAN ENTOMOPATOGEN TERHADAP Riptortus linearis PADA KEDELAI DI LAMPUNG DAN SUMATRA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmani Prayogo .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and efficacy on various entomopathogenic fungi at Lampung and South Sumatra as a biological control agent against Riptortus linearis. This study was conducted from June to September 2005.  The fungi were isolated from insect cadavers, insect bait, and soil sample from the soybean land. Each fungal sample was identified  base on their morphology using determination keys.  The fungal isolates were inoculated to the pod sucking bug Riptortus linearis.  The results showed that there were six genera of entomopathogenic fungi that can be isolated, i.e.  Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Metarhizium sp., Verticillium sp., Paecilomyces sp., and  Beauveria sp.  The fungus-induced  mortality of R. linearis varied between 5 - 30%.  Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Lebak Batang Baru induced 25%; Beauveria sp. isolated from Pulung Kencana 25%; Verticillium sp. isolated from Kaliungu 20%. Metarhizium sp. isolated from Terbanggi Subing 20% and Verticillium sp. isolated from Lebak batang Baru 20% mortality. It was suggested that these fungi have potential as biological control agents  for the pod sucking bug in dry acid land.

  8. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  9. Diversity and Abundance of Beetle (Coleoptera Functional Groups in a Range of Land Use System in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURYO HARDIWINOTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the related ecosystems. The objective of this study was to study the impact of land use systems (LUS on the diversity and abundance of beetle functional groups in Jambi area, Sumatra. This research was carried out during the rainy season (May-June of 2004. Inventory and collection of beetles have been conducted using winkler method across six land use systems, i.e. primary forest, secondary forest, Imperata grassland, rubber plantation, oilpalm plantation, and cassava garden. The result showed that a total of 47 families and subfamilies of beetles was found in the study area, and they were classified into four major functional groups, i.e. herbivore, predator, scavenger, and fungivore. There were apparent changes in proportion, diversity, and abundance of beetle functional groups from forests to other land use systems. The bulk of beetle diversity and abundance appeared to converge in primary forest and secondary forest and predatory beetles were the most diverse and the most abundant of the four major functional groups.

  10. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    subsequent deflation played a major role in the formation of completely separate Boreal and Tethyan faunal provinces in Bajocian-Bathonian time followed by gradual re-establishment of faunal connection in the Early Callovian. The Middle Jurassic unconformities of the northwest European North Atlantic region reflect a tectonic phase in the break-up of Pangaea with development of volcanic rift domes of major importance for drainage patterns, palaeoceanography, palaeobiogeography and implicatly biostratigraphic correlation. (au) Appendix no. 11. 63 refs.

  11. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  12. Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment.

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  14. Preliminary result of P-wave speed tomography beneath North Sumatera region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatnika, Jajat [Earth Science Study Program, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Insitute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Wandono [Indonesian Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA), Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The structure of P-wave speed beneath the North Sumatra region was determined using P-wave arrival times compiled by MCGA from time periods of January 2009 to December 2012 combining with PASSCAL data for February to May 1995. In total, there are 2,246 local earthquake events with 10,666 P-wave phases from 63 stations seismic around the study area. Ray tracing to estimate travel time from source to receiver in this study by applying pseudo-bending method while the damped LSQR method was used for the tomographic inversion. Based on assessment of ray coverage, earthquakes and stations distribution, horizontal grid nodes was set up of 30×30 km2 for inside the study area and 80×80 km2 for outside the study area. The tomographic inversion results show low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex region and around the Sumatra Fault Zones (SFZ). These features are consistent with previous study. The low Vp anomaly beneath Toba caldera complex are observed around Mt. Pusuk Bukit at depths of 5 km down to 100 km. The interpretation is these anomalies may be associated with ascending hot materials from subduction processes at depths of 80 km down to 100 km. The obtained Vp structure from local tomography will give valuable information to enhance understanding of tectonic and volcanic in this study area.

  15. Some new species of the genus Helicella (Pulmonata, Helicidae) from the province León, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Manga, M.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Many samples of Helicellinae have been collected by the second author in León, a province in the North of Spain. While trying to identify the species represented in this material, not only the most recent summarizing publications on Spanish Helicellinae by Ortiz de Zárate (1943, 1946, 1950, 1962

  16. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  17. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  18. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  19. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. The province is in the Russian Arctic, east of Severnaya Zemlya and the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt. The province is separated from the rest of the Laptev Sea Shelf by the Severnyi transform fault. One assessment unit (AU) was defined for this study: the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf AU. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 172 million barrels of crude oil, 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 119 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, north of the Arctic Circle.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Drought Indices for Drought Zone Scheme of Northern Khorasan Province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan EYSHI REZAEI; Azade MOHAMMADIAN; Mansoreh KOOHI; Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the natural disasters which deeply influenced agricultural production. Drought monitoring programs could help to forecast and mitigate the impacts of drought. In this study occurrence, severity, and duration of drought were evaluated by monthly rainfall data (1986-2005) that were recorded at all meteorological stations in north Khorasan province of Iran. Drought indices include Standard Rainfall Index (SPI), Decades Index (DI) and Percent of Normal (PNI) calculated and compa...

  1. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Construction and Analysis of Long-Term Surface Temperature Dataset in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. E.; Wang, X. Q.; Su, H.

    2017-09-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2) from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual) from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  3. CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF LONG-TERM SURFACE TEMPERATURE DATASET IN FUJIAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is a key parameter of land surface physical processes on global and regional scales, linking the heat fluxes and interactions between the ground and atmosphere. Based on MODIS 8-day LST products (MOD11A2 from the split-window algorithms, we constructed and obtained the monthly and annual LST dataset of Fujian Province from 2000 to 2015. Then, we analyzed the monthly and yearly time series LST data and further investigated the LST distribution and its evolution features. The average LST of Fujian Province reached the highest in July, while the lowest in January. The monthly and annual LST time series present a significantly periodic features (annual and interannual from 2000 to 2015. The spatial distribution showed that the LST in North and West was lower than South and East in Fujian Province. With the rapid development and urbanization of the coastal area in Fujian Province, the LST in coastal urban region was significantly higher than that in mountainous rural region. The LST distributions might affected by the climate, topography and land cover types. The spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST could provide good references for the agricultural layout and environment monitoring in Fujian Province.

  4. Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil-atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as jungle rubber), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were -0.6

  5. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis captured in ecosystem mangrove of Bagan Asahan, Tanjungbalai, Asahan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, A.; Riza, N.; Raza'i, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    White Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis was commonly found in Mangrove Ecosystem of Bagan Asahan Village. The purpose of this research are to determine length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis around ecosystem mangrove waters in Bagan Asahan Village. This research was conducted for 3 month in Maret until Mei 2017 with determination of research station used purposive sampling method. The shrimp samples were taken by shrimp trawl. The result showed that 98 shrimp which consists of 58 males and 40 female. The carapace length of female shrimp between 6,05 - 22,125 mm and total weight ranged from 0,12 - 6,95 g. Male shrimp had carapace length between 7.125 - 18.25 mm and total weigth ranged from 0.14 - 3.82 g. Female and male white shrimp had different growth pattern. Female shrimp had b = 2.984 included in negaive allometric and male shrimps with b = 3.187 included in positive allometric. The value of correlation coefficients was more than 90% for both male and female showed very strong relation between length carapace and body weight. The value of shrimp condition factor ranged from 0.570 - 1.773 and included to flat (thin) body shrimp.

  6. The Potential Clash of Social Relationship between Muslim and Buddhist (Case Study on the Conflict of Buddha Statue in Tanjungbalai City, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah Irwansyah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-religious conflicts that occurred in Tanjungbalai City allegedly caused by the establishment of Buddha Statue. This research aims to reveal how relations between Muslim and Buddhist in Tanjungbalai. This study classified as qualitative research. Fact were obtained through observation, interviews, and document review. The results showed social conflict occurred after the establishment of Buddha Statue. Tanjungbalai as one of “China town”, to trigger the social jealousy. In addition to the economic factors are controlled by China,  Tanjungbalai City the majority of Muslims, did not accept the establishment of 6 metre tall Buddha Statue that was on the fourth floor of the building Vihara Tri Ratna. Muslims aliancy movement asking for removal of the statue. Buddhists being defensive and worried that the Malays (Muslims think that the Buddhist same with “the Chinese”.

  7. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  8. The Gutenberg-Richter b value: Precursors to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude law of earthquakes is long established in seismology. This law states that the cumulative number (N) of earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to M is well approximated by the relation: logN=A-bM, where the constant A is a measure of the fertility of earthquakes and the other constant b characterizes their size distribution. The b value is typically close to 1, but spatial and temporal changes in b are also known to reflect the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to be associated with asperities and frictional properties. Laboratory experiments predicted systematic decrease in b toward the end of a seismic cycle. In this context, we investigated b values over an extensive range of space and time for the 11 March 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake and 26 December 2004 Mw9.1 Sumatra earthquake. In this presentation, we show that significant decade-scale decrease in b is a common precursor to both mega-quakes around their hypocenters. This is the first time to confirm predicted change in b from laboratory experiment for M9-class quakes. We propose that b value can be an important indicator to infer a next great earthquake, showing the great potential for a future large quake off the Pacific coast of Hokkaido district. The results demonstrate that the use of b helps to improve probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Along this line, we present a progress report on b value analysis conducted for greater Tokyo and discuss future directions of this research toward moving to a new generation of the capital's earthquake hazards. This is supported by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area.

  9. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 ( 1 atm) developed a travertine mound 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  10. Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the Sumatra 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) Sumatra earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman Basin. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  11. Development of the first coal seam gas exploration program in Indonesia: Reservoir properties of the Muaraenim Formation, south Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosrowidjojo, I.B. [R and D Centre for Oil and Gas Technology, LEMIGAS, Jakarta (Indonesia); Saghafi, A. [CSIRO Energy Technology, P O Box 330, Newcastle, NSW, 2300 (Australia)

    2009-09-01

    The Late Miocene Muaraenim Formation in southern Sumatra contains thick coal sequences, mostly of low rank ranging from lignite to sub-bituminous, and it is believed that these thick low rank coals are the most prospective for the production of coal seam gas (CSG), otherwise known as coalbed methane (CBM), in Indonesia. As part of a major CSG exploration project, gas exploration drilling operations are being undertaken in Rambutan Gasfields in the Muaraenim Formation to characterize the CSG potential of the coals. The first stage of the project, which is described here, was designed to examine the gas reservoir properties with a focus on coal gas storage capacity and compositional properties. Some five CSG exploration boreholes were drilled in the Rambutan Gasfield, south of Palembang. The exploration boreholes were drilled to depths of {proportional_to} 1000 m into the Muaraenim Formation. Five major coal seams were intersected by these holes between the depths of 450 and 1000 m. The petrography of coal samples collected from these seams showed that they are vitrinite rich, with vitrinite contents of more than 75% (on a mineral and moisture free basis). Gas contents of up to 5.8 m{sup 3}/t were measured for the coal samples. The gas desorbed from coal samples contain mainly methane (CH{sub 4}) ranging from 80 to 93% and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ranging from 6 to 19%. The composition of the gas released into the production borehole/well is, however, much richer in CH{sub 4} with about 94 to 98% CH{sub 4} and less than 5% CO{sub 2}. The initial results of drilling and reservoir characterization studies indicate suitable gas recovery parameters for three of the five coal seams with a total thickness of more than 30 m. (author)

  12. Anaerobic oxidation of methane at a marine methane seep in a forearc sediment basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSiegert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cold methane-seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep centre of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of AOM was reflected by 13C depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a 13C-labelling experiment. Methane fuelled a vital microbial and invertebrate community which was reflected in cell numbers of up to 4 x 109 cells cm 3 sediment and 13C depleted guts of crabs populating the seep area. The microbial community was analysed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition – fluorescence in situ hybridisation (CARD-FISH, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. CARD-FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9 and Anaerolineaceae were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible.

  13. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by (13)C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO(2) was confirmed in a (13)C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 10(9) cells cm(-3) sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD-FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible.

  14. Land cover distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with changes since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Miettinen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asian peatlands have experienced rapid land cover changes over the past decades inducing a variety of environmental effects ranging from regional consequences on peatland ecology, biodiversity and hydrology to globally significant carbon emissions. In this paper we present the land cover and industrial plantation distribution in the peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 and analyse their changes since 1990. We create the 2015 maps by visual interpretation of 30 m resolution Landsat data and combine them with fully comparable and completed land cover maps of 1990 and 2007 (Miettinen and Liew, 2010. Our results reveal continued peatland deforestation and conversion into managed land cover types. In 2015, 29% (4.6 Mha of the peatlands in the study area remain covered by peat swamp forest (vs. 41% or 6.4 Mha in 2007 and 76% or 11.9 Mha in 1990. Managed land cover types (industrial plantations and small-holder dominated areas cover 50% (7.8 Mha of all peatlands (vs. 33% 5.2 Mha in 2007 and 11% 1.7 Mha in 1990. Industrial plantations have nearly doubled their extent since 2007 (2.3 Mha; 15% and cover 4.3 Mha (27% of peatlands in 2015. The majority of these are oil palm plantations (73%; 3.1 Mha while nearly all of the rest (26%; 1.1 Mha are pulp wood plantations. We hope that the maps presented in this paper will enable improved evaluation of the magnitude of various regional to global level environmental effects of peatland conversion and that they will help decision makers to define sustainable peatland management policies for insular Southeast Asian peatlands.

  15. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  16. PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF WELLS DRINKING WATER IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi ، H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ، A. A. Enayati ، R. A. Mohammadpoor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Direct method and Gram staining procedure were used to identify the parasites. If cryptosporidium was seen, floatation (sheather’s sugar and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method were performed. Parasites count was undertaken using McMaster counting slide (0.3 mL. 197 out of 989 water samples were contaminated with different parasites. From 197 contaminated samples, 20 different types of parasites were separated of which 53 (26.9% were pathogenic, 100 (50.8% non pathogenic, and 44 non-infective stages of parasites. Distance between wells and sources of contamination, type of water distribution systems, city and chlorination status had significantly statistical relationship with contamination prevalence (p<0.001. According to the results and considering the direct correlation between safe water and human health, proper implementation of providing hygienic drinking water should be enforced.

  17. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    shortening and deformation were diachronous, progressing from north to south. We envision that Late Jurassic deformation may have collapsed a Gulf of California–style oceanic extensional basin that extended from the Klamath Mountains (e.g., Josephine ophiolite) to the central Blue Mountains Province, and possibly as far north as the North Cascades (i.e., the coeval Ingalls ophiolite).

  18. Investigation on afterslip and steady state and transient rheology based on postseismic deformation and geoid change caused by the Sumatra 2004 earthquake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoechner, Andreas; Sobolev, Stephan V.; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    or postseismic relaxation, leads to difficulties in finding a consistent interpretation of obtained viscosities. Using standard Maxwell viscosity of 1e19 Pa s to analyze postseismic near-field GPS time series from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake requires large time-dependent afterslip with a relaxation time...... Maxwell model with afterslip is not compatible with observations, since even large afterslip has a more localized effect than transient relaxation due to the main earthquake, which in turn is in agreement with observations. Thus, a combination of ground-and space-based geodetic observations is very useful...

  19. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  20. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  1. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  2. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  3. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  4. Spatial Pattern and the Process of Settlement Expansion in Jiangsu Province from 1980 to 2010, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human settlement expansion has very important effects on regional population migration, economic balance and ecosystem services. Understanding the evolution of settlement expansion and regional differences is significant for regional sustainability. The results showed that in the past 30 years, the urbanization rate in Jiangsu province was lower. From 1980 to 2010, the expansion area of urban settlement was larger than that of rural settlement. Urban settlement expanded slowly from 1980 to 2005 and strongly from 2005 to 2010. Rural settlement expanded greatly from 1980 to 1995, and 37.14% of settlement was mostly on cropland. The type of urban settlement expansion from 1980 to 1995 and from 2000 to 2005 was compact expansion. Settlement expansion in the south of Jiangsu province was greater than that in the north of Jiangsu province. The spatial pattern of settlement in most cities was a cluster. In the past 30 years, urban and rural settlement expansion had significantly different impacts on the soil and water environment. Urban settlement expansion was great in the south of Jiangsu province and widened the economic and social gap between the south and north of Jiangsu province.

  5. Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism in the Darfur volcanic province: mantle source, phonolite-trachyte genesis and relation to other volcanic provinces in NE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Friedrich; Pudlo, Dieter; Franz, Gerhard; Romer, Rolf L.; Dulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Late Cenozoic to Quaternary small-volume phonolite, trachyte and related mafic rocks from the Darfur volcanic province/NW-Sudan have been investigated. Isotope signatures indicate variable but minor crustal contributions. Some phonolitic and trachytic rocks show the same isotopic composition as their primitive mantle-derived parents, and no crustal contributions are visible in the trace element patterns of these samples. The magmatic evolution of the evolved rocks is dominated by crystal fractionation. The Si-undersaturated strongly alkaline phonolite and the Si-saturated mildly alkaline trachyte can be modelled by fractionation of basanite and basalt, respectively. The suite of basanite-basalt-phonolite-trachyte with characteristic isotope signatures from the Darfur volcanic province fits the compositional features of other Cenozoic intra-plate magmatism scattered in North and Central Africa (e.g., Tibesti, Maghreb, Cameroon line), which evolved on a lithosphere that was reworked or formed during the Neoproterozoic.

  6. Precambrian large igneous provinces: an overview of geochronology, origins and impact on earth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaman, Larry M.

    2008-01-01

    Precambrian large igneous provinces flourished during the Proterozoic and some, such as the 1.27 Ga Mackenzie event in North America, resemble their Phanerozoic counterparts with good evidence for the production of large volumes of mafic magma in short periods of geologic time (<10 m.y.), a specific focus of this magmatism, and regional uplift prior to the onset of volcanism. In many Precambrian examples, the flood basalts have been largely removed by erosion and only the root zone (e.g. dyke swarm, layered mafic intrusion) of these large igneous provinces is preserved. The short duration of this magmatism and the geometric relationship between linear dyke swarms and basement geology can potentially provide a robust geological pin in continental reconstructions. The extensive 2.37 Ga E-W trending Bangalore dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, India cross-cuts N-S trending Neoarchean greenstone belts and the 2.51 Ga Closepet granite and is a good example of the potential for providing a cornerstone in Paleoproterozoic continent reconstruction. In contrast, the 1.89 Ga Southern Bastar-Cuddapah large igneous province in southern India is one of several large igneous provinces formed at this time on different continents, including the 1.89-1.88 Ga circum-Superior mafic/ultramafic magmatism in North America and the 1.88-1.87 Ga Waterberg Group sills in South Africa, and is part of a global period of enhanced mantle melting. A challenge for future attempts at Precambrian continent reconstruction is to distinguish between discrete global periods of enhanced mantle melting and a single specific focus large igneous province. (author)

  7. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  8. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  9. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  10. About Ganoderma boninense in oil palm plantations of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia: Ancient population expansion, extensive gene flow and large scale dispersion ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercière, Maxime; Boulord, Romain; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Klopp, Christophe; Lee, Yang-Ping; Tan, Joon-Sheong; Syed Alwee, Sharifah S R; Zaremski, Alba; De Franqueville, Hubert; Breton, Frédéric; Camus-Kulandaivelu, Létizia

    Wood rot fungi form one of the main classes of phytopathogenic fungus. The group includes many species, but has remained poorly studied. Many species belonging to the Ganoderma genus are well known for causing decay in a wide range of tree species around the world. Ganoderma boninense, causal agent of oil palm basal stem rot, is responsible for considerable yield losses in Southeast Asian oil palm plantations. In a large-scale sampling operation, 357 sporophores were collected from oil palm plantations spread over peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra and genotyped using 11 SSR markers. The genotyping of these samples made it possible to investigate the population structure and demographic history of G. boninense across the oldest known area of interaction between oil palm and G. boninense. Results show that G. boninense possesses a high degree of genetic diversity and no detectable genetic structure at the scale of Sumatra and peninsular Malaysia. The fact that few duplicate genotypes were found in several studies including this one supports the hypothesis of spore dispersal in the spread of G. boninense. Meanwhile, spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that G. boninense is able to disperse across both short and long distances. These results bring new insight into mechanisms by which G. boninense spreads in oil palm plantations. Finally, the use of approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) modelling indicates that G. boninense has undergone a demographic expansion in the past, probably before the oil palm was introduced into Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Size and duration of the high-frequency radiator in the source of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A A [Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation); [Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gusev@emsd.iks.ru; Guseva, E M [Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation); Panza, G F [University of Trieste, Department of Earth Sciences, Trieste (Italy); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-04-15

    We recover the gross space-time characteristics of high-frequency (HF) radiator of the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, (M{sub w}=9.0-9.3) using the inversion of parameters describing the time histories of the power of radiated HF P waves. To determine these time histories we process teleseismic P waves at 37 BB stations, using, in sequence: (1) band filtering in the bands 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2, 2-3 and 3-4 Hz; (2) calculation of squared attenuation-corrected acceleration wave amplitudes, making 'power signal'; (3) elimination of distortion related to scattering and expressed as P coda. In step (3) we employ, as an empirical Green function, the power signal determined from an aftershock, from which we construct an inverse filter, and apply it to the recorded power signal. We thus recover the source time function for HF power, with a definite end and no coda. Three parameters are extracted from such signals: full ('100%') duration, temporal centroid, and 99% duration. Through linear inversion, station full durations deliver estimates of the rupture stopping point and stopping time. Similarly, signal temporal centroids and 99% durations can be inverted to obtain the position of the space-time centroid of HF energy radiator and of the point corresponding to the discharge of 99% of the energy. Inversion was successful for the three lower-frequency bands and resulted in the following joint estimates: source length of 1100{+-}220 km (100%) and 800{+-}200 km (99%), source duration of 690 s (100%) and 550 s (99%). The stopping point differs insignificantly from the northern extremity of the aftershock zone. Spatial HF radiation centroid is located at the distance of about 400 km at the azimuth N327W from the epicenter. Rupture propagation velocity estimates are 1.4-1.7 km/s for the entire rupture and 2.3 km/s for its southern, more powerful part. An interesting detail of the source is that the northernmost 300 km of the rupture radiated only 1% of the

  12. Geochemical evidence for different peat sources in the Siak estuary and along the east coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wöstmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution pattern of selected biomarkers extracted from samples of outcropping peat from the Siak river, its estuary, the coast around Dumai and the island of Bengkalis have been investigated by gas chromatography (GC and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and compared with samples of eroded peat washed ashore (re-deposited on the coastline of Sumatra. Geochemical analyses of n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, steroids and triterpenoids show that outcropping and re-deposited peats have different chemical compositions. The outcropping peats around Dumai, Bengkalis and in the Siak River estuary contain high concentrations of the pentacyclic triterpenoid taraxerol, a typical constituent of the mangrove species Rhizophora. A comparison with the lipid composition of leaves from the fringing mangrove species (Avicennia alba, Sonneratia alba and Rhizophora apiculata showed that only R. apiculata contains significant amounts of taraxerol. Taraxerol was completely absent from the leaves of A. alba and S. alba. This suggests that the peats outcropping around Dumai, Bengkalis and in the Siak estuary must be formed by a dominant input of mangroves of the Rhizophora family. The n-alkane distribution patterns of the outcropping peats near Dumai and the Siak estuary are similar to those of the surrounding mangrove vegetation with a maximum at C31 and a strong predominance of odd over even carbon numbers in all samples. Biomarker analysis of eroded peats washed ashore along the coastline around Dumai and the Siak estuary shows a different lipid composition with high amounts of the triterpenoids friedelin, α-amyrin and β-amyrin. These compounds are typical biomarkers for tropical forest vegetation as found along the Siak River and for peats eroding at upstream river banks. The n-alkanol distribution patterns of re-deposited peats also indicate a different origin for their organic matter. Peats re-deposited in the Siak estuary

  13. Size and duration of the high-frequency radiator in the source of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Guseva, E.M.; Panza, G.F.

    2006-04-01

    We recover the gross space-time characteristics of high-frequency (HF) radiator of the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of Dec. 26, 2004, (M w =9.0-9.3) using the inversion of parameters describing the time histories of the power of radiated HF P waves. To determine these time histories we process teleseismic P waves at 37 BB stations, using, in sequence: (1) band filtering in the bands 0.4-1.2, 1.2-2, 2-3 and 3-4 Hz; (2) calculation of squared attenuation-corrected acceleration wave amplitudes, making 'power signal'; (3) elimination of distortion related to scattering and expressed as P coda. In step (3) we employ, as an empirical Green function, the power signal determined from an aftershock, from which we construct an inverse filter, and apply it to the recorded power signal. We thus recover the source time function for HF power, with a definite end and no coda. Three parameters are extracted from such signals: full ('100%') duration, temporal centroid, and 99% duration. Through linear inversion, station full durations deliver estimates of the rupture stopping point and stopping time. Similarly, signal temporal centroids and 99% durations can be inverted to obtain the position of the space-time centroid of HF energy radiator and of the point corresponding to the discharge of 99% of the energy. Inversion was successful for the three lower-frequency bands and resulted in the following joint estimates: source length of 1100±220 km (100%) and 800±200 km (99%), source duration of 690 s (100%) and 550 s (99%). The stopping point differs insignificantly from the northern extremity of the aftershock zone. Spatial HF radiation centroid is located at the distance of about 400 km at the azimuth N327W from the epicenter. Rupture propagation velocity estimates are 1.4-1.7 km/s for the entire rupture and 2.3 km/s for its southern, more powerful part. An interesting detail of the source is that the northernmost 300 km of the rupture radiated only 1% of the total HF

  14. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  15. ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL LEADING SUBSECTOR DISTRICT/CITIES IN BENGKULU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Ridho Pratama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the agricultural leading subsector in the districts/ cities in Bengkulu Province and the conditions of agricultural leading  subsectors  district/ cites status as a Main Area in Bengkulu Province before and after the expansion area. The analysis method used Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, Shift-Share analysis (SS and Overlay analysis. The study used secondary data, such as Gross Domestic Regional Bruto (PDRB of districts/cities in Bengkulu Province and Bengkulu Province from 2004 until 2014 based on constant basic price. The result of this study showed that agricultural leading subsector based on the overlay analysis (combined analysing from three analysis method are livestock subsector and plantation crops subsector, sepecially in Bengkulu City and Kaur. In South Bengkulu, before the expansion area, the fisheries subsector to be the only agricultural leading subsector. After the expansion, the agricultural leading subsectors increased to fisheries subsector and livestock subsector. In Rejang Lebong, food crops subsector remains a agricultural leading subsectors both before and after doing the expansion area. Meanwhile, in North Bengkulu, before the expansion area livestock subsector as the agricultural leading subsector. When do expansion area, position of the livestock subsector replaced by fisheries subsector.

  16. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  17. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  18. Spatiotemporal trends and climatic factors of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome epidemic in Shandong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qun Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is a rodent-borne disease caused by Hantaviruses. It is endemic in all 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and metropolitan areas in mainland China where human cases account for 90% of the total global cases. Shandong Province is among the most serious endemic areas. HFRS cases in Shandong Province were first reported in Yutai County in 1968. Since then, the disease has spread across the province, and as of 2005, all 111 counties were reported to have local human infections. However, causes underlying such rapid spread and wide distribution remain less well understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we report a spatiotemporal analysis of human HFRS cases in Shandong using data spanning 1973 to 2005. Seasonal incidence maps and velocity vector maps were produced to analyze the spread of HFRS over time in Shandong Province, and a panel data analysis was conducted to explore the association between HFRS incidence and climatic factors. Results show a rapid spread of HFRS from its epicenter in Rizhao, Linyi, Weifang Regions in southern Shandong to north, east, and west parts of the province. Based on seasonal shifts of epidemics, three epidemic phases were identified over the 33-year period. The first phase occurred between 1973 and 1982 during which the foci of HFRS was located in the south Shandong and the epidemic peak occurred in the fall and winter, presenting a seasonal characteristic of Hantaan virus (HTNV transmission. The second phase between 1983 and 1985 was characterized by northward and westward spread of HFRS foci, and increases in incidence of HFRS in both fall-winter and spring seasons. The human infections in the spring reflected a characteristic pattern of Seoul virus (SEOV transmission. The third phase between 1986 and 2005 was characterized by the northeast spread of the HFRS foci until it covered all counties, and the HFRS incidence in the fall-winter season decreased while it

  19. Research experiment on infiltration and runoff in Jujube land of northern Shaanxi Province

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    X. Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To provide guidance for the efficient use of rainwater in Jujube forests of the northern Shaanxi Province, research on the processes of infiltration and runoff under field simulated rainfall were conducted. The process of infiltration and runoff-yield on sloping land was simulated with Richards equation and the water balance equation under different rainfall intensities and soil water content, in the north of Shaanxi province. It reached results via comparing with observation results: the mean relative error of the period cumulative infiltration was less than 3%, with a root mean squared error (RSME less than 0.3. The mean relative error of the period cumulative runoff was less than 12.5%, RSME < 0.4. The simulation results were reasonable; however, the simulation ponding time generally lagged behind measured ponding time probably because of spatial variation of saturated hydraulic conductivity and uneven rainfall.

  20. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chukchi Borderland Province, 2008