WorldWideScience

Sample records for north star project

  1. I-15 North Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  2. 77 FR 73651 - North Star Hydro Services, CA LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14465-000] North Star Hydro..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On November 6, 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC.... Applicant Contact: Mr. David Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West 131st Street South, Jenks...

  3. 77 FR 55212 - North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 14379-000] North Star Hydro..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 30, 2012, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC... approximately 3.8 gigawatthours. Applicant Contact: David Holland, North Star Hydro Services CA, LLC, 1110 West...

  4. The STAR project: context, objectives and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furse, M.; Hering, D.; Moog, O.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Johnson, R.K.; Brabec, K.; Gritzalis, K.; Buffagni, A.; Pinto, P.; Friberg, N.; Murray-Bligh, J.; Kokes, J.; Alber, R.; Usseglio-Polatera, P.; Haase, P.; Sweeting, R.; Bis, B.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Soszka, H.; Springe, G.; Sporka, F.; Krno, I.

    2006-01-01

    STAR is a European Commission Framework V project (EVK1-CT-2001-00089). The project aim is to provide practical advice and solutions with regard to many of the issues associated with the Water Framework Directive. This paper provides a context for the STAR research programme through a review of the

  5. What Have Researchers Learned from Project STAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2007-01-01

    Project STAR (Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio) was a large-scale randomized trial of reduced class sizes in kindergarten through the third grade. Because of the scope of the experiment, it has been used in many policy discussions. For example, the California statewide class-size-reduction policy was justified, in part, by the successes of…

  6. Double Star project - master science operations plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Liu, Z.

    2005-11-01

    For Double Star Project (DSP) exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2) and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP) were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments, the modes and timelines of the Payload Service System on TC-1 and TC-2, and the data receiving schedules of the three ground stations. The MSOP of TC-1 and TC-2 have been generated according to the scientific objectives of DSP, the orbits of DSP, the near-Earth space environments and the coordination with Cluster, etc., so as to make full use of the exploration resources provided by DSP and to acquire as much quality scientific data as possible for the scientific communities. This paper has summarized the observation resources of DSP, the states of DSP and its evolution since the launch, the strategies and rules followed for operating the payload and utilizing the ground stations, and the production of MSOP. Until now, the generation and execution of MSOP is smooth and successful, the operating of DSP is satisfactory, and most of the scientific objectives of DSP have been fulfilled.

  7. Double Star project - master science operations plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available For Double Star Project (DSP exploration, the scientific operations are very important and essential for achieving its scientific objectives. Two years before the launch of the DSP satellites (TC-1 and TC-2 and during the mission operating phase, the long-term and short-term master science operations plans (MSOP were produced. MSOP is composed of the operation schedules of all the scientific instruments, the modes and timelines of the Payload Service System on TC-1 and TC-2, and the data receiving schedules of the three ground stations. The MSOP of TC-1 and TC-2 have been generated according to the scientific objectives of DSP, the orbits of DSP, the near-Earth space environments and the coordination with Cluster, etc., so as to make full use of the exploration resources provided by DSP and to acquire as much quality scientific data as possible for the scientific communities. This paper has summarized the observation resources of DSP, the states of DSP and its evolution since the launch, the strategies and rules followed for operating the payload and utilizing the ground stations, and the production of MSOP. Until now, the generation and execution of MSOP is smooth and successful, the operating of DSP is satisfactory, and most of the scientific objectives of DSP have been fulfilled.

  8. North Atlantic observations sharpen meridional overturning projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R.; An, S.-I.; Fan, Y.; Evans, J. P.; Caesar, L.

    2018-06-01

    Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) projections are uncertain due to both model errors, as well as internal climate variability. An AMOC slowdown projected by many climate models is likely to have considerable effects on many aspects of global and North Atlantic climate. Previous studies to make probabilistic AMOC projections have broken new ground. However, they do not drift-correct or cross-validate the projections, and do not fully account for internal variability. Furthermore, they consider a limited subset of models, and ignore the skill of models at representing the temporal North Atlantic dynamics. We improve on previous work by applying Bayesian Model Averaging to weight 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 models by their skill at modeling the AMOC strength, and its temporal dynamics, as approximated by the northern North-Atlantic temperature-based AMOC Index. We make drift-corrected projections accounting for structural model errors, and for the internal variability. Cross-validation experiments give approximately correct empirical coverage probabilities, which validates our method. Our results present more evidence that AMOC likely already started slowing down. While weighting considerably moderates and sharpens our projections, our results are at low end of previously published estimates. We project mean AMOC changes between periods 1960-1999 and 2060-2099 of -4.0 Sv and -6.8 Sv for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emissions scenarios respectively. The corresponding average 90% credible intervals for our weighted experiments are [-7.2, -1.2] and [-10.5, -3.7] Sv respectively for the two scenarios.

  9. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  10. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  11. Minnesota STAR Project: Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly A.; Frank, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on findings and implications from a two-year evaluation of the Minnesota STudent Achievement in Reading (STAR) Project. This long-term, job-embedded, professional development activity is provided for Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners serving intermediate-level adult students reading between 4.0 to 8.9 grade…

  12. North Central Project: Environment act proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Manitoba Hydro proposes to construct a power transmission and distribution line system to connect 12 northern Manitoba communities to the utility's central power grid. The purpose of this North Central Project (NCP) is to provide reliable and unrestricted electric service to remote communities now largely receiving limited diesel-generated power. The NCP is composed of a 138-kV transmission line running ca 350 km from the Kelsey Generating Station, ca 160 km of 25-kV distribution lines, new transformer stations at four communities, upgraded internal distribution systems within the communities, removal of existing diesel stations and restoration of the sites, modifications and additions to the Kelsey switchyard, and a communications system. The NCP is described in detail, including proposed line routes and transformer station locations, rationales for site and route selection, projected impacts on the environment and local societies, and consultations with the communities to be affected. Potential impacts are expected to be modest, with few unmitigable adverse impacts and a number of potentially significant positive benefits. Impact management measures are proposed to prevent or mitigate adverse effects and to create or enhance positive impacts such as local employment of native peoples. 49 figs., 1 tab

  13. Full PWA Report: An Assessment of Energy, Waste, and Productivity Improvements for North Star Steel Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-25

    North Star Steel's Wilton, Iowa plant (NSSI) was awarded a subcontract through a competitive process to use Department of Energy/OIT funding to examine potential processes and technologies that could save energy, reduce waste, and increase productivity.

  14. THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ∼15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ∼35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from –2.9 to –3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] < –3.7. We find four stars to be carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, confirming the trend of increasing [C/Fe] abundance ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]< – 3. We also find four neutron-capture-enhanced stars in the sample, one of which has [Eu/Fe] of 0.8 with clear r-process signatures. These pilot sample stars are the most metal-poor ([Fe/H] ∼< –3.0) of the brightest stars included in CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ∼500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

  15. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  16. Building an infrastructure project performance in the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    projects are numerous, and it is believed that the inputs and views of as many participants ... all companies listed. ..... Inadequate contingency allowance by the contractor; .... facing small contractors in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  17. Chapter 11: Dinkey north and south project

    Science.gov (United States)

    M North; R. Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Designing and implementing vegetation treatments that can move a forest landscape toward a desired future condition is often challenging. Faced with diverse stakeholder interests and the unknown effects of changing climate conditions, managers need to engage and build collaborative projects. One such effort is the Dinkey project designed to help restore a healthy,...

  18. Status report on the Star Fire railgun development project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Star Fire Project is a joint SNLA/LLNL effort to develop a combined two-stage light-gas gun (2SLGG) and railgun into a three-stage hypervelocity launcher for equation-of-state (EOS) research. The 2SLGG is used to accelerate a projectile to a velocity of 6-9 km/s. The railgun serves as the third stage to further accelerate the projectile. The high injection velocity will minimize barrel ablation and armature contamination. Hydrogen is used as the injection gas and serves to reduce the probability of forming secondary arcs. VISAR is used for continuous precision projectile velocity measurement. This paper discusses the results of armature formation tests, the use of the railgun stage to increase projectile velocity, and armature diagnostic measurements

  19. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. A Sample of 14 Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollek, Julie K.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew; Beers, Timothy C.; Kang, Sung-ju; Thom, Christopher

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R ~15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R ~35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] ratios with decreasing metallicity. Two of these objects can be classified as CEMP-no stars, adding to the growing number of these objects at [Fe/H]CASH and are used to calibrate a newly developed, automated stellar parameter and abundance determination pipeline. This code will be used for the entire ~500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. Based on observations gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  20. Elvis to Eminem: quantifying the price of fame through early mortality of European and North American rock and pop stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hennell, Tom; Lushey, Clare; Hughes, Karen; Tocque, Karen; Ashton, John R

    2007-10-01

    Rock and pop stars are frequently characterised as indulging in high-risk behaviours, with high-profile deaths amongst such musicians creating an impression of premature mortality. However, studies to date have not quantified differences between mortality experienced by such stars and general populations. This study measures survival rates of famous musicians (n = 1064) from their point of fame and compares them to matched general populations in North America and Europe. We describe and utilise a novel actuarial survival methodology which allows quantification of excess post-fame mortality in pop stars. Individuals from North America and Europe performing on any album in the All-Time Top 1000 albums from the music genres rock, punk, rap, R&B, electronica and new age. From 3 to 25 years post fame, both North American and European pop stars experience significantly higher mortality (more than 1.7 times) than demographically matched populations in the USA and UK, respectively. After 25 years of fame, relative mortality in European (but not North American) pop stars begins to return to population levels. Five-year post-fame survival rates suggest differential mortality between stars and general populations was greater in those reaching fame before 1980. Pop stars can suffer high levels of stress in environments where alcohol and drugs are widely available, leading to health-damaging risk behaviour. However, their behaviour can also influence would-be stars and devoted fans. Collaborations between health and music industries should focus on improving both pop star health and their image as role models to wider populations.

  1. Meteor Beliefs Project: Shakespeare revisited and the Elizabethan stage's `blazing star'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian; McBeath, Alastair

    2007-06-01

    Some fresh Shakespearean citations of meteors, further to those given previously in the Project, are presented, along with a discussion of the Elizabethan stage's use of the `blazing star', with especial reference to the great comet of 1577.

  2. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bianco, F. B. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy and University Observatory, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (China); Kim, D.-W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rice, J. A., E-mail: ishioka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Statistics, University of California Berkeley, 367 Evans Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 δ Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  3. First results from the LIFE project: discovery of two magnetic hot evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Keszthelyi, Z.; Fossati, L.; Marcolino, W.; Mathis, S.; Georgy, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the initial results of the Large Impact of magnetic Fields on the Evolution of hot stars (LIFE) project. The focus of this project is the search for magnetic fields in evolved OBA giants and supergiants with visual magnitudes between 4 and 8, with the aim to investigate how the magnetic fields observed in upper main-sequence (MS) stars evolve from the MS until the late post-MS stages. In this paper, we present spectropolarimetric observations of 15 stars observed using the ESPaDOnS instrument of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. For each star, we have determined the fundamental parameters and have used stellar evolution models to calculate their mass, age, and radius. Using the least-squared deconvolution technique, we have produced averaged line profiles for each star. From these profiles, we have measured the longitudinal magnetic field strength and have calculated the detection probability. We report the detection of magnetic fields in two stars of our sample: a weak field of Bl = 1.0 ± 0.2 G is detected in the post-MS A5 star 19 Aur and a stronger field of Bl = -230 ± 10 G is detected in the MS/post-MS B8/9 star HR 3042.

  4. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF 136 EARLY B-TYPE STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmany, C. D.; Glaspey, J. W. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bragança, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP: 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI: 48109-1107 (United States); Bensby, T., E-mail: garmany@noao.edu [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    We have determined projected rotational velocities, v sin i, from Magellan/MIKE echelle spectra for a sample of 136 early B-type stars having large Galactocentric distances. The target selection was done independently of their possible membership in clusters, associations or field stars. We subsequently examined the literature and assigned each star as Field, Association, or Cluster. Our v sin i results are consistent with a difference in aggregate v sin i with stellar density. We fit bimodal Maxwellian distributions to the Field, Association, and Cluster subsamples representing sharp-lined and broad-lined components. The first two distributions, in particular, for the Field and Association are consistent with strong bimodality in v sin i. Radial velocities are also presented, which are useful for further studies of binarity in B-type stars, and we also identify a sample of possible new double-lined spectroscopic binaries. In addition, we find 18 candidate Be stars showing emission at Hα.

  5. Value generation of future CSP projects in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Engelken, Maximilian; Schlegl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the value generation potential for local and international industry in different development scenarios of the concentrating solar power (CSP) market in North Africa until 2030. It analyzes the economic impact resulting from the participation of North African and European companies during construction and operation of CSP plants. The assessment is based on a self-developed solar technologies market development model (STMD) that includes economic and technical requirements and constraints for the creation of a local CSP market. In-depth interviews with industry stakeholders provide specific input, validate the calculations and complement the quantitative model results and conclusions. Long-term potential for locally generated revenues from CSP plant construction are modeled and lead to a share of local revenues of up to 60%. Potential market size of solar power plants in North Africa could reach total revenues of 120 Billion euros and thus demand for components and services contribute to national gross domestic products significantly. Recommendations are given for regional industry cooperation and policy actions for the support of local and international CSP industry in North Africa in order to improve the investment environment and growth of renewable energies in the region. - Highlights: ►New economic model to evaluate value generation of CSP take-off in North Africa. ►CSP components are assessed regarding their potentials to be produced locally. ►Potential for locally generated revenues of CSP plants: 60% of total value. ►Socio-economic impacts of RE projects become more relevant to investment decisions.

  6. The Luneburg Sustainable University Project in International Comparison: An Assessment against North American Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the Luneburg Sustainable University Project (the Project) in a non-European international context; to relate the project scholarly approach to selected scholarly and practice-oriented North American sustainability in higher education (SHE) methods; to analyze project innovations against North American initiatives.…

  7. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  8. The Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) Project. II. New Extremely Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugler, Julie A.; Frebel, A.; Roederer, I. U.; Sneden, C.; Shetrone, M.; Beers, T.; Christlieb, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present new abundance results from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The 500 CASH spectra were observed using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope in "snapshot" mode and are analyzed using an automated stellar parameter and abundance pipeline called CASHCODE. For the 20 most metal-poor stars of the CASH sample we have obtained high resolution spectra using the Magellan Telescope in order to test the uncertainties and systematic errors associated with the snapshot quality (i.e., R 15,000 and S/N 65) HET spectra and to calibrate the newly developed CASHCODE by making a detailed comparison between the stellar parameters and abundances determined from the high resolution and snapshot spectra. We find that the CASHCODE stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence) agree well with the results of the manual analysis of the high resolution spectra. We present the abundances of three newly discovered stars with [Fe/H] ratios with alpha-enhancement and Fe-peak depletion and a range of n-capture elements. The full CASH sample will be used to derive statistically robust abundance trends and frequencies (e.g. carbon and n-capture), as well as placing constraints on nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the early universe.

  9. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. IV. OBSERVATIONS OF KEPLER, CoRoT, AND HIPPARCOS STARS FROM THE GEMINI NORTH TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Ciardi, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of 71 speckle observations of binary and unresolved stars, most of which were observed with the DSSI speckle camera at the Gemini North Telescope in 2012 July. The main purpose of the run was to obtain diffraction-limited images of high-priority targets for the Kepler and CoRoT missions, but in addition, we observed a number of close binary stars where the resolution limit of Gemini was used to better determine orbital parameters and/or confirm results obtained at or below the diffraction limit of smaller telescopes. Five new binaries and one triple system were discovered, and first orbits are calculated for other two systems. Several systems are discussed in detail.

  11. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project - VI. Identification of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars using Machine Learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksoll, Victor F.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Anderson, Jay; Lennon, Daniel J.; Cignoni, Michele; de Marchi, Guido; Smith, Linda J.; Tosi, Monica; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2018-05-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) has provided an unprecedented photometric coverage of the entire star-burst region of 30 Doradus down to the half Solar mass limit. We use the deep stellar catalogue of HTTP to identify all the pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars of the region, i.e., stars that have not started their lives on the main-sequence yet. The photometric distinction of these stars from the more evolved populations is not a trivial task due to several factors that alter their colour-magnitude diagram positions. The identification of PMS stars requires, thus, sophisticated statistical methods. We employ Machine Learning Classification techniques on the HTTP survey of more than 800,000 sources to identify the PMS stellar content of the observed field. Our methodology consists of 1) carefully selecting the most probable low-mass PMS stellar population of the star-forming cluster NGC2070, 2) using this sample to train classification algorithms to build a predictive model for PMS stars, and 3) applying this model in order to identify the most probable PMS content across the entire Tarantula Nebula. We employ Decision Tree, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classifiers to categorise the stars as PMS and Non-PMS. The Random Forest and Support Vector Machine provided the most accurate models, predicting about 20,000 sources with a candidateship probability higher than 50 percent, and almost 10,000 PMS candidates with a probability higher than 95 percent. This is the richest and most accurate photometric catalogue of extragalactic PMS candidates across the extent of a whole star-forming complex.

  12. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  13. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ''Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project'' EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN

  14. North Star Ambulatory Assessment, 6-minute walk test and timed items in ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Elena; Martinelli, Diego; Berardinelli, Angela; Messina, Sonia; D'Amico, Adele; Vasco, Gessica; Main, Marion; Doglio, Luca; Politano, Luisa; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Carlesi, Adelina; Bonetti, Anna Maria; Zucchini, Elisabetta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Scutifero, Marianna; Bianco, Flaviana; Rossi, Francesca; Motta, Maria Chiara; Sacco, Annalisa; Donati, Maria Alice; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Pane, Marika; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Bruno, Claudio; Vita, Giuseppe; de Waure, Chiara; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    The North Star Ambulatory Assessment is a functional scale specifically designed for ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recently the 6-minute walk test has also been used as an outcome measure in trials in DMD. The aim of our study was to assess a large cohort of ambulant boys affected by DMD using both North Star Assessment and 6-minute walk test. More specifically, we wished to establish the spectrum of findings for each measure and their correlation. This is a prospective multicentric study involving 10 centers. The cohort included 112 ambulant DMD boys of age ranging between 4.10 and 17 years (mean 8.18±2.3 DS). Ninety-one of the 112 were on steroids: 37/91 on intermittent and 54/91 on daily regimen. The scores on the North Star assessment ranged from 6/34 to 34/34. The distance on the 6-minute walk test ranged from 127 to 560.6 m. The time to walk 10 m was between 3 and 15 s. The time to rise from the floor ranged from 1 to 27.5 s. Some patients were unable to rise from the floor. As expected the results changed with age and were overall better in children treated with daily steroids. The North Star assessment had a moderate to good correlation with 6-minute walk test and with timed rising from floor but less with 10 m timed walk/run test. The 6-minute walk test in contrast had better correlation with 10 m timed walk/run test than with timed rising from floor. These findings suggest that a combination of these outcome measures can be effectively used in ambulant DMD boys and will provide information on different aspects of motor function, that may not be captured using a single measure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Tools for assessing European streams with macroinvertebrates: major results and conclusions from the STAR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Moog, O.

    2006-01-01

    This short paper summarises the information developed in the EU funded research project STAR on autecology databases, metrics, multimetrics and community approaches. For Europe the WFD implementation gave an important stimulus for the development of ecology based assessment techniques. Along with

  16. Nonrobustness of the Carryover Effects of Small Classes in Project STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-01-01

    Background: Class size reduction (CSR) is an enduring school reform undertaken in an effort to improve academic achievement and has been widely encouraged in the United States. Supporters of CSR often cite the positive contemporaneous and carryover effects of Project STAR. Much has been discussed regarding the robustness of the contemporaneous…

  17. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  18. The MACHO Project HST Follow-Up: The Large Magellanic Cloud Microlensing Source Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.A.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Drake, A.J.; /Caltech; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Berkeley; Bennett, D.P.; /Caltech /Notre Dame U.; Popowski, P.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Dalal, N.; /Toronto U.; Nikolaev, S.; /LLNL, Livermore; Alcock, C.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Axelrod, T.S.; /Arizona U.; Becker, A.C. /Washington U., Seattle; Freeman, K.C.; /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek; Geha, M.; /Yale U.; Griest, K.; /UC, San Diego; Keller, S.C.; /LLNL, Livermore; Lehner, M.J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Taipei, Inst. Astron. Astrophys.; Marshall, S.L.; /SLAC; Minniti, D.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol. /Vatican Astron. Observ.; Pratt, M.R.; /Aradigm, Hayward; Quinn, P.J.; /Western Australia U.; Stubbs, C.W.; /UC, Berkeley /Harvard U.; Sutherland, W.; /Oxford U. /Oran, Sci. Tech. U. /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /McMaster U.

    2009-06-25

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 photometry of 13 microlensed source stars from the 5.7 year Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) survey conducted by the MACHO Project. The microlensing source stars are identified by deriving accurate centroids in the ground-based MACHO images using difference image analysis (DIA) and then transforming the DIA coordinates to the HST frame. None of these sources is coincident with a background galaxy, which rules out the possibility that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample is contaminated with misidentified supernovae or AGN in galaxies behind the LMC. This supports the conclusion that the MACHO LMC microlensing sample has only a small amount of contamination due to non-microlensing forms of variability. We compare the WFPC2 source star magnitudes with the lensed flux predictions derived from microlensing fits to the light curve data. In most cases the source star brightness is accurately predicted. Finally, we develop a statistic which constrains the location of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) microlensing source stars with respect to the distributions of stars and dust in the LMC and compare this to the predictions of various models of LMC microlensing. This test excludes at {approx}> 90% confidence level models where more than 80% of the source stars lie behind the LMC. Exotic models that attempt to explain the excess LMC microlensing optical depth seen by MACHO with a population of background sources are disfavored or excluded by this test. Models in which most of the lenses reside in a halo or spheroid distribution associated with either the Milky Way or the LMC are consistent which these data, but LMC halo or spheroid models are favored by the combined MACHO and EROS microlensing results.

  19. 76 FR 46721 - Salmon-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-Challis National Forest, ID; Upper North Fork HFRA Ecosystem Restoration Project Environmental Impact... improve the health of the ecosystem and reach the desired future condition. DATES: Comments concerning the... Ecosystem Restoration Project EIS, P.O. Box 180, 11 Casey Rd., North Fork, ID 83466. Comments may also be...

  20. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bressert, E. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, M. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sherman, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schawinski, K. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wolf-Chase, G., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% {+-} 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% {+-} 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  1. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P.; Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J.; Bressert, E.; Povich, M. S.; Sherman, R.; Schawinski, K.; Wolf-Chase, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% ± 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% ± 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  2. Economic evaluation of tehran-north freeway project with an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, a variety of reports have been presented about Tehran-North Freeway, but since this freeway has shortened the link between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf and plays a major role in the development of transit and tourism activities in the region and due to its significance, the current study examines it with an ...

  3. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. V. THE STAR CLUSTER HODGE 301: THE OLD FACE OF 30 DORADUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cignoni, M. [Department of Physics—University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo, 3 Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Sabbi, E.; Marel, R. P. van der; Aloisi, A.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tosi, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gallagher, J. S. III [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchi, G. de [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J., E-mail: michele.cignoni@unipi.it [European Space Agency and Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Based on color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs) from the Hubble Space Telescope  Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) survey, we present the star formation history of Hodge 301, the oldest star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. The HTTP photometry extends faint enough to reach, for the first time, the cluster pre-main sequence (PMS) turn-on, where the PMS joins the main sequence. Using the location of this feature, along with synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, we find that Hodge 301 is older than previously thought, with an age between 26.5 and 31.5 Myr. From this age, we also estimate that between 38 and 61 Type II supernovae exploded in the region. The same age is derived from the main sequence turn-off, whereas the age derived from the post-main sequence stars is younger and between 20 and 25 Myr. Other relevant parameters are a total stellar mass of ≈8800 ± 800  M {sub ⊙} and average reddening E ( B − V ) ≈ 0.22–0.24 mag, with a differential reddening δE ( B − V ) ≈ 0.04 mag.

  4. The Training Project of Star Researchers, Outstanding Teaching Staff and Leaders with Facilities Available

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer KARAHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus on the requirement of a serious regulation at our universities. It is argued that it is necessary to change Constitution and Institution of Higher Education Law for the serious regulation. However, it is impossible to say that all the facilities of the present legislation are used. Our aim is to create a project based on benefiting from continuing education centers to meet the need of star researchers, outstanding teaching staff and leaders in Turkey via the legislation in force. In this study, accessible studies from publications related to university, higher education and continuing education centers are studied. Th e current situation and solution off ers, applications and continuing education centers'activities have been determined. In accordance with these data, solution off ers have been proposed and discussed in line with the literature. According to the data obtained, our students who come with deficiencies from high schools to universities are not given the adequate undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate education. Th ere are studies such as ‘Double Major Program', ‘Medical-Science Physicians Integrated (MD-PhD Doctorate Program which upgrade the qualities. However, these programs are not suff icient and common. Th erefore, it is imposssible to train outstanding teaching staff , star researchesr and leaders who will meet the needs of our country and contribute to the World. Our academic potential needs a quality training except for branch training. On the other hand, the contribution of the Continuing Education Centers existing in university embodiments is limited. It is possible to provide basic skills, integration and research education to the outstanding teaching staff , star researcher and leader candidates. Th ese trainings should be given in a continuous instutionalization and in the formal education system. For this purpose, an academician school can be established within the body continuing

  5. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multidomain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van der Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Dekovic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  6. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K.; Lehner, M.J.; Marshall, S.L.; McNamara, B.J.; Minniti, D.; Nelson, C.; Peterson, B.A.; Popowski, P.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Sutherland, W.; Templeton, M.R.; Vandehei, T.; Welch, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and lightcurve structure similar to those of field(delta) Scuti stars, using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude(delta) Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground(delta) Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population(delta) Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field(delta) Scuti stars and the(delta) Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude(delta) Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles d(sup -1)) and the observed period ratios of(approx)0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes

  7. The MACHO Project Sample of Galactic Bulge High-Amplitude {delta} Scuti Stars: Pulsation Behavior and Stellar Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Freeman, K. C.; Geha, M.; Griest, K. (and others)

    2000-06-20

    We have detected 90 objects with periods and light-curve structures similar to those of field {delta} Scuti stars using the Massive Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Project database of Galactic bulge photometry. If we assume similar extinction values for all candidates and absolute magnitudes similar to those of other field high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars (HADS), the majority of these objects lie in or near the Galactic bulge. At least two of these objects are likely foreground {delta} Scuti stars, one of which may be an evolved nonradial pulsator, similar to other evolved, disk-population {delta} Scuti stars. We have analyzed the light curves of these objects and find that they are similar to the light curves of field {delta} Scuti stars and the {delta} Scuti stars found by the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE). However, the amplitude distribution of these sources lies between those of low- and high-amplitude {delta} Scuti stars, which suggests that they may be an intermediate population. We have found nine double-mode HADS with frequency ratios ranging from 0.75 to 0.79, four probable double- and multiple-mode objects, and another four objects with marginal detections of secondary modes. The low frequencies (5-14 cycles day-1) and the observed period ratios of {approx}0.77 suggest that the majority of these objects are evolved stars pulsating in fundamental or first overtone radial modes. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  8. The Brightening of the North Star: Has Polaris' Brightness Steadily Increased for Centuries and, perhaps, even Millennia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, E. F.; Harmanec, P.; Božić, H.; Ruzdjak, D.; Sudar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Polaris is arguably the best-known star in the Northern Hemisphere, since it lies within a degree of the North Celestial Pole. For much of human history, Polaris was highly regarded for its unchanging nature. However, we now know that Polaris is a Cepheid variable, undergoing ultra-low-amplitude pulsations. Thirty years ago, a paper in the Astrophysical Journal by A. Arellano Ferro announced that the amplitude of these pulsations was diminishing. This behavior was confirmed, and it was believed that soon enough Polaris would no longer be a Cepheid variable. We started photometrically monitoring Polaris in 1999 and discovered that the amplitude of pulsations had reached a minimum and was now, in fact, growing again. It was while gathering historic photometry for the amplitude study that we noticed the published magnitudes of Polaris were systematically fainter, the further back in time the data went. This is an entirely unexpected behavior for a Cepheid variable, and one that we wanted to investigate further. We continue to observe Polaris to monitor the star's brightness, along with pulsation period and amplitude, and we have re-analyzed the historic studies of Polaris to validate the brightening. We have also obtained HST-COS UV spectra of Polaris for comparison to archival IUE data, to look for flux and/or temperature changes. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA grant HST-GO-11726.

  9. A RING/DISK/OUTFLOW SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH W51 NORTH: A VERY MASSIVE STAR IN THE MAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schilke, Peter; Menten, Karl; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Garrod, Robin T.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive and high angular resolution (∼0.''4) SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] and SiO[5 → 4] line and 1.3 and 7 mm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA) toward the young massive cluster W51 IRS2 are presented. We report the presence of a large (of about 3000 AU) and massive (40 M sun ) dusty circumstellar disk and a hot gas molecular ring around a high-mass protostar or a compact small stellar system associated with W51 North. The simultaneous observations of the silicon monoxide molecule, an outflow gas tracer, further revealed a massive (200 M sun ) and collimated (∼14 0 ) outflow nearly perpendicular to the dusty and molecular structures suggesting thus the presence of a single very massive protostar with a bolometric luminosity on the order of 10 5 L sun . A molecular hybrid local thermodynamic equilibrium model of a Keplerian and infalling disk with an inner cavity and a central stellar mass of more than 60 M sun agrees well with the SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] line observations. Finally, these results suggest that mechanisms, such as mergers of low- and intermediate-mass stars, might not be necessary for forming very massive stars.

  10. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  11. Recent trends, drivers, and projections of carbon cycle processes in forests and grasslands of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, G. M.; Williams, C. A.; Birdsey, R.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    In North America forest and grassland ecosystems play a major role in the carbon cycle. Here we present the latest trends and projections of United States and North American carbon cycle processes, stocks, and flows in the context of interactions with global scale budgets and climate change impacts in managed and unmanaged grassland and forest ecosystems. We describe recent trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in these ecosystems as well as the carbon dynamics associated with land use and land cover change. We also highlight carbon management science and tools for informing decisions and opportunities for improving carbon measurements, observations, and projections in forests and grasslands.

  12. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  13. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as open-quotes commercial fuelsclose quotes except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative

  14. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, M/S 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Boden, Andrew F. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hoard, D. W., E-mail: vaneyken@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, M/S 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2012-08-10

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 {+-} 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by Almost-Equal-To - 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s{sup -1} and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M{sub p}sin i{sub orb} {approx}< 4.8 {+-} 1.2 M{sub Jup}; when combined with the orbital inclination, i{sub orb}, of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M{sub p} {approx}< 5.5 {+-} 1.4 M{sub Jup}. This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  15. THE PTF ORION PROJECT: A POSSIBLE PLANET TRANSITING A T-TAURI STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Akeson, Rachel L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Brown, Timothy M.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Crepp, Justin R.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howell, Steve B.; Szkody, Paula; Boden, Andrew F.; Hoard, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of a possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star in the 7-10 Myr old Orion-OB1a/25-Ori region. The candidate was found as part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project. It has a photometric transit period of 0.448413 ± 0.000040 days, and appears in both 2009 and 2010 PTF data. Follow-up low-precision radial velocity (RV) observations and adaptive optics imaging suggest that the star is not an eclipsing binary, and that it is unlikely that a background source is blended with the target and mimicking the observed transit. RV observations with the Hobby-Eberly and Keck telescopes yield an RV that has the same period as the photometric event, but is offset in phase from the transit center by ≈ – 0.22 periods. The amplitude (half range) of the RV variations is 2.4 km s –1 and is comparable with the expected RV amplitude that stellar spots could induce. The RV curve is likely dominated by stellar spot modulation and provides an upper limit to the projected companion mass of M p sin i orb ∼ Jup ; when combined with the orbital inclination, i orb , of the candidate planet from modeling of the transit light curve, we find an upper limit on the mass of the planetary candidate of M p ∼ Jup . This limit implies that the planet is orbiting close to, if not inside, its Roche limiting orbital radius, so that it may be undergoing active mass loss and evaporation.

  16. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  17. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China

    OpenAIRE

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  18. Projected hydrogen cost from methane reforming for North America 2015-2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderveen, K.; Lutz, A.; Klebanoff, L.; Drennen, T.; Keller, J.; Drennen, T.; Kamery, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H 2 Sim) was used to project the cost for hydrogen at the point of sale to light duty vehicles for distributed, small-scale steam methane reforming. Projections cover the period from 2010-2050 in North America, and take into account assumptions about the quantity of recoverable natural gas remaining in North America. We conclude that there is a window for distributed reforming to play a positive role in supplying a H 2 fuel infrastructure, but this window is closing rapidly. The analysis assumes that production from natural gas reserves in North America will peak sometime before 2050 and demand will cause the price to rise after the peak of production in a manner consistent with Hotelling's model. We consider three scenarios for when the peak occurs, and evaluate the impact on the cost of hydrogen fuel produced via distributed small scale reforming in these three scenarios. (authors)

  19. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  20. Response to state comments on the revised draft North Central Regional characterization reports for the Crystalline Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to respond to the comments received from the states of the North Central Region on the revised draft North Central Regional Characterization Reports (RCRs). The responses in this document indicate the manner in which the suggestions or comments received have been considered in modifying the revised draft North Central RCRs. Both general comments related to the overall Crystalline Repository Project (CRP) and comments on specific sections of the RCRs are addressed. This document responds to North Central State comments on both the revised draft North Central Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) and the revised draft North Central Regional Environmental Characterization Report (RECR)

  1. Crowdsourcing methodology: establishing the Cervid Disease Network and the North American Mosquito Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Snyder, Darren; Maki, Elin; Schafer, Shawn

    2016-06-30

    Crowdsourcing is obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people. This new method of acquiring data works well for single reports, but fails when long-term data collection is needed, mainly due to reporting fatigue or failure of repeated sampling by individuals. To establish a crowdsourced collections network researchers must recruit, reward, and retain contributors to the project. These 3 components of crowdsourcing are discussed using the United States Department of Agriculture social networks, the Cervid Disease Network, and the North American Mosquito Project. The North American Mosquito Project is a large network of professional mosquito control districts and public health agencies, which collects mosquito specimens for genetic studies. The Cervid Disease Network is a crowd-sourced disease monitoring system, which uses voluntary sentinel farms or wildlife programs throughout the United States of America to report the onset and severity of diseases in local areas for pathogen surveillance studies.

  2. Physical and chemical data collected from BT casts and other instruments from SAXON STAR in North Atlantic Ocean from 23 April 1975 to 12 March 1986 (NODC Accession 8700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using BT, MBT, XBT, and other instruments in the North Atlantic Ocean and other seas from SAXON STAR and other platforms....

  3. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  4. The E-MOSAICS project: simulating the formation and co-evolution of galaxies and their star cluster populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Joel; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Crain, Robert A.; Bastian, Nate

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the MOdelling Star cluster population Assembly In Cosmological Simulations within EAGLE (E-MOSAICS) project. E-MOSAICS incorporates models describing the formation, evolution, and disruption of star clusters into the EAGLE galaxy formation simulations, enabling the examination of the co-evolution of star clusters and their host galaxies in a fully cosmological context. A fraction of the star formation rate of dense gas is assumed to yield a cluster population; this fraction and the population's initial properties are governed by the physical properties of the natal gas. The subsequent evolution and disruption of the entire cluster population are followed accounting for two-body relaxation, stellar evolution, and gravitational shocks induced by the local tidal field. This introductory paper presents a detailed description of the model and initial results from a suite of 10 simulations of ˜L⋆ galaxies with disc-like morphologies at z = 0. The simulations broadly reproduce key observed characteristics of young star clusters and globular clusters (GCs), without invoking separate formation mechanisms for each population. The simulated GCs are the surviving population of massive clusters formed at early epochs (z ≳ 1-2), when the characteristic pressures and surface densities of star-forming gas were significantly higher than observed in local galaxies. We examine the influence of the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies on their cluster populations, finding that (at similar present-day mass) earlier-forming galaxies foster a more massive and disruption-resilient cluster population, while galaxies with late mergers are capable of forming massive clusters even at late cosmic epochs. We find that the phenomenological treatment of interstellar gas in EAGLE precludes the accurate modelling of cluster disruption in low-density environments, but infer that simulations incorporating an explicitly modelled cold interstellar gas phase will overcome

  5. An anatomy of the projected North Atlantic warming hole in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Matthew B.; Wood, Richard A.

    2018-04-01

    Global mean surface air temperature has increased over the past century and climate models project this trend to continue. However, the pattern of change is not homogeneous. Of particular interest is the subpolar North Atlantic, which has cooled in recent years and is projected to continue to warm less rapidly than the global mean. This is often termed the North Atlantic warming hole (WH). In climate model projections, the development of the WH is concomitant with a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Here, we further investigate the possible link between the AMOC and WH and the competing drivers of vertical mixing and surface heat fluxes. Across a large ensemble of 41 climate models we find that the spatial structure of the WH varies considerably from model to model but is generally upstream of the simulated deep water formation regions. A heat budget analysis suggests the formation of the WH is related to changes in ocean heat transport. Although the models display a plethora of AMOC mean states, they generally predict a weakening and shallowing of the AMOC also consistent with the evolving depth structure of the WH. A lagged regression analysis during the WH onset phase suggests that reductions in wintertime mixing lead a weakening of the AMOC by 5 years in turn leading initiation of the WH by 5 years. Inter-model differences in the evolution and structure of the WH are likely to lead to somewhat different projected climate impacts in nearby Europe and North America.

  6. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  7. Variable stars classification based on photometric data from the "Pi of the Sky" project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majczyna, A.; Nalezyty, M.; Siudek, M.; Malek, K.; Barnacka, A.; Mankiewicz, L.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2009-06-01

    We present the first few steps of creation the second edition of the variable stars catalogue, based on the "Pi of the Sky" data, collected during two years 2006-2007. We have chosen - 3000 variable star candidates from about 1.5 million objects.

  8. The Nainital Cape Survey Project : A Search for Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhari, Nand Kumar; Joshi, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    The Nainital-Cape Survey is a dedicated search programme initiated in 1999 in the coordination of astronomers from SAAO South Africa, ARIES Nainital and ISRO Bangalore. Over the last 17 years a total of 345 chemically peculiar stars were monitored for photometric variability, making it one of the longest ground-based survey to search for pulsation in chemically peculiar stars in terms of both time span and sample size. Under this survey, we discovered rapid pulsation in the Ap star HD12098 while δ Scuti-type pulsations were detected in seven Am stars. Those stars in which pulsations were not detected have also been tabulated along with their detailed astrophysical parameters for further investigation.

  9. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for nearshore observations at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; McNinch, Jesse E.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Haas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    An oceanographic field study conducted in February 2010 investigated processes that control nearshore flow and sediment transport dynamics at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation setup, and locations of the sensor deployments. The data collected, and supporting meteorological and streamflow observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, the data are available as part of this report.

  10. The power of knowledge in collaborative projects across North and South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    This paper studies outcome of collaboration between universities in Africa and Scandinavia. The African higher education landscape is a product of the colonial powers and subsequent uneven development leading to an academic dependency as argued by a number of African researchers. Today, many...... in the paper, where we (i) explores how North-driven projects approach knowledge as universal and transferable and thereby ignore diversity and local historical context; (ii) analyses the cultural production of African academics and methodological hegemony in collaborative projects; (iii) concludes...

  11. Discourses of Deflection: The Politics of Framing China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Crow-Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant financial, ecological and social trade-offs, China has moved forward with constructing and operationalising the world’s largest interbasin water transfer project to date, the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP. While it is fundamentally linked to broader political-economic goals within the context of China’s post-Mao development agenda, the SNWTP is frequently discussed in apolitical terms. Based on extensive discourse analysis and interviews with government officials across North China, I argue that the Chinese government is using "discourses of deflection" to present the project as politically neutral in order to serve its ultimate goal of maintaining the high economic growth rates that underpin its continued legitimacy. These discourses, which replace concerns with human-exacerbated water stress with naturalised narratives about water scarcity and the ecological benefits of water transfer, serve to deflect attention away from anthropogenic sources of water stress in the North China Plain and serve as apolitical justifications for pursuing a short-term supply-side approach rather than the more politically challenging and longer-term course of dealing with the underlying drivers of water stress in the region.

  12. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II, Appendices B: Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project, the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations of library staff and interviews with community members about the Brooklyn Public Library Community Coordinator Project and the New York Public Library North Manhattan Project. The Community Coordinator Project employs four professional librarians to take an active part in community institutions and organizations…

  13. ANL/Star project: a new architecture for large scale theoretical physics computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushton, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The project reported consists of two phases, each of which has goals of substantial physics content on its own. In Phase 1, we have selected Star Technologies' ST-100 as the array processor for the prototype coupled system and have installed one on a Vax 11/750 host. Our goals with this system are to institute a substantial program in computational physics at Argonne based on the power provided by this system and thereby to gain experience with both the hardware and software architecture of the ST-100. In Phase II, we propose to build a prototype consisting of two coupled array processors with shared memory to prove that this design can achieve high speed and efficiency in a readily extensible and cost-effective manner. This will implement all of the hardware and software modifications necessary to extend this design to as many as 64 (or more) nodes. In our design, we seek to minimize the changes made in the standard system hardware and software; this drastically reduces the effort required by our group to implement such a design and enables us to more readily incorporate the companies' upgrades to the array processor. It should be emphasized that our design is intended as a special purpose system for theoretical calculations; however it can be efficiently applied to a surprisingly broad class of problems. I shall discuss first the architecture of the ST-100 and then the physics program being currently implemented on a single system. Finally the proposed design of the coupled system is presented

  14. ANL/Star project: a new architecture for large scale theoretical physics computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The project reported consists of two phases, each of which has goals of substantial physics content on its own. In Phase 1, we have selected Star Technologies' ST-100 as the array processor for the prototype coupled system and have installed one on a Vax 11/750 host. Our goals with this system are to institute a substantial program in computational physics at Argonne based on the power provided by this system and thereby to gain experience with both the hardware and software architecture of the ST-100. In Phase II, we propose to build a prototype consisting of two coupled array processors with shared memory to prove that this design can achieve high speed and efficiency in a readily extensible and cost-effective manner. This will implement all of the hardware and software modifications necessary to extend this design to as many as 64 (or more) nodes. In our design, we seek to minimize the changes made in the standard system hardware and software; this drastically reduces the effort required by our group to implement such a design and enables us to more readily incorporate the companies' upgrades to the array processor. It should be emphasized that our design is intended as a special purpose system for theoretical calculations; however it can be efficiently applied to a surprisingly broad class of problems. I shall discuss first the architecture of the ST-100 and then the physics program being currently implemented on a single system. Finally the proposed design of the coupled system is presented.

  15. The Ikhil Gas Project: developing the first commercial natural gas project north of the Arctic Circle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, G. [AltaGas Services Inc., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Development of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project by the Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation in partnership with Enbridge and AltaGas Services are described in a step-by-step fashion. A minimum of 11 Bcf of recoverable natural gas reserves have been established to date. The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is committed under a 15-year take-or-pay contract to take the gas, and the Town of Inuvik also has a franchise agreement with the project owners for a 15-year period. Challenges faced and overcome in adapting to the regulatory process, the engineering problems that required special solutions (e.g. ice/snow roads, gravel pad to support wellhead and production facilities, reducing temperature of gas to avoid disturbing the permafrost, sand-padding pipeline to supplement high ice/content material), converting a diesel town to a natural gas town, and installing an underground distribution system in ground that is constantly shifting due to permafrost, are some of the examples discussed. Benefits accruing to local people and businesses during construction and the production phases of the project are described, along with details of an assessment and discussion of lessons learned after two years of operation. Overall, the project is considered to have been an engineering success. Financially, it is too early to judge, but it is expected that with economic development in Inuvik taking off, demand for natural gas and electricity will develop and justify the confidence of the developers.

  16. The Araucaria Project: The Distance to the Fornax Dwarf Galaxy from Near-infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Górski, Marek; Gieren, Wolfgang; Bersier, David

    2017-12-01

    We have obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J and K bands for 77 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. We have used different theoretical and empirical NIR period-luminosity-metallicity calibrations for RRL stars to derive their absolute magnitudes, and found a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.818+/- 0.015{{(statistical)}}+/- 0.116{{(systematic)}} mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained within the Araucaria Project from the NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.858 ± 0.013 mag), the tip of the red giant branch (20.84+/- 0.04+/- 0.14 mag), as well as with other independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The effect of metallicity and reddening is substantially reduced in the NIR domain, making this method a robust tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level. This precision is expected to reach the level of 3% once the zero points of distance calibrations are refined thanks to the Gaia mission. NIR period-luminosity-metallicity relations of RRL stars are particularly useful for distance determinations to galaxies and globular clusters up to 300 kpc, that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids. Based on data collected with the VLT/HAWK-I instrument at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile, as a part of programme 082.D-0123(B).

  17. DISCOVERY OF A LOW-MASS COMPANION TO A METAL-RICH F STAR WITH THE MARVELS PILOT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Ge Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Lee, Brian; Cuong Nguyen, Duy; Morehead, Robert C.; Wan Xiaoke; Zhao Bo; Liu Jian; Guo Pengcheng; Kane, Stephen R.; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert J.; Scott Gaudi, B.; Niedzielski, Andrzej; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gary, Bruce; Wolszczan, Alex; Barnes, Rory

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a low-mass companion orbiting the metal-rich, main sequence F star TYC 2949-00557-1 during the Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) pilot project. The host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6135 ± 40 K, logg = 4.4 ± 0.1, and [Fe/H] = 0.32 ± 0.01, indicating a mass of M = 1.25 ± 0.09 M sun and R = 1.15 ± 0.15 R sun . The companion has an orbital period of 5.69449 ± 0.00023 days and straddles the hydrogen burning limit with a minimum mass of 64 M J , and thus may be an example of the rare class of brown dwarfs orbiting at distances comparable to those of 'Hot Jupiters'. We present relative photometry that demonstrates that the host star is photometrically stable at the few millimagnitude level on time scales of hours to years, and rules out transits for a companion of radius ∼>0.8 R J at the 95% confidence level. Tidal analysis of the system suggests that the star and companion are likely in a double synchronous state where both rotational and orbital synchronization have been achieved. This is the first low-mass companion detected with a multi-object, dispersed, fixed-delay interferometer.

  18. The Star-Spangled Banner Project: Save Our History[TM]. Teacher's Manual, Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Libby, Ed.

    The Star-Spangled Banner is the original flag that flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore (Maryland) during its attack by the British during the War of 1812. It inspired Francis Scott Key, a lawyer being held on board a British ship in Baltimore Harbor, to write a poem that later became the words to the national anthem. Since 1907, the Star-Spangled…

  19. Perception of risks in renewable energy projects: The case of concentrated solar power in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony; Barras, Lucile; Battaglini, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    The world needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to prevent climate change, while meeting the energy needs of developed and developing economies. Recent studies suggest that generation of electricity from concentrated solar power in North African countries and its transmission to Europe could provide European and North African partners with low-carbon electricity.The private capital will be likely required to achieve the scale of new investment and yet the North African region experience difficulties with sustaining high levels of foreign direct investment from the private sector. The literature identifies a number of risks as barriers to investment, and we examine these in the particular context of renewable energy development. We conducted three stages of interviews with stakeholders to learn their perceptions of the risks most likely to affect renewable energy projects. Three class of risks—regulatory, political, and force majeure (which includes terrorism)—stand out as being of high concern. Of these, regulatory risks are perceived as being the most consequential, and the most likely to occur. This suggests that attention to building the capacities of North African countries to develop, implement, and enforce sound regulations in a transparent manner could be an important step in promoting renewable energy cooperation with Europe.

  20. Review on the Projections of Future Storminess over the North Atlantic European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Mölter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the results from previously published climate modeling studies reporting on projected aspects of future storminess over the North Atlantic European region (NAER in the period 2020–2190. Changes in storminess are summarized for seven subregions in the study area and rated by a categorical evaluation scheme that takes into account emission scenarios and modeling complexity in the reviewed studies. Although many of the reviewed studies reported an increase in the intensity of high-impact wind speed and extreme cyclone frequency in the second half of the 21st century, the projections of aspects of future storminess over the NAER differed regionally. There is broad consensus that the frequency and intensity of storms, cyclones, and high-impact wind speed will increase over Central and Western Europe, and these changes will probably have the potential to produce more damage. In contrast, future extratropical storminess over Southern Europe is very likely to decrease. For Northern and Eastern Europe the results of the evaluation are inconclusive, because there is an indication of increasing as well as decreasing development of the evaluated aspects of future storminess. Concerning the storm track, we found indications of a likely north- and eastward shift in most assessed studies. Results from three studies suggest a northeastward shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  1. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  2. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  3. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  4. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  5. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Aarkrog, A.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, (Sellafield, Dounreay, Cap de la Hague); (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites, (including Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, GDR, FDR, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, USSR); (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. (author)

  6. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  7. Simulated bat populations erode when exposed to climate change projections for western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that temperature and precipitation conditions correlate with successful reproduction in some insectivorous bat species that live in arid and semiarid regions, and that hot and dry conditions correlate with reduced lactation and reproductive output by females of some species. However, the potential long-term impacts of climate-induced reproductive declines on bat populations in western North America are not well understood. We combined results from long-term field monitoring and experiments in our study area with information on vital rates to develop stochastic age-structured population dynamics models and analyzed how simulated fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes populations changed under projected future climate conditions in our study area near Boulder, Colorado (Boulder Models and throughout western North America (General Models. Each simulation consisted of an initial population of 2,000 females and an approximately stable age distribution at the beginning of the simulation. We allowed each population to be influenced by the mean annual temperature and annual precipitation for our study area and a generalized range-wide model projected through year 2086, for each of four carbon emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5. Each population simulation was repeated 10,000 times. Of the 8 Boulder Model simulations, 1 increased (+29.10%, 3 stayed approximately stable (+2.45%, +0.05%, -0.03%, and 4 simulations decreased substantially (-44.10%, -44.70%, -44.95%, -78.85%. All General Model simulations for western North America decreased by >90% (-93.75%, -96.70%, -96.70%, -98.75%. These results suggest that a changing climate in western North America has the potential to quickly erode some forest bat populations including species of conservation concern, such as fringed myotis.

  8. Araucaria Project: Pulsating stars in binary systems and as distance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki Bogumił

    2017-01-01

    Type II Cepheids are recently becoming more important as distance indicators and astrophysics laboratory, although our knowledge of these stars is quite limited. Their evolutionary status is also not well understood and observational constraints are needed to confirm the current theories. We are presenting here our first results of the spectroscopic analysis of 4 of these systems. The masses of type II Cepheids seem consistent with the expected 0.5 − 0.6 M⊙. We also present first results of the fully modeled pulsator originally classified as peculiar W Vir star. The mass of this star is 1.51 ± 0.09 M⊙ and the p-factor 1.3 ± 0.03. It was eventually found not to belong to any typical Cepheid group.

  9. Improving mental health knowledge of the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London: A partnership project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Aradhana; Gardener, Chelsea; Dove, Jonathan; Eiger, Yocheved; Loewenthal, Kate

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a successful community-based partnership project between statutory and third-sector services targeting the strictly Orthodox Jewish community (OJC). The City and Hackney Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Access Service (East London NHS Foundation Trust (ELFT)) collaborated with Bikur Cholim, a local third-sector organisation based in the heart of a north London Charedi OJC, to develop a brief culturally tailored psychoeducational group intervention focusing on mental health promotion and prevention. In total, 34 carers in the Charedi OJC were provided with general information on mental health, the availability of support services and self-care. Overall improvements in well-being, increased intentions to access services, particularly talking therapies, and qualitative feedback indicated that the group was very well received. The project endorses the value of culturally relevant psychoeducation, enabling suggestions for culturally appropriate service development.

  10. Macho project photometry of RR Lyrae stars in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Allsman, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Alves, D.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Axelrod, T.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Becker, A.C. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Bennett, D.P.; Cook, K.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Freeman, K.C. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Griest, K. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Peterson, B.A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Pratt, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery of 30 type a, b RR Lyrae (RRab) stars that are likely members of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr). Accurate positions, periods, amplitudes, and magnitudes are presented. Their distances are determined with respect to RRab stars in the Galactic bulge found also in the MACHO 1993 data. For R{sub {circle_dot}}=8kpc, the mean distance to these stars is D=22{plus_minus}1kpc, smaller than previous determinations for this galaxy. This indicates that Sgr has an elongated main body extending for more than 10 kpc, which is inclined along the line of sight, with its northern part (in Galactic coordinates) closer to us. The size and shape of Sgr give clues about the past history of this galaxy. If the shape of Sgr follows the direction of its orbit, the observed spatial orientation suggests that Sgr is moving away from the Galactic plane. Also, Sgr stars may be the sources of some of the microlensing events seen toward the bulge. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  11. North American Carbon Project (NACP) Regional Model-Model and Model-Data Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Post, W. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.

    2009-05-01

    questions: 1. Do model results and observations show consistent spatial patterns in response to the 2002 drought? From measurements and model, can we infer what processes were affected by the 2002 drought? 2. What is the spatial pattern and magnitude of interannual variation in carbon sources and sinks? What are the components of carbon fluxes and pools that contribute to this variation? 3. What are the magnitudes and spatial distribution of carbon sources and sinks, and their uncertainties during the period 2000-2005? Examining and comparing results of inverse and forward model simulations with each other and with suitable benchmark spatial measurements help evaluate model strengths/weaknesses and utility, thereby providing multiple views of spatial and temporal patterns of fluxes, leading to better understandings of processes involved, and providing an improved basis for making projections.

  12. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT: THE DISTANCE TO THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY FROM INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF RR LYRAE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Suchomska, Ksenia; Konorski, Piotr; Górski, Marek; Pilecki, Bogumił; Wielgórski, Piotr [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warsaw (Poland); Gieren, Wolfgang; Graczyk, Dariusz, E-mail: pkarczmarek@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: ksenia@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: piokon@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pilecki@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pwielgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: mgorski@astrouw.edu.pl, E-mail: darek@astro-udec.cl [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomia, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-09-15

    We obtained single-phase near-infrared (NIR) magnitudes in the J- and K-band for a sample of 33 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the Carina dSph galaxy. Applying different theoretical and empirical calibrations of the NIR period–luminosity–metallicity relation for RRL stars, we find consistent results and obtain a true, reddening-corrected distance modulus of 20.118 ± 0.017 (statistical) ± 0.11 (systematic) mag. This value is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the context of the Araucaria Project from NIR photometry of red clump stars (20.165 ± 0.015) and the tip of red giant branch (20.09 ± 0.03 ± 0.12 mag in the J band, 20.14 ± 0.04 ± 0.14 mag in the K band), as well as with most independent distance determinations to this galaxy. The NIR RRL method proved to be a reliable tool for accurate distance determination at the 5% level or better, particularly for galaxies and globular clusters that lack young standard candles, like Cepheids.

  13. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  14. History and progress of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Rivera, Francisco Moreira; Rencz, Andrew N.; Garrett, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada, and the Mexican Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1600 km2, 13323 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of North American soils (North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project). Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a series of workshops in 20032004 and pilot studies were conducted from 20042007. The ideal sampling protocol at each site includes a sample from 05 cm depth, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a sample from the soil C horizon. The 3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods are used for As, Hg, Se, and total C on this same size fraction. The major mineralogical components are determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method. Sampling in the conterminous U.S. was completed in 2010 (c. 4800 sites) with chemical and mineralogical analysis currently underway. In Mexico, approximately 66% of the sampling (871 sites) had been done by the end of 2010 with completion expected in 2012. After completing sampling in the Maritime provinces and portions of other provinces (472 sites, 7.6% of the total), Canada withdrew from the project in 2010. Preliminary results for a swath from the central U.S. to Florida clearly show the effects of soil parent material and climate on the chemical and mineralogical composition of soils. A sample archive will be established and made available for future investigations.

  15. Asymmetric response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming over the North Atlantic and western North Pacific from CMIP5 model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sun R; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Chan, Johnny C L; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hyeong-Seog; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Joo-Hong

    2017-01-30

    Recent improvements in the theoretical understanding of the relationship between tropical cyclones (TCs) and their large-scale environments have resulted in significant improvements in the skill for forecasting TC activity at daily and seasonal time-scales. However, future changes in TC activity under a warmer climate remain uncertain, particularly in terms of TC genesis locations and subsequent pathways. Applying a track-pattern-based statistical model to 22 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model runs for the historical period and the future period corresponding to the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions scenarios, this study shows that in future climate conditions, TC passage frequency will decrease over the North Atlantic, particularly in the Gulf of Mexico, but will increase over the western North Pacific, especially that hits Korea and Japan. Unlike previous studies based on fine-resolution models, an ensemble mean of CMIP5 models projects an increase in TC activity in the western North Pacific, which is owing to enhanced subtropical deep convection and favorable dynamic conditions therein in conjunction with the expansion of the tropics and vice versa for the North Atlantic. Our results suggest that North America will experience less TC landfalls, while northeast Asia will experience more TCs than in the present-day climate.

  16. Offshore Sand Resource Needs, Data Availability and Revaluation, and Beach Nourishment Projects in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, I.; Walsh, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Storms and sea-level rise continue to impact the dynamic coastlines of North Carolina. Since the coastal region is economically critical to the state and yields numerous ecosystem services, many towns have planned beach nourishment projects. However, offshore sands compatible for nourishment are limited, and project costs fluctuate with borrow source proximity to the shoreline. Hurricane Sandy (2012) caused high water levels and waves resulting in localized overwash and erosion in the northeastern part of NC. In response, to effectively meet the rising nourishment demands for recovery after future storm events and for long-term resiliency, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) recognized the need to compile and consolidate all geophysical and geologic information in federal waters (3-8 nm) along the East Coast states. A GIS database was created for NC using bathymetric, seismic reflection, sediment and other relevant data from federal, state and private entities. Information will be accessible to the public, coastal planners and managers to allow for informed decision-making and cost-effective project planning. Priority regions for seismic and core collection were determined based on data gaps and needs across the state. In addition, potential sand resource thickness and volume in northeastern NC were revaluated using comparisons of several overlapping datasets. Shoreline volume losses were calculated using long-term erosion rates and compared to historic and future nourishment projects. Finally, tourism-based revenue by town was evaluated and related to short and long-term nourishment costs.

  17. The MACHO Project 9 Million Star Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Basu, A.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.

    2000-01-01

    We present a 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) bar. The 9M CMD reveals a complex superposition of different-age and -metallicity stellar populations, with important stellar evolutionary phases occurring over 3 orders of magnitude in number density. First, we count the nonvariable red and blue supergiants and the associated Cepheid variables and measure the stellar effective temperatures defining the Cepheid instability strip. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory are tested, with implications for the origin of low-luminosity Cepheids. The highly evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the 9M CMD have a bimodal distribution in brightness, which we interpret as discrete old populations ((greater-or-similar sign)1 Gyr). The faint AGB sequence may be metal-poor and very old. Comparing the mean properties of giant branch and horizontal-branch (HB) stars in the 9M CMD with those of clusters, we identify NGC 411 and M3 as templates for the admixture of old stellar populations in the bar. However, there are several indications that the old and metal-poor field population has a red HB morphology: the RR Lyrae variables lie preferentially on the red edge of the instability strip, the AGB bump is very red, and the ratio of AGB bump stars to RR Lyrae variables is quite large. If the HB second parameter is age, the old and metal-poor field population in the bar likely formed after the oldest LMC clusters. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory lead us to associate a significant fraction of the ∼1 million red HB clump giants in the 9M CMD with the same old and metal-poor population producing the RR Lyrae stars and the AGB bump. In this case, compared with the age-dependent luminosity predictions of stellar evolution theory, the red HB clump is too bright relative to the RR Lyrae stars and AGB bump. Last, we show that the surface density profile of RR Lyrae variables is fitted by an exponential

  18. The MACHO Project 9 Million Star Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D. R.; Axelrod, T. S.; Basu, A.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C. (and others)

    2000-05-01

    We present a 9 million star color-magnitude diagram (9M CMD) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) bar. The 9M CMD reveals a complex superposition of different-age and -metallicity stellar populations, with important stellar evolutionary phases occurring over 3 orders of magnitude in number density. First, we count the nonvariable red and blue supergiants and the associated Cepheid variables and measure the stellar effective temperatures defining the Cepheid instability strip. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory are tested, with implications for the origin of low-luminosity Cepheids. The highly evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the 9M CMD have a bimodal distribution in brightness, which we interpret as discrete old populations ((greater-or-similar sign)1 Gyr). The faint AGB sequence may be metal-poor and very old. Comparing the mean properties of giant branch and horizontal-branch (HB) stars in the 9M CMD with those of clusters, we identify NGC 411 and M3 as templates for the admixture of old stellar populations in the bar. However, there are several indications that the old and metal-poor field population has a red HB morphology: the RR Lyrae variables lie preferentially on the red edge of the instability strip, the AGB bump is very red, and the ratio of AGB bump stars to RR Lyrae variables is quite large. If the HB second parameter is age, the old and metal-poor field population in the bar likely formed after the oldest LMC clusters. Lifetime predictions of stellar evolution theory lead us to associate a significant fraction of the {approx}1 million red HB clump giants in the 9M CMD with the same old and metal-poor population producing the RR Lyrae stars and the AGB bump. In this case, compared with the age-dependent luminosity predictions of stellar evolution theory, the red HB clump is too bright relative to the RR Lyrae stars and AGB bump. Last, we show that the surface density profile of RR Lyrae variables is fitted by an exponential

  19. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality) : A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, Ellen; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; ter Bogt, Tom; van den Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Kunnen, Saskia; Timmerman, Greetje; van Geert, Paul; Deković, Maja

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  20. Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality): A longitudinal, multi-domain study on sexual development of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitz, E.; van de Bongardt, D.; Baams, L.; Doornwaard, S.; Dalenberg, W.; Dubas, J.; van Aken, M.; Overbeek, G.; ter Bogt, T.; van der Eijnden, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Kunnen, S.; Timmerman, G.; van Geert, P.; Deković, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to

  1. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  2. The ISLAnds Project. III. Variable Stars in Six Andromeda Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Monelli, Matteo; Bernard, Edouard J.; Gallart, Carme; Stetson, Peter B.; Skillman, Evan D.; Bono, Giuseppe; Cassisi, Santi; Fiorentino, Giuliana; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cole, Andrew A.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Aparicio, Antonio; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a census of variable stars in six M31 dwarf spheroidal satellites observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect 870 RR Lyrae (RRL) stars in the fields of And I (296), II (251), III (111), XV (117), XVI (8), and XXVIII (87). We also detect a total of 15 Anomalous Cepheids, three eclipsing binaries, and seven field RRL stars compatible with being members of the M31 halo or the Giant Stellar Stream. We derive robust and homogeneous distances to the six galaxies using different methods based on the properties of the RRL stars. Working with the up-to-date set of Period-Wesenheit (I, B-I) relations published by Marconi et al., we obtain distance moduli of μ 0 = [24.49, 24.16, 24.36, 24.42, 23.70, 24.43] mag (respectively), with systematic uncertainties of 0.08 mag and statistical uncertainties <0.11 mag. We have considered an enlarged sample of 16 M31 satellites with published variability studies, and compared their pulsational observables (e.g., periods and amplitudes) with those of 15 Milky Way satellites for which similar data are available. The properties of the (strictly old) RRL in both satellite systems do not show any significant difference. In particular, we found a strikingly similar correlation between the mean period distribution of the fundamental RRL pulsators (RRab) and the mean metallicities of the galaxies. This indicates that the old RRL progenitors were similar at the early stage in the two environments, suggesting very similar characteristics for the earliest stages of evolution of both satellite systems. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 13028 and 13739.

  3. Projected changes to rain-on-snow events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Dae Il; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Rain-on-snow (ROS) events have significant impacts on cold region ecosystems and water-related natural hazards, and therefore it is very important to assess how this hydro-meteorological phenomenon will evolve in a changing climate. This study evaluates the changes in ROS characteristics (i.e., frequency, amounts, and runoff) for the future 2041-2070 period with respect to the current 1976-2005 period over North America using six simulations, based on two Canadian RCMs, driven by two driving GCMs for RCP4.5 and 8.5 emission pathways. Projected changes to extreme runoff caused by the changes of the ROS characteristics are also evaluated. All simulations suggest general increases in ROS days in late autumn, winter, and early spring periods for most Canadian regions and northwestern USA for the future period, due to an increase in rain days in a warmer climate. Increases in the future ROS amounts are projected mainly due to an increase in ROS days, although increases in precipitation intensity also contributes to the future increases. Future ROS runoff is expected to increase more than future ROS amounts during snowmelt months as ROS events usually enhance runoff, given the land state and asociated reduced soil infiltration rate and also due to the faster snowmelt rate occuring during these events. The simulations also show that ROS events usually lead to extreme runoff over most of Canada and north-western and -central USA in the January-May snowmelt months for the current period and these show no significant changes in the future climate. However, the future ROS to total runoff ratio will significantly decrease for western and eastern Canada as well as north-western USA for these months, due to an overall increase of the fraction of direct snowmelt and rainfall generated runoff in a warmer climate. These results indicate the difficulties of flood risk and water resource managements in the future, particularly in Canada and north-western and -central USA, requiring

  4. Future Projections and Consequences of the Changing North American Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Cooley, S. R.; Moore, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), primarily due to human-caused fossil fuel emissions and land-use change, has been dampened by carbon uptake by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. Nevertheless, today's atmospheric CO2 levels are higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Over the past decade, there has been considerable effort to understand how carbon cycle changes interact with, and influence, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus climate. Here, we summarize the key findings related to projected changes to the North American carbon cycle and the consequences of these changes as reported in Chapters 17 and 19 of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2). In terrestrial ecosystems, increased atmospheric CO2 causes enhanced photosynthesis, plant growth, and water-use efficiency. Together, these may lead to changes in vegetation composition, carbon storage, hydrology and biogeochemical cycling. In the ocean, increased uptake of atmospheric CO2 causes ocean acidification, which leads to changes in reproduction, survival, and growth of many marine species. These direct physiological responses to acidification are likely to have indirect ecosystem-scale consequences that we are just beginning to understand. In all environments, the effects of rising CO2 also interact with other global changes. For example, nutrient availability can set limits on growth and a warming climate alters carbon uptake depending on a number of other factors. As a result, there is low confidence in the future evolution of the North American carbon cycle. For example, models project that terrestrial ecosystems could continue to be a net sink (of up to 1.19 PgC yr-1) or switch to a net source of carbon to the atmosphere (of up to 0.60 PgC yr-1) by the end of the century under business-as-usual emission scenarios. And, while North American coastal areas have historically been a sink of carbon (e.g., 2.6 to 3.5 PgC since 1995) and are projected to continue to take up

  5. Projected future distributions of vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Garza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease kills approximately 45 thousand people annually and affects 10 million people in Latin America and the southern United States. The parasite that causes the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, can be transmitted by insects of the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Any study that attempts to evaluate risk for Chagas disease must focus on the ecology and biogeography of these vectors. Expected distributional shifts of vector species due to climate change are likely to alter spatial patterns of risk of Chagas disease, presumably through northward expansion of high risk areas in North America.We forecast the future (2050 distributions in North America of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and T. sanguisuga, two of the most common triatomine species and important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern United States. Our aim was to analyze how climate change might affect the future shift of Chagas disease in North America using a maximum entropy algorithm to predict changes in suitable habitat based on vector occurrence points and predictive environmental variables. Projections based on three different general circulation models (CCCMA, CSIRO, and HADCM3 and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2 were analyzed. Twenty models were developed for each case and evaluated via cross-validation. The final model averages result from all twenty of these models. All models had AUC >0.90, which indicates that the models are robust. Our results predict a potential northern shift in the distribution of T. gerstaeckeri and a northern and southern distributional shift of T. sanguisuga from its current range due to climate change.The results of this study provide baseline information for monitoring the northward shift of potential risk from Chagas disease in the face of climate change.

  6. Radioactivity in north European waters: report of Working Group 2 of CEC project MARINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplin, W C [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Directorate of Fisheries Research; Aarkrog, A [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of Working Group 2 of Project MARINA was to consider recent measurements of environmental radioactivity in north European waters and to use this, and other information, to report the likely magnitude of doses to the critical group from marine pathways. The monitoring data were supplemented, where appropriate, with predictions from simple models. The major sources of radioactivity studied were as follows: (i) liquid wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; (ii) liquid wastes from nuclear power plants and other major nuclear industry sites; (iii) solid waste disposal in the deep north-east Atlantic; (iv) fallout from Chernobyl; and (v) naturally-occurring radionuclides. Some of the largest doses from marine pathways are predicted for naturally-occurring radionuclides. In this case, the dominant radionuclide is polonium-210 and the dominant pathway is via consumption of molluscan species. The highest doses from the nuclear industry were due to the operation of the reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Discharges from this site have been decreasing substantially in recent years and, as a consequence, doses have also been reducing. (author).

  7. The SOLA Team: A Star Formation Project To Study the Soul of Lupus with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Saito, M.; Rodon, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2017-06-01

    The SOLA team is a multi-national and multi-wavelength collaboration composed by scientists with technical expertise in ALMA and in infrared and optical techniques. The aim of the team is to establish a low-mass star formation scenario based on the Lupus molecular clouds. In this talk I will present our unique catalog of pre-stellar and proto-stellar cores toward Lupus molecular clouds, the results on our latest studies in protoplanetary disks, as well as our ALMA Cycle 3 data aiming at testing the formation mechanism of sub-stellar objects in Lupus molecular clouds.

  8. The WISSH quasars project. II. Giant star nurseries in hyper-luminous quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Piconcelli, E.; Bianchi, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Valiante, R.; Bischetti, M.; Feruglio, C.; Martocchia, S.; Schneider, R.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zappacosta, L.; La Franca, F.; Fiore, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Studying the coupling between the energy output produced by the central quasar and the host galaxy is fundamental to fully understand galaxy evolution. Quasar feedback is indeed supposed to dramatically affect the galaxy properties by depositing large amounts of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM). Aims: In order to gain further insights on this process, we study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of sources at the brightest end of the quasar luminosity function, for which the feedback mechanism is assumed to be at its maximum, given their high efficiency in driving powerful outflows. Methods: We modelled the rest-frame UV-to-far-IR SEDs of 16 WISE-SDSS Selected Hyper-luminous (WISSH) quasars at 1.8 code to account for the contribution of the quasar-related emission to the far-IR fluxes. Results: Most SEDs are well described by a standard combination of accretion disc plus torus and cold dust emission. However, about 30% of SEDs require an additional emission component in the near-IR, with temperatures peaking at 750 K, which indicates that a hotter dust component is present in these powerful quasars. We measure extreme values of both AGN bolometric luminosity (LBOL > 1047 erg/s) and star formation rate (up to 2000 M⊙/yr) based on the quasar-corrected, IR luminosity of the host galaxy. A new relation between quasar and star formation luminosity is derived (LSF ∝ L0.73QSO) by combining several Herschel-detected quasar samples from z 0 to 4. WISSH quasars have masses ( 108M⊙) and temperatures ( 50 K) of cold dust in agreement with those found for other high-z IR luminous quasars. Conclusions: Thanks to their extreme nuclear and star formation luminosities, the WISSH quasars are ideal targets to shed light on the feedback mechanism and its effect on the evolution of their host galaxies, as well as on the merger-induced scenario that is commonly assumed to explain these exceptional luminosities. Future observations will be

  9. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: A north San Francisco Bay estuary case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan

    2012-01-01

    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  10. Projected future changes in vegetation in western North America in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Jiang; Rauscher, Sara A.; Ringler, Todd D.; Lawrence, David M.; Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Steiner, Allison L.; Cai, D. Michael; McDowell, Nate G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and broad-scale forest mortality associated with recent droughts, rising temperature, and insect outbreaks has been observed over western North America (NA). Climate models project additional future warming and increasing drought and water stress for this region. To assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in western NA, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with its Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) was used under the future A2 emissions scenario. To better span uncertainties in future climate, eight sea surface temperature (SST) projections provided by phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) were employed as boundary conditions. There is a broad consensus among the simulations, despite differences in the simulated climate trajectories across the ensemble, that about half of the needleleaf evergreen tree coverage (from 24% to 11%) will disappear, coincident with a 14% (from 11% to 25%) increase in shrubs and grasses by the end of the twenty-first century in western NA, with most of the change occurring over the latter half of the twenty-first century. The net impact is a ~6 GtC or about 50% decrease in projected ecosystem carbon storage in this region. The findings suggest a potential for a widespread shift from tree-dominated landscapes to shrub and grass-dominated landscapes in western NA because of future warming and consequent increases in water deficits. These results highlight the need for improved process-based understanding of vegetation dynamics, particularly including mortality and the subsequent incorporation of these mechanisms into earth system models to better quantify the vulnerability of western NA forests under climate change.

  11. Neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  12. The Impact of Tax Shocks and Oil Price Volatility on Risk - A Study of North Sea Oilfield Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Moles, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We examine the impact of market volatility and increased fiscal take on risk in strategic natural resource projects. An increase in 2006 UK oilfield taxation is used as a natural experiment for assessing the impact of a fiscal increase on oilfield projects comprising 73% of UK reserves. Stochastic cash flow at risk models combine market volatility and tax-take at the oilfield level to extend earlier North Sea studies. We demonstrate that a 10% Secondary tax increase in a composite UKCS fiscal...

  13. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  14. Pacific-North American teleconnection and North Pacific Oscillation: historical simulation and future projection in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Gan, Bolan; Wu, Lixin; Jia, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Based on reanalysis datasets and as many as 35 CMIP5 models, this study evaluates the capability of climate models to simulate the spatiotemporal features of Pacific-North American teleconnection (PNA) and North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the twentieth century wintertime, and further investigates their responses to greenhouse warming in the twenty-first century. Analysis reveals that while the majority (80%) of models reasonably simulate either the geographical distribution or the amplitude of PNA/NPO pattern, only half of models can well capture both features in space. As for the temporal features, variabilities of PNA and NPO in most models are biased toward higher amplitude. Additionally, most models simulate the interannual variabilities of PNA and NPO, qualitatively consistent with the observation, whereas models generally lack the capability to reproduce the decadal (20-25 years) variability of PNA. As the climate warms under the strongest future warming scenario, the PNA intensity is found to be strengthened, whereas there is no consensus on the direction of change in the NPO intensity among models. The intensification of positive PNA is primarily manifested in the large deepening of the North Pacific trough, which is robust as it is 2.3 times the unforced internal variability. By focusing on the tropical Pacific Ocean, we find that the multidecadal evolution of the North Pacific trough intensity (dominating the PNA intensity evolution) is closely related to that of the analogous trough in the PNA-like teleconnection forced by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa) in the tropical central Pacific (CP) rather than the tropical eastern Pacific (EP). Such association is also found to act under greenhouse warming: that is, the strengthening of the PNA-like teleconnection induced by the CP SSTa rather than the EP SSTa is a driving force for the intensification of PNA. This is in part owing to the robust enhancement of the tropical precipitation response to

  15. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions. Some challenges were underestimated

  16. Comparing avian and bat fatality rate estimates among North American wind energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Shawn

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy development has expanded rapidly, and so have concerns over bird and bat impacts caused by wind turbines. To assess and compare impacts due to collisions, investigators use a common metric, fatalities/MW/year, but estimates of fatality rates have come from various wind turbine models, tower heights, environments, fatality search methods, and analytical methods. To improve comparability and asses large-scale impacts, I applied a common set of assumptions and methods to data in fatality monitoring reports to estimate fatality rates of birds and bats at 71 wind projects across North America (52 outside the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, APWRA). The data were from wind turbines of 27 sizes (range 0.04-3.00 MW) and 28 tower heights (range 18.5-90 m), and searched at 40 periodic intervals (range 1-90 days) and out to 20 distances from turbines (range 30-126 m). Estimates spanned the years 1982 to 2010, and involved 1-1,345 turbines per unique combination of project, turbine size, tower height, and search methodology. I adjusted fatality rates for search detection rates averaged from 425 detection trials, and for scavenger removal rates based on 413 removal trials. I also adjusted fatality rates for turbine tower height and maximum search radius, based on logistic functions fit to cumulative counts of carcasses that were detected at 1-m distance intervals from the turbine. For each tower height, I estimated the distance at which cumulative carcass counts reached an asymptote, and for each project I calculated the proportion of fatalities likely not found due to the maximum search radius being short of the model-predicted distance asymptote. I used the same estimator in all cases. I estimated mean fatalities/MW/year among North American wind projects at 12.6 bats (80% CI: 8.1-17.1) and 11.1 birds (80% CI: 9.5-12.7), including 1.6 raptors (80% CI: 1.3-2.0), and excluding the Altamont Pass I estimated fatality rates at 17.2 bats (80% CI: 9

  17. Projected hydrological changes in the North Carolina piedmont using bias-corrected North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kim

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY with projected CO2, precipitation, and temperature during 2044–2070 were affected by each climate factor separately and synergistically. Increasing CO2 to 600 ppm only scenario resulted in an ET decrease (5–17% which led to WY increase (17–36%. With projected temperature increases (1–5 °C only scenarios, ET was projected to increase noticeably (12–112% especially in winter and spring. The amount of projected ET increase was reduced by a CO2 increase to 600 ppm due to decreased stomatal conductance. Projected WY varied due to the high variability of future precipitation patterns (−54% to 33% but generally increased when solely precipitation projections were applied. However, WY with combined effects of CO2, precipitation, and temperature did not show significant changes compared with the historical WY. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate interactions of precipitation, temperature, and CO2 to simulate future water availability in the North Carolina Piedmont.

  18. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: Project Overview with Analysis of Dense Gas Structure and Kinematics in Barnard 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Fernández-López, Manuel; Lee, Katherine I.; Looney, Leslie W.; Teuben, Peter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Arce, Héctor G.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao; Plunkett, Adele L.; Tobin, John J.; Kwon, Woojin; Isella, Andrea; Kauffmann, Jens; Tassis, Konstantinos; Crutcher, Richard M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Testi, Leonardo

    2014-10-01

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N2H+, HCO+, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s-1. We imaged ~150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N2H+ shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO+ and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N2H+ velocity dispersions ranging from ~0.05 to 0.50 km s-1 across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N2H+ position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  19. Video Inspired the Radio Star: Interdisciplinary Projects for Media Arts and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebelhausen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinary arts education in music has often included connective lines toward drama, dance, and visual arts. This article will suggest five different projects that could be used to link music to video in order to develop media arts and music interdisciplinary connections.

  20. The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project - I. Variable red giant stars in the central square kiloparsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2011-02-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. The most extensive data set was obtained in the K band with the UIST instrument for the central 4 × 4 arcmin2 (1 kpc2) - this contains the nuclear star cluster and inner disc. These data, taken during the period 2003-2007, were complemented by J- and H-band images. Photometry was obtained for 18 398 stars in this region; of these, 812 stars were found to be variable, most of which are asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Our data were matched to optical catalogues of variable stars and carbon stars and to mid-infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope. In this first of a series of papers, we present the methodology of the variability survey and the photometric catalogue - which is made publicly available at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg - and discuss the properties of the variable stars. The most dusty AGB stars had not been previously identified in optical variability surveys, and our survey is also more complete for these types of stars than the Spitzer survey.

  1. The SILCC project III. Regulation of star formation and outflows by stellar winds and supernovae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gatto, A.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Girichidis, P.; Wünsch, Richard; Glover, S.C.O.; Klessen, R.S.; Clark, P.C.; Peters, T.; Derigs, D.; Baczynski, C.; Puls, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 2 (2017), s. 1903-1924 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06012S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : giant molecular clouds * initial mass function * magnetized interstellar-medium Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  2. Large projected increases in rain-on-snow flood potential over western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, K. N.; Ikeda, K.; Barlage, M. J.; Lehner, F.; Liu, C.; Newman, A. J.; Prein, A. F.; Mizukami, N.; Gutmann, E. D.; Clark, M. P.; Rasmussen, R.

    2017-12-01

    In the western US and Canada, some of the largest annual flood events occur when warm storm systems drop substantial rainfall on extensive snow-cover. For example, last winter's Oroville dam crisis in California was exacerbated by rapid snowmelt during a rain-on-snow (ROS) event. We present an analysis of ROS events with flood-generating potential over western North America simulated at high-resolution by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model run for both a 13-year control time period and re-run with a `business-as-usual' future (2071-2100) climate scenario. Daily ROS with flood-generating potential is defined as rainfall of at least 10 mm per day falling on snowpack of at least 10 mm water equivalent, where the sum of rainfall and snowmelt contains at least 20% snowmelt. In a warmer climate, ROS is less frequent in regions where it is historically common, and more frequent elsewhere. This is evidenced by large simulated reductions in snow-cover and ROS frequency at lower elevations, particularly in warmer, coastal regions, and greater ROS frequency at middle elevations and in inland regions. The same trend is reflected in the annual-average ROS runoff volume (rainfall + snowmelt) aggregated to major watersheds; large reductions of 25-75% are projected for much of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, while large increases are simulated for the Colorado River basin, western Canada, and the higher elevations of the Sierra Nevada. In the warmer climate, snowmelt contributes substantially less to ROS runoff per unit rainfall, particularly in inland regions. The reduction in snowmelt contribution is due to a shift in ROS timing from warm spring events to cooler winter conditions and/or from warm, lower elevations to cool, higher elevations. However, the slower snowmelt is offset by an increase in rainfall intensity, maintaining the flood potential of ROS at or above historical levels. In fact, we report large projected increases in the intensity of extreme ROS events

  3. ``But I am constant as the North Star*'' - The Return of Polaris as a Low Amplitude Classical Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. J.; Tracey, J. C.; Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2002-12-01

    * Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare Polaris ( ≈ +2.0 mag; B-V = +0.60; F7 Ib) is a low amplitude Classical Cepheid with a pulsation period of P = 3.97 days. Polaris is one of the nearest (dHipparcos = 132 +/- 8 pc) and brightest Cepheid. This Cepheid (Polaris A) is the luminous member of the multiple star system (ADS 1477). Over the last century amazing changing have been occurring for this famous star. The pulsation period has been increasing a rate of dP/dt = +3.2 sec/yr while the light amplitude has decreased from ~0.12 mag (1900s) to ~0.02 mag (early1990s). A recent summary and thorough discussion of Polaris's interesting properties are given by Evans et al. (2002, ApJ, 567, 1121). We have been carrying out photoelectric photometry of Polaris starting in early 2002. This photometry is a continuation of the work done on Polaris by Kamper and Fernie. Our observations were made to obtain new epochal light curves and accurate times of maximum light. We secured well defined 450 nm and 550 nm light curves from which we extracted accurate measures of light amplitudes of 0.033 +/- 0.004 mag and 0.028 +/- 0.003 mag, respectively. These light amplitudes are slightly larger than those observed during the early 1990s. So it appears that the century long decrease in the light amplitude has halted (or paused). Our time of maximum light was combined with previous timings and reaffirms the increase in period of +3.2 sec/yr. These observations lend strong support to overtone nature of Polaris's pulsations, whose transition from moderate to low amplitude pulsator will be discussed in more detail in this poster. In addition to the long-term secular increase in the Polaris's pulsation period, an analysis of the O-Cs indicates +/-0.25 day cyclic oscillations in the apparent period with time scale of 11-12 years. The nature of these period oscillations is being investigated and will be discussed. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST 00

  4. Borders of Belonging: Nationalism, North Korean Defectors and the Spiritual Project for a Unified Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Sarah Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation examines the conflicts and contradictions of national identity that emerge out of the interactions between North Korean defectors and Protestant South Korean Protestants who give them aid. Since the mid 1990s, a significant number of North Koreans have migrated to South Korea in search of food and opportunities as a result of a devastating famine. Instead of the warm welcome they expect, defectors are treated with suspicion by South Koreans who have been taught that North Kore...

  5. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  6. Projected wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific under the influence of two CMIP5 climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie; Barnard, Patrick; Ruggiero, Peter; van Ormondt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hindcast and 21st century winds, simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs), were used to drive global- and regional-scale spectral wind-wave generation models in the Pacific Ocean Basin to assess future wave conditions along the margins of the North American west coast and Hawaiian Islands. Three-hourly winds simulated by four separate GCMs were used to generate an ensemble of wave conditions for a recent historical time-period (1976–2005) and projections for the mid and latter parts of the 21st century under two radiative forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), as defined by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) experiments. Comparisons of results from historical simulations with wave buoy and ERA-Interim wave reanalysis data indicate acceptable model performance of wave heights, periods, and directions, giving credence to generating projections. Mean and extreme wave heights are projected to decrease along much of the North American west coast. Extreme wave heights are projected to decrease south of ∼50°N and increase to the north, whereas extreme wave periods are projected to mostly increase. Incident wave directions associated with extreme wave heights are projected to rotate clockwise at the eastern end of the Aleutian Islands and counterclockwise offshore of Southern California. Local spatial patterns of the changing wave climate are similar under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, but stronger magnitudes of change are projected under RCP 8.5. Findings of this study are similar to previous work using CMIP3 GCMs that indicates decreasing mean and extreme wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific, but differ from other studies with respect to magnitude and local patterns of change. This study contributes toward a larger ensemble of global and regional climate projections needed to better assess uncertainty of potential future wave climate change, and provides model boundary conditions for assessing the impacts of

  7. Science Through ARts (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  8. Changes in Surface Wind Speed over North America from CMIP5 Model Projections and Implications for Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The centennial trends in the surface wind speed over North America are deduced from global climate model simulations in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project—Phase 5 (CMIP5 archive. Using the 21st century simulations under the RCP 8.5 scenario of greenhouse gas emissions, 5–10 percent increases per century in the 10 m wind speed are found over Central and East-Central United States, the Californian Coast, and the South and East Coasts of the USA in winter. In summer, climate models projected decreases in the wind speed ranging from 5 to 10 percent per century over the same coastal regions. These projected changes in the surface wind speed are moderate and imply that the current estimate of wind power potential for North America based on present-day climatology will not be significantly changed by the greenhouse gas forcing in the coming decades.

  9. Pollution from aircraft emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Overview on the results of the POLINAT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U; Duerbeck, T; Feigl, C [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany); Arnold, F; Droste-Franke, B [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Flatoy, F [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Geophysics; Ford, I J [University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Hagen, D E; Hopkins, A R [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Sciences; Hayman, G D [National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); others, and

    1998-12-31

    The POLINAT project (phase 1) was performed 1994 to 1996 within the Environment Research Programme of the European Commission. POLINAT-2 is being performed now since April 1996. The objectives of POLINAT-1 and -2, the methods used, the measurements, and some selected results are described. Details are given on the measured background concentrations, the emission indices of several aircraft, comparisons between modelled and measured data, and the impact of the emissions within the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 21 refs.

  10. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  11. Pollution from aircraft emissions in the North Atlantic flight corridor. Overview on the results of the POLINAT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.; Duerbeck, T.; Feigl, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany); Arnold, F.; Droste-Franke, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Flatoy, F. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Geophysics; Ford, I.J. [University Coll., London (United Kingdom); Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Lab. for Cloud and Aerosol Sciences; Hayman, G.D. [National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); and others

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT project (phase 1) was performed 1994 to 1996 within the Environment Research Programme of the European Commission. POLINAT-2 is being performed now since April 1996. The objectives of POLINAT-1 and -2, the methods used, the measurements, and some selected results are described. Details are given on the measured background concentrations, the emission indices of several aircraft, comparisons between modelled and measured data, and the impact of the emissions within the North Atlantic flight corridor. (author) 21 refs.

  12. A multimodel assessment of future projections of North Atlantic and European extratropical cyclones in the CMIP5 climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Shaffrey, Len C.; Hodges, Kevin I.; Sansom, Phil G.; Stephenson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The response of North Atlantic and European extratropical cyclones to climate change is investigated in the climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). In contrast to previous multimodel studies, a feature-tracking algorithm is here applied to separately quantify the re- sponses in the number, the wind intensity, and the precipitation intensity of extratropical cyclones. Moreover, a statistical framework is employed to formally assess the unce...

  13. The MACHO Project LMC Variable Star Inventory. VIII. The Recent Star Formation History of the Large Magellanic Cloud from the Cepheid Period Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R.A.; Alves, D.R.; Axelrod, T.S.; Becker, A.C.; Bennett, D.P.; Bersier, D.F.; Cook, K.H.; Freeman, K.C.; Griest, K.; Guern, J.A.; Lehner, M.; Marshall, S.L.; Minniti, D.; Peterson, B.A.; Pratt, M.R.; Quinn, P.J.; Rodgers, A.W.; Stubbs, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    We present an analysis of the period distribution of about 1800 Cepheids in the LMC, based on data obtained by the MACHO microlensing experiment and on a previous catalog by C. H. Payne Gaposchkin. Using stellar evolution and pulsation models, we construct theoretical period-frequency distributions that are compared with the observations. These models reveal that a significant burst of star formation has occurred recently in the LMC (∼1.15x10 8 yr). We also show that during the last ∼10 8 yr, the main center of star formation has been propagating from southeast to northwest along the bar. We find that the evolutionary masses of Cepheids are still smaller than pulsation masses by ∼7% and that the red edge of the Cepheid instability strip could be slightly bluer than indicated by theory. There are approximately 600 Cepheids with periods below ∼2.5 days that cannot be explained by evolution theory. We suggest that they are anomalous Cepheids and that a number of these stars are double-mode Cepheids. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  14. The IACOB project. V. Spectroscopic parameters of the O-type stars in the modern grid of standards for spectral classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, G.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Barbá, R. H.; Puls, J.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Garcia, M.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Negueruela, I.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The IACOB and OWN surveys are two ambitious, complementary observational projects which have made available a large multi-epoch spectroscopic database of optical high resolution spectra of Galactic massive O-type stars. Aims: Our aim is to study the full sample of (more than 350) O stars surveyed by the IACOB and OWN projects. As a first step towards this aim, we have performed the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a subsample of 128 stars included in the modern grid of O-type standards for spectral classification. The sample comprises stars with spectral types in the range O3-O9.7 and covers all luminosity classes. Methods: We used the semi-automatized IACOB-BROAD and IACOB-GBAT/FASTWIND tools to determine the complete set of spectroscopic parameters that can be obtained from the optical spectrum of O-type stars. A quality flag was assigned to the outcome of the IACOB-GBAT/FASTWIND analysis for each star, based on a visual evaluation of how the synthetic spectrum of the best fitting FASTWIND model reproduces the observed spectrum. We also benefitted from the multi-epoch character of the IACOB and OWN surveys to perform a spectroscopic variability study of the complete sample, providing two different flags for each star accounting for spectroscopic binarity as well as variability of the main wind diagnostic lines. Results: We obtain - for the first time in a homogeneous and complete manner - the full set of spectroscopic parameters of the "anchors" of the spectral classification system in the O star domain. We provide a general overview of the stellar and wind parameters of this reference sample, as well as updated recipes for the SpT-Teff and SpT-log g calibrations for Galactic O-type stars. We also propose a distance-independent test for the wind-momentum luminosity relationship. We evaluate the reliability of our semi-automatized analysis strategy using a subsample of 40 stars extensively studied in the literature, and find a fairly good agreement

  15. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  16. CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey: project overview with analysis of dense gas structure and kinematics in Barnard 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee G.; Lee, Katherine I.; Teuben, Peter; Pound, Marc W.; Salter, Demerese M.; Chen, Che-Yu; Gong, Hao [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fernández-López, Manuel; Looney, Leslie W.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Departments of Physics and Statistics, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Arce, Héctor G.; Plunkett, Adele L. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [Owens Valley Radio Observatory, MC 105-24 OVRO, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kwon, Woojin [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sstorm@astro.umd.edu [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy), while focusing on observations of Barnard 1. CLASSy is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HCO{sup +}, and HCN (J = 1 → 0 transitions) across over 800 square arcminutes of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds. The observations have angular resolution near 7'' and spectral resolution near 0.16 km s{sup –1}. We imaged ∼150 square arcminutes of Barnard 1, focusing on the main core, and the B1 Ridge and clumps to its southwest. N{sub 2}H{sup +} shows the strongest emission, with morphology similar to cool dust in the region, while HCO{sup +} and HCN trace several molecular outflows from a collection of protostars in the main core. We identify a range of kinematic complexity, with N{sub 2}H{sup +} velocity dispersions ranging from ∼0.05 to 0.50 km s{sup –1} across the field. Simultaneous continuum mapping at 3 mm reveals six compact object detections, three of which are new detections. A new, non-binary dendrogram algorithm is used to analyze dense gas structures in the N{sub 2}H{sup +} position-position-velocity (PPV) cube. The projected sizes of dendrogram-identified structures range from about 0.01 to 0.34 pc. Size-linewidth relations using those structures show that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with projected size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity rises steeply with projected size. Comparing these relations, we propose that all dense gas structures in Barnard 1 have comparable depths into the sky, around 0.1-0.2 pc; this suggests that overdense, parsec-scale regions within molecular clouds are better described as flattened structures rather than spherical collections of gas. Science-ready PPV cubes for Barnard 1 molecular emission are available for download.

  17. Critical chain construction with multi-resource constraints based on portfolio technology in South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the critical chain study has become a hot issue in the project management research field. The construction of the critical chain with multi-resource constraints is a new research subject. According to the system analysis theory and project portfolio theory, this paper discusses the creation of project portfolios based on the similarity principle and gives the definition of priority in multi-resource allocation based on quantitative analysis. A model with multi-resource constraints, which can be applied to the critical chain construction of the A-bid section in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, was proposed. Contrast analysis with the comprehensive treatment construction method and aggressive treatment construction method was carried out. This paper also makes suggestions for further research directions and subjects, which will be useful in improving the theories in relevant research fields.

  18. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  19. The Milky Way Project: Mapping star formation in our home Galaxy, one click at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Tharindu K.; Povich, Matthew S.; Dixon, Don; Velasco, Jose; Milky Way Project Team

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, citizen science has helped astronomers comb through large data sets to identify patterns and objects that are not easily found through automated processes. The Milky Way Project (MWP), a popular citizen science initiative, presents internet users with images from the GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, SMOG and CYGNUS-X surveys of the Galactic plane using the Spitzer Space Telescope. These citizen scientists are directed to make "classification" drawings on the images to identify targeted classes of astronomical objects. We present an updated data reduction pipeline for the MWP. Written from the ground up in Python, this data reduction pipeline allows for the aggregation of classifications made by MWP users into catalogs of infrared (IR) bubbles, IR bow shocks and “yellowballs” (which may be the early precursors of IR bubbles). Coupled with the more accurate bubble classification tool used in the latest iterations of the MWP, this pipeline enables for better accuracy in the shapes and sizes of the bubbles when compared with those listed in the first MWP data release (DR1). We obtain an initial catalog of over 4000 bubbles using 2 million user classifications made between 2012 and 2015. Combined with the classifications from the latest MWP iteration (2016-2017), we will use a database of over 4 million classifications to produce a MWP DR2 bubble catalog. We will also create the first catalog of candidate IR bow shocks identified through citizen science and an updated “yellowball” catalog. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CAREER-1454334 and AST-1411851.

  20. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  1. North Dakota State University Sunflower Research: A Summary of Selected Research Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Roy M.; Sell, Randall S.; Watt, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Sunflower research in North Dakota focuses on variety testing. Additional research has been conducted on cost-effective cultural practices, possible use to produce a red dye food colorant, and the estimated economic impact of banning an insecticide. Variety testing has been conducted at most state experiment sites in North Dakota, including, Casselton Agronomy Seed Farm, Carrington Research Extension Center, Langdon, Minot, Williston, Dickinson, and Hettinger Experiment Stations. A comparison...

  2. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme

    2013-01-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  3. The ACS LCID project. IX. Imprints of the early universe in the radial variation of the star formation history of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2013-12-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs project, we present the star formation histories, as a function of galactocentric radius, of four isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies: two dSph galaxies, Cetus and Tucana, and two transition galaxies (dTrs), LGS-3 and Phoenix. The oldest stellar populations of the dSphs and dTrs are, within the uncertainties, coeval (∼13 Gyr) at all galactocentric radii. We find that there are no significative differences between the four galaxies in the fundamental properties (such as the normalized star formation rate or age-metallicity relation) of their outer regions (radii greater than four exponential scale lengths); at large radii, these galaxies consist exclusively of old (≳ 10.5 Gyr) metal-poor stars. The duration of star formation in the inner regions varies from galaxy to galaxy, and the extended central star formation in the dTrs produces the dichotomy between dSph and dTr galaxy types. The dTr galaxies show prominent radial stellar population gradients: The centers of these galaxies host young (≲ 1 Gyr) populations, while the age of the last formation event increases smoothly with increasing radius. This contrasts with the two dSph galaxies. Tucana shows a similar, but milder, gradient, but no gradient in age is detected Cetus. For the three galaxies with significant stellar population gradients, the exponential scale length decreases with time. These results are in agreement with outside-in scenarios of dwarf galaxy evolution, in which a quenching of the star formation toward the center occurs as the galaxy runs out of gas in the outskirts.

  4. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ∼1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ∼1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  5. Risk management of the North Anna Power Station Service Water System Preservation Project using the IPE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzali, A.; Donovan, M.D.; Sartain, M.D.; Bankley, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the North Anna Power Station Individual Plant Examination (IPE) models in PRA study of the Service Water System Preservation Project (SWSPP). The service water project involves repair and restoration of the Service Water System (SWS) piping and will require excavation of the buried SWS lines in addition to temporarily removing one of the two redundant SWS loops from operation. The SWSPP will be carried out with one or both units in normal operation. The objective of the PRA study was to quantify the risk impact (as measured by the change in Core Damage Frequency (ΔCDF)) of the SWSPP and to identify and evaluate countermeasures to reduce the risk impact of the project activities. The study concluded that the ΔCDF would be acceptable by undertaking preventative measures and by providing additional accident mitigating measures during performance of the SWSPP activities

  6. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are some arguments that the symbiotic stars are binary, where one component is a red giant and the other component is a small hot star which is exciting a nebula. The symbiotic stars belong to the old disc population. Probably, symbiotic stars are just such an evolutionary stage for double stars as planetary nebulae for single stars. (Auth.)

  7. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  8. The North American Bats and Mines Project: a cooperative approach for integrating wildlife, ecosystem management, and mine land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.A.R. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Abandoned underground mines in North America provide a habitat for bats. Closure of mines without conducting biological surveys can endanger bat species that are abundant. The North American Bats and Mines Project (NABMP) has been created by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and Bat Conservation International to provide coordination among government and conservation organizations and the mining industry in order to minimize the loss of bats living in mines. NABMP provides coordination through education on the importance of mines for bat populations by providing training on mine assessment and closure methods, by assisting with protection and improvement of abandoned mine roosts, and by developing methods for creating new bat habitat. 1 tab.

  9. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    among all classes of neutron star binaries. Intrigued by this diversity - which points to diverse birth masses - we undertook a systematic survey to measure the masses of neutron stars in nine high-mass X-ray binaries. In this thesis, I present results from this ongoing project. While neutron stars formed the primary focus of my work, I also explored other topics in compact objects. Appendix A describes the discovery and complete characterization of a 1RXS J173006.4+033813, a polar cataclysmic variable. Appendix B describes the discovery of a diamond planet orbiting a millisecond pulsar, and our search for its optical counterpart.

  10. The UK Infrared Telescope M 33 monitoring project - V. The star formation history across the galactic disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Hamedani Golshan, Roya; Rashidi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope of the Local Group spiral galaxy M 33 (Triangulum). On the basis of their variability, we have identified stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this fifth paper of the series, we construct the birth mass function and hence derive the star formation history across the galactic disc of M 33. The star formation rate has varied between ˜0.010 ± 0.001 (˜0.012 ± 0.007) and 0.060±0.005 (0.052±0.009) M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 statistically (systematically) in the central square kiloparsec of M 33, comparable with the values derived previously with another camera. The total star formation rate in M 33 within a galactocentric radius of 14 kpc has varied between ˜0.110 ± 0.005 (˜0.174 ± 0.060) and ˜0.560 ± 0.028 (˜0.503 ± 0.100) M⊙ yr-1 statistically (systematically). We find evidence of two epochs during which the star formation rate was enhanced by a factor of a few - one that started ˜6 Gyr ago and lasted ˜3 Gyr and produced ≥71 per cent of the total mass in stars, and one ˜250 Myr ago that lasted ˜200 Myr and formed ≤13 per cent of the mass in stars. Radial star formation history profiles suggest that the inner disc of M 33 was formed in an inside-out formation scenario. The outskirts of the disc are dominated by the old population, which may be the result of dynamical effects over many Gyr. We find correspondence to spiral structure for all stars, but enhanced only for stars younger than ˜100 Myr; this suggests that the spiral arms are transient features and not a part of a global density wave potential.

  11. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  12. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense urban area comprises one... and activity centers located in the North Corridor and the other urban centers in the Central Puget... elevated or at-grade profiles or station locations and layouts. Potential SR 99 Light Rail Alternatives A...

  13. 75 FR 32209 - North San Pablo Bay Restoration and Reuse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... promote the expanded beneficial use of recycled water in the North Bay region. In this way, water demand... XVI of Public Law 102-575, as amended, which provides a mechanism for Federal participation and cost... Napa counties are facing long-term water supply shortfalls. Surface and groundwater supplies within...

  14. Translations on Near East and North Africa. Number 1593, New Valley Development Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-17

    People’s Demo- cratic Republic of Yemen _Persian Gulf Area Qatar _Saudi Arabia _Spanish North Africa Sudan _Sultanate of Oman _Syria...and organizing the drainage situation. We have acquired the use of the highest-quality pipe materials used in wells and a knowledge of aquifers . We

  15. Aspects of Remote Sensing in the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Knudsen, Per

    1999-01-01

    The general objectives of the GEOid and Sea level Of the North Atlantic Region (GEOSONAR) project are presented. These include analyses of the dynamics of the ocean and its characteristics. The analyses are mainly based on remote sensing. As an example a data set obtained by the multi-channel Sea-viewing...... Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFs) is analysed. The presentation results include the computed principal components (PC) and the maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF). Both methods are expected to be incorporated into future analyses of the state of the ocean....

  16. Orphan Stars Found in Long Galaxy Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 H-alpha Image of ESO 137-001 and Tail in Abell 3627 "By our galactic standards, these are extremely lonely stars," said Mark Voit, another team member from MSU. "If life was to form out there on a planet a few billion years from now, they would have very dark skies." The gas that formed the orphan stars was stripped out of its parent galaxy by the pressure induced by the motion of the galaxy through the multimillion degree gas that pervades the intergalactic space of the galaxy cluster. Eventually most of the gas will be scoured from the galaxy, depleting the raw material for new stars, and effectively stopping further star formation in the galaxy. This process may represent an important but short-lived stage in the transformation of a galaxy. Although apparently rare in the present-day universe, galactic tails of gas and orphan stars may have been more common billions of years ago when galaxies were younger and richer in star-forming gas. These results will appear in the December 10th issue of The Astrophysical Journal. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. The SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope) is a joint project of Michigan State University, Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas Científicas e Tecnológicas (CNPq-Brazil), The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  17. Evaluating IPCC AR4 cool-season precipitation simulations and projections for impacts assessment over North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, Stephanie A. [The University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, Tucson, AZ (United States); The Wilderness Society, Anchorage, AK (United States); Russell, Joellen L.; Goodman, Paul J. [The University of Arizona, Department of Geosciences, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-12-15

    General circulation models (GCMs) have demonstrated success in simulating global climate, and they are critical tools for producing regional climate projections consistent with global changes in radiative forcing. GCM output is currently being used in a variety of ways for regional impacts projection. However, more work is required to assess model bias and evaluate whether assumptions about the independence of model projections and error are valid. This is particularly important where models do not display offsetting errors. Comparing simulated 300-hPa zonal winds and precipitation for the late 20th century with reanalysis and gridded precipitation data shows statistically significant and physically plausible associations between positive precipitation biases across all models and a marked increase in zonal wind speed around 30 N, as well as distortions in rain shadow patterns. Over the western United States, GCMs project drier conditions to the south and increasing precipitation to the north. There is a high degree of agreement between models, and many studies have made strong statements about implications for water resources and about ecosystem change on that basis. However, since one of the mechanisms driving changes in winter precipitation patterns appears to be associated with a source of error in simulating mean precipitation in the present, it suggests that greater caution should be used in interpreting impacts related to precipitation projections in this region and that standard assumptions underlying bias correction methods should be scrutinized. (orig.)

  18. Carbon stock projection in North Sumatera using multi objective land allocation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichwani, S. N.; Wulandari, R.; Ramachandra, A.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, GHG emission is a critical issue for environmental management due to the large scale of land cover change, especially forest cover. This study provides a protection development strategy for North Sumatera as one way to manage the area. By using Multi Objective Land Allocation (MOLA), we evaluated two GHG emission scenarios, including a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario and Protection scenario. The result shows that the province will lose the carbon stock up to 24 million tons in the year of 2035 by using a BAU scenario. On the other hand, by implementing the Protection scenario, total carbon stock that is lost in the same period is about 5 millions tons solely. It proves that protection scenario is a good scenario and effective to reduce the carbon loss. Furthermore, this scenario can be an alternative for North Sumatera spatial plan.

  19. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.

  20. Status of the North Carolina/Southeast Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.K. [North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, NC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Southeast Compact is a sited region for low-level radioactive waste because of the current facility at Barnwell, South Carolina. North Carolina has been designated as the next host state for the compact, and the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority is the agency charged with developing the new facility. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., has been selected by the Authority as its primary site development and operations contractor. This paper will describe the progress currently being made toward the successful opening of the facility in January 1996. The areas to be addressed include site characterization, performance assessment, facility design, public outreach, litigation, finances, and the continued operation of the Barnwell facility.

  1. Infrastructure for large-scale quality-improvement projects: early lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid cycle improvement principles; (3) quality-improvement consultants (QICs), or practice facilitators; (4) learning networks; and (5) alignment of incentives. We emphasized a community-based strategy and developing a statewide infrastructure. Results are reported from the first 2 years of the North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) project. A coalition was formed to include professional societies, North Carolina AHEC, Community Care of North Carolina, insurers, and other organizations. Wave One started with 18 practices in 2 of 9 regions of the state. Quality-improvement consultants recruited practices. Over 80 percent of practices attended all quarterly regional meetings. In 9 months, almost all diabetes measures improved, and a bundled asthma measure improved from 33 to 58 percent. Overall, the magnitude of improvement was clinically and statistically significant (P = .001). Quality improvements were maintained on review 1 year later. Wave Two has spread to 103 practices in all 9 regions of the state, with 42 additional practices beginning the enrollment process. Large-scale health care quality improvement is feasible, when broadly supported by statewide leadership and community infrastructure. Practice-collected data and lack of a control group are limitations of the study design. Future priorities include maintaining improved sustainability for practices and communities. Our long-term goal is to transform all 2000 primary-care practices in our state.

  2. Diesel emissions and ventilation exhaust sampling in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    A series of ventilation experiments have been performed to assess the potential retention of diesel exhaust constituents in the North Ramp of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project's Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Measurements were taken to help evaluate the potential impact of retained diesel exhaust constituents on future in-situ experiments and long-term waste isolation. Assessment of the diesel exhaust retention in the ESF North Ramp required the measurement of air velocities, meteorological measurements, quantification of exhaust constituents within the ventilation air stream, multiple gas sample collections, and on-line diesel exhaust measurements. In order to assess variability within specific measurements, the experiment was divided into three separate sampling events. Although somewhat variable from event to event, collected data appear to support pre-test assumptions of high retention rates for exhaust constituents within the tunnel. The results also show that complete air exchange in the ESF does not occur within the estimated 16 to 20 minutes derived from the ventilation flowrate measurements. Because the scope of work for these activities covered only measurement and acquisition of data, no judgment is offered by the author as to the implications of this work. Final analyses and decisions based upon the entire compendium of data associated with this investigation is being undertaken by the Repository and ESF Ventilation Design Groups of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  3. AgSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    AgSTAR promotes biogas recovery projects, which generate renewable energy and other beneficial products from the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure and organic wastes while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector.

  4. Child Maltreatment Surveillance Improvement Opportunities: A Wake County, North Carolina Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Meghan E; Fliss, Mike D; Proescholdbell, Scott K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND As child maltreatment often occurs in private, child welfare numbers underestimate its true prevalence. Child maltreatment surveillance systems have been used to ascertain more accurate counts of children who experience maltreatment. This manuscript describes the results from a pilot child maltreatment surveillance system in Wake County, North Carolina. METHODS We linked 2010 and 2011 data from 3 sources (Child Protective Services, Raleigh Police Department, and Office of the Chief Medical Examiner) to obtain rates of definite and possible child maltreatment. We separately analyzed emergency department visits from 2010 and 2011 to obtain counts of definite and possible child maltreatment. We then compared the results from the surveillance systems to those obtained from Child Protective Services (CPS) data alone. RESULTS In 2010 and 2011, rates of definite child maltreatment were 11.7 and 11.3 per 1,000 children, respectively, when using the linked data, compared to 10.0 and 9.5 per 1,000 children using CPS data alone. The rates of possible maltreatment were 25.3 and 23.8 per 1,000, respectively. In the 2010 and 2011 emergency department data, there were 68 visits and 84 visits, respectively, that met the case definition for maltreatment. LIMITATIONS While 4 data sources were analyzed, only 3 were linked in the current surveillance system. It is likely that we would have identified more cases of maltreatment had more sources been included. CONCLUSION While the surveillance system identified more children who met the case definition of maltreatment than CPS data alone, the rates of definite child maltreatment were not considerably higher than official reports. Rates of possible child maltreatment were much higher than both the definite case definition and child welfare records. Tracking both definite and possible case definitions and using a variety of data sources provides a more complete picture of child maltreatment in North Carolina. ©2018 by the

  5. The ACS LCID project : RR Lyrae stars as tracers of old population gradients in the isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy tucana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B.; Cole, Andrew A.; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Mateo, Mario; Tolstoy, Eline

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the radial distribution of RR Lyrae variables, which present a range of photometric and pulsational properties, in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Tucana. We find that the fainter RR Lyrae stars, having a shorter period, are more centrally concentrated than the more luminous,

  6. 78 FR 4879 - Nine Mile Point 3 Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC Combined...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Analysis Report (FSAR). On December 1, 2009, UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), acting on behalf of the COL... Exclusion From Environmental Review With respect to the exemption's impact on the quality of the human... relation to security issues. Therefore, the common defense and security is not impacted by this exemption...

  7. Siting study for Test Area North potable water deep well project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1993-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of various locations for a new potable ground water well at Test Area North (TAN). The new well is proposed to replace two existing wells located within a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume. Several locations were evaluated using computer simulations based on the hydrogeology of the site. The modeling effort involved: (1) producing a water table map, (2) superimposing the effects of pumping the proposed new production well on the water table map using the model CAPZONE, and (3) calculating the capture zone for these wells using the GWPATH model. A three dimensional contaminant transport model was used to evaluate siting a well in a deeper horizon of the aquifer. The following scenarios were investigated: (1) placing a new well 500 ft north of the existing wells; (2) locating a well 3,000 ft northwest of the existing wells; (3) deepening one of the existing wells 100 to 150 ft to produce water from beneath an interbed that acts as a hydraulic barrier; and (4) drilling a new well about 500 ft northwest of the existing wells to produce water from beneath the interbed. The recommended new well site (fourth scenario) is northwest of the existing wells, with the well completed from 500 to 600 ft below land surface to produce water from beneath the Q-R interbed. Locating the well northwest of the existing wells places the new well out of the TCE plume and reduces the possibility of transporting contaminated water across the interbed

  8. Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the frequency of water resource drought in the UK, coupled with the more recent pan-European drought of 2003, has increased concern over changes in climate. Using the UKCIP02 Medium-High (SRES A2 scenario for 2070–2100, this study investigates the impact of climate change on the operation of the Integrated Resource Zone (IRZ, a complex conjunctive-use water supply system in north-western England. The results indicate that the contribution of individual sources to yield may change substantially but that overall yield is reduced by only 18%. Notwithstanding this significant effect on water supply, the flexibility of the system enables it to meet modelled demand for much of the time under the future climate scenario, even without a change in system management, but at significant expense for pumping additional abstraction from lake and borehole sources. This research provides a basis for the future planning and management of the complex water resource system in the north-west of England.

  9. How does dynamical downscaling affect model biases and future projections of explosive extratropical cyclones along North America's Atlantic coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Zwiers, F. W.; Hodges, K. I.; Scinocca, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Explosive extratropical cyclones (EETCs) are rapidly intensifying low pressure systems that generate severe weather along North America's Atlantic coast. Global climate models (GCMs) tend to simulate too few EETCs, perhaps partly due to their coarse horizontal resolution and poorly resolved moist diabatic processes. This study explores whether dynamical downscaling can reduce EETC frequency biases, and whether this affects future projections of storms along North America's Atlantic coast. A regional climate model (CanRCM4) is forced with the CanESM2 GCM for the periods 1981 to 2000 and 2081 to 2100. EETCs are tracked from relative vorticity using an objective feature tracking algorithm. CanESM2 simulates 38% fewer EETC tracks compared to reanalysis data, which is consistent with a negative Eady growth rate bias (-0.1 day^{-1}). Downscaling CanESM2 with CanRCM4 increases EETC frequency by one third, which reduces the frequency bias to -22%, and increases maximum EETC precipitation by 22%. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing is projected to decrease EETC frequency (-15%, -18%) and Eady growth rate (-0.2 day^{-1}, -0.2 day^{-1}), and increase maximum EETC precipitation (46%, 52%) in CanESM2 and CanRCM4, respectively. The limited effect of dynamical downscaling on EETC frequency projections is consistent with the lack of impact on the maximum Eady growth rate. The coarse spatial resolution of GCMs presents an important limitation for simulating extreme ETCs, but Eady growth rate biases are likely just as relevant. Further bias reductions could be achieved by addressing processes that lead to an underestimation of lower tropospheric meridional temperature gradients.

  10. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  11. HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT. III. PHOTOMETRIC CATALOG AND RESULTING CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; Marel, R. P. van der; Panagia, N.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Arab, H.; Gordon, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA—European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Associate Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Zaritsky, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marchi, G. De [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); III, J. S. Gallagher [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Tosi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boyer, M. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Mink, S. E. de, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek,”University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2016-01-15

    We present and describe the astro-photometric catalog of more than 800,000 sources found in the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). HTTP is a Hubble Space Telescope Treasury program designed to image the entire 30 Doradus region down to the sub-solar (∼0.5 M{sub ⊙}) mass regime using the Wide Field Camera 3 and the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We observed 30 Doradus in the near-ultraviolet (F275W, F336W), optical (F555W, F658N, F775W), and near-infrared (F110W, F160W) wavelengths. The stellar photometry was measured using point-spread function fitting across all bands simultaneously. The relative astrometric accuracy of the catalog is 0.4 mas. The astro-photometric catalog, results from artificial star experiments, and the mosaics for all the filters are available for download. Color–magnitude diagrams are presented showing the spatial distributions and ages of stars within 30 Dor as well as in the surrounding fields. HTTP provides the first rich and statistically significant sample of intermediate- and low-mass pre-main sequence candidates and allows us to trace how star formation has been developing through the region. The depth and high spatial resolution of our analysis highlight the dual role of stellar feedback in quenching and triggering star formation on the giant H ii region scale. Our results are consistent with stellar sub-clustering in a partially filled gaseous nebula that is offset toward our side of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  12. Causes and projections of abrupt climate-driven ecosystem shifts in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaugrand, G.; Edwards, M.; Brander, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Warming of the global climate is now unequivocal and its impact on Earth' functional units has become more apparent. Here, we show that marine ecosystems are not equally sensitive to climate change and reveal a critical thermal boundary where a small increase in temperature triggers abrupt...... ecosystem shifts seen across multiple trophic levels. This large-scale boundary is located in regions where abrupt ecosystem shifts have been reported in the North Atlantic sector and thereby allows us to link these shifts by a global common phenomenon. We show that these changes alter the biodiversity...... and carrying capacity of ecosystems and may, combined with fishing, precipitate the reduction of some stocks of Atlantic cod already severely impacted by exploitation. These findings offer a way to anticipate major ecosystem changes and to propose adaptive strategies for marine exploited resources such as cod...

  13. Evaluation of a pilot medication therapy management project within the North Carolina State Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dale B; Roth, Mary; Trygstad, Troy; Byrd, John

    2007-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of a pharmacist-based medication therapy management (MTM) service for North Carolina State Health Plan enrollees. Before/after design with two control groups. Community pharmacies and an ambulatory care clinic in North Carolina serving patients from October 2004 to March 2005. 67 patients who used a large number of prescription drugs, 10 community/ambulatory care pharmacists, and more than 600 participants from two control groups. Pharmacist-conducted MTM reviews for volunteering patients. Process measures (type and frequency of drug therapy problems detected and services performed), economic measures (number and cost of medications dispensed), and humanistic measures (patient satisfaction with services). Pharmacists identified an average of 3.6 potential drug therapy problems (PDTPs) per patient at the first visit. The most common PDTP categories were "potential underuse" and "more cost-effective drug available." Pharmacist actions were divided nearly equally between activities that would result in increased and decreased drug use. Pharmacists recommended a drug therapy change in about 50% of patients and contacted the prescriber more than 85% of the time. About 50% of patients with PDTPs had a change in drug therapy. Prescription use during the postintervention period decreased in both the study and control groups but was statistically significant only among the control groups. No significant differences were observed in patient co-payment or insurer prescription costs. Pharmacists provided the following educational services: medication use (90%), disease management (88%), adherence, and self-care (60%). Survey results indicated that patients highly valued the service. A voluntary MTM program targeted at ambulatory patients using a large number of medications reduced the number of PDTPs but did not necessarily result in reductions in prescription drug use or cost. Nearly all patients received some form of medication adherence or disease

  14. The Panther Patch: A Far North K to 6 Gardening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanscom, Janice T.; Leipzig, Felicia

    1994-01-01

    This article outlines the development of an urban elementary school gardening project where children learn science and responsibility for the environment. Charts provide a gardening timeline, planting plan for each grade level, instructions for building a grow cart, and indoor experiments that test environmental factors for each grade level. (LZ)

  15. Joint Applications Pilot of the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform and the North Central Climate Science Center: Delivering climate projections on regional scales to support adaptation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Ojima, D. S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The DOI North Central Climate Science Center (NC CSC) and the NOAA/NCAR National Climate Predictions and Projections (NCPP) Platform and have initiated a joint pilot study to collaboratively explore the "best available climate information" to support key land management questions and how to provide this information. NCPP's mission is to support state of the art approaches to develop and deliver comprehensive regional climate information and facilitate its use in decision making and adaptation planning. This presentation will describe the evolving joint pilot as a tangible, real-world demonstration of linkages between climate science, ecosystem science and resource management. Our joint pilot is developing a deliberate, ongoing interaction to prototype how NCPP will work with CSCs to develop and deliver needed climate information products, including translational information to support climate data understanding and use. This pilot also will build capacity in the North Central CSC by working with NCPP to use climate information used as input to ecological modeling. We will discuss lessons to date on developing and delivering needed climate information products based on this strategic partnership. Four projects have been funded to collaborate to incorporate climate information as part of an ecological modeling project, which in turn will address key DOI stakeholder priorities in the region: Riparian Corridors: Projecting climate change effects on cottonwood and willow seed dispersal phenology, flood timing, and seedling recruitment in western riparian forests. Sage Grouse & Habitats: Integrating climate and biological data into land management decision models to assess species and habitat vulnerability Grasslands & Forests: Projecting future effects of land management, natural disturbance, and CO2 on woody encroachment in the Northern Great Plains The value of climate information: Supporting management decisions in the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC. NCCSC's role in

  16. Science Scores in Title I Elementary Schools in North Georgia: A Project Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Ramon

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)'s emphasis of reading, language arts, and mathematics (RLA&M) and its de-emphasis of science has been a source of great concern among educators. Through an objectivist and constructionist framework, this study explored the unforeseen effects of the NCLB on public science education among Title I (TI) and non-Title I (NTI) students. The research questions focused on the effects of NCLB on Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in the high-stakes subjects of reading, language arts, mathematics and the low stakes subject of science among TI and NTI 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students in a north Georgia County during the 2010/2011 school year. This study also compared instructional time TI and NTI teachers dedicated to science. A causal-comparative quantitative methodology was used to analyze Georgia's public domain CRCT scores. Three independent-samples t tests showed that TI schools exhibited significantly lower Science CRCT scores than did NTI students at all grade levels (p need students with strong science foundations. Further study is recommended to analyze the factors associated with this science gap between TI and NTI students.

  17. Pinellas County, Florida, Site Environmental Restoration Project Sitewide Environmental Monitoring Semiannual Progress Report for the Young - Rainey STAR Center June Through November 2016, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Daniel, Joe [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Young - Rainey STAR Center (Science, Technology, and Research Center) at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site is a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility constructed in the mid-1950s. The 96-acre STAR Center is located in Largo, Florida, and lies in the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 30 South, Range 15 East (Figure 1). While it was owned by DOE, the purpose of the site was to develop and manufacture components for the nation’s nuclear weapons program. In 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Assessment (EPA 1988) at the site to gather information on potential releases of hazardous materials. In February of 1990, EPA issued a Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments permit to DOE, requiring DOE to investigate and perform remediation activities in those areas designated as solid-waste management units (SWMUs) contaminated by hazardous materials resulting from DOE operations. A total of 17 SWMUs were identified and investigated at the STAR Center. By 1997, 13 of the 17 SWMUs had been remediated or approved for no further action. More recently, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) executed Conditional Site Rehabilitation Completion Orders for the Northeast Site and the Wastewater Neutralization Area on July 27, 2016, stating that no further action is required for those SWMUs. The Building 100 Area (a combination of the Old Drum Storage Site and the Building 100-Industrial Drain Leaks SWMUs) comprises the only two active SWMUs at the STAR Center (Figure 2). This document serves as the semiannual progress report for the SWMUs by providing the results of recent monitoring activities and a summary of ongoing and projected work. The STAR Center is owned by the Pinellas County Industrial Development Authority, but DOE is responsible for remediation activities at the site. Additional background information for the site is contained in the Long-Term Surveillance

  18. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  19. Stars and Star Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Belfield and Bowman Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in the spring of 1996. Water sampling was conducted in 1993 at both the Belfield processing site and the Bowman processing/disposal site. Results of the sampling at both sites indicate that ground water conditions have remained relatively stable over time. Water sampling activities are not scheduled for 1994 because ground water conditions at the two sites are relatively stable, the 1993 sampling was comprehensive, and surface remediation activities are not scheduled to start until 1996. The next water sampling event is scheduled before the start of remedial activities and will include sampling selected monitor wells at both sites and several domestic wells in the vicinity

  1. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. Historical and projected carbon balance of mature black spruce ecosystems across north america: The role of carbon-nitrogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clein, Joy S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhang, X.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Melillo, J.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jarvis, P.G.; Massheder, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    simulated NEP (R2 = 0.36, 0.20 for coupled and uncoupled simulations, respectively) was similar to the correlations at the northern site. To evaluate the role of N dynamics in C balance of black spruce ecosystems across North America, we simulated historical and projected C dynamics from 1900 to 2100 with a global-based climatology at 0.5?? resolution (latitude ?? longitude) with both the coupled and uncoupled parameterizations of TEM. From analyses at the northern site, several consistent patterns emerge. There was greater inter-annual variability in net primary production (NPP) simulated by the uncoupled parameterization as compared to the coupled parameterization, which led to substantial differences in inter-annual variability in NEP between the parameterizations. The divergence between NPP and heterotrophic respiration was greater in the uncoupled simulation, resulting in more C sequestration during the projected period. These responses were the result of fundamentally different responses of the coupled and uncoupled parameterizations to changes in CO2 and climate. Across North American black spruce ecosystems, the range of simulated decadal changes in C storage was substantially greater for the uncoupled parameterization than for the coupled parameterization. Analysis of the spatial variability in decadal responses of C dynamics revealed that C fluxes simulated by the coupled and uncoupled parameterizations have different sensitivities to climate and that the climate sensitivities of the fluxes change over the temporal scope of the simulations. The results of this study suggest that uncertainties can be reduced through (1) factorial studies focused on elucidating the role of C and N interactions in the response of mature black spruce ecosystems to manipulations of atmospheric CO2 and climate, (2) establishment of a network of continuous, long-term measurements of C dynamics across the range of mature black spruce ecosystems in North America, and (3) ancillary

  3. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  5. Fabrication and installment of the hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection test stand of the K-STAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Oh, Byung Hun

    2004-12-01

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection test stand (NBI-TS) for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been underway since the start of the project to answer the diverse requests arising from the various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. Another one to be mentioned is the interlock circuitry. One of the interlock circuits are related to the coolant flow failure. The other is the interlock circuit related to the vacuum failure. All of the above mentioned circuitry now constitutes integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system; details of those hard-wired I and C work are described in this report

  6. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  7. Hydrogeological framework, numerical simulation of groundwater flow, and effects of projected water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Derek W.; Correll, Jessica S.

    2016-01-14

    This report describes a study of the hydrology, hydrogeological framework, numerical groundwater-flow models, and results of simulations of the effects of water use and drought for the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer, northwestern Oklahoma. The purpose of the study was to provide analyses, including estimating equal-proportionate-share (EPS) groundwater-pumping rates and the effects of projected water use and droughts, pertinent to water management of the Beaver-North Canadian River alluvial aquifer for the Oklahoma Water Resources Board.

  8. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed

  9. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistine, Angela Van; Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M ⊙ yr −1 Mpc −3 ]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  10. THE ALFALFA H α SURVEY. I. PROJECT DESCRIPTION AND THE LOCAL STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY FROM THE FALL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistine, Angela Van [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Janowiecki, Steven [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Sugden, Arthur [Department of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Wilcots, Eric M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    The ALFALFA H α survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA H α contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband H α images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of H α images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[ M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} Mpc{sup −3}]) = −1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  11. Comparing CMIP-3 and CMIP-5 climate projections on flooding estimation of Devils Lake of North Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehendra Kharel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada. Despite these drawbacks, running outlets would result in low overspill risks in the next 30 years. Methods In this study we evaluated the efficacy of this outlet-based mitigation strategy under scenarios based on the latest IPCC future climate projections. We used the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMIP-5 weather patterns from 17 general circulation models (GCMs obtained under four representative concentration pathways (RCP scenarios and downscaled to the DL region. Then, we simulated the changes in lake water levels using the soil and water assessment tool based hydrological model of the watershed. We estimated the probability of future flood risks under those scenarios and compared those with previously estimated overspill risks under the CMIP-3 climate. Results The CMIP-5 ensemble projected a mean annual temperature of 5.78 °C and mean daily precipitation of 1.42 mm/day; both are higher than the existing CMIP-3 future estimates of 4.98 °C and 1.40 mm/day, respectively. The increased precipitation and higher temperature resulted in a significant increase of DL’s overspill risks: 24.4–47.1% without release from outlets and 3.5–14.4% even if the outlets are operated at their combined full 17 m3/s capacity. Discussion The modeled increases in overspill risks indicate a greater frequency of water releases through the artificial outlets. Future

  12. The whiteStar development project: Westinghouse's next generation core design simulator and core monitoring software to power the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W. A.; Mayhue, L. T.; Penkrot, V. S.; Zhang, B.

    2009-01-01

    The WhiteStar project has undertaken the development of the next generation core analysis and monitoring system for Westinghouse Electric Company. This on-going project focuses on the development of the ANC core simulator, BEACON core monitoring system and NEXUS nuclear data generation system. This system contains many functional upgrades to the ANC core simulator and BEACON core monitoring products as well as the release of the NEXUS family of codes. The NEXUS family of codes is an automated once-through cross section generation system designed for use in both PWR and BWR applications. ANC is a multi-dimensional nodal code for all nuclear core design calculations at a given condition. ANC predicts core reactivity, assembly power, rod power, detector thimble flux, and other relevant core characteristics. BEACON is an advanced core monitoring and support system which uses existing instrumentation data in conjunction with an analytical methodology for on-line generation and evaluation of 3D core power distributions. This new system is needed to design and monitor the Westinghouse AP1000 PWR. This paper describes provides an overview of the software system, software development methodologies used as well some initial results. (authors)

  13. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  14. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

  15. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  17. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  19. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  20. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  1. Creating Dynamically Downscaled Seasonal Climate Forecast and Climate Change Projection Information for the North American Monsoon Region Suitable for Decision Making Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C. L.; Dominguez, F.; Chang, H.

    2010-12-01

    Current seasonal climate forecasts and climate change projections of the North American monsoon are based on the use of course-scale information from a general circulation model. The global models, however, have substantial difficulty in resolving the regional scale forcing mechanisms of precipitation. This is especially true during the period of the North American Monsoon in the warm season. Precipitation is driven primarily due to the diurnal cycle of convection, and this process cannot be resolve in coarse-resolution global models that have a relatively poor representation of terrain. Though statistical downscaling may offer a relatively expedient method to generate information more appropriate for the regional scale, and is already being used in the resource decision making processes in the Southwest U.S., its main drawback is that it cannot account for a non-stationary climate. Here we demonstrate the use of a regional climate model, specifically the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, for dynamical downscaling of the North American Monsoon. To drive the WRF simulations, we use retrospective reforecasts from the Climate Forecast System (CFS) model, the operational model used at the U.S. National Center for Environmental Prediction, and three select “well performing” IPCC AR 4 models for the A2 emission scenario. Though relatively computationally expensive, the use of WRF as a regional climate model in this way adds substantial value in the representation of the North American Monsoon. In both cases, the regional climate model captures a fairly realistic and reasonable monsoon, where none exists in the driving global model, and captures the dominant modes of precipitation anomalies associated with ENSO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Long-term precipitation variability and trends in these simulations is considered via the standardized precipitation index (SPI), a commonly used metric to characterize long-term drought. Dynamically

  2. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  3. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  5. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  6. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  7. “Super-deblended” Dust Emission in Galaxies. I. The GOODS-North Catalog and the Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density out to Redshift 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daizhong; Daddi, Emanuele; Dickinson, Mark; Owen, Frazer; Pannella, Maurilio; Sargent, Mark; Béthermin, Matthieu; Magdis, Georgios; Gao, Yu; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Tao; Jin, Shuowen; Inami, Hanae

    2018-02-01

    We present a new technique to measure multi-wavelength “super-deblended” photometry from highly confused images, which we apply to Herschel and ground-based far-infrared (FIR) and (sub-)millimeter (mm) data in the northern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. There are two key novelties. First, starting with a large database of deep Spitzer 24 μm and VLA 20 cm detections that are used to define prior positions for fitting the FIR/submm data, we perform an active selection of useful priors independently at each frequency band, moving from less to more confused bands. Exploiting knowledge of redshift and all available photometry, we identify hopelessly faint priors that we remove from the fitting pool. This approach significantly reduces blending degeneracies and allows reliable photometry to be obtained for galaxies in FIR+mm bands. Second, we obtain well-behaved, nearly Gaussian flux density uncertainties, individually tailored to all fitted priors for each band. This is done by exploiting extensive simulations that allow us to calibrate the conversion of formal fitting uncertainties to realistic uncertainties, depending on directly measurable quantities. We achieve deeper detection limits with high fidelity measurements and uncertainties at FIR+mm bands. As an illustration of the utility of these measurements, we identify 70 galaxies with z≥slant 3 and reliable FIR+mm detections. We present new constraints on the cosmic star formation rate density at 3publicly with our catalog.

  8. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Modernization project for North Bangkok Thermal Power Plant in Thailand; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Tai North Bangkok karyoku hatsusensho kindaika jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a modernization project has been discussed on the North Bangkok heavy oil burning thermal power plant owned by Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The present project plans to withdraw the existing units No. 1, 2 and 3, and install two new generating facilities with the rated output of 358.3 MW using natural gas as fuel. The present feasibility survey has performed detailed comparative discussions on four cases, whereas a proposal was selected to withdraw all of the boilers, steam turbines, and generators, and install two single axis combined cycle systems whose output has been increased by using the existing fuel tank area. The energy saving effect by this project can reduce fuel consumption annually by 514 kt of crude oil equivalent. The greenhouse gas can be reduced annually by 2,680 kt-CO2. The project will require a total fund of about 57 billion yen. The profitability assessment calls for the internal profitability of 8.413% and the investment fund efficiency of 1.69%. The economic investment payback effect of this project is determined sufficient. (NEDO)

  9. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-23 to 1966-08-02 (NODC Accession 6600087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North Pacific...

  10. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS PLUCK in the North Pacific Ocean in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project on 1966-02-12 (NODC Accession 6600559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS PLUCK in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North Pacific Ocean...

  11. The First Billion Years project: constraining the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study investigating the dust attenuation law at z ≃ 5, based on synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated for a sample of N = 498 galaxies drawn from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project. The simulated galaxies at z ≃ 5, which have M1500 ≤ -18.0 and 7.5 ≤ log(M/M}_{⊙}) ≤ 10.2, display a mass-dependent α-enhancement, with a median value of [α /{Fe}]_{z=5} ˜eq 4 × [α /{Fe}]_{Z_{⊙}}. The median Fe/H ratio of the simulated galaxies is 0.14 ± 0.05 which produces steep intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) continuum slopes; 〈βI〉 = -2.4 ± 0.05. Using a set of simple dust attenuation models, in which the wavelength-dependent attenuation is assumed to be of the form A(λ) ∝ λn, we explore the parameter values which best reproduce the observed z = 5 luminosity function (LF) and colour-magnitude relation (CMR). We find that a simple model in which the absolute UV attenuation is a linearly increasing function of log stellar mass (A1500 = 0.5 × log(M/M⊙) - 3.3), and the dust attenuation slope (n) is within the range -0.7 ≤ n ≤ -0.3, can successfully reproduce the LF and CMR over a wide range of stellar population synthesis model assumptions, including the effects of massive binaries. This range of attenuation curves is consistent with a power-law fit to the Calzetti attenuation law in the UV (n = -0.55). In contrast, curves as steep as the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve (n = -1.24) are formally ruled out. Finally, we show that our models are consistent with recent 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and predict the form of the z ≃ 5 infrared excess (IRX)-β relation.

  12. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Among the several hundred million binary systems estimated to lie within 3000 light years of the solar system, a tiny fraction, no more than a few hundred, belong to a curious subclass whose radiation has a wavelength distribution so peculiar that it long defied explanation. Such systems radiate strongly in the visible region of the spectrum, but some of them do so even more strongly at both shorter and longer wavelengths: in the ultraviolet region and in the infrared and radio regions. This odd distribution of radiation is best explained by the pairing of a cool red giant star and an intensely hot small star that is virtually in contact with its larger companion. Such objects have become known as symbiotic stars. On photographic plate only the giant star can be discerned, but evidence for the existence of the hot companion has been supplied by satellite-born instruments capable of detecting ultraviolet radiation. The spectra of symbiotic stars indicate that the cool red giant is surrounded by a very hot ionized gas. Symbiotic stars also flared up in outbursts indicating the ejection of material in the form of a shell or a ring. Symbiotic stars may therefore represent a transitory phase in the evolution of certain types of binary systems in which there is substantial transfer of matter from the larger partner to the smaller

  13. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes

  14. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  15. Archeological and Historic Cultural Resources Inventory for a Proposed Flood Control Project at Grafton, Walsh County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    10,000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.) subsistence was based primarily on exploitation of herds of big game animals, popularly referred to as megafauna. Much of this...Alkire Mound (32SI200), and Porcupine Creek Component (32SI6, an occupation site) , all located on the Missouri River and north of the North Dakota...attempting to form any idea of the numerous herds of buffalo which must have passed here" (Harold Printing Co. 1909). It is likely that such a region would

  16. CARBON NEUTRON STAR ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Klochkov, D.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in the chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, the atmospheres of thermally emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in Cas A, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho and Heinke. To test this composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of the carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed this grid using the standard local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10 8  G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra

  17. OVERVIEW AND STATUS OF THE STAR DETECTOR AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHRISTIE, W.B.

    1999-01-01

    Presented here is the current status of the STAR Detector. STAR is one of the four detectors being constructed at the RHIC collider facility. The STAR detector is scheduled to have its first engineering run with the RHIC beams about six months from the date of this conference. The STAR project is on schedule and expects to recomplete on time

  18. Reception of the Interpersonal Relations Series of the Continuing Education Project for Public Health Workers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Donnie

    Research was conducted on reactions of North Carolina public health workers to the telecasts, study manuals, and group discussion sessions used for seven programs (Introduction, Group Discussion, Communication, Cooperation, Culture and Public Health, Our Public Image, and Questions and Answers, respectively) in the interpersonal relations series…

  19. Infrastructure for Large-Scale Quality-Improvement Projects: Early Lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P.; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E.; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods: Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid cycle improvement principles; (3)…

  20. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  1. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  2. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  3. STARS no star on Kauai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1993-01-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem

  4. Flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The least massive, but possibly most numerous, stars in a galaxy are the dwarf M stars. It has been observed that some of these dwarfs are characterized by a short increase in brightness. These stars are called flare stars. These flare stars release a lot of energy in a short amount of time. The process producing the eruption must be energetic. The increase in light intensity can be explained by a small area rising to a much higher temperature. Solar flares are looked at to help understand the phenomenon of stellar flares. Dwarfs that flare are observed to have strong magnetic fields. Those dwarf without the strong magnetic field do not seem to flare. It is believed that these regions of strong magnetic fields are associated with star spots. Theories on the energy that power the flares are given. Astrophysicists theorize that the driving force of a stellar flare is the detachment and collapse of a loop of magnetic flux. The mass loss due to stellar flares is discussed. It is believed that stellar flares are a significant contributor to the mass of interstellar medium in the Milky Way

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Project VeSElkA: HD stars atomic-line analysis (LeBlanc+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, F.; Khalack, V.; Yameogo, B.; Thibeault, C.; Gallant, I.

    2017-11-01

    The four stars studied here were observed with ESPaDOnS at CFHT. High-resolution (R=65000) Stokes IV spectra with large signal-to-noise ratios were obtained in the spectral range 3700-10500Å and were reduced with the software package LIBRE-ESPRIT (Donati et al. 1997MNRAS.291..658D). Two or more spectra of each star were taken to verify for any spectral variability. For the four stars studied here, no such variability is detected. Also, no strong magnetic fields were found. More details about these observations are given in Khalack & LeBlanc (2015AJ....150....2K); for instance, the exposure times and the signal-to-noise ratios are given in their table 1 for each star studied here. (4 data files).

  6. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; Warshauer, F. R.; Price, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  7. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Projected sea level rise, gyre circulation and water mass formation in the western North Pacific: CMIP5 inter-model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Mio; Minobe, Shoshiro

    2018-06-01

    Future changes in the dynamic sea level (DSL), which is defined as sea-level deviation from the global mean sea level, is investigated over the North Pacific, by analyzing data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The analysis provides more comprehensive descriptions of DSL responses to the global warming in this region than available from previous studies, by using surface and subsurface data until the year 2300 under middle and high greenhouse-gas emission scenarios. The DSL changes in the North Pacific are characterized by a DSL rise in the western North Pacific around the Kuroshio Extension (KE), as also reported by previous studies. Subsurface density analysis indicates that DSL rise around the KE is associated with decrease in density of subtropical mode water (STMW) and with northward KE migration, the former (latter) of which is relatively strong between 2000 and 2100 for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (between 2100 and 2300 for RCP8.5). The STMW density decrease is related to large heat uptake to the south and southeast of Japan, while the northward KE migration is associated with the poleward shift of the wind stress field. These features are commonly found in multi-model ensemble means and the relations among representative quantities produced by different climate models.

  9. The influence of mistrust, racism, religious participation, and access to care on patient satisfaction for African American men: the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B; Knafl, George J; Godley, P A; Carpenter, William R; Bensen, Jeannette T; Mohler, James L; Mishel, Merle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether a particular combination of individual characteristics influences patient satisfaction with the health care system among a sample of African American men in North Carolina with prostate cancer. Patient satisfaction may be relevant for improving African American men's use of regular care, thus improving the early detection of prostate cancer and attenuating racial disparities in prostate cancer outcomes. This descriptive correlation study examined relationships of individual characteristics that influence patient satisfaction using data from 505 African American men from North Carolina, who prospectively enrolled in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project from September 2004 to November 2007. Analyses consisted of univariate statistics, bivariate analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The variables selected for the final model were: participation in religious activities, mistrust, racism, and perceived access to care. In this study, both cultural variables, mistrust (p=racism (p=racism are cultural factors that are extremely important and have been negatively associated with patient satisfaction and decreased desires to utilize health care services for African American men. To overcome barriers in seeking health care services, health care providers need to implement a patient-centered approach by creating a clinical environment that demonstrates cultural competence and eliminating policies, procedures, processes, or personnel that foster mistrust and racism.

  10. Preliminary report on the geology of the Red River Valley drilling project, eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-two wells, 26 of which penetrated the Precambrian, were drilled along the eastern edge of the Williston Basin in the eastern tier of counties in North Dakota and in nearby counties in northwestern Minnesota. These tests, along the Red River Valley of the North, were drilled to study the stratigraphy and uranium potential of this area. The drilling program was unsuccessful in finding either significant amounts of uranium or apparently important shows of uranium. It did, however, demonstrate the occurrence of thick elastic sections in the Ordovician, Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems, within the Red River Valley, along the eastern margins of the Williston Basin which could serve as host rocks for uranium ore bodies

  11. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Grand Forks quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Grand Forks 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Seventy-eight (78) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  12. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Fargo quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Fargo 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Eighty-two (82) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  13. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Thief River Falls 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Sixty-six groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly. None of them are considered significant

  14. The radiological exposure of the population of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters Project 'Marina'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions

  15. Neutron star evolution and emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R. I.; Edwards, B. C.; Haines, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors investigated the evolution and radiation characteristics of individual neutron stars and stellar systems. The work concentrated on phenomena where new techniques and observations are dramatically enlarging the understanding of stellar phenomena. Part of this project was a study of x-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars and other compact objects. This effort included calculating the thermal x-ray emission from young neutron stars, deriving the radio and gamma-ray emission from active pulsars and modeling intense gamma-ray bursts in distant galaxies. They also measured periodic optical and infrared fluctuations from rotating neutron stars and search for high-energy TeV gamma rays from discrete celestial sources.

  16. Symbiotic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  17. Potential for Coal Power Plants to Co-Fire with Woody Biomass in the U. S. North, 2010-2030: A Technical Document Supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2015-01-01

    Future use of woody biomass to produce electric power in the U.S. North can have an important influence on timber production, carbon storage in forests, and net carbon emissions from producing electric power. The Northern Forest Futures Project (NFFP) has provided regional- and state-level projections of standing forest biomass, land-use change, and timber harvest,...

  18. Accretion of matter onto highly magnetized neutron stars: Final report, July 1-September 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernquist, L.

    1986-06-01

    A final report is given of two research projects dealing with magnetic fields of neutron stars. These are the modulation of thermal x-rays from cooling neutron stars and plasma instabilities in neutron star accretion columns

  19. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2017-01-01

    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark......Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  20. Next Steps to Implement Renewable Energy Project on the Makah Indian Naiton for the Pacific North West Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Coyote Energy, Inc.

    2005-12-30

    The two year feasibility project was conducted to determine if the Makah reservation wind resource is viable for commercial generation and to investigate the viability and implementaiton of a tribal utility company capable of conducting energy business on the reservation.

  1. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  2. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  3. Future Projection of Ocean Wave Climate: Analysis of SST Impacts on Wave Climate Changes in the Western North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Shimura, Tomoya; Mori, Nobuhito; Mase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ocean surface waves elicit a variety of impacts on coastal environments. To assess the future changes in the ocean surface wave climate, several future projections of global wave climate have been simulated in previous studies. However, previously there has been little discussion about the causes behind changes in the future wave climate and the differences between projections. The objective of this study is to estimate the future changes in mean wave climate and the sensitivity of...

  4. Future Projection with an Extreme-Learning Machine and Support Vector Regression of Reference Evapotranspiration in a Mountainous Inland Watershed in North-West China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenliang Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to project future variability of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 using artificial intelligence methods, constructed with an extreme-learning machine (ELM and support vector regression (SVR in a mountainous inland watershed in north-west China. Eight global climate model (GCM outputs retrieved from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were employed to downscale monthly ET0 for the historical period 1960–2005 as a validation approach and for the future period 2010–2099 as a projection of ET0 under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The following conclusions can be drawn: the ELM and SVR methods demonstrate a very good performance in estimating Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO-56 Penman–Monteith ET0. Variation in future ET0 mainly occurs in the spring and autumn seasons, while the summer and winter ET0 changes are moderately small. Annually, the ET0 values were shown to increase at a rate of approximately 7.5 mm, 7.5 mm, 0.0 mm (8.2 mm, 15.0 mm, 15.0 mm decade−1, respectively, for the near-term projection (2010–2039, mid-term projection (2040–2069, and long-term projection (2070–2099 under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5 scenario. Compared to the historical period, the relative changes in ET0 were found to be approximately 2%, 5% and 6% (2%, 7% and 13%, during the near, mid- and long-term periods, respectively, under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5 warming scenarios. In accordance with the analyses, we aver that the opportunity to downscale monthly ET0 with artificial intelligence is useful in practice for water-management policies.

  5. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  6. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio

    2014-01-01

    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  7. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  8. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  9. The North Sea offshore wind park network and the role of SMEs in project benefit management across actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    routes for SMEs to enhance Project Benefit Management. It is especially difficult to move to the partner-driven approach. Here the intermediary roles of either demand-driven or supplier-driven SME approach are needed before the partner-driven approach is likely to be achieved. A contribution is hereby......The research in this paper reveals how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can contribute to project benefit management for offshore wind energy to be competitive. The research is based on a longitudinal qualitative study starting in 2011 with 10 SME wind park suppliers. The research...... continued with a focus group interview and individual interviews with 20 larger enterprises and SMEs within operation and maintenance in wind parks with follow up in a seminar May 2015. The findings reveal opportunities and challenges for SMEs to contribute to project benefit management in wind parks. Four...

  10. The ACS LCID Project : V. The Star Formation History of the Dwarf Galaxy LGS-3: Clues to Cosmic Reionization and Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Skillman, Evan; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Cole, Andrew; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Bernard, Edouard J.; Cassisi, Santi; Mayer, Lucio; Stetson, Peter; Tolstoy, Eline; Ferguson, Henry

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of the transition-type (dIrr/dSph) Local Group galaxy LGS-3 (Pisces) based on deep photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations reach the oldest main-sequence turnoffs at high

  11. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  12. The Beringian Coevolution Project: Holistic collections of mammals and associated parasites reveal novel perspectives on changing environments in the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Beringian Coevolution Project (BCP), a field program underway in the Arctic since 1999, has focused on building key scientific infrastructure for integrated specimen-based studies on mammals and their associated parasites. BCP has contributed new insights across temporal and spatial scales into...

  13. Studies in Teaching 1999 Research Digest. Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, December 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    This publication presents a collection of research projects presented at the Annual Research Forum at Wake Forest University: "The Use of Group Work as an Effective Teaching Technique in Lower Level Spanish Classes" (James Blackburn); "What Are the Real Factors behind Student Motivation?" (Matthew Grey Burdick); "Can…

  14. Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, North Carolina—Summary of monitoring activities, quality assurance, and data, October 2013–September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2017-09-27

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2013 through September 2014 (water year 2014) and October 2014 through September 2015 (water year 2015). Major findings for this period include:More than 5,500 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 15 sites—4 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Thirty water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality thresholds exist for 11 of these.All observations met State water-quality thresholds for temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite.North Carolina water-quality thresholds were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, pH, turbidity, and chlorophyll a.

  15. Radiological Survey Results for Areas A1 North, A5A, A6, and B2 at the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project, Washington, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.C. Adams

    2007-01-01

    Perform radiological surveys of the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project (MWRP) facility in Washington, Pennsylvania. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to provide limited training pertaining to ORISE radiological soil scanning and sampling procedures to the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) personnel. In addition, the NRC also requested that ORISE perform radiological surveys of the Molycorp Washington Remediation Project (MWRP) facility in Washington, Pennsylvania (Figure 1). ORISE has and will continue to interface with PADEP personnel in a joint effort to perform confirmatory radiological surveys, consisting of gamma scans and soil sampling, at the MWRP facility. PADEP personnel will continue to submit soil samples that they collect to ORISE for analyses. PADEP sample results, along with ORISE results, will be provided to the NRC and PADEP so that decisions regarding the radiological status of the surveyed areas can be determined. ORISE performed radiological surveys during the period of November 28 and 29, 2006. The survey unit (SU) available for ORISE radiological survey activities was Area A1 North. The MWRP final status survey (FSS) results for Area A1 North were reviewed prior to these survey activities. Prior to ORISE's survey activities, PADEP personnel had performed radiological surveys and collected soil samples from SU Areas A5A and A6. These samples were provided to ORISE for analyses while on site. After the ORISE radiological surveys, PADEP personnel collected soil samples from SU Areas A2 and B2 and these samples were shipped to ORISE for analyses in January 2007. Figure 2 depicts the MWRP Areas A through D; ORISE and PADEP personnel performed survey activities in portions of Areas A and B. For interlaboratory comparison analyses with MWRP's site contractor, Malcolm Pirnie (MP), ORISE requested soil samples from the Area A1 soil stockpiles

  16. The Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP) for low income underserved children in rural western North Carolina: a National Asthma Control Initiative Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Melinda S; Yeatts, Karin B; Russell, Donald W; Trees, Amy S; Sutherland, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of low-income children with asthma living in rural western North Carolina have suboptimal asthma management. To address the needs of these underserved children, we developed and implemented the Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP); RADMP was selected as one of 13 demonstration projects for the National Asthma Control Initiative (NACI). This observational intervention was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in 20 rural counties and the Eastern Band Cherokee Indian Reservation in western North Carolina. Community and individual intervention components included asthma education in-services and environmental assessments/remediation. The individual intervention also included clinical assessment and management. Environmental remediation was conducted in 13 childcare facilities and 50 homes; over 259 administrative staff received asthma education. Fifty children with mild to severe persistent asthma were followed for up to 2 years; 76% were enrolled in Medicaid. From 12-month pre-intervention to 12-month post-intervention, the total number of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits decreased from 158 to 4 and hospital admissions from 62 to 1 (p < 0.0001). From baseline to intervention completion, lung function FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75 increased by 7.2%, 13.2% and 21.1%, respectively (all p < 0.001), and average school absences dropped from 17 to 8.8 days. Healthcare cost avoided 12 months post-intervention were approximately $882,021. The RADMP program resulted in decreased ED visits, hospitalizations, school absences and improved lung function and eNO. This was the first NACI demonstration project to show substantial improvements in healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes among rural asthmatic children.

  17. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  18. Project Plans, Constraints to Growth and the Impact of Cost Escalation through The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Prism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    MENA national oil companies (NOCs) are targeting ambitious energy expansion, with mid-term plans for a 5.8 million b/d net boost to crude capacity, 1.9 million b/d more NGLs and 400 Bcm/year more gas, alongside significant refining and LNG additions. Nevertheless, a review of historical project delivery sounds a note of caution over timing - with a number of countries prone to delays and others, outright deferrals, even if market leaders, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, remain more resolutely on course. Cost escalation since 2002 has compounded the regional tendency towards delays, although the impact on project delivery has been moderated by a willingness to increase budgets where project economics remain sound. That leaves political factors as the principal constraint to regional expansion, complicated in part by increasing pluralism in political participation and valid concerns about the management of resources for long-term sustainability, rather than near-term profit. With most constraints to development expected to remain at the political level, there is a clear case for consumers to be more explicit about future needs. There is also a need to engage with growing constituencies in some states favouring a 'go slow' approach to hydrocarbon development where policymakers have made the case for considered expansion.

  19. Consideration of land-use and land-cover changes in the projection of climate extremes over North America by the end of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Adelina

    2018-03-01

    Changes in the essential climate extremes indices and surface variables for the end of the twenty-first century are assessed in this study based on two transient climate change simulations, with and without land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), but identical atmospheric forcing. The two simulations are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the Canadian Earth System Model for the (2006-2100)-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the global change assessment model (GCAM) representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario suggest significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to afforestation. CRCM5 climate projections imply a general warming by the end of the twenty-first century, especially over the northern regions in winter. CRCM5 projects more warm spell-days per year over most areas of the continent, and implicitly more summer days and tropical nights at the expense of cold-spell, frost and ice days whose number is projected to decrease by up to 40% by the end of the twenty-first century with respect to the baseline period 1971-2000. Most land areas north of 45°N, in all seasons, as well as the southeastern United States in summer, exhibit increases in mean precipitation under the RCP4.5 scenario. In contrast, central parts of the continent in summer and much of Mexico in all seasons show reduced precipitation. In addition, large areas of North America exhibit changes of 10 to 40% (depending on the season and geographical location) in the number of heavy precipitation days. Results also suggest that the biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the two simulations, lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the

  20. Projected Motorway Construction in the Central and North-Western Regions of Romania between 2013-2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Csutak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways and expressways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. The 21st Century has brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways and expressways. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central and North-Western regions of Romania. The aim of this paper is presenting the two regions’ motorways as compared to the national average, determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction, as well as a comparative study of the works planned to be carried out between 2013-2021 as compared to the ones planned between the years 2004-2012. It was proven that highways in these two regions have been built using mainly state funds, thus these works are progressing slowly due to lack of consistent funding. The results of this study also relate to how fast the construction works will be finished on parts where construction has already begun, as well as whether construction works will be conducted in a higher pace than the ones between 2004 and 2012.

  1. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  2. The Equatorial Coordinates and B-Magnitudes of the Stars in the Southern Hemisphere Zones Based on the Digitized Astronegatives of FON Project at the Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuldoshev, Q. X.; Muminov, M. M.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Usmanov, O. U.; Relke, H.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Protsyuk, S. V.; Andruk, V. N.

    FON (Russian abbreviation of the Photographic Sky Survey) were carried out at 6 observatories. The Kitab Observatory (KO) of Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute (UBAI) of the Uzbek Academy of Sciences (UzAS) was involved in this project from 1981 to 1996. For the observations the Double Astrograph of Zeiss (DAZ, D/F = 40/300, 69"/mm) was used. On the FON project about 2600 photographic plates were exposed. In October, 2015 digitization of these astroplates were started using EPSON Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner with the spatial resolution of 1200 dpi and completed in June, 2016. The first stage of the work is the processing of the 2000 photographic plates in zones of the southern hemisphere with the declination between 0 and -20 degrees. The 1704 plates have already been processed. The equatorial coordinates α, δ of stars and galaxies were determined in the system of the Tycho2 catalogue and the Bmagnitudes in the system of the photoelectric standards. UBAI UzAS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan), ASU, Andijan (Uzbekistan), WHO, Essen (Germany), RI NAO, Nikolaev (Ukraine), MAO NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine) have taken part in the processing of the digitized images. For the data reduction the MIDAS package and software, developed in the MAO NASU were used. Based on the results of the processing of the astronegatives in the sectors of right ascension from 0 hours to 24 hours and declination from - 20° to 0° the internal errors of the catalogue were estimated. The errors calculated for all stars are 0.17" and 0.18m respectively. For the stars brighter than 14 magnitude the errors are 0.08" and 0.07m for the equatorial coordinates and B-magnitudes respectively.

  3. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  4. Pilot studies for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project - Site selection, sampling protocols, analytical methods, and quality control protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.B.; Woodruff, L.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Cannon, W.F.; Garrett, R.G.; Kilburn, J.E.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada sampled and chemically analyzed soils along two transects across Canada and the USA in preparation for a planned soil geochemical survey of North America. This effort was a pilot study to test and refine sampling protocols, analytical methods, quality control protocols, and field logistics for the continental survey. A total of 220 sample sites were selected at approximately 40-km intervals along the two transects. The ideal sampling protocol at each site called for a sample from a depth of 0-5 cm and a composite of each of the O, A, and C horizons. The Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Ti, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, In, La, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Te, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following a near-total digestion in a mixture of HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF. Separate methods were used for Hg, Se, total C, and carbonate-C on this same size fraction. Only Ag, In, and Te had a large percentage of concentrations below the detection limit. Quality control (QC) of the analyses was monitored at three levels: the laboratory performing the analysis, the USGS QC officer, and the principal investigator for the study. This level of review resulted in an average of one QC sample for every 20 field samples, which proved to be minimally adequate for such a large-scale survey. Additional QC samples should be added to monitor within-batch quality to the extent that no more than 10 samples are analyzed between a QC sample. Only Cr (77%), Y (82%), and Sb (80%) fell outside the acceptable limits of accuracy (% recovery between 85 and 115%) because of likely residence in mineral phases resistant to the acid digestion. A separate sample of 0-5-cm material was collected at each site for determination of organic compounds. A subset of 73 of these samples was analyzed for a suite of

  5. THE HARPS-TERRA PROJECT. I. DESCRIPTION OF THE ALGORITHMS, PERFORMANCE, AND NEW MEASUREMENTS ON A FEW REMARKABLE STARS OBSERVED BY HARPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul, E-mail: anglada@dtm.ciw.edu [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Doppler spectroscopy has uncovered or confirmed all the known planets orbiting nearby stars. Two main techniques are used to obtain precision Doppler measurements at optical wavelengths. The first approach is the gas cell method, which consists of least-squares matching of the spectrum of iodine imprinted on the spectrum of the star. The second method relies on the construction of a stabilized spectrograph externally calibrated in wavelength. The most precise stabilized spectrometer in operation is the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), operated by the European Southern Observatory in La Silla Observatory, Chile. The Doppler measurements obtained with HARPS are typically obtained using the cross-correlation function (CCF) technique. This technique consists of multiplying the stellar spectrum by a weighted binary mask and finding the minimum of the product as a function of the Doppler shift. It is known that CCF is suboptimal in exploiting the Doppler information in the stellar spectrum. Here we describe an algorithm to obtain precision radial velocity measurements using least-squares matching of each observed spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template derived from the same observations. This algorithm is implemented in our software HARPS-TERRA (Template-Enhanced Radial velocity Re-analysis Application). New radial velocity measurements on a representative sample of stars observed by HARPS are used to illustrate the benefits of the proposed method. We show that, compared with CCF, template matching provides a significant improvement in accuracy, especially when applied to M dwarfs.

  6. The Solar system.Stars and constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horia Minda, Octavian

    2017-04-01

    It is important for students to understand what is in our Solar System. The Students need to know that there are other things besides the Earth, Sun and Moon in the solar sky. The students will learn about the other eight planets and a few other celestial objects like stars and constellations. Constellations are useful because they can help people to recognize stars in the sky. By looking for patterns, the stars and locations can be much easier to spot. The constellations had uses in ancient times. They were used to help keep track of the calendar. This was very important so that people knew when to plant and harvest crops. Another important use for constellations was navigation. By finding Ursa Minor it is fairly easy to spot the North Star (Polaris). Using the height of the North Star in the sky, navigators could figure out their latitude helping ships to travel across the oceans. Objective: 1. The students will be introduced to the origin of the stars they see at night. 2. They will learn that there are groups of stars called constellations. The students will individually create their own constellations. They will be given the chance to tell the class a small story explaining their constellation. Evaluation of Children: The children will be evaluated through the creation of their constellations and ability to work in groups on the computers.

  7. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  8. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  9. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-González, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M ☉ . This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s –1 ) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s –1 ) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  10. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [IFSI-INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  11. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project: effect of the water diversion pattern on transmission of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, You-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong-Jun; Shen, Xue-Hui; Xu, Yong-Liang; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2012-03-20

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is the largest national water conservancy project in China. However, the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of SNWDP will refer to the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of some factors relating to the water diversion pattern on the spread north of O. hupensis and transmission of S. japonicum. Marked snails were attached to the floating debris, and then placed on the water surface, the passage of snails through water pumps was observed. Some marked living adult snails were placed under water in the 5 spots, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days later, their survival and transfer under water were investigated. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 juvenile snails, with a male: female ratio of about 1, were caged, 1 year later, their reproductions were calculated. The snails attached on the floating debris at 100-, 50- and 20-cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the big pump (with a diameter of 80 cm), could be absorbed into the pumps, with passing rates of 2.45%, 3.93% and 43.46%, respectively, compared with 72.07% and 91.00% for the snails at 20 cm and 10 cm-distance from the inlet pipe of the small pump (with a diameter of 20 cm). A total of 36,600 marked living snails were put into 5 ponds and ditches, with the water depths of 1-1.6 m, 15-120 days later, no marked ones were found along the ponds and ditches or in the straw packages. The juvenile snails did not reproduce until their density reached up to 8 snails (ratio of male: female of 1)/0.16 m2. During the construction of ERP of SNWDP, the risk of northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica will be decreased or eliminated as long as long-term reliable interventions for snail control are implemented.

  12. Stars and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    'Estrelas e Planetas' (Stars and Planets) project was developed during the academic year 2009/2010 and was tested on three 3rd grade classes of one school in Quarteira, Portugal. The aim was to encourage the learning of science and the natural and physical phenomena through the construction and manipulation of materials that promote these themes - in this case astronomy. Throughout the project the students built a small book containing three themes of astronomy: differences between stars and planets, the solar system and the phases of the Moon. To each topic was devoted two sessions of about an hour each: the first to teach the theoretical aspects of the theme and the second session to assembly two pages of the book. All materials used (for theoretical sessions and for the construction of the book) and videos of the finished book are available for free use in www.miguelneta.pt/estrelaseplanetas. So far there is only a Portuguese version but soon will be published in English as well. This project won the Excellency Prize 2011 of Casa das Ciências, a portuguese site for teachers supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Fundation (www.casadasciencias.org).

  13. Changing characteristics of land use and ecological service value in the water source region of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Zhai, Wenliang; Cao, Huiqun

    2017-08-01

    Research on changing characteristics of land use and ecological service value (ESV) can guide the regional land use planning and promote the rational use of environmental resources. On the basis of four phases of land-use data (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015), this research analysed the changing characteristics of land use and ESV in the water source region of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SRMRP). The results showed that forest, grassland and cultivated land were the major land-use types in the SRMRP. During 2000∼2015, forest, grassland, farmland and wetland decreased. Construction land and bare land had increased, and the annual increase rates reached 3.6% and 8%, respectively. After the implementation of the water transfer project in 2003, water area was also increasing. The total ESV in the SRMRP is about 196 billion CNY, and mainly comes from the contributions of forest, grassland and farmland. During 2000∼2015, farmland shrinks leaded to the declines in value from supply service. With increasing in water and construction land, value from entertainment and cultural service increased. During the early stage of the water transfer project, value from regulation and support services increased due to the increase in water. With the decreasing in wetland and the increasing in construction land, the negative effects on the regulation and support services were increasing, and value from regulation and support services were therefore decreasing. During the process of resource exploitation and management, more attentions should be paid to the total control of construction land and wetland protection in the SRMRP.

  14. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  16. Spheroidal Populated Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Globular clusters and low-ellipticity early-type galaxies can be treated as systems populated by a large number of stars and whose structures can be schematized as spherically symmetric. Their studies profit from the synthesis of stellar populations. The computation of synthetic models makes use of various contributions from star evolution and stellar dynamics. In the first sections of the paper we present a short review of our results on the occurrence of galactic winds in star systems ranging from globular clusters to elliptical galaxies, and the dynamical evolution of a typical massive globular cluster. In the subsequent sections we describe our approach to the problem of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. The projected radial behaviours of spectro-photometric indices for a sample of eleven galaxies are compared with preliminary model results. The best agreement between observation and theory shows that our galaxies share a certain degree of heterogeneity. The gas energy dissipation varies from moderate to large, the metal yield ranges from solar to significantly oversolar, the dispersion of velocities is isotropic in most of the cases and anisotropic in the remaining instances.

  17. The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhatia, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S. E-mail: sub@veccal.ernet.in; Das, S.; Datta, R.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, P.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Mangotra, L.K.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Pal, S.K.; Phatak, S.C.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sharma, A.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sood, G.; Trivedi, M.D.; Varma, R.; Viyogi, Y.P

    2003-03-01

    Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3-3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.

  18. Determining the degree of satisfaction of project Good Business entrepreneurs in Paraná’s North Pioneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Alves Brene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the determinants of satisfaction of entrepreneurs with training/course project called Good Northern Paraná Business Pioneer. As an analytical tool, the research used a factor analysis, which had a role in evaluating the consistency of the questionnaire and add the 11 questions in two groups (Structure and consultants. With these two explanatory variables, they were crossed with the note of satisfaction with the course (dependent variable first from the adjustment rates (Pearson and Spearman and later with the regression analysis. It is noteworthy that the regression determined which of the variables are shown more relevant, or even if both are significant. As a result it is observed that the variable Consultants has a moderate Pearson correction (0,413 with the note of satisfaction, being larger than the structure (0,268, classified as poor. About Spearman, both had the hypothesis H1 (linking the variables accepted. Regarding the regression is possible to infer that both overall and in individual aspect, the variables are significant, highlighting the structure presented coefficient (1,13 higher than that of consultants (1,07, both explaining 27.2% of the satisfaction score (0,5 points from an average of 1,86.

  19. Economic Impact and Challenges of Jatropha curcas L. Projects in North-Western Province, Zambia: A Case of Solwezi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Kalinda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest products, wood and non-wood, remain vital among smallholder households in Zambia with charcoal being the most sought after product. This has led to increased exploitation of forest trees to meet the needs for fuel wood, among others. However, Jatropha curcas plant has been identified as a potential fuel source. In the early 2000s, profit-making organizations encouraged smallholder households to grow Jatropha for use as an alternative fuel source. This paper reports on a study conducted in Solwezi between 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the impact of Jatropha cultivation for biofuel production. A sample of 100 small-scale farmers involved in Jatropha cultivation and key informants were interviewed to evaluate the impact of growing Jatropha at the small-scale level. Results show that farmers lost out on time; income from sale of edible non-wood forest products; and experienced reduction in maize (Zea mays and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production, worsening household economic conditions. Farmers attributed this loss to unclear policy alignment on biofuel production by government. We therefore recommend that project implementation should involve interactions of all legislative bodies and any other concerned stakeholders. There is also a need to promote the value chain, from production to marketing, which focuses on minimizing detrimental effects on the livelihood of small-scale farmers.

  20. Star River, A Champion of High-end Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq.meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with more than 2000 mu.

  1. Model representations of aerosol layers transported from North America over the Atlantic Ocean during the Two-Column Aerosol Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Berg, Larry K.; Zhang, Kai; Easter, Richard C.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Liu, Ying; Ortega, Ivan; Sedlacek, Art; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla

    2016-08-22

    The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.7 and the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5) in simulating profiles of aerosol properties is quantified using extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements from the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) conducted during July of 2012. TCAP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and was designed to obtain observations within two atmospheric columns; one fixed over Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the other several hundred kilometers over the ocean. The performance is quantified using most of the available aircraft and surface measurements during July, and two days are examined in more detail to identify the processes responsible for the observed aerosol layers. The higher resolution WRF-Chem model produced more aerosol mass in the free troposphere than the coarser resolution CAM5 model so that the fraction of aerosol optical thickness above the residual layer from WRF-Chem was more consistent with lidar measurements. We found that the free troposphere layers are likely due to mean vertical motions associated with synoptic-scale convergence that lifts aerosols from the boundary layer. The vertical displacement and the time period associated with upward transport in the troposphere depend on the strength of the synoptic system and whether relatively high boundary layer aerosol concentrations are present where convergence occurs. While a parameterization of subgrid scale convective clouds applied in WRF-Chem modulated the concentrations of aerosols aloft, it did not significantly change the overall altitude and depth of the layers.

  2. The STAR experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) will be one of two large, sophisticated experiments ready to take data when the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) comes on-line in 1999. The design of STAR, its construction and commissioning and the physics program using the detector are the responsibility of a collaboration of over 250 members from 30 institutions, world-wide. The overall approach of the STAR Collaboration to the physics challenge of studying collisions of highly relativistic nuclei is to focus on measurements of the properties of the many hadrons produced in the collisions. The STAR detector is optimized to detect and identify hadrons over a large solid angle so that individual events can be characterized, in detail, based on their hadronic content. The broad capabilities of the STAR detector will permit an examination of a wide variety of proposed signatures for the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), using the sample of events which, on an event-by-event basis, appear to come from collisions resulting in a large energy density over a nuclear volume. In order to achieve this goal, the STAR experiment is based on a solenoid geometry with tracking detectors using the time projection chamber approach and covering a large range of pseudo-rapidity so that individual tracks can be seen within the very high track density expected in central collisions at RHIC. STAR also uses particle identification by the dE/dx technique and by time-of-flight. Electromagnetic energy is detected in a large, solid-angle calorimeter. The construction of STAR, which will be located in the Wide Angle Hall at the 6 o'clock position at RHIC, formally began in early 1993

  3. Life of a star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henbest, Nigel.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the theory of stellar evolution. A description is given of:- how a star is born, main sequence stars, red giants, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars and black holes. A brief explanation is given of how the death of a star as a supernova can trigger off the birth of a new generation of stars. Classification of stars and the fate of our sun, are also described. (U.K.)

  4. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.

  5. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.……

  6. Estimating reservoir permeability from gravity current modeling of CO2 flow at Sleipner storage project, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowton, L. R.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M.; White, N.; White, J.; Chadwick, A.

    2017-12-01

    Vertically-integrated gravity current models enable computationally efficient simulations of CO2 flow in sub-surface reservoirs. These simulations can be used to investigate the properties of reservoirs by minimizing differences between observed and modeled CO2 distributions. At the Sleipner project, about 1 Mt yr-1 of supercritical CO2 is injected at a depth of 1 km into a pristine saline aquifer with a thick shale caprock. Analysis of time-lapse seismic reflection surveys shows that CO2 is distributed within 9 discrete layers. The trapping mechanism comprises a stacked series of 1 m thick, impermeable shale horizons that are spaced at 30 m intervals through the reservoir. Within the stratigraphically highest reservoir layer, Layer 9, a submarine channel deposit has been mapped on the pre-injection seismic survey. Detailed measurements of the three-dimensional CO2 distribution within Layer 9 have been made using seven time-lapse surveys, providing a useful benchmark against which numerical flow simulations can be tested. Previous simulations have, in general, been largely unsuccessful in matching the migration rate of CO2 in this layer. Here, CO2 flow within Layer 9 is modeled as a vertically-integrated gravity current that spreads beneath a structurally complex caprock using a two-dimensional grid, considerably increasing computational efficiency compared to conventional three-dimensional simulators. This flow model is inverted to find the optimal reservoir permeability in Layer 9 by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted distributions of CO2 as a function of space and time. A three parameter inverse model, comprising reservoir permeability, channel permeability and channel width, is investigated by grid search. The best-fitting reservoir permeability is 3 Darcys, which is consistent with measurements made on core material from the reservoir. Best-fitting channel permeability is 26 Darcys. Finally, the ability of this simplified numerical model

  7. Star Wars and the History of Transmedia Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The collection places Star Wars at the center of those studies’ projects by examining video games, novels and novelizations, comics, advertising practices, television shows, franchising models, aesthetic and economic decisions, fandom and cultural responses, and other aspects of Star Wars and its world-building in their multiple contexts of production, distribution, and reception. In emphasizing that Star Wars is both a media franchise and a transmedia storyworld, Star Wars and the History of...

  8. TTVs study in southern stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Romina; Jofré, Emiliano; Schwartz, Martín; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    In this contribution we present 4 complete planetary transits observed with the 40-cm telescope ``Horacio Ghielmetti'' located in San Juan(Argentina). These objects correspond to a continuous photometric monitoring program of Southern planet host-stars that we are carrying out since mid-2011. The goal of this project is to detect additional planetary mass objects around stars with known transiting-planets through Transit Timing Variations (TTVs). For all 4 transits the depth and duration are in good agreement with the values published in the discovery papers.

  9. The Dwarf Project: Vidojevica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, O.

    2013-05-01

    The DWARF project is an important international project for observing eclipsing binary stars and searching for third companion which orbit around both stars. Recently, a group of researchers at the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade joined this project using the 60 cm telescope at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica for observations. All the equipment and the human potential involved with this project from Serbia will be described in this paper.

  10. Computing payment for ecosystem services in watersheds: an analysis of the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhengju; Yan, Yan; Duan, Jing; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Qingrong; Huang, Xiang; Zhu, Xiangen; Zhao, Jingzhu

    2011-01-01

    Payment for ecosystem services (PES) has attracted considerable attention as an economic incentive for promoting natural resource management recently. As emphasis has been placed on using the incentive-based mechanism by the central government, rapid progress on PES research and practice has been achieved. However PES still faces many difficulties. A key issue is the lack of a fully-fledged theory and method to clearly define the design scope, accounting and feasibility of PES criteria. An improved watershed criteria model was developed in light of research on PES practices in China, investigations on the water source area for the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion and ecosystem services outflows theory. The basic principle of assessment is the direct and opportunity cost for ecological conservation and environmental protection in the water source area deduct nationally-financed PES and internal effect. Then the scope and the criteria methods were determined, and internal effect was put forward to define benefits brought from water source area. Finally, Shiyan City, which is the main water source area for the Project of Water Diversion, was analyzed by this model and its payment was calculated. The results showed that: (1) during 2003-2050, the total direct cost and opportunity cost would reach up to 262.70 billion and 256.33 billion Chinese Yuan (CNY, 2000 constant prices), i.e., 50.61% and 49.38% of total cost, respectively; (2) Shiyan City would gain 0.23, 0.06 and 0.03 CNY/m3 in 2014-2020, 2021-2030, and 2031-2050, respectively.

  11. Outcomes of care for 16,924 planned home births in the United States: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, the number of home births in the United States rose by 41%, increasing the need for accurate assessment of the safety of planned home birth. This study examines outcomes of planned home births in the United States between 2004 and 2009. We calculated descriptive statistics for maternal demographics, antenatal risk profiles, procedures, and outcomes of planned home births in the Midwives Alliance of North American Statistics Project (MANA Stats) 2.0 data registry. Data were analyzed according to intended and actual place of birth. Among 16,924 women who planned home births at the onset of labor, 89.1% gave birth at home. The majority of intrapartum transfers were for failure to progress, and only 4.5% of the total sample required oxytocin augmentation and/or epidural analgesia. The rates of spontaneous vaginal birth, assisted vaginal birth, and cesarean were 93.6%, 1.2%, and 5.2%, respectively. Of the 1054 women who attempted a vaginal birth after cesarean, 87% were successful. Low Apgar scores (home births in the United States, outcomes are congruent with the best available data from population-based, observational studies that evaluated outcomes by intended place of birth and perinatal risk factors. Low-risk women in this cohort experienced high rates of physiologic birth and low rates of intervention without an increase in adverse outcomes. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. THE CHANDRA VARIABLE GUIDE STAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Henden, Arne A.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Martin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Variable stars have been identified among the optical-wavelength light curves of guide stars used for pointing control of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We present a catalog of these variable stars along with their light curves and ancillary data. Variability was detected to a lower limit of 0.02 mag amplitude in the 4000-10000 A range using the photometrically stable Aspect Camera on board the Chandra spacecraft. The Chandra Variable Guide Star Catalog (VGUIDE) contains 827 stars, of which 586 are classified as definitely variable and 241 are identified as possibly variable. Of the 586 definite variable stars, we believe 319 are new variable star identifications. Types of variables in the catalog include eclipsing binaries, pulsating stars, and rotating stars. The variability was detected during the course of normal verification of each Chandra pointing and results from analysis of over 75,000 guide star light curves from the Chandra mission. The VGUIDE catalog represents data from only about 9 years of the Chandra mission. Future releases of VGUIDE will include newly identified variable guide stars as the mission proceeds. An important advantage of the use of space data to identify and analyze variable stars is the relatively long observations that are available. The Chandra orbit allows for observations up to 2 days in length. Also, guide stars were often used multiple times for Chandra observations, so many of the stars in the VGUIDE catalog have multiple light curves available from various times in the mission. The catalog is presented as both online data associated with this paper and as a public Web interface. Light curves with data at the instrumental time resolution of about 2 s, overplotted with the data binned at 1 ks, can be viewed on the public Web interface and downloaded for further analysis. VGUIDE is a unique project using data collected during the mission that would otherwise be ignored. The stars available for use as Chandra guide stars are

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  14. Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, Bernie [CHSR,LLC Owner

    2013-05-31

    The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.

  15. The Stars behind the Curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    still growing into stars, newborn stars, adult stars and stars nearing the end of their life. All these stars have roughly the same age, a million years, a blink of an eye compared to our five billion year-old Sun and Solar System. The fact that some of the stars have just started their lives while others are already dying is due to their extraordinary range of masses: high-mass stars, being very bright and hot, burn through their existence much faster than their less massive, fainter and cooler counterparts. The newly released image, obtained with the FORS instrument attached to the VLT at Cerro Paranal, Chile, portrays a wide field around the stellar cluster and reveals the rich texture of the surrounding clouds of gas and dust. Notes [1] The star, NGC 3603-A1, is an eclipsing system of two stars orbiting around each other in 3.77 days. The most massive star has an estimated mass of 116 solar masses, while its companion has a mass of 89 solar masses. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in

  16. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Underhill, A.B.; Jordan, S.; Thomas, R.

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented

  17. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  18. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  19. MAGNETIC FIELDS OF STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J.

    2008-01-01

    Now it is known about 1212 stars of the main sequence and giants (from them 610 stars - it is chemically peculiarity (CP) stars) for which direct measurements of magnetic fields were spent (Bychkov et al.,2008). Let's consider, what representations were generated about magnetic fields (MT) of stars on the basis of available observations data.

  20. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Phytoplankton, chemical, physical, and other data were collected using bottle, CTD casts, and other instruments in the North Sea as part of the North Sea Project, 15 April 1988 - 30 July 1991 (NODC Accession 9300008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phytoplankton, chemical, physical, and other data were collected using bottle, current meter, net, pump, and CTD casts in the North Sea from April 15, 1988 to July...

  2. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  3. Luminosity Variations in Post-AGB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesler, Robert; Henson, G.

    2007-12-01

    Although much is known about AGB stars and planetary nebulae, relatively little is known about the phase of a star's life in which it transitions between those two states. We have measured the variations in luminosity of a sample of known Post-AGB stars (as well as several candidates) relative to nearby, non-variable stars in order to compare them with theoretical models. The typical behavior of the observed variations is described and an attempt is made to discern whether any periodicity might be present. Luminosity variations were found to be on the order of a few hundredths to a few tenths of a magnitude for the stars that were surveyed, with occasional fluctuations of up to a magnitude. This agrees with current models of Post-AGB stars. Each star fell into one of three categories, which were termed groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 1 stars showed long term, non-periodic luminosity variations on the scale of weeks or longer and were most likely to display some sort of short term, coherent luminosity oscillation (each of which lasted for only a few cycles). Group 2 stars showed erratic, short-term magnitude variations occurring on scales of several days. Group 3 stars showed little or no variation in magnitude. Of the 27 Post-AGB stars that were sampled, five fell into group 1, fifteen fell into group 2, and seven fell into group 3. The luminosity variations tended to be color-independent, and occurred on timescales ranging nearly continuously from a few days to more than a year. No clear periodic behavior was found in any star in our sample. This project was funded by a partnership between the National Science Foundation (NSF AST-0552798), Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), and the Department of Defense (DoD) ASSURE (Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences) programs.

  4. Compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  5. North Antelope Highlands Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlson, Matthew [Citizens Energy Corporation (CEC), Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    This is the final report on the Wind Energy Development of 190 Mw on the Rosebud Indian Reservation in collaboration with Citizens Energy Corporation. The report discusses all pre-development activities since July of 2010 when award was granted. A systems impact study along with wind data accumulated over the past 5 years is contained in this report. We have responded to several RFPs concerning the sale of energy to certain offtakers, but we have failed to win a Power Purchase Agreement due to existing wind farms that won and the interconnection costs were already included in a previous PPAs, which we don't have that luxury. We continue this effort and hopefully in the near future we will win an RFP.

  6. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast

  7. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  8. Implications of climate change on winter road networks in Ontario's Far North and northern Manitoba, Canada, based on climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Y.; Cheng, V. Y. S.; Gough, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    A network of winter roads in northern Canada connects a number of remote First Nations communities to all-season roads and rails. The extent of the winter road networks depends on the geographic features, socio-economic activities, and the numbers of remote First Nations so that it differs among the provinces. The most extensive winter road networks below the 60th parallel south are located in Ontario and Manitoba, serving 32 and 18 communities respectively. In recent years, a warmer climate has resulted in a shorter winter road season and an increase in unreliable road conditions; thus, limiting access among remote communities. This study focused on examining the future freezing degree-days (FDDs) accumulations during the winter road season at selected locations throughout Ontario's Far North and northern Manitoba using recent climate model projections from the multi-model ensembles of General Circulation Models (GCMs) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. First, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall correlation test and the Theil-Sen method were used to identify any statistically significant trends between FDDs and time for the base period (1981-2010). Second, future climate scenarios are developed for the study areas using statistical downscaling methods. This study also examined the lowest threshold of FDDs during the winter road construction in a future period. Our previous study established the lowest threshold of 380 FDDs, which derived from the relationship between the FDDs and the opening dates of James Bay Winter Road near the Hudson-James Bay coast. Thus, this study applied the threshold measure as a conservative estimate of the minimum threshold of FDDs to examine the effects of climate change on the winter road construction period.

  9. Results of AN Evaluation of the Orchestration Capabilities of the Zoo Project and the 52° North Framework for AN Intelligent Geoportal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, V.; Coetzee, S.; Strzelecki, M.; Iwaniak, A.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is to make data available for the economical and societal benefit to a wide audience. A geoportal typically provides access to spatial data and associated web services in an SDI, facilitating the discovery, display, editing and analysis of data. In contrast, a spatial information infrastructure (SII) should provide access to information, i.e. data that has been processed, organized and presented so as to be useful. Thematic maps are an example of the representation of spatial information. An SII geoportal requires intelligence to orchestrate (automatically coordinate) web services that prepare, discover and present information, instead of data, to the user. We call this an intelligent geoportal. The Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service (WPS) standard provides the rules for describing the input and output of any type of spatial process. In this paper we present the results of an evaluation of two orchestration platforms: the 52° North framework and ZOO project. We evaluated the frameworks' orchestration capabilities for producing thematic maps. Results of the evaluation show that both frameworks have potential to facilitate orchestration in an intelligent geoportal, but that some functionality is still lacking; lack of semantic information and usability of the framework; these limitations creates barriers for the wide spread use of the frameworks. Before, the frameworks can be used for advance orchestration these limitations need to be addressed. The results of our evaluation of these frameworks, both with their respective strengths and weaknesses, can guide developers to choose the framework best suitable for their specific needs.

  10. The SILCC project IV. Impact of dissociating and ionizing radiation on the interstellar medium and Ha emission as a tracer of the star formation rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peters, T.; Naab, T.; Walch, S.; Glover, S.C.O.; Girichidis, P.; Pellegrini, E.; Klessen, R.S.; Wünsch, Richard; Gatto, A.; Baczynski, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 3 (2017), s. 3293-3308 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06012S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : formation rate indicators * supernova-driven ism * molecular clouds Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  11. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  13. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  14. Construction of Database for Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. Q.; Yang, M.; Jiang, B. W.

    2011-07-01

    A database for the pulsating variable stars is constructed for Chinese astronomers to study the variable stars conveniently. The database includes about 230000 variable stars in the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC observed by the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) and OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) projects at present. The software used for the construction is LAMP, i.e., Linux+Apache+MySQL+PHP. A web page is provided to search the photometric data and the light curve in the database through the right ascension and declination of the object. More data will be incorporated into the database.

  15. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  16. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  17. CREEK Project's Water Chemistry, Chlorophyll a, and Suspended Sediment Weekly Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  18. A new search for R Coronae Borealis stars in the SMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzat Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available R Coronae Borealis (RCB stars are rare, and their evolutionary origin is not well understood. Since they are obscured due to formation of carbon dust around the star during their mass loss events, RCB stars can be classified as self-eclipsing variable stars. The purpose of this work is to present a new search for RCB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, by analysing VI data from the OGLE project.

  19. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012; California GAMA Priority Basin Project (ver. 1.1, February 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.

    2017-07-20

    Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit (NSF-SA) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is in Marin, Mendocino, Napa, Solano, and Sonoma Counties and included two physiographic study areas: the Valleys and Plains area and the surrounding Highlands area. The NSF-SA focused on groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply, which generally correspond to shallower parts of aquifer systems than that of groundwater resources used for public drinking water supply in the same area. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of drinking water.This study included three components: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the quality of the groundwater resources used for domestic supply for 2012; (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting water quality in those resources; and (3) a comparison between the groundwater resources used for domestic supply and those used for public supply.The status assessment was based on data collected from 71 sites sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project in 2012. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and California State Water Resources Control Board Division of Drinking Water regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources that has concentrations of water-quality constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale and permits comparisons to other GAMA Priority Basin Project study areas.In the NSF-SA study unit as a whole, inorganic

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Dehumidifiers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers that are effective as of October...

  5. Observations of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the observation of central stars of planetary nebulae are reviewed with emphasis on spectral classifications and population types, and temperature determination. Binary and peculiar central stars are discussed. (U.M.G.)

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  7. Wolf-Rayet stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahade, J

    1981-12-01

    Aspects of the problems of the Wolf-Rayet stars related to their chemical composition, their evolutionary status, and their apparent dichotomy in two spectral sequences are discussed. Dogmas concerning WR stars are critically discussed, including the belief that WR stars lack hydrogen, that they are helium stars evolved from massive close binaries, and the existence of a second WR stage in which the star is a short-period single-lined binary. The relationship of WR stars with planetary nebulae is addressed, as is the membership of these stars in clusters and associations. The division of WR stars into WN and WC sequences is considered, questioning the reasonability of accounting for WR line formation in terms of abundance differences.

  8. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  9. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 38. Pro-poor Energy Strategy In North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeharwinto [University of Sumatra Utara, Medan (Indonesia)

    2011-12-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. A key component of the recent political reforms undertaken in Indonesia is the decentralization and regional autonomy that were implemented in 2001. This process has devolved almost all powers and responsibilities from the central government to the local government, including responsibilities for energy sector development. This means that regional governments are now responsible for formulating their energy policy and, consequently, must reform their institutional structure and strengthen their human capacity to be able to carry out this new responsibility. In Indonesia, people living in urban areas generally have access to efficient and modern energy supplies. However, the rural communities are generally less fortunate and continue to rely on traditional fuels of firewood, because the energy and electricity production system available to them are costly and inefficient. The aim of CASINDO's Technical Working Group V (TWG V) on Identification of Energy Needs and Assessment for Poor Communities was to establish energy-related needs and priorities of poor communities in selected locations in the Province of Central Java. The target location for Casindo TWG V activities was the village of Sruni, in the Boyolali district, because it is a district which produces a great amount of milk from dairy cows (greatest amount in Central Java); and secondly, because it does not receive any funds from other development programs, as well as from other institutions, while other subdistricts do. In order to identify actual energy needs successfully, the Participatory

  10. Development and validation of a national data registry for midwife-led births: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project 2.0 dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Midwives Alliance of North America's (MANA's) Division of Research developed a Web-based data collection system to gather information on the practices and outcomes associated with midwife-led births in the United States. This system, called the MANA Statistics Project (MANA Stats), grew out of a widely acknowledged need for more reliable data on outcomes by intended place of birth. This article describes the history and development of the MANA Stats birth registry and provides an analysis of the 2.0 dataset's content, strengths, and limitations. Data collection and review procedures for the MANA Stats 2.0 dataset are described, along with methods for the assessment of data accuracy. We calculated descriptive statistics for client demographics and contributing midwife credentials, and assessed the quality of data by calculating point estimates, 95% confidence intervals, and kappa statistics for key outcomes on pre- and postreview samples of records. The MANA Stats 2.0 dataset (2004-2009) contains 24,848 courses of care, 20,893 of which are for women who planned a home or birth center birth at the onset of labor. The majority of these records were planned home births (81%). Births were attended primarily by certified professional midwives (73%), and clients were largely white (92%), married (87%), and college-educated (49%). Data quality analyses of 9932 records revealed no differences between pre- and postreviewed samples for 7 key benchmarking variables (kappa, 0.98-1.00). The MANA Stats 2.0 data were accurately entered by participants; any errors in this dataset are likely random and not systematic. The primary limitation of the 2.0 dataset is that the sample was captured through voluntary participation; thus, it may not accurately reflect population-based outcomes. The dataset's primary strength is that it will allow for the examination of research questions on normal physiologic birth and midwife-led birth outcomes by intended place of birth.

  11. Revealing Interactions between Human Resources, Quality of Life and Environmental Changes within Socially-oriented Observations : Results from the IPY PPS Arctic Project in the Russian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Socially-oriented Observations (SOO) in the Russian North have been carried out within multidisciplinary IPY PPS Arctic project under the leadership of Norway and supported by the Research Council of Norway as well as Russian Academy of Sciences. The main objective of SOO is to increase knowledge and observation of changes in quality of life conditions (state of natural environment including climate and biota, safe drinking water and foods, well-being, employment, social relations, access to health care and high quality education, etc.) and - to reveal trends in human capital and capacities (health, demography, education, creativity, spiritual-cultural characteristics and diversity, participation in decision making, etc.). SOO have been carried out in industrial cities as well as sparsely populated rural and nature protection areas in observation sites situated in different bioms (from coastal tundra to southern taiga zone) of Murmansk, Arkhangelsk Oblast and Republic of Komi. SOO were conducted according to the international protocol included in PPS Arctic Manual. SOO approaches based both on local people's perceptions and statistics help to identify main issues and targets for life quality, human capital and environment improvement and thus to distinguish leading SOO indicators for further monitoring. SOO have revealed close interaction between human resources, quality of life and environmental changes. Negative changes in human capital (depopulation, increasing unemployment, aging, declining physical and mental health, quality of education, loss of traditional knowledge, marginalization etc.), despite peoples' high creativity and optimism are becoming the major driving force effecting both the quality of life and the state of environment and overall sustainability. Human induced disturbances such as uncontrolled forests cuttings and poaching are increasing. Observed rapid changes in climate and biota (ice and permafrost melting, tundra shrubs getting taller and

  12. The response of future projections of the North American monsoon when combining dynamical downscaling and bias correction of CCSM4 output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan D. D.; Jin, Jiming

    2017-07-01

    A 20-km regional climate model (RCM) dynamically downscaled the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) to compare 32-year historical and future "end-of-the-century" climatologies of the North American Monsoon (NAM). CCSM4 and other phase 5 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project models have indicated a delayed NAM and overall general drying trend. Here, we test the suggested mechanism for this drier NAM where increasing atmospheric static stability and reduced early-season evapotranspiration under global warming will limit early-season convection and compress the mature-season of the NAM. Through our higher resolution RCM, we found the role of accelerated evaporation under a warmer climate is likely understated in coarse resolution models such as CCSM4. Improving the representation of mesoscale interactions associated with the Gulf of California and surrounding topography produced additional surface evaporation, which overwhelmed the convection-suppressing effects of a warmer troposphere. Furthermore, the improved land-sea temperature gradient helped drive stronger southerly winds and greater moisture transport. Finally, we addressed limitations from inherent CCSM4 biases through a form of mean bias correction, which resulted in a more accurate seasonality of the atmospheric thermodynamic profile. After bias correction, greater surface evaporation from average peak GoC SSTs of 32 °C compared to 29 °C from the original CCSM4 led to roughly 50 % larger changes to low-level moist static energy compared to that produced by the downscaled original CCSM4. The increasing destabilization of the NAM environment produced onset dates that were one to 2 weeks earlier in the core of the NAM and northern extent, respectively. Furthermore, a significantly more vigorous NAM signal was produced after bias correction, with >50 mm month-1 increases to the June-September precipitation found along east and west coasts of Mexico and into parts of Texas. A shift towards more

  13. Autonomous Star Tracker Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances.......Proposal, in response to an ESA R.f.P., to design algorithms for autonomous star tracker operations.The proposal also included the development of a star tracker breadboard to test the algorithms performances....

  14. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  15. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  16. Star pattern recognition algorithm aided by inertial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Wang, Ke-dong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-08-01

    Star pattern recognition is one of the key problems of the celestial navigation. The traditional star pattern recognition approaches, such as the triangle algorithm and the star angular distance algorithm, are a kind of all-sky matching method whose recognition speed is slow and recognition success rate is not high. Therefore, the real time and reliability of CNS (Celestial Navigation System) is reduced to some extent, especially for the maneuvering spacecraft. However, if the direction of the camera optical axis can be estimated by other navigation systems such as INS (Inertial Navigation System), the star pattern recognition can be fulfilled in the vicinity of the estimated direction of the optical axis. The benefits of the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm include at least the improved matching speed and the improved success rate. In this paper, the direction of the camera optical axis, the local matching sky, and the projection of stars on the image plane are estimated by the aiding of INS firstly. Then, the local star catalog for the star pattern recognition is established in real time dynamically. The star images extracted in the camera plane are matched in the local sky. Compared to the traditional all-sky star pattern recognition algorithms, the memory of storing the star catalog is reduced significantly. Finally, the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm is validated by simulations. The results of simulations show that the algorithm's computation time is reduced sharply and its matching success rate is improved greatly.

  17. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  18. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-02-25 to 1966-03-03 (NODC Accession 6600527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North and South...

  19. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-12 to 1966-07-19 (NODC Accession 6600091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected North and South Pacific...

  20. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  1. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  2. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  3. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  4. Evolution of variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1986-08-01

    Throughout the domain of the H R diagram lie groupings of stars whose luminosity varies with time. These variable stars can be classified based on their observed properties into distinct types such as β Cephei stars, δ Cephei stars, and Miras, as well as many other categories. The underlying mechanism for the variability is generally felt to be due to four different causes: geometric effects, rotation, eruptive processes, and pulsation. In this review the focus will be on pulsation variables and how the theory of stellar evolution can be used to explain how the various regions of variability on the H R diagram are populated. To this end a generalized discussion of the evolutionary behavior of a massive star, an intermediate mass star, and a low mass star will be presented. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Metallicity dependence of envelope inflation in massive stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanyal, D.; Langer, N.; Szécsi, Dorottya; Yoon, S.-C.; Grassitelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 597, January (2017), A71/1-A71/16 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02385S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars evolution * stars massive * stars interiors Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  6. Spectroscopic Observations of Nearby Low Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vican, Laura; Zuckerman, B. M.; Rodriguez, D.

    2014-01-01

    Young low-mass stars are known to be bright in X-ray and UV due to a high level of magnetic activity. By cross-correlating the GALEX Catalog with the WISE and 2MASS Point Source Catalogs, we have identified more than 2,000 stars whose UV excesses suggest ages in the 10-100 Myr range. We used the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, California to observe some of these 2,000 stars spectroscopically. We measured the equivalent width of lithium at 6708 A absorption and H-alpha emission lines. Out of a total of 122 stars observed with the Kast grating spectrometer, we find that roughly 10% have strong lithium absorption features. The high percentage of stars with lithium present is further evidence of the importance of UV emission as a youth indicator for low-mass stars. In addition, we used high-resolution spectra obtained with the Hamilton echelle spectrograph to determine radial velocities for several UV-bright stars. These radial velocities will be useful for the calculation of Galactic UVW space velocities for determination of possible moving group membership. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program award NNX12AH37G to RIT and UCLA and Chilean FONDECYT grant 3130520 to Universidad de Chile. This submission presents work for the GALNYSS project and should be linked to abstracts submitted by David Rodriguez, Laura Vican, and Joel Kastner.

  7. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  8. 76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star... Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be used by... Facility On My Land? What Do I Need To Know?'' was attached to the project notice Southern Star provided to...

  9. Planets, stars and stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Howard; McLean, Ian; Barstow, Martin; Gilmore, Gerard; Keel, William; French, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This is volume 3 of Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems, a six-volume compendium of modern astronomical research covering subjects of key interest to the main fields of contemporary astronomy. This volume on “Solar and Stellar Planetary Systems” edited by Linda French and Paul Kalas presents accessible review chapters From Disks to Planets, Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems, The Terrestrial Planets, Gas and Ice Giant Interiors, Atmospheres of Jovian Planets, Planetary Magnetospheres, Planetary Rings, An Overview of the Asteroids and Meteorites, Dusty Planetary Systems and Exoplanet Detection Methods. All chapters of the handbook were written by practicing professionals. They include sufficient background material and references to the current literature to allow readers to learn enough about a specialty within astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology to get started on their own practical research projects. In the spirit of the series Stars and Stellar Systems published by Chicago University Press in...

  10. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczura, E.; Polinska, M.; Murphy, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined...... obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature....

  11. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  12. Teaching Modern Foreign Languages in Single-Sex Classes in a Co-Educational Context--Review of a Project in a North Yorkshire Comprehensive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A co-educational comprehensive school in North Yorkshire, concerned at the gap between boys' and girls' performance in French and German at GCSE, opted to teach Year 8 languages classes as single-sex groups. 2003-04 was to be a pilot year, at the end of which pupils' performance, motivation and attitude, as well as the experiences and views of…

  13. Considering economic and geological uncertainty in the simulation of realistic investment decisions for CO2-EOR projects in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Rupert, Jort; Compernolle, Tine; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Swennen, Rudy; Piessens, Kris

    2017-01-01

    The use of anthropogenic CO2 for enhancing oil recovery from mature oil fields in the North Sea has several potential benefits, and a number of assessments have been conducted. It remains, however, difficult to realistically simulate the economic circumstances and decisions, while including the

  14. Studies in Teaching: 2016 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, Jun 30, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 21st Annual Research Forum held June 30, 2016, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 11 action research papers: The Use of Mexican Folk Art to Develop Oral and Written Language Ability and Cultural Awareness in the Secondary Spanish Classroom (Antonio…

  15. Studies in Teaching: 2015 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 25, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 20th Annual Research Forum held June 25, 2015, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 21 action research papers: (1) History Lives! The Use of Simulations in a High School Social Studies Classroom (Lydia Adkins); (2) Using Francophone Music in the High…

  16. Studies in Teaching: 2017 Research Digest. Action Research Projects Presented at Annual Research Forum (Winston-Salem, North Carolina, June 29, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the proceedings of the 22nd Annual Research Forum held June 29, 2017, at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Included are the following 12 action research papers: (1) Using Captioned Video to Teach Listening Comprehension in a Spanish Classroom (Michelle Allen); (2) Multimodal Instruction: How Film…

  17. Regional governance assessment for drought adaptation in North-West Europe: case study results from the analysis with a governance assessment tool in the DROP-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troeltzsch, Jenny; Stein, Ulf; Vidaurre, Rodrigo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Özerol, Gül; Furusho, Carina; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Paredes-Qrquiola, Javier; Haro-Monteagudo, David; van Lanen, Henny

    2015-01-01

    North-West Europe will increasingly face drought periods that may se-riously affect inter alia agricultural production, natural ecosystems and fresh water supplies. In addition to implementing hard adaptation measures, enhancing regional water governance is crucial for effective drought adaptation.

  18. Evaluation and prediction of groundwater storage changes in Beijing under the impacts of the South to North Water Diversion Project and climate change using ground observations, remote sensing and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D.; Wada, Y.; Zhao, J.; Hong, Y.; Liu, D.; You, L.

    2017-12-01

    As China's Capital, Beijing currently has a population of 22 million people with per capital water resources of less than 100 m3, one twentieth of the national average and one eightieth of the global. Groundwater withdrawals (2.3 billion m3/year) account for approximately two thirds of total water use (3.5 billion m3/year) in Beijing, resulting in significant groundwater depletion and associated environmental issues, such as land subsidence. Increases in human and ecological water demand would add further pressure on Beijing's groundwater resources. Unsustainable groundwater use threatens societal and economic development of Beijing and poses a large uncertainty in future water supply. To partly alleviate the water shortage issue in the more arid and industrialized North China, the Chinese government has launched the largest water diversion project in the world, i.e., the South to North Water Diversion Project (SNWD), which is a multi-decadal mega-infrastructure project, with the aim to transfer 44.8 billion m3 of fresh water annually from the Yangtze River in the more humid south through three canal and pipeline systems (east, central, and west routes). Its central route flows from the upper reaches of the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze River to Beijing, Tianjin and other major cities in Hebei and Henan Provinces. Since Dec 2014 when the water transferred by the central route reached Beijing to Feb 2017, totally 2 billion m3 of water has been transferred. This has profoundly altered the structure of water supply in Beijing. This study quantifies how the SNWD project impacts groundwater storage of Beijing and projects how groundwater storage changes in the future under different climate and policy scenarios.

  19. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  20. Project Paleonao: How know the pattern of the rains. Spanish and Portuguese researchers reconstruct the climatic evolution of the North; Proyecto paleonao: como conocer el patron de las lluvias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, A.

    2015-07-01

    NAO, the effect of the North Atlantic oscillation, is the difference of air pressure between Iceland and the Azores, and that which governs climate variation every twelve months. To study and understand this phenomenon, which determines the arrival or not of the rains and influence on marine and terrestrial ecosystems are It launched the Paleonao Project. Based on historical weather records, its researchers use sensors natural lakes to collect data. is the case of the Penalara glacial lagoon, whose sediments they allow to know the evolution of the climate since thousands of years and to observe long-term trends of what will eventually passing in terms of precipitation and temperature changes. (Author)

  1. Emission Activity of the Be star 60 Cygni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šejnová, K.; Votruba, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-57 ISSN 1450-698X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15010 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * emission-line * Be stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2016

  2. Vanguard Preparatory School Observations of the Double Star STF 1692

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Serenity; Buccola, Breck; Garcia, Karen; Gosney, Matthew; Housatchenko, Jonathan; Martinez, Lilian; Myskow, Wyatt; Renteria, Noah; Schlosser, Ruth; Thompson, Leone; Estrada, Reed; Estrada, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Using a 22-inch Newtonian Alt/Az telescope and a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece, students from Vanguard Preparatory observed the binary star Cor Caroli (STF 1692) and found a position angle of 228 degrees as well as an average separation of 21.10". This project was a part of the Vanguard Preparatory Double Star Workshop 2015 in Apple Valley, California.

  3. Star Wars and the History of Transmedia Storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2017-01-01

    The collection places Star Wars at the center of those studies’ projects by examining video games, novels and novelizations, comics, advertising practices, television shows, franchising models, aesthetic and economic decisions, fandom and cultural responses, and other aspects of Star Wars and its

  4. NRAO Welcomes Taiwan as a New North American ALMA Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) has announced a formal agreement enabling Taiwanese astronomers to participate in the North American component of the international ALMA partnership, alongside American and Canadian astronomers. Taiwan's efforts will be led by the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA). ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in history. Currently under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert at an altitude of 16,500 feet, it promises to revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planets, stars, and galaxies when it begins full science operations early in the next decade. The agreement, signed by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office and the American Institute in Taiwan, provides for approximately $20 million in ALMA construction funding through the National Science Council (NSC), Taiwan’s equivalent to the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Canada's National Research Council (NRC), which have jointly funded North America's existing contribution to the international ALMA project. Activities under the agreement will include joint research projects, development projects, collaboration on construction, support of observatory operations and other forms of cooperation. Access to ALMA observing time will be shared, as will membership on advisory committees. “Taiwan is a world-class center for submillimeter-wavelength astronomical research, and we’re delighted that the ALMA project and all its future users will benefit from the resources and expertise that Taiwan’s deepening participation brings to this great, global endeavor,” said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO's director. This new agreement increases and diversifies Taiwan’s Academia Sinica investment in ALMA beyond the levels achieved through its participation in the East Asian component of the ALMA partnership, which is led by the National Astronomical

  5. SOVCAN STAR: An international satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatchkov, Valery A.

    SOVCAN STAR is a Russian-Canadian cooperative venture company formed to manufacture, test, launch and operate a Ku-band satellite system. Drawing on the more than twenty years communications satellite experience of the founding companies, the SOVCAN STAR satellites are being designed to be competitive and cost effective. They will be equipped with 24 transponders and four steerable antennas. The design allows the operators to switch individual transponders between the various antenna coverage beams. These satellites will offer a high degree of operational flexibility and performance. The SOVCAN STAR strategy is to develop a network of satellites in parallel with the growth and evolution of the traffic requirements. Such an approach minimizes the technical, schedule and program risks while at the same time significantly reduces the financial exposure. The first SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned in 1996 and operated at 14 deg W. The beams will be aligned to North America and Europe offering International service between Canada, the Eastern U.S.A., Europe, Russia and the Western C.I.S. Republics. The second SOVCAN STAR satellite will be commissioned a year later and operated at 145 deg E. This satellite will cover the Western Pacific Ocean, Eastern Asia and Australasia.

  6. Massive stars in galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the morphologic type of a galaxy and the evolution of its massive stars is explored, reviewing observational results for nearby galaxies. The data are presented in diagrams, and it is found that the massive-star populations of most Sc spiral galaxies and irregular galaxies are similar, while those of Sb spirals such as M 31 and M 81 may be affected by morphology (via differences in the initial mass function or star-formation rate). Consideration is also given to the stability-related upper luminosity limit in the H-R diagram of hypergiant stars (attributed to radiation pressure in hot stars and turbulence in cool stars) and the goals of future observation campaigns. 88 references

  7. Lots of Small Stars Born in Starburst Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Decisive Study of NGC 3603 with the VLT and ISAAC An international group of astronomers [1] has used the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile) to perform unique observations of an interstellar nebula in which stars are currently being born. Thanks to the excellent imaging properties of the first of the four 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, ANTU, they were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of large numbers of small and relatively light, new-born stars in NGC 3603, a well-known "starburst" region in the Milky Way Galaxy . Until now, it has only been possible to observe brighter and much heavier stars in such nebulae. The new observations show that stars of all masses are being born together in the same starburst event, a fundamental result for our understanding of the very complex process of star formation. Background of the project The present research programme was granted observing time with VLT ANTU in April 1999. Its general aim is to investigate collective, massive star formation, in particular the coalescence of high- and low-mass stars in the violent environments of starburst regions . These are areas in which the processes that lead to the birth of new stars are particularly active just now. Several fundamental questions arise in this context. A very basic one is whether low-mass stars form at all in such environments. And if so, do they form together with the most massive stars in a starburst event or do they form at different times, before or after or perhaps on different timescales? Are low-mass stars born with any "preferred" mass that may possibly give further clues to the ongoing processes? All of this is most important in order to understand the detailed mechanisms of star formation. Most current theoretical scenarios explain how single stars form in an isolated, contracting gas cloud, but most stars in the Universe did not form in that simple way. Once some massive stars have formed in some place and start to shine, they

  8. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 792, č. 2 (2014), 105/1-105/10 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: ISM * star clusters: general * galaxies: star formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  9. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  10. The role of geodata and geotools in sustainable energy planning. The Interreg project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'; Die Bedeutung von Geodaten und Geowerkzeugen fuer eine nachhaltige Energieplanung. Das Interreg-Projekt 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knies, Juergen [Jade Hochschule Wilhelmshaven/Oldenburg/Elsfleth, Oldenburg (DE). Inst. fuer Angewandte Photogrammetrie und Geoinformatik (IAPG)

    2012-07-01

    The Interreg IVB project 'North Sea Sustainable Energy Planning' is to promote the development of models for regional development in consideration of renewable energy sources and the implementation of measures for higher energy efficiency in consideration of regional and international boundary conditions. Geodata and geotools provide a basis for sustainable energy planning. The Institute of Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics of Jade Hochschule University developed concepts and geotools to support decision-makers in this task. The concepts and tools are presented in this paper.

  11. Fast pulsars, strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1990-02-01

    The initial motivation for this work was the reported discovery in January 1989 of a 1/2 millisecond pulsar in the remnant of the spectacular supernova, 1987A. The status of this discovery has come into grave doubt as of data taken by the same group in February, 1990. At this time we must consider that the millisecond signal does not belong to the pulsar. The existence of a neutron star in remnant of the supernova is suspected because of recent observations on the light curve of the remnant, and of course by the neutrino burst that announced the supernova. However its frequency is unknown. I can make a strong case that a pulsar rotation period of about 1 ms divides those that can be understood quite comfortably as neutron stars, and those that cannot. What we will soon learn is whether there is an invisible boundary below which pulsar periods do not fall, in which case, all are presumable neutron stars, or whether there exist sub- millisecond pulsars, which almost certainly cannot be neutron stars. Their most plausible structure is that of a self-bound star, a strange-quark-matter star. The existence of such stars would imply that the ground state of the strong interaction is not, as we usually assume, hadronic matter, but rather strange quark matter. Let us look respectively at stars that are bound only by gravity, and hypothetical stars that are self-bound, for which gravity is so to speak, icing on the cake

  12. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  13. Introduction to neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattimer, James M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  14. Strangeon and Strangeon Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, Lai; Renxin, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The nature of pulsar-like compact stars is essentially a central question of the fundamental strong interaction (explained in quantum chromo-dynamics) at low energy scale, the solution of which still remains a challenge though tremendous efforts have been tried. This kind of compact objects could actually be strange quark stars if strange quark matter in bulk may constitute the true ground state of the strong-interaction matter rather than 56Fe (the so-called Witten’s conjecture). From astrophysical points of view, however, it is proposed that strange cluster matter could be absolutely stable and thus those compact stars could be strange cluster stars in fact. This proposal could be regarded as a general Witten’s conjecture: strange matter in bulk could be absolutely stable, in which quarks are either free (for strange quark matter) or localized (for strange cluster matter). Strange cluster with three-light-flavor symmetry is renamed strangeon, being coined by combining “strange nucleon” for the sake of simplicity. A strangeon star can then be thought as a 3-flavored gigantic nucleus, and strangeons are its constituent as an analogy of nucleons which are the constituent of a normal (micro) nucleus. The observational consequences of strangeon stars show that different manifestations of pulsarlike compact stars could be understood in the regime of strangeon stars, and we are expecting more evidence for strangeon star by advanced facilities (e.g., FAST, SKA, and eXTP).

  15. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  16. Polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Linear polarization of starlight may be produced by electron scattering in the extended atmospheres of early type stars. Techniques are investigated for the measurement and interpretation of this polarization. Polarimetric observations were made of twelve visual double star systems in which at least one member was a B type star as a means of separating the intrinsic stellar polarization from the polarization produced in the interstellar medium. Four of the double stars contained a Be star. Evidence for intrinsic polarization was found in five systems including two of the Be systems, one double star with a short period eclipsing binary, and two systems containing only normal early type stars for which emission lines have not been previously reported. The interpretation of these observations in terms of individual stellar polarizations and their wavelength dependence is discussed. The theoretical basis for the intrinsic polarization of early type stars is explored with a model for the disk-like extended atmospheres of Be stars. Details of a polarimeter for the measurement of the linear polarization of astronomical point sources are also presented with narrow band (Δ lambda = 100A) measurements of the polarization of γ Cas from lambda 4000 to lambda 5800

  17. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  18. NLTE wind models of hot subdwarf stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Kubát, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 329, 1-2 (2010), s. 145-150 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * winds * outflows Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2010

  19. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  20. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  1. Cooperation under the RES Directive - Case study on a joint project: An offshore wind park in the North Sea (cooperation between the Netherlands, Belgium, UK, and Luxembourg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Nysten, Jana; Gephart, Malte

    .The joint project consists of a 1000 MW offshore wind park located on Dutch territory, to beconnected to an offshore hub on Belgian territory. Belgium, the Netherlands and the UK will togetherundertake the joint project and share the production and the RES benefits. Belgium will be the drivingforce...... of the joint project, organising the necessary negotiations and initiatives. The country will alsoassume most risks related to the development of the wind park. Therefore, we assume that the jointproject will be shared in the following way: 40% to Belgium, 30% to the Netherlands, and 30% tothe UK. We further...

  2. Spectroscopic survey of Kepler stars - II. FIES/NOT observations of A- and F-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczura, E.; Polińska, M.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B.; Kołaczkowski, Z.; Jessen-Hansen, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Lykke, J. M.; Triviño Hage, A.; Michalska, G.

    2017-09-01

    We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 28 A and 22 F stars in the Kepler field, observed using the Fibre-Fed Échelle Spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We provide spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for 50 stars. Balmer, Fe I and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The stars analysed include chemically peculiar stars of the Am and λ Boo types, as well as stars with approximately solar chemical abundances. The wide distribution of projected rotational velocity, vsin I, is typical for A and F stars. The microturbulence velocities obtained are typical for stars in the observed temperature and surface gravity ranges. Moreover, we affirm the results of Niemczura et al. that Am stars do not have systematically higher microturbulent velocities than normal stars of the same temperature.

  3. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  4. Nebraska STARS: Achieving Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…

  5. Convective overshooting in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrássy, R.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing

  6. By Draconis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  7. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  8. Spectrophotometry of carbon stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganesyan, R.K.; Karapetyan, M.S.; Nersisyan, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of the spectrophotometric investigation of 56 carbon stars in the spectral range from 4000 to 6800 A with resolution 3 A. The observed energy distributions of these stars are determined relative to the flux at the wavelength /sub 0/ = 5556; they are presented in the form of graphs. The energy distributions have been obtained for the first time for 35 stars. Variation in the line Ba II 4554 A has been found in the spectra of St Cam, UU Aur, and RV Mon. Large changes have taken place in the spectra of RT UMa and SS Vir. It is noted that the spectra of carbon stars have a depression, this being situated in different spectral regions for individual groups of stars.

  9. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  10. Development of a project on North Unit Irrigation District’s Main Canal at the Monroe Drop, using a novel low-head hydropower technology called the SLH100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham [Natel Energy, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States); Schneider, Gia [Natel Energy, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States); McKinstry, Katherine [Natel Energy, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States); Harwood, Meghan [Natel Energy, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    2017-03-14

    Natel Energy is a low­-head, distributed hydropower company based out of Alameda, CA. Natel manufactures and sells proprietary hydroelectric turbines called hydroEngines® that are suitable for low-­head, high-­flow settings, and range from 30kW to 1 MW of capacity per unit. Natel’s hydroEngine is a state­-of­the-­art two stage impulse turbine, using blades mounted symmetrically on two belts perpendicular to the axis of travel, and using linearly­-moving foils, rather than a rotor, to enable efficient conversion of kinetic energy of large volumes of water at low head with no risk of cavitation. In addition, the hydroEngine can be installed at or above tailwater level, reducing the excavation necessary to build the powerhouse and thus reducing total installed cost and project footprint. Thus, the hydroEngine technology enables a new generation of small hydro installations with low cost of project development, fish-­friendly operations, and small project footprint. In September of 2015, Natel Energy formally commissioned its first project installation in Madras, Oregon, installing 1 SLH100 turbine at an existing drop structure on the North Unit Irrigation District (NUID) Main Canal. The water falls between 13.5 feet to 16.5 feet at this structure, depending on flow. The plant has an installed capacity of 250 kW and an expected annual generation of approximately 873 MWh. The plant operates at an annual capacity factor of 40%, and a capacity factor over the irrigation season, or period of available flow, of 80%. Annual capacity factor is calculated as a percentage of plant operating hours relative to a total of 8,760 hours in a year; because the irrigation canal in which the Project is located only runs water from April to October, the available flow capacity factor is higher. Net greenhouse gas reductions from the Monroe Project are estimated to be 602 tCO2/year. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the specifications for Natel’s first

  11. Stacked Star Formation Rate Profiles of Bursty Galaxies Exhibit “Coherent” Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Matthew E.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Nelson, Erica J.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Chan, T. K.; Schmitz, Denise M.; Miller, Tim B.

    2017-11-01

    In a recent work based on 3200 stacked Hα maps of galaxies at z˜ 1, Nelson et al. find evidence for “coherent star formation”: the stacked star formation rate (SFR) profiles of galaxies above (below) the “star formation main sequence” (MS) are above (below) that of galaxies on the MS at all radii. One might interpret this result as inconsistent with highly bursty star formation and evidence that galaxies evolve smoothly along the MS rather than crossing it many times. We analyze six simulated galaxies at z˜ 1 from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project in a manner analogous to the observations to test whether the above interpretations are correct. The trends in stacked SFR profiles are qualitatively consistent with those observed. However, SFR profiles of individual galaxies are much more complex than the stacked profiles: the former can be flat or even peak at large radii because of the highly clustered nature of star formation in the simulations. Moreover, the SFR profiles of individual galaxies above (below) the MS are not systematically above (below) those of MS galaxies at all radii. We conclude that the time-averaged coherent star formation evident stacks of observed galaxies is consistent with highly bursty, clumpy star formation of individual galaxies and is not evidence that galaxies evolve smoothly along the MS.

  12. On the evolution of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1989-01-01

    A popular survey is given of the present knowledge on evolution and ageing of stars. Main sequence stars, white dwarf stars, and red giant stars are classified in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)-diagram by measurable quantities: surface temperature and luminosity. From the HR-diagram it can be concluded to star mass and age. Star-forming processes in interstellar clouds as well as stellar burning processes are illustrated. The changes occurring in a star due to the depletion of the nuclear energy reserve are described. In this frame the phenomena of planetary nebulae, supernovae, pulsars, neutron stars as well as of black holes are explained

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, P E; Avgeropoulos, A; Freire, J J; Kosmas, M; Vlahos, C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results

  16. Assessment of contaminant concentrations in sediments, fish and mussels sampled from the North Atlantic and European regional seas within the ICON project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Craig D; Webster, Lynda; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matthew J; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; McIntosh, Alistair D; Hylland, Ketil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the status of contaminants in the marine environment is a requirement of European Union Directives and the Regional Seas Conventions, so that measures to reduce pollution can be identified and their efficacy assessed. The international ICON workshop (Hylland et al., in this issue) was developed in order to test an integrated approach to assessing both contaminant concentrations and their effects. This paper describes and assesses the concentrations of trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments, mussels, and fish collected from estuarine, coastal and offshore waters from Iceland to the Mediterranean Sea. For organic contaminants, concentrations progressively increased from Iceland, to the offshore North Sea, to the coastal seas, and were highest in estuaries. Metals had a more complex distribution, reflecting local anthropogenic inputs, natural sources and hydrological conditions. Use of internationally recognised assessment criteria indicated that at no site were concentrations of all contaminants at background and that concentrations of some contaminants were of significant concern in all areas, except the central North Sea. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Star Cluster Structure from Hierarchical Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudic, Michael; Hopkins, Philip; Murray, Norman; Lamberts, Astrid; Guszejnov, David; Schmitz, Denise; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Young massive star clusters (YMCs) spanning 104-108 M⊙ in mass generally have similar radial surface density profiles, with an outer power-law index typically between -2 and -3. This similarity suggests that they are shaped by scale-free physics at formation. Recent multi-physics MHD simulations of YMC formation have also produced populations of YMCs with this type of surface density profile, allowing us to narrow down the physics necessary to form a YMC with properties as observed. We show that the shallow density profiles of YMCs are a natural result of phase-space mixing that occurs as they assemble from the clumpy, hierarchically-clustered configuration imprinted by the star formation process. We develop physical intuition for this process via analytic arguments and collisionless N-body experiments, elucidating the connection between star formation physics and star cluster structure. This has implications for the early-time structure and evolution of proto-globular clusters, and prospects for simulating their formation in the FIRE cosmological zoom-in simulations.

  18. Massive runaway stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of massive field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has long been an enigma. The recent measurements of large offsets (˜ 100 km s-1) between the heliocentric radial velocities of some very massive (O2-type) field stars and the systemic LMC velocity provides a possible explanation of this enigma and suggests that the field stars are runaway stars ejected from their birthplaces at the very beginning of their parent cluster's dynamical evolution. A straightforward way to prove this explanation is to measure the proper motions of the field stars and to show that they are moving away from one of the nearby star clusters or OB associations. This approach is, however, complicated by the long distance to the LMC, which makes accurate proper motion measurements difficult. We used an alternative approach for solving the problem (first applied for Galactic field stars), based on the search for bow shocks produced by runaway stars. The geometry of detected bow shocks would allow us to infer the direction of stellar motion, thereby determining their possible parent clusters. In this paper we present the results of a search for bow shocks around six massive field stars that have been proposed as candidate runaway stars. Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we found a bow shock associated with one of our programme stars, the O2 V((f*)) star BI 237, which is the first-ever detection of bow shocks in the LMC. Orientation of the bow shock suggests that BI 237 was ejected from the OB association LH 82 (located at ≃ 120 pc in projection from the star). A by-product of our search is the detection of bow shocks generated by four OB stars in the field of the LMC and an arc-like structure attached to the candidate luminous blue variable R81 (HD 269128). The geometry of two of these bow shocks is consistent with the possibility that their associated stars were ejected from the 30 Doradus star-forming complex. We discuss implications of our findings for the

  19. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  20. Stability of boson stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiser, M.

    1988-01-01

    Boson stars are gravitationally bound, spherically symmetric equilibrium configurations of cold, free, or interacting complex scalar fields phi. As these equilibrium configurations naturally present local anisotropy, it is sensible to expect departures from the well-known stability criteria for fluid stars. With this in mind, I investigate the dynamical instability of boson stars against charge-conserving, small radial perturbations. Following the method developed by Chandrasekhar, a variational base for determining the eigenfrequencies of the perturbations is found. This approach allows one to find numerically an upper bound for the central density where dynamical instability occurs. As applications of the formalism, I study the stability of equilibrium configurations obtained both for the free and for the self-interacting [with V(phi) = (λ/4)chemical bondphichemical bond 4 ] massive scalar field phi. Instabilities are found to occur not for the critical central density as in fluid stars but for central densities considerably higher. The departure from the results for fluid stars is sensitive to the coupling λ; the higher the value of λ, the more the stability properties of boson stars approach those of a fluid star. These results are linked to the fractional anisotropy at the radius of the configuration

  1. From clouds to stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    At the present time, the theory of star formation must be limited to what we know about the lowest density gas, or about the pre-main sequence stars themselves. We would like to understand two basic processes: 1) how star-forming clouds are created from the ambient interstellar gas in the first place, and 2) how small parts of these clouds condense to form individual stars. We are interested also in knowing what pre-main sequence stars are like, and how they can interact with their environment. These topics are reviewed in what follows. In this series of lectures, what we know about the formation of stars is tentatively described. The lectures begin with a description of the interstellar medium, and then they proceed along the same direction that a young star would follow during its creation, namely from clouds through the collapse phase and onto the proto-stellar phase. The evolution of viscous disks and two models for the formation of the solar system are described in the last lectures. The longest lectures, and the topics that are covered in most detail, are not necessarily the ones for which we have the most information. Physically intuitive explanations for the various processes are emphasized, rather then mathematical explanations. In some cases, the mathematical aspects are developed as well, but only when the equations can be used to give important numerical values for comparison with the observations

  2. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. Dementia RED (Respect Empathy Dignity): Collaborating to build dementia supportive communities in North Wales--reporting on a pilot project (innovative practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Annabel; Page, Sean

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing dementia supportive communities world wide. Dementia RED (Respect Empathy Dignity) is a unique example from North Wales which is based on the twin concepts of people living with dementia as citizens in their community and developing 'bottom up' rather than 'top down' approaches to dementia supportive communities. Most people with dementia prefer to live at home thus making community connectivity key to maintaining healthy relationships and wellbeing. For those living with dementia, the community plays a pivotal role in providing value, meaning, purpose and acceptance. Building dementia supportive communities helps to raise awareness about dementia in the community through engagement and from identifying champions in the locality to voice issues. Dementia RED is an initiative and service which helps to develop such a philosophy in creating a dementia supportive community. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan; Schulze, Jurgen; DeFanti, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer's position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  5. Hotspot mitigation in the StarCAVE

    KAUST Repository

    Rhee, Jordan

    2010-01-27

    Rear-projected screens such as those in Digital Light Projection (DLP) televisions suffer from an image quality problem called hot spotting, where the image is brightest at a point dependent on the viewing angle. In rear-projected mulit-screen configurations such as the StarCAVE at Calit2, this causes discontinuities in brightness at the edges where screens meet, and thus in the 3D image perceived by the user. In the StarCAVE we know the viewer\\'s position in 3D space and we have programmable graphics hardware, so we can mitigate this effect by performing post-processing in the inverse of the pattern, yielding a homogenous image at the output. Our implementation improves brightness homogeneity by a factor of 4 while decreasing frame rate by only 1-3 fps.

  6. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  7. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  8. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Basin Electric Project at Northern Border Pipeline Company's Compressor Station #7, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweetzer, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.; Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute

    2008-02-01

    A field research test and verification project was conducted at the recovered energy generation plant at Northern Border Pipeline Company Compressor Station #7 (CS#7) near St. Anthony. Recovered energy generation plant equipment was supplied and installed by ORMAT Technologies, Inc. Basin Electric is purchasing the electricity under a purchase power agreement with an ORMAT subsidiary, which owns and operates the plant.

  9. North-south collaboration and capacity development in global health research in low- and middle-income countries - the ARCADE projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Marsden, Sophie; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2016-01-01

    Research capacity enhancement is needed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for improved health, wellbeing, and health systems' development. In this article, we discuss two capacity-building projects, the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) in Health Systems and Services Research (HSSR) and Research on Social Determinants of Health (RSDH), implemented from 2011 to 2015. The two projects focussed on providing courses in HSSR and social determinants of health research, and on developing collaborations between universities, along with capacity in LMIC universities to manage research grant submissions, financing, and reporting. Both face-to-face and sustainable online teaching and learning resources were used in training at higher postgraduate levels (Masters and Doctoral level). We collated project meeting and discussion minutes along with project periodic reports and deliverables. We extracted key outcomes from these, reflected on these in discussions, and summarised them for this paper. Nearly 55 courses and modules were developed that were delivered to over 920 postgraduate students in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Junior researchers were mentored in presenting, developing, and delivering courses, and in preparing research proposals. In total, 60 collaborative funding proposals were prepared. The consortia also developed institutional capacity in research dissemination and grants management through webinars and workshops. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH were comprehensive programmes, focussing on developing the research skills, knowledge, and capabilities of junior researchers. One of the main strengths of these programmes was the focus on network building amongst the partner institutions, where each partner brought skills, expertise, and diverse work cultures into the consortium. Through these efforts, the projects improved both the capacity of junior researchers and the research environment in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

  10. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  11. Carbon Stars T. Lloyd Evans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the features used in estimating luminosities of ordinary giant stars are just those whose abundance ... This difference between the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of CH stars and the. J stars, which belong to .... that the first group was binaries, as for the CH stars of the solar vicinity, while those of the second group ...

  12. Innocent Bystanders and Smoking Guns: Dwarf Carbon Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    As far as we know, most carbon throughout the Universe is created and dispersed by AGB stars. So it was at first surprising to find that the carbon stars most prevalent in the Galaxy are in fact dwarfs. We suspect that dC stars are most likely innocent bystanders in post-mass transfer binaries, and may be predominantly metal-poor. Among 1200 C stars found in the SDSS (Green 2013), we confirm 724 dCs, of which a dozen are DA/dC stars in composite spectrum binaries, quadrupling the total sample of these "smoking guns" for AGB binary mass transfer. The dCs likely span absolute magnitudes M_i from about 6.5 to 10.5. G-type dC stars with weak CN and relatively blue colors are probably the most massive dCs still cool enough to show C_2 bands. Eleven very red C stars with strong red CN bands appear to be N-type AGB stars at large Galactocentric distances, one likely a new discovery in the dIrr galaxy Le A. Two such stars within 30arcmin of each other may trace a previously unidentified dwarf galaxy or tidal stream at ~40 kpc. We describe follow-up projects to study the spatial, kinematic, and binary properties of these C-enriched dwarfs.

  13. Orbiting radiation stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Dean P; Langford, John; Perez-Giz, Gabe

    2016-01-01

    We study a spherically symmetric solution to the Einstein equations in which the source, which we call an orbiting radiation star (OR-star), is a compact object consisting of freely falling null particles. The solution avoids quantum scale regimes and hence neither relies upon nor ignores the interaction of quantum mechanics and gravitation. The OR-star spacetime exhibits a deep gravitational well yet remains singularity free. In fact, it is geometrically flat in the vicinity of the origin, with the flat region being of any desirable scale. The solution is observationally distinct from a black hole because a photon from infinity aimed at an OR-star escapes to infinity with a time delay. (paper)

  14. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  15. SX Phoenicis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Mateo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the basic observational information concerning SX Phe stars, including recent findings such as the discovery of about 40 low-luminosity variable stars in the Carina dwarf galaxy and identification of at least one SX Phe star in the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that at least some BSs are binary systems comes from the discovery of two contact binaries and a semidetached binary among the 50 BSs in the globular cluster NGC 5466. Since these systems will coalesce on a time scale 500 Myr, it stands to reason that many (if not most) BSs are coalesced binaries. The merger hypothesis also explains the relatively-large masses (1.0-1.2 solar masses) that have been derived for SX Phe stars and halo BSs, and may also account for the nonvariable BSs in the 'SX Phe instability strip'. 132 refs

  16. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  17. Spectrophotometry of carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of over one hundred carbon stars have been made with the Indiana rapid spectral scanner in the red and, when possible, in the visual and blue regions of the spectrum. Five distinct subtypes of carbon stars (Barium, CH, R, N, and hydrogen deficient) are represented in the list of observed stars, although the emphasis was placed on the N stars when the observations were made. The rapid scanner was operated in the continuous sweep mode with the exit slit set at twenty angstroms, however, seeing fluctuations and guiding errors smear the spectrum to an effective resolution of approximately thirty angstroms. Nightly observations of Hayes standard stars yielded corrections for atmospheric extinction and instrumental response. The reduction scheme rests on two assumptions, that thin clouds are gray absorbers and the wavelength dependence of the sky transparency does not change during the course of the night. Several stars have been observed in the blue region of the spectrum with the Indiana SIT vidicon spectrometer at two angstroms resolution. It is possible to derive a color temperature for the yellow--red spectral region by fitting a black-body curve through two chosen continuum points. Photometric indices were calculated relative to the blackbody curve to measure the C 2 Swan band strength, the shape of the CN red (6,1) band to provide a measure of the 12 C/ 13 C isotope ratio, and in the hot carbon stars (Barium, CH, and R stars) the strength of an unidentified feature centered at 400 angstroms. An extensive abundance grid of model atmospheres was calculated using a modified version of the computer code ATLAS

  18. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: arr@caltech.edu [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  19. STAR facility tritium accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R. J.; Sharpe, J. P.; Denny, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility has been established to provide a laboratory infrastructure for the fusion community to study tritium science associated with the development of safe fusion energy and other technologies. STAR is a radiological facility with an administrative total tritium inventory limit of 1.5 g (14,429 Ci) [1]. Research studies with moderate tritium quantities and various radionuclides are performed in STAR. Successful operation of the STAR facility requires the ability to receive, inventory, store, dispense tritium to experiments, and to dispose of tritiated waste while accurately monitoring the tritium inventory in the facility. This paper describes tritium accountancy in the STAR facility. A primary accountancy instrument is the tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS): a system designed to receive, assay, store, and dispense tritium to experiments. Presented are the methods used to calibrate and operate the SAS. Accountancy processes utilizing the Tritium Cleanup System (TCS), and the Stack Tritium Monitoring System (STMS) are also discussed. Also presented are the equations used to quantify the amount of tritium being received into the facility, transferred to experiments, and removed from the facility. Finally, the STAR tritium accountability database is discussed. (authors)

  20. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  1. Respiratory Protection Behavior and Respiratory Indices among Poultry House Workers on Small, Family-Owned Farms in North Carolina: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Gallagher, Barbara; Shaw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate respiratory behavior and respiratory indices of poultry workers on family-owned, poultry farms with 10 or less employees in North Carolina. A field study was conducted to collect data on participants (N = 24) using spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), and an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The majority of workers (76%) ranked respiratory protection as being important, yet 48% reported never or rarely wearing respiratory protection when working in dusty conditions. A large percent of workers reported eye (55%) and nasal (50%) irritation and dry cough (50%). On average, pulmonary lung function and Feno tests were normal among nonsmokers. In bivariate analysis, significant associations were identified between working 7 days on the farm (P = .01), with eye irritation, and working 5 or fewer years in poultry farming (P = .01). Poultry workers on family-owned farms spend a considerable amount of work time in poultry houses and report acute respiratory-related health symptoms. Administrative controls among small, family-owned poultry farms are necessary to improve and promote safety and health to its employees.

  2. Spectroscopic survey of emission-line stars - I. B[e] stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aret, A.; Kraus, Michaela; Šlechta, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 456, č. 2 (2016), s. 1424-1437 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21373S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : circumstellar matter * stars * emission line Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  3. Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters: fake bubbles and untriggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dale, James E.; Bonnell, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 414, č. 1 (2011), s. 321-328 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars formation * H II regions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2011

  4. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2015 Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  5. 2015 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  6. A robust star identification algorithm with star shortlisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deval Samirbhai; Chen, Shoushun; Low, Kay Soon

    2018-05-01

    A star tracker provides the most accurate attitude solution in terms of arc seconds compared to the other existing attitude sensors. When no prior attitude information is available, it operates in "Lost-In-Space (LIS)" mode. Star pattern recognition, also known as star identification algorithm, forms the most crucial part of a star tracker in the LIS mode. Recognition reliability and speed are the two most important parameters of a star pattern recognition technique. In this paper, a novel star identification algorithm with star ID shortlisting is proposed. Firstly, the star IDs are shortlisted based on worst-case patch mismatch, and later stars are identified in the image by an initial match confirmed with a running sequential angular match technique. The proposed idea is tested on 16,200 simulated star images having magnitude uncertainty, noise stars, positional deviation, and varying size of the field of view. The proposed idea is also benchmarked with the state-of-the-art star pattern recognition techniques. Finally, the real-time performance of the proposed technique is tested on the 3104 real star images captured by a star tracker SST-20S currently mounted on a satellite. The proposed technique can achieve an identification accuracy of 98% and takes only 8.2 ms for identification on real images. Simulation and real-time results depict that the proposed technique is highly robust and achieves a high speed of identification suitable for actual space applications.

  7. Further RIOTS4 Characterization of Field OB Stars in the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, M. S.; Barnes, Jesse R.; Paggeot, Kevin J.; Dorigo Jones, John; Castro, Norberto; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Moe, Maxwell; Szymanski, Michal

    2018-06-01

    We present recent results from the Runaways and O-Type Star Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (RIOTS4), a survey quantifying properties of the field OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Based on PSF-fitting photometry and astrometry of OGLE-III I-band images, we quantify the degree of isolation for the target OB stars, classifying them as "tip-of-the-iceberg" stars accompanied by small, sparse, clusters; or as true, isolated field stars. Many of these field stars must be runaways, which we evaluate using GAIA DR2 proper motions. We measure v sin i using the IACOB code Fourier analysis, finding that the bimodal distribution of projected rotation velocities is less pronounced for O stars than early B stars. We examine rotation in relation to relative isolation and runaway status.

  8. DIRECTIONS, CONDITIONS, AND RISKS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRANSPORT MEGA-PROJECTSNORTH-SOUTH” AND “EAST-WEST” UNDER THE NEW GEOPOLITICAL REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Tulokhonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the prospect of the development of Russia’s transport infrastructure mega-projects in the context of the Eurasian Economic Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization formation. The paper focuses on the country’s interests in the area of influence of the Silk and the Tea Roads. Economic cooperation with the countries of the Asia-Pacific region on the Trans-Siberian Railway-Mongolia-China direction, with diversification of transport routes to all four oceans and five continents, is the most effective policy for Russia.

  9. Star formation properties of galaxy cluster A1767

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Feng; Yuan, Qi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abell 1767 is a dynamically relaxed, cD cluster of galaxies with a redshift of 0.0703. Among 250 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies within a projected radius of 2.5r 200 , 243 galaxies (∼ 97%) are spectroscopically covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Based on this homogeneous spectral sample, the stellar evolutionary synthesis code STARLIGHT is applied to investigate the stellar populations and star formation histories of galaxies in this cluster. The star formation properties of galaxies, such as mean stellar ages, metallicities, stellar masses, and star formation rates, are presented as functions of local galaxy density. A strong environmental effect is found such that massive galaxies in the high-density core region of the cluster tend to have higher metallicities, older mean stellar ages, and lower specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and their recent star formation activities have been remarkably suppressed. In addition, the correlations of the metallicity and SSFR with stellar mass are confirmed. (paper)

  10. Pain at multiple body sites and health-related quality of life in older adults: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rosie J; Belcher, John; Rathod, Trishna; Wilkie, Ross; Thomas, Elaine; McBeth, John

    2014-11-01

    Number of pain sites (NPS) is a potentially important marker of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but remains unexplored in older people. This cross-sectional study investigated whether, in older people including the oldest old, NPS was independently associated with poorer mental and physical HRQoL and if the association was moderated by age. A postal questionnaire sent to a population sample of adults aged ≥50 years in North Staffordshire, UK, included the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), a blank body pain manikin, socio-demographic, health behaviour and morbidity questions. Participants shaded sites of pain lasting ≥1 day in the past 4 weeks on the manikin. OA consultation data were obtained for participants consenting to medical records review. A total of 13 986 individuals (adjusted response 70.6%) completed a questionnaire, of which 12 408 provided complete pain data. The median NPS reported was 4 [interquartile range (IQR) 0-8]. General linear models showed that an increasing NPS was significantly associated with poorer MCS (β = -0.43, 95% CI -0.46, -0.40) and PCS (β = -0.87, 95% CI -0.90, -0.84). Adjustment for covariates attenuated the associations but they remained significant ( β = -0.28, 95% CI -0.31, -0.24; PCS: β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.66, -0.59). The association between NPS and MCS or PCS was moderated by age, but the strongest associations were not in the oldest old. NPS appears to be a potentially modifiable target for improving physical and mental HRQoL in older people. Future analyses should investigate the influence of NPS on HRQoL over time in older people. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  11. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  12. Models of symbiotic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedjung, Michael

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important features of symbiotic stars is the coexistence of a cool spectral component that is apparently very similar to the spectrum of a cool giant, with at least one hot continuum, and emission lines from very different stages of ionization. The cool component dominates the infrared spectrum of S-type symbiotics; it tends to be veiled in this wavelength range by what appears to be excess emission in D-type symbiotics, this excess usually being attributed to circumstellar dust. The hot continuum (or continua) dominates the ultraviolet. X-rays have sometimes also been observed. Another important feature of symbiotic stars that needs to be explained is the variability. Different forms occur, some variability being periodic. This type of variability can, in a few cases, strongly suggest the presence of eclipses of a binary system. One of the most characteristic forms of variability is that characterizing the active phases. This basic form of variation is traditionally associated in the optical with the veiling of the cool spectrum and the disappearance of high-ionization emission lines, the latter progressively appearing (in classical cases, reappearing) later. Such spectral changes recall those of novae, but spectroscopic signatures of the high-ejection velocities observed for novae are not usually detected in symbiotic stars. However, the light curves of the 'symbiotic nova' subclass recall those of novae. We may also mention in this connection that radio observations (or, in a few cases, optical observations) of nebulae indicate ejection from symbiotic stars, with deviations from spherical symmetry. We shall give a historical overview of the proposed models for symbiotic stars and make a critical analysis in the light of the observations of symbiotic stars. We describe the empirical approach to models and use the observational data to diagnose the physical conditions in the symbiotics stars. Finally, we compare the results of this empirical

  13. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  14. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  15. Engineer exchanging project on coal mine technology field in fiscal 1999. International information exchanging project (advance survey on North America); 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Hokubei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project has been performed with an intention of making visiting surveys and information collection at coal related organizations in overseas coal producing countries on production technology levels and trends. The project is intended to serve for improvement in the contents of and smooth execution of the engineer exchange project in the 'coal mine technology field. It was carried out by the site surveys. The surveys revealed that the situation of the American coal industry is expected of stable increase in the demand and supply in the future, but the coal price is on the falling trend, and therefore, the industry is compelled to further increase the intensity and enhance the productivity. The industry is strongly influenced by the amended air pollution prevention act and nature destruction problems, hence further coal mine curtailment is estimated. Under such a background, it was found that the long-wall mining process progressing toward larger scale and higher productivity, and the high-wall mining process that provides higher productivity at lower cost and has less impact on the environmental problems can continue development in mountainous areas, particularly in the Appalachian area. The high-wall mining process mines coal at exposed facings on the side of a mountain by using a continuous miner, and transports the coal using machines. (NEDO)

  16. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  17. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  18. A SUBSTELLAR COMPANION TO THE DUSTY PLEIADES STAR HD 23514

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Melis, Carl

    2012-01-01

    With adaptive optics imaging at Keck observatory, we have discovered a substellar companion to the F6 Pleiades star HD 23514, one of the dustiest main-sequence stars known to date (L IR /L * ∼ 2%). This is one of the first brown dwarfs discovered as a companion to a star in the Pleiades. The 0.06 M ☉ late-M secondary has a projected separation of ∼360 AU. The scarcity of substellar companions to stellar primaries in the Pleiades combined with the extremely dusty environment make this a unique system to study.

  19. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 52-016; NRC-2008-0250] UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services...

  20. A Binary Nature of the Marginal CP Star Sigma Sculptoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janík, Jan; Krtička, Jiří; Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Zverko, Juraj; Pintado, Olga; Paunzen, Ernst; Prvák, Milan; Skalický, Jan; Zejda, Miloslav; Adam, Christian

    2018-05-01

    The A2 V star σ Scl was suspected of being a low-amplitude rotating variable of the Ap-type star by several authors. Aiming to decide whether the star is a variable chemically peculiar (CP) star, we searched for the photometric and spectroscopic variability, and determined chemical abundances of σ Scl. The possible variability was tested using several types of periodograms applied to the photometry from Long-Term Photometry of Variables project (LTPV) and Hipparcos. Sixty spectrograms of high signal-to-noise (S/N) were obtained and used for chemical analysis of the stellar atmosphere and for looking for spectral variability that is symptomatic for the CP stars. We did not find any signs of the light variability or prominent chemical peculiarity, that is specific for the CP stars. The only exception is the abundance of scandium, which is significantly lower than the solar one and yttrium and barium, which are strongly overabundant. As a by-product of the analysis, and with the addition of 29 further spectra, we found that σ Scl is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with orbital period of 46.877(8) d. We argue that σ Scl is not an Ap star, but rather a marginal Am star in SB1 system. The spectral energy distribution of the binary reveals infrared excess due to circumstellar material.

  1. PULSAR.MAKING VISIBLE THE SOUND OF STARS

    OpenAIRE

    Lega, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Pulsar, making visible the sound of stars is a comunication based on a sound Installation raised as a site-specific project to show the hidden abilities of sound to generate images and patterns on the matter, using the acoustic science of cymatics. The objective of this communication will show people how through abstract and intangible sounds from celestial orbs of cosmos (radio waves generated by electromagnetic pulses from the rotation of neutrón stars), we can create ar...

  2. Neutron star/red giant encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple expression for the amount by which xsub(crit) is diminished as a star evolves xsub(crit) Rsub(crit)/R*, where Rsub(crit) is the maximum distance of closest approach between two stars for which the tidal energy is sufficient to bind the system, and R* is the radius of the star on which tides are being raised. Also it is concluded that tidal capture of giants by neutron stars resulting in binary systems is unlikely in globular clusters. However, collisions between neutron stars and red giants, or an alternative process involving tidal capture of a main-sequence star into an initially detached binary system, may result either in rapidly rotating neutron stars or in white dwarf/neutron star binaries. (author)

  3. Heavy Metal Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing

  4. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  5. Dynamical Boson Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Liebling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

  6. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  7. Molecules in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, T.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, research related to molecules in stars has rapidly expanded because of progress in related fields. For this reason, it is almost impossible to cover all the topics related to molecules in stars. Thus, here the authors focus their attention on molecules in the atmospheres of cool stars and do not cover in any detail topics related to circumstellar molecules originating from expanding envelopes located far from the stellar surface. However, the authors do discuss molecules in quasi-static circumstellar envelopes (a recently discovered new component of circumstellar envelopes) located near the stellar surface, since molecular lines originating from such envelopes show little velocity shift relative to photospheric lines, and hence they directly affect the interpretation and analysis of stellar spectra

  8. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  9. The twinkling of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, E.; Parry, G.; Pike, E.R.; Pusey, P.N.

    1978-01-01

    This article collects together some of the main ideas and experimental results on the twinkling of stars. Statistical methods are used to characterise the features of the scintillation and to investigate the ways in which these depend on the zenith angle of the star, the bandwidth of the light and various other parameters. Some new results are included which demonstrate the advantages of using photon counting methods in experiments on stellar scintillation. Since the twinkling of stars is a consequence of the turbulence in the Earth's magnetic atmosphere then measurements can be used to deduce some features of the structure of the turbulence. Some of the experiments designed to do this are discussed and the results reported. (author)

  10. Shooting Stars over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, John

    International cultural exchange and education in the sciences and arts is one of the chief aims of the British Council (BC). The 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower was recognised by the BC in China as an event that would offer an opportunity, both to promote the public understanding of space science at an international level, and to encourage on-going cultural links between the United Kingdom and China. Predictions suggested that the 1998 shower, which was likely to be the most intense for more than three decades, would be best viewed in north-east Asia. The BC contracted the Orbital Mechanics Educational Network, an independent organisation that promotes space education amongst young people, to organise several activities aimed particularly at teenagers. The culmination of the project was a visit to Beijing by a party of British teenagers, to take part in meteor observation at China's Mi Yun Observatory. The paper focusses on the practicalities of organising and running such a project and reports on the achievements and shortcomings of the overall venture. It also reports on the observations and findings that were made by the UK group and their Chinese student partners, all of whom were observing a meteor shower for the first time. It reports on the techniques of observing that were tried, the observations themselves and the findings that were made by the group. It also offers advice to those who might wish to set up similar bi-lateral ventures, particularly with China and the UK, and outlines plans to continue and improve the relationships that have been established. (Please note: I realise this is topic not directly covered by the Conference, but how the subject of the meteor phenomenon in particular and, for that matter, science in general is conveyed to the " man in the street" should be important to all scientists, not least because they depend on external funding and public goodwill! Perhaps a suitable slot can be made for this presentation on Tuesday, which is the

  11. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed

  12. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  13. Atmospheres of central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummer, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents a brief summary of atmospheric models that are of possible relevance to the central stars of planetary nebulae, and then discusses the extent to which these models accord with the observations of both nebulae and central stars. Particular attention is given to the significance of the very high Zanstra temperature implied by the nebulae He II lambda 4686 A line, and to the discrepancy between the Zanstra He II temperature and the considerably lower temperatures suggested by the appearance of the visual spectrum for some of these objects. (Auth.)

  14. The Drifting Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  15. The star of Bethlehem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the cause and form of the star are still uncertain. The astrologically significant triple conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the constellation of Pisces appears to be the most likely explanation, although the two comets of March 5 BC and April 4 BC cannot be dismissed, nor can the possibility that the 'star' was simply legendary. The conjunction occurred in 7 BC and there are indications that Jesus Christ was probably born in the Autumn of that year, around October 7 BC. (U.K.)

  16. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  17. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  18. SEQUENTIAL STAR FORMATION IN RCW 34: A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunina, T.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Puga, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Waelkens, Ch.; Horrobin, M.; Kaper, L.; De Koter, A.; Van den Ancker, M.; Comeron, F.; Lenorzer, A.; Churchwell, E.; Kurtz, S.; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Stolte, A.; Thi, W. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of RCW 34 along with Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the surroundings. RCW 34 consists of three different regions. A large bubble has been detected in the IRAC images in which a cluster of intermediate- and low-mass class II objects is found. At the northern edge of this bubble, an H II region is located, ionized by 3 OB stars, of which the most massive star has spectral type O8.5V. Intermediate-mass stars (2-3 M sun ) are detected of G- and K-spectral type. These stars are still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. North of the H II region, a photon-dominated region is present, marking the edge of a dense molecular cloud traced by H 2 emission. Several class 0/I objects are associated with this cloud, indicating that star formation is still taking place. The distance to RCW 34 is revised to 2.5 ± 0.2 kpc and an age estimate of 2 ± 1 Myr is derived from the properties of the PMS stars inside the H II region. Between the class II sources in the bubble and the PMS stars in the H II region, no age difference could be detected with the present data. The presence of the class 0/I sources in the molecular cloud, however, suggests that the objects inside the molecular cloud are significantly younger. The most likely scenario for the formation of the three regions is that star formation propagated from south to north. First the bubble is formed, produced by intermediate- and low-mass stars only, after that, the H II region is formed from a dense core at the edge of the molecular cloud, resulting in the expansion similar to a champagne flow. More recently, star formation occurred in the rest of the molecular cloud. Two different formation scenarios are possible. (1) The bubble with the cluster of low- and intermediate-mass stars triggered the formation of the O star at the edge of the molecular cloud, which in its turn induces the current star formation in the molecular cloud. (2) An external triggering is

  19. "Movie Star" Acting Strangely, Radio Astronomers Find

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to make the first-ever time-lapse "movie" showing details of gas motions around a star other than our Sun. The study, the largest observational project yet undertaken using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, has produced surprising results that indicate scientists do not fully understand stellar atmospheres. The "movie" shows that the atmosphere of a pulsating star more than 1,000 light-years away continues to expand during a part of the star's pulsation period in which astronomers expected it to start contracting. Philip Diamond and Athol Kemball, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, TX, today. "The continued expansion we're seeing contradicts current theoretical models for how these stars work," Diamond said. "The models have assumed spherical symmetry in the star's atmosphere, and our movie shows that this is not the case. Such models suggest that a shock wave passes outward from the star. Once it's passed, then the atmosphere should begin to contract because of the star's gravity. We've long passed that point and the contraction has not begun." The time-lapse images show that the gas motions are not uniform around the star. Most of the motion is that of gas moving directly outward from the star's surface. However, in about one-fourth of the ring, there are peculiar motions that do not fit this pattern. The scientists speculate that the rate of mass loss may not be the same from all parts of the star's surface. "A similar star behaved as predicted when studied a few years ago, so we're left to wonder what's different about this one," Diamond said. "Right now, we think that different rates of mass loss in the two stars may be the cause of the difference. This star is losing mass at 100 times the rate of the star in the earlier study." "This

  20. North Region ROW tool implementation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    Welcome to the North Region ROW Tool Workshop. This workshop is funded under an implementation project sponsored by TxDOTs Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI). This is the second of four regional workshops being planned for this summ...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  3. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  5. Photometry of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Hill, P.W.; Brown, A.

    1977-01-01

    Photometry on the uvby system is given for 61 faint blue stars. The stars are classified by means of the Stromgren indices, using criteria described in a previous paper (Kilkenny and Hill (1975)). (author)

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Smart Thermostats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Connected Thermostats that are effective as of...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Roof Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products that are effective as of July 1,...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  11. Understand B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    When observations of B stars made from space are added to observations made from the ground and the total body of observational information is confronted with theoretical expectations about B stars, it is clear that nonthermal phenomena occur in the atmospheres of B stars. The nature of these phenomena and what they imply about the physical state of a B star and how a B star evolves are examined using knowledge of the spectrum of a B star as a key to obtaining an understanding of what a B star is like. Three approaches to modeling stellar structure (atmospheres) are considered, the characteristic properties of a mantle, and B stars and evolution are discussed.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Imaging Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment that are effective as of...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Coolers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers that are effective as of February...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  16. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  19. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  20. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  3. Distances of Dwarf Carbon Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Subasavage, John P.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Canzian, Blaise J.; Levine, Stephen E.; Monet, Alice B.; Pier, Jeffrey R.; Stone, Ronald C.; Tilleman, Trudy M.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2018-06-01

    Parallaxes are presented for a sample of 20 nearby dwarf carbon stars. The inferred luminosities cover almost two orders of magnitude. Their absolute magnitudes and tangential velocities confirm prior expectations that some originate in the Galactic disk, although more than half of this sample are halo stars. Three stars are found to be astrometric binaries, and orbital elements are determined; their semimajor axes are 1–3 au, consistent with the size of an AGB mass-transfer donor star.

  4. RADIAL STABILITY IN STRATIFIED STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Rueda, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting any two phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case

  5. New stars for old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henbest, N.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of novas made through the ages, the identity of the close double stars which make up these cataclysmic variables and the physics of nova explosions, are discussed. A picture is outlined which explains novas, dwarf novas and recurrent novas and provides a basis for interpreting the latest so called x-ray novas. (U.K.)

  6. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At normal nuclear matter density, neutron star matter mainly consists of neutrons, protons and electrons. The particle population is so arranged as to attain a min- imum energy configuration maintaining electrical charge neutrality and chemical equilibrium. At higher baryon density, hyperon formation becomes energetically.

  7. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  8. Asteroseismology of Scuti Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We briefly outline the state-of-the-art seismology of Scuti stars from a theoretical point of view: why is it so difficult a task? The recent theoretical advances in the field that these difficulties have influenced are also discussed.

  9. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  10. Sleeping under the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Jack

    Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson went on a camping trip. As they lay down for the night, Holmes said, “Watson, look up at the sky and tell me what you see.”Watson:“! see millions and millions of stars.”

  11. Insight into star death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talcott, R.

    1988-01-01

    Nineteen neutrinos, formed in the center of a supernova, became a theorist's dream. They came straight from the heart of supernova 1987A and landed in two big underground tanks of water. Suddenly a new chapter in observational astronomy opened as these two neutrino telescopes gave astronomers their first look ever into the core of a supernova explosion. But the theorists' dream almost turned into a nightmare. Observations of the presupernova star showed conclusively that the star was a blue supergiant, but theorists have long believed only red supergiant stars could explode as supernovae. Do astronomers understand supernovae better now than when supernova 1987A exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) one year ago? Yes. The observations of neutrinos spectacularly confirmed a vital aspect of supernova theory. But the observed differences between 1987A and other supernovae have illuminated and advanced our perception of how supernovae form. By working together, observers and theorists are continuing to hone their ideas about how massive stars die and how the subsequent supernovae behave

  12. StarLogo TNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Scheintaub, Hal; Huang, Wendy; Wendel, Daniel

    Computational approaches to science are radically altering the nature of scientific investigatiogn. Yet these computer programs and simulations are sparsely used in science education, and when they are used, they are typically “canned” simulations which are black boxes to students. StarLogo The Next Generation (TNG) was developed to make programming of simulations more accessible for students and teachers. StarLogo TNG builds on the StarLogo tradition of agent-based modeling for students and teachers, with the added features of a graphical programming environment and a three-dimensional (3D) world. The graphical programming environment reduces the learning curve of programming, especially syntax. The 3D graphics make for a more immersive and engaging experience for students, including making it easy to design and program their own video games. Another change to StarLogo TNG is a fundamental restructuring of the virtual machine to make it more transparent. As a result of these changes, classroom use of TNG is expanding to new areas. This chapter is concluded with a description of field tests conducted in middle and high school science classes.

  13. THE STAR OFFLINE FRAMEWORK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINE, V.; FISYAK, Y.; PEREVOZTCHIKOV, V.; WENAUS, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a-large acceptance collider detector, commissioned at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1999. STAR has developed a software framework supporting simulation, reconstruction and analysis in offline production, interactive physics analysis and online monitoring environments that is well matched both to STAR's present status of transition between Fortran and C++ based software and to STAR's evolution to a fully OO software base. This paper presents the results of two years effort developing a modular C++ framework based on the ROOT package that encompasses both wrapped Fortran components (legacy simulation and reconstruction code) served by IDL-defined data structures, and fully OO components (all physics analysis code) served by a recently developed object model for event data. The framework supports chained components, which can themselves be composite subchains, with components (''makers'') managing ''data sets'' they have created and are responsible for. An St-DataSet class from which data sets and makers inherit allows the construction of hierarchical organizations of components and data, and centralizes almost all system tasks such as data set navigation, I/O, database access, and inter-component communication. This paper will present an overview of this system, now deployed and well exercised in production environments with real and simulated data, and in an active physics analysis development program

  14. Highlights from STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweda, Kai

    2004-01-01

    Selected results from the STAR collaboration are presented. We focus on recent results on jet-like correlations, nuclear modification factors of identified hadrons, elliptic flow of multi-strange baryons Ξ and Ω, and resonance yields. First measurements of open charm production at RHIC are presented

  15. Supernovae from massive AGB stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.; Izzard, R.G.; Herwig, F.; Langer, N.; Heger, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present new computations of the final fate of massive AGB-stars. These stars form ONeMg cores after a phase of carbon burning and are called Super AGB stars (SAGB). Detailed stellar evolutionary models until the thermally pulsing AGB were computed using three di erent stellar evolution codes. The

  16. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  17. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  18. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    of gas and dust lies off the left side of this picture as can be seen in image eso1031b. This area includes the remarkable star Eta Carinae and was featured in an earlier press release (eso0905). Notes [1] More information about Wolf-Rayet stars More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  19. Environmental effects on star formation in dwarf galaxies and star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Cropper, Mark; fujita, Yutaka; Chiosi, Cesare; Grebel, Eva K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the competitive role of the different dissipative phenomena acting on the onset of star formation history of gravitationally bound system in an external environment.Ram pressure, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, Rayleigh-Taylor, and tidal forces are accounted separately in an analytical framework and compared in their role in influencing the star forming regions. The two-fluids instability at the interface between a stellar system and its surrounding hotter and less dense environment is related to the star formation processes through a set of differential equations. We present an analytical criterion to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a spherical stellar system on its surrounding environment useful in theoretical interpretations of numerical results as well as observational applications. We show how spherical coordinates naturally enlighten the interpretation of the two-fluids instability in a geometry that directly applies to astrophysical case. Finally, we consider the different signatures of these phenomena in synthetically realized colour-magnitude diagrams of the orbiting system thus investigating the detectability limits of these different effects for future observational projects and their relevance.The theoretical framework developed has direct applications to the cases of dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy.

  20. Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - are the barium stars and Am stars related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and barium stars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests that barium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, are most likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries with close to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of mass transfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Mass transfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbital separations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium stars as the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range of elemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of stars with large peculiar velocities. 93 refs