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Sample records for north santorini south

  1. Formation of heterogeneous magmatic series beneath North Santorini, South Aegean island arc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, John C; Jensen, E.S.; Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    magma formation beneath North Santorini throughout its 500 ka history is attributed to variable transfer of sedimentary components - either terrigenous or pelagic, as bulk sediments or high-temperature partial melts rather than fluids or low-temperature partial melts - from a rupture zone...... in the subducted slab to the overlying mantle. The three main magmatic series followed independent paths of assimilation of upper crustal materials during fractional crystallization. Assimilation was more pronounced at the basaltic stage. The long-lived histories of the three main magmatic series imply repetitive...... melting of isolated mantle regions, ascent of magmas through independent feeder systems, and their residence in separate crustal magma chambers....

  2. Expanding extension, subsidence and lateral segmentation within the Santorini - Amorgos basins during Quaternary: Implications for the 1956 Amorgos events, central - south Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Hübscher, C.; Papanikolaou, D.; Farangitakis, G. P.; Ruhnau, M.; Lampridou, D.

    2018-01-01

    New bathymetric and seismic reflection data from the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone in the southern Cyclades have been analysed and a description of the morphology and tectonic structure of the area has been presented. The basins of Anhydros, Amorgos and Santorini-Anafi have been distinguished together with the intermediate Anhydros Horst within the NE-SW oriented Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone which has a length of 60-70 km and a width of 20-25 km. The basins represent tectonic grabens or semi-grabens bordered by the active marginal normal faults of Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos, Ios, Anhydros and Astypalaea. The Santorini-Anafi, Amorgos and Ios marginal faults have their footwall towards the NW where Alpine basement occurs in the submarine scarps and their hangingwall towards the southeast, where the Quaternary sediments have been deposited with maximum thickness of 700 m. Six sedimentary Units 1-6 have been distinguished in the stratigraphic successions of the Santorini-Anafi and the western Anhydros Basin whereas in the rest area only the upper four Units 3-6 have been deposited. This shows the expansion of the basin with subsidence during the Quaternary due to ongoing extension in a northwest-southeast direction. Growth structures are characterized by different periods of maximum deformation as this is indicated by the different sedimentary units with maximum thickness next to each fault. Transverse structures of northwest-southeast direction have been identified along the Santorini-Amorgos Tectonic Zone with distinction of the blocks/segments of Santorini, Anhydros/Kolumbo, Anhydros islet and Amorgos. Recent escarpments with 7-9 m offset observed along the Amorgos Fault indicate that this was activated during the first earthquake of the 7.5 magnitude 1956 events whereas no recent landslide was found in the area that could be related to the 1956 tsunami.

  3. North-south interdependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norse, D

    1979-01-01

    The sound eco-development of agriculture can help to establish a cooperative and harmonious north-south interdependence. The interdependence pattern is seen when the major agricultural suppliers (energy, fertilizers, and pesticides) are examined in the context of commodity transfers of grain and rubber. The consumers of either the north or south would be unable to find alternative sources without major production or social disruption. The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) INTERFUTURES study examines the chain of dependencies between raw materials and markets and the implications for economic development, employment, and environmental hazards. If interdependence is to benefit both the north and the south, technological fixes will not be adequate or appropriate to deal with the potential hazards. (DCK)

  4. SANTORINI BEFORE THE MINOAN ERUPTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Walter L.; Sørensen, Annette Højen; Katsipis, Samson

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions Several detailed geological observations in the landscape of Santorini enable us to claim that the two harbour towns were located on the inner side of the caldera wall on the island of Thera prior to the Minoan Eruption. This hypothesis is in agreement with the excavation sites of Bal...... that the fresco shows a joyful scene where the inhabitants of Bronze Age Santorini celebrate the seasonal change in connection with the arrival of life-giving rainwater either at the beginning of spring or at the end of the sailing season in autumn (Pl. CXLVIIc)....

  5. Perceptions of hazard and risk on Santorini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, Dale; Minos-Minopoulos, Despina

    2004-10-01

    Santorini, Greece is a major explosive volcano. The Santorini volcanic complex is composed of two active volcanoes—Nea Kameni and Mt. Columbo. Holocene eruptions have generated a variety of processes and deposits and eruption mechanisms pose significant hazards of various types. It has been recognized that, for major European volcanoes, few studies have focused on the social aspects of volcanic activity and little work has been conducted on public perceptions of hazard, risk and vulnerability. Such assessments are an important element of establishing public education programmes and developing volcano disaster management plans. We investigate perceptions of volcanic hazards on Santorini. We find that most residents know that Nea Kameni is active, but only 60% know that Mt. Columbo is active. Forty percent of residents fear that negative impacts on tourism will have the greatest effect on their community. In the event of an eruption, 43% of residents would try to evacuate the island by plane/ferry. Residents aged >50 have retained a memory of the effects of the last eruption at the island, whereas younger residents have no such knowledge. We find that dignitaries and municipal officers (those responsible for planning and managing disaster response) are informed about the history, hazards and effects of the volcanoes. However, there is no "emergency plan" for the island and there is confusion between various departments (Civil Defense, Fire, Police, etc.) about the emergency decision-making process. The resident population of Santorini is at high risk from the hazards associated with a future eruption.

  6. GLOBAL COMPETITION BETWEEN NORTH AND SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca DIACONESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The human-geographic regionalization is a landmark in the demarcation of territories that include populations of the same demographic, cultural or economic background. A defining boundary for human characteristics across the planet can be made simple, between the North and the South. The north, though advanced economically, militarily, technologically, united, well-urbanized and landscaped, dominates the world for just 500 years before the South was in power. After a long period of stagnation, the South escapes the colonialist chains until the 1950s, after which begins a vast process of revival in which emerging new powers are emerging as well as a series of economic unions that can rival with the old powers in the North. Analyzing the number of inhabitants in the two regions, it is noted that demographic size is a priority in the slope of the power balance, so when one of the regions exceeded 50% of the total population of the Globe, it attracted wealth by exporting populations and culture that colonized the other half. After 1950, the South holds for the first time 400 years, over 50% of the total population, and in 2017 it reaches 62%, reaching 71% in 2050 and 81% of the world's population by 2100. understands that the economic difficulties in the North, financial crises, the limitation of global influence or the issue of immigrants is only at the beginning, and the transformation of the North into the southern vassal is just a matter of time.

  7. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  8. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. 500.554 Section 500.554 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  9. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  10. Reconstruction of the paleo-coastline of Santorini island (Greece ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    history, changing dramatically the life of the people of the Bronze age in the eastern Mediterranean. Basin. It also changed the morphology of the island itself, creating the famous ..... Friedrich W 2001 Fire in the Sea. The Santorini Volcano:.

  11. North-South Knowledge Partnerships : Promoting the Canada-Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Phase I (104033) sought to foster learning partnerships between Canadian and Latin American research and ... I. The idea is to support ongoing North-South and South-South knowledge partnerships based on participatory, ... Project status.

  12. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...

  13. North-South cooperation for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyaki, M

    1989-12-01

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.

  14. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  15. Determinants and Economic Impacts of North-South and South-South FDI in ASEAN : Panel Regression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Peseth, Seng

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses panel data of 10 ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2008 and studies the cross-country and industrial distribution of North and South FDI, investigates host country-specific determinants of the inflows of total FDI, North FDI and South FDI, and also compares the effects of North and South FDI on economic and industrial growth in the region.

  16. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  17. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Crossing borders : development, learning and the North-South divide.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, C.

    2006-01-01

    While the validity of categories like 'First' and 'Third' World or 'North' and 'South' has been increasingly questioned, there have been few attempts to consider how learning between North and South might be conceived. Drawing on a range of perspectives from development and postcolonial scholarship, this paper argues for the creative possibility of learning between different contexts. This involves a conceptualisation of learning that is at once ethical and indirect: ethical because it transc...

  19. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-10-28

    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  20. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  1. Geoarchaeological tsunami deposits at Palaikastro (Crete) and the Late Minoan IA eruption of Santorini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; MacGillivray, J. Alexander; Synolakis, Costas E.; Benjamini, Chaim; Keller, Joerg; Kisch, Hanan J.; Kleugel, Andreas; van der Plicht, Johannes; Klügel, Andreas

    The explosive eruption at Santorini in the Aegean Sea during the second millennium BCE was the largest Holocene volcanic upheaval in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The eruption was disastrous for the Minoan settlements at Santorini, but the effect on human society in the neighbouring islands and

  2. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  3. Climate Change and North-South Divide. Between and Within

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The traditional North-South divide has persisted through out the negotiations on climate change. Divergent state interests made striking a right balance between development and environmental protection an elusive endeavor as negotiators were striving to adopt a global climate regime. Four principles of international environmental law are of particular concern: the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity, the precautionary principle, and the principle of sustainable development. With economic development being the overriding priority in developing countries, the negotiations leading to the Kyoto Protocol tend to prove that principles could be interpreted in different ways to fit particular interests. This study explains the confrontations between the North and the South and argues that climate change has by far strengthened the North-South divide both between and within. Accordingly, it concludes that there is a need to devise new principles

  4. Role of petroleum in the North-South dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bouri, W

    1985-01-01

    The North-South dialogue is an unbalanced struggle because the South is seeking to ensure its survival, while the North is defending its gains and concessions. This paper highlights the role of petroleum in the dialogue, in the cooperation and solidarity that now exist between countries of the South, in convincing the industrial countries of the need for comprehensive negotiations, and in promoting the idea of a new international econmic order. It also highlights the role OAPEC has played in pursuing a dialogue with the North on oil and oil industries, in exchanging know-how and information with industrial countries, and in acquiring technology from them. A new element since 1973 has been the use of petroleum as a political weapon. 17 references, 1 table.

  5. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  6. North-South Institute Institutional Grant 2011-2012 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The North-South Institute (NSI) is an established independent thinktank in Canada whose work focuses on international development, poverty reduction and global inequalities. Building on a long history of collaboration between NSI and IDRC, this grant will provide the Institute with core support for 2011-2012. NSI activities ...

  7. Musharraf calls for North-South cooperation: Science and technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "President Gen Pervez Musharraf has called for improved North-South cooperation in scinece and technology and said it would enable millions of people in the developing countries to realize the goal of rapid socio-economic progress" (1.5 page)

  8. Analysis of COMS-1 North-South Station Keeping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perturbations caused by the Sun and the Moon are predominantly out-of-plane effects causing a change in the inclination and in the right ascension of ascending node of a geostationary satellite. Due to the change of the inclination, subsatellite latitude of the geostationary satellite has a daily variations of the same magnitude of the inclination. Therefore we need a facility to control the orbital inclination and right ascension of ascending node for maintaining the satellite position in specified subsatellite latitude boundary using thrusters. In this paper we studied North-South station keeping strategies of the COMS-1 such as Track-Back Chord Target (TBCT method, Maximum Compensation Target (MCT method and Minimum Fuel Target (MFT method. We accomplished those North-South station keeping maneuvers for one year starting from December 2008. The required velocity increments to maintain the satellite are estimated as MCT 52.6065m/s, TBCT 52.2383m/s, MFT 51.5428m/s, respectively. We demonstrated that TBCT and MFT methods are proper to North-South station keeping for COMS-1. MFT method showed the minimum required velocity increments whereas TBCT traced narrow inclination boundary area for North-South station keeping.

  9. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  10. Biofuels: What a Biopact between North and South could achieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.

    2007-01-01

    With very few exceptions, such as the recent remarks by International Energy Agency (IEA) head Claude Mandil, commentators on the world's energy issues have yet to recognize the enormous contribution that biofuels producers from the South could make to solving the world's greenhouse gas emission problems and problems to do with the peaking of oil supplies. Once the equation between biofuels and high-cost, land-intensive cultivation in the North is broken, and a quite different scenario involving production in the South is adopted, then the possibilities are dramatically changed. The argument of this paper is that a transition to substitution of 20 percent of OECD gasoline needs by 2020 could be met from the South by creating the equivalent of 18 Brazils over the course of the next decade. Such an enormous transition will not occur by itself, or through the operation of market forces alone. It needs an institutional framework, one that guarantees for the countries of the North regular supplies of biofuels produced in a responsible manner, and guarantees for the countries of the South open markets for the biofuels produced. The OECD is in the best position to bring about such an arrangement, through taking the initiative of offering developing countries a 'Biopact' between North and South, thereby creating for the first time a global market for biofuels. The launch of an International Biofuels Forum under the auspices of the UN in early 2007 is a step towards the creation of such an international framework where North-South issues on biofuels may be fruitfully addressed. (author)

  11. South-South Cooperation, North-South Aid and the Prospect of International Aid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South-South Cooperation (SSC and North-South Aid (NSA arise from different historical conditions and there are great differences between their philosophies, principles and paradigms. Against the background of a changing global environment, developed countries realized that the original development aid architecture must be reformed on one hand, and that developing countries are increasingly important in the aid architecture on the other. Hence, Western donors began to rethink their aid principles and methods, and accepted the concept of development effectiveness gradually, an attempt to establish global development forum and global partnership including emerging donors, beneficiary countries, civil society and the private sector. Nevertheless, being developing countries themselves, emerging donors are faced with unsolved domestic poverty issues and imperfect aid management institutions, which means that the emerging donors are unable to take a dominant position in the current aid architecture. Hence, the future dialogue and cooperation between traditional and emerging donors should feature the principle that the responsibilities taken by each party are collective but not identical, with developing countries bearing the main responsibilities in promoting poverty reduction and economic development in developing countries. They should be mutually tolerant about the different philosophies and share useful experiences. Moreover, emerging donors should promote development capacity building in recipient countries through win-win cooperation and solve their domestic development issues at the same time.

  12. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  13. Job quality in Europe: the North-South divide

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeira, Maria da Conceição; Kovács, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the job quality in Europe. It is based on the results of the Fourth European Foundation Survey on working conditions covering different dimensions including work organisation, job content, autonomy at work, aspects of worker dignity, working time and work-life balance, working conditions and safety in the workplace. The results point to the existence of great diversity in the job quality across Europe and the north-south divide. The job quality differences are related to t...

  14. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  15. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  16. North/south Station Keeping of Geostationary Satellite Using Mft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Young Ahn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A precise determination of the fuel efficiency is important because North/South station keeping ,which controls the inclination of the geostationary orbit, consumes most of the satellite fuel. We estimate the amount of fuel required during the lifetime of the KOREASAT when MFT(Minimum Fuel Target technique is adopted, and the result is compared to those when MCT(Maximum Compensation Target and TBCT(Track-Back Chord Target technique are applied. From this computation, we find that if MFT technique is adopted, the lifetime of the satellite can be extended at least 45 and 15 days, respectively, compared to those consumed with MCT and TBCT technique.

  17. Supplementary Knowledge: Queering the North/South Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Masiello

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses the ways in which feminist cultural journalism (Las/12 found in the women's supplement of a popular Argentine daily newspaper (Página/12 advances a critique of the gender system within the North/South market economy while advocating disruptions of political and social discourse through a gaze that is decidedly queer: It also announces the violence of neoliberalism against women's interests and brings lesbian projects to surface as an alternative to the market domestication of women.

  18. South Korea's aid to North Korea's transformation process: Social market perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Tae-seok

    2007-01-01

    South Korea's aid to North Korea is deviated from the international trend in development aid. As a stylized fact, we find that South Korea's policy keeping economic relationship with North Korea was inconsistent and ineffective during the last decade. Since South Korea played a major role in promoting economic transformation process in North Korea, perspectives from social market economy, open economy, stabilization, and investment in infrastructure provide insights in dealing with developmen...

  19. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  20. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  1. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  2. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  3. North-South migration in Ghana: what role for the environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the importance of the environment as a driver of North-South migration in Ghana. Almost one in every five people born in northern Ghana is living in southern Ghana. Interviews with 203 migrant farmers suggest that migration from the North to the South is, to

  4. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... of species and individuals of all palm species. The genetic structure of useful palm species is studied to determine how much harvesting of the species contributes to genetic erosion of its populations, and whether extraction can be made without harm. Almost all palm species are used in rural communities...

  5. The most direct and precise radiocarbon date for the Minoan eruption of Santorini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Walter L.; Heinemeier, Jan

    for the Minoan eruption. Together with a second olive tree, excavated only 9 meters from the first one, it enables us to repeat the earlier measurements of the first tree 2006 (Friedrich, W.L . Kromer, B Friedrich, M. Heinemeier, J. Pfeiffer, T. Talamo, S. Santorini Eruption Radiocarbon Dated to 1627-1600 BC...

  6. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  7. Geography of Food Consumption Patterns between South and North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangfang; Cho, Mi Sook

    2017-05-05

    The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.

  8. Cleaning up our mining act: A north-south dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, B.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the availability of natural resources has been a pivotal element in the pursuit of political power and economic development. It contributed to improving people's standard of living, which translated into better health and increased life expectancy. Paradoxically, this road to riches and collective material prosperity was built at the expense of the long term well-being of the mining community by degrading its environment. Mining is first and foremost a risky business and a temporary activity. It is derided as a boom-bust industry. For both North and South, mining should be a boon and not a liability. This impact of mining is two-pronged. On the one hand, the impact is felt on the physical environment, mainly our support system, land, soil, water, ocean, and air, and on the other hand on our economic, social cultural and political milieu. The latter is far reaching and its implications are felt far beyond the performance of the sector. Mining can effectively foster sustainable development if the accrued rent from the depletion of mineral resources is continuously reinvested into other forms of economic and social development, inclusive of health and education, which in turn are more sustainable than mining. A healthy and continued multi-stakeholder consultation will go a long way towards 'sustainability'. Consensus should be built over the need to reconcile the collective interest with the local socio-economic expectations. (author)

  9. North-south diversity of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balachandran, T.

    The effectiveness of north-south hydrographical barriers in restricting the distributions of Scolecithricidae species (Copepoda:Calanoida) in the euphotic zone of the Indian Ocean was studied. Twenty seven species belonging to 7 genera were...

  10. A time for new north-south relationships in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Un; Oleribe, Obinna; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2017-01-01

    The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization. Medical exploitation has its roots in the socioeconomic interactions of a postcolonial world, and solutions to reducing exploitation require a deeper understanding of these societal models of globalization. We explore the fundamental causes of imbalance and suggest solutions. Reflecting on the globalization model, there must be an effort to empower the Global South nations to direct and govern their own health care systems efficiently on the basis of equality.

  11. MRSA bacteraemia: North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Donald, P

    2002-12-01

    Retrospective aggregate data on all Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from blood cultures during 1998 were collected in both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland (North) and the Republic of Ireland (South), as part of the North\\/South Study of MRSA in Ireland 1999. A postal questionnaire was used to gather the data, and all diagnostic microbiology laboratories in the North and 98% of laboratories in the South participated. S. aureus bacteraemia occurred at rates of 20.4 per 100,000 population in the North and 24.5 per 100,000 in the South (missing data from one laboratory). In the North, 22% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 25% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA (some patients had more than one isolate). In the South, 31% of patients who had blood cultures positive for S. aureus had MRSA and 36% of S. aureus isolates were MRSA. There was a marked variation in rates between different regions. The percentage of patients with blood cultures positive for S. aureus that had MRSA was considerably lower in the North (22%) than in the South (31%), and in both jurisdictions was lower than that found in England and Wales in 1999 (37%). It is recommended that data on S. aureus bacteraemia and methicillin-resistance rates (already available in many laboratories) are gathered at regional and national level for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

  12. Discrepancies in general surgery medical terminology between South and North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Keunyoung; Park, Do-Eon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Yang, Hyun Hui; Ko, Dayoung; Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize surgery-related medical terminologies used in South and North Korea and to compare and analyze discrepancies observed in the terms. This study collected medical terminology used in the North Korean medical book "Surgery" and compared it to medical terminology found in the medical glossary of South Korea. The order of the subtitle was described according to the Instruction to Authors. In total, there were 2,168 individual medical terms, of which only 1,004 words (46.3%) were identical to South Korean medical terms. There were 581 similar terms (26.8%), 265 different terms (12.2%), and 318 terms that are nonexistent in South Korea (14.7%). Less than half of the medical terms used in North Korea match those used in South Korea. It is expected that the prolongation of the current division of South and North Korea will only worsen this discrepancy. Further efforts to bridge the gap through academic exchange between South Korea and North Korea are required in preparation for an era of reunification.

  13. Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to 1627-1600 B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Walter L; Kromer, Bernd; Friedrich, Michael; Heinemeier, Jan; Pfeiffer, Tom; Talamo, Sahra

    2006-04-28

    Precise and direct dating of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera) in Greece, a global Bronze Age time marker, has been made possible by the unique find of an olive tree, buried alive in life position by the tephra (pumice and ashes) on Santorini. We applied so-called radiocarbon wiggle-matching to a carbon-14 sequence of tree-ring segments to constrain the eruption date to the range 1627-1600 B.C. with 95.4% probability. Our result is in the range of previous, less precise, and less direct results of several scientific dating methods, but it is a century earlier than the date derived from traditional Egyptian chronologies.

  14. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  15. 3D upper crustal seismic structure across Santorini volcanic field: Constraints on magmatic and tectonic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, B.; Hooft, E. E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Walls, K.; Paulatto, M.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Warner, M.

    2017-12-01

    To investigate magmatic-tectonic interactions at an arc volcano, we collected a dense, active-source, seismic dataset across the Santorini Volcano, Greece, with 90 ocean bottom seismometers, 65 land seismometers, and 14,300 marine sound sources. We use over 140,000 travel-time picks to obtain a P-wave tomography model of the upper crustal structure of the Santorini volcano and surrounding tectonically extended region. Regionally, the shallow (Bouguer gravity anomalies and preliminary shallow attenuation results (using waveform amplitudes and t* values). We find regional Pliocene and younger faults bounding basement grabens and horsts to be predominately oriented in a NE-SW direction with Santorini itself located in a graben bounded by faults striking in this direction. In contrast, volcanic vents and dikes expressed at the surface seem to strike about 20° clockwise relative to these regional faults. In the northern caldera of Santorini, a 4-km wide region of anomalously low velocities and high attenuation directly overlies an inferred source of 2011-2012 inflation (4-4.5 km depth), however it is located at shallower depths ( 1-2km). The imaged low-velocity anomaly may correspond to hydrothermal activity (due to increased porosity and alteration) and/or brecciation from a prior episode of caldera collapse. It is bounded by anomalously fast velocities (at 1-2 km depth) that parallel the regional fault orientation and are correspondingly rotated 20° to surface dikes. At 4-5 km depth beneath the northern caldera basin, low-velocity anomalies and attenuated seismic arrivals provide preliminary evidence for a magma body; the low-velocity anomaly is elongated in the same direction as regional volcanic vents. The difference in strike of volcanic and tectonic features indicates oblique extension and potential time-variation in the minimum stress direction.

  16. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  17. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  18. Should the north make unilateral technology transfers to the south? North-South cooperation and conflicts in responses to global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zili

    1999-01-01

    Whether developed countries should make unilateral technology transfers to developing countries in order to address global environment problems is debatable. This paper discusses the issue in a framework that recognizing nations' joint production of environmental externalities. Unlike the existing literature on unilateral transfers, this paper presents a North-South environmental-economic optimal growth model that allows transfers to mitigate externalities only. The paper derives criteria that would make such transfers feasible. By solving the transfer problem in a modified RICE model [Nordhaus, W.D., Yang, Z., 1996. A regional dynamic general equilibrium model of alternative climate change strategies, Am. Econ. Rev., 86 (4) 741-65], this paper also provides information on the timing and the amount of unilateral transfers from North to South to address potential global warming problem, one major global environmental externality. A policy implication from his study is that moderate employment of unilateral transfers would benefit North along with the world as a whole

  19. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  20. Factors explaining the North-South differentials in contraceptive use in Nigeria: A nonlinear decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Babalola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Northern Nigeria has some of the worst reproductive health indicators worldwide. Conspicuous North-South variations exist in contraceptive use; not much is known about the drivers of contraceptive use disparities in the North compared to the South. Objective: In this study, we examine the relative weights of the factors that contribute to this North-South gap in contraceptive prevalence. Methods: Using the women's 2013 Demographic Health Survey dataset, we applied a nonlinear decomposition technique to determine the contribution of sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, conjugal relationship dynamics, intimate partner violence, ideational variables, and Islamic culture to the North-South disparities in contraceptive use. Results: There was a gap of 12.4 percentage points in contraceptive prevalence between the north and south of Nigeria (5.2Š vs 17.6Š. The largest contributors to the gap were ideational characteristics (explaining 42.0Š of the gap and socio-economic profiles (explaining 42.6Š. Patterns of conjugal relationship dynamics (11.1Š, socio-demographic characteristics (‒11.0Š, Islamic religious culture (7.6Š, and exposure to family planning messaging (6.1Š were also significant contributors. Conclusions: Effective interventions to increase contraceptive use in northern Nigeria should aim at addressing socioeconomic disadvantage in the North, impacting ideational characteristics and specifically targeting poor women and those with low levels of education. Working with Islamic religious leaders is also critical to bridging the gap. Contribution: This paper broadens the knowledge on the determinants of contraceptive use in Nigeria by identifying contextual factors that operate differently in the North compared to the South.

  1. A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. The North Korean refugees' mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees' mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  2. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  3. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  4. CREEK Project's Nekton Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  5. CREEK Project's Microzooplankton Seasonal Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  6. [Adaptation experiences in South Korea of men defecting from North Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Miyoung

    2013-06-01

    The study was done to explore meanings and essence of the experience in South Korea of men defectors from North Korea. Data were collected from March, 2011 to May, 2012, through in-depth interviews with ten men defectors. Data analysis was conducted using the process of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection. Eight essential themes were extracted; 'buoyant expectation for a new life', 'feeling guilty about family left behind in North Korea', 'inability to become acclimatized due to communication difficulties', 'inability to socialize with South Koreans due to different lifestyles', 'finding strength through trustworthy acquaintances', 'continuing reconciliation with oneself while trying to assimilate into South Korean culture', 'self-realization of one's original self', and 'continuing to feel out the possibility of a future in South Korea'. The findings indicate that North Korean men who defect to South Korea shape their identity through three phases: forming self-image during escape from North Korea, trying to become accustomed to South Korean society, and finding their own identity by self-realization of their original self. Eventually, the whole process enables them to recover their identity, to feel a sense of belonging, and to discover possibilities for a better future.

  7. A PHONETIC MARKER OF THE MODERN NORTH-SOUTH LINGUISTIC DIVIDE IN ENGLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demina, M.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A North-South split of England, conditioned by history, culture and economic influences, has long been reflected in the spoken language. As Received Pronunciation has lost its cultural dominance, which once formed the country’s official image, this study argues that it is giving way to multiple competing identities. In the North, a new mainstream northern language identity is developing to rival Еstuary English in the South as a widespread speech code for modern generations. These two cultural identities are filling the linguistic spaces above and below the border established by the traditional FOOT-STRUT split.

  8. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA

  9. Oxygen isotope records of Globigerina bulloides across a north-south transect in the south-western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Saraswat, R

    , Washington, D.C). Lutjeharms, J.R.E., N.M. Walters and B.R. Allanson. 1985. Oceanic frontal systems and biologicalenhancement. p.11-21. In: Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. ed. by W.R. Siegfried et al., Springer-Verlag, NewYork. Matsumoto, K., J...: Ocean Sci. J.: 44(2); 2009; 117-123 OXYGEN ISOTOPE RECORDS OF GLOBIGERINA BULLOIDES ACROSS A NORTH-SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN N. Khare 1* , S. K. Chaturvedi 2 and R. Saraswat 3 1. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Block...

  10. Living the Volcano: A First-Year Study Abroad Experience to Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, L. A.; Miller, M.; Scarnati, B.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, enrollment in Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Geologic Disasters (GLG112) class has grown to its current 840 students in 7 sections per semester (4% of NAU enrollment). Given this large audience composed of >50% freshmen, the course curriculum was re-designed in 2012 using standards set by NAU's First Year Learning Initiative (FYLI), which seeks to increase academic success early in college. FYLI pedagogical principles include active-learning, frequent feedback, low-stakes assessments, and increased guidance from professors & peer teaching assistants (PTAs). As a result of the successes measured in FYLI courses, we launched a FYLI study abroad experience in 2014. We posed the question, "How can an early-career study abroad experience further develop the attitudes, skills, & behaviors necessary for success?" The pioneering program was NAU in Greece: The Cataclysmic Eruption of Santorini Volcano. Enrollment was limited to freshman & sophomore students who have taken GLG112 (or equivalent). The 3-week program took 9 students, 1 PTA, & 1 faculty member to Santorini (via Athens, 2 days). A detailed itinerary addressed a set of disciplinary & non-disciplinary learning outcomes. Student learning about Santorini volcano and the tectonic setting & hazards of the Aegean Sea occurred on the go - on ferries & private boat trips and during hiking, snorkeling, and swimming. Classroom time was limited to 1 hr/day and frequent assessments were employed. Student products included a geologic field notebook, travel journal, and 3 blog posts pertaining to geologic hazards & life on Santorini. Geologic disasters are ideal topics for early career study abroad experiences because the curriculum is place-based. Student learning benefits immensely from interacting with the land & local populations, whose lives are affected daily by the dangers of living in such geologically hazardous environments. The needs of early career students are unique, however, and must be

  11. A decade of entrepreneurship education in South Africa | North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To realise the ideal of a better life for all South Africans, the entrepreneurial energies of all our people (including children) should be harnessed to ensure that the country's full potential for economic growth is unleashed. This article describes some initiatives taken by roleplayers in both the private sector and the educational ...

  12. Why is North China seismically active while South China largely aseismic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Liu, M.

    2002-12-01

    The North China block (also known as the Sino-Korean craton) is a region of strong intraplate seismicity and active crustal deformation. Many large earthquakes, including the most devastating earthquake in modern history at Tangshan in 1976 (M=7.5), occurred in this heavily populated region. The South China block (i.e., the Yangtz craton), in contrast, is largely aseismic, although its basement rocks are younger and much of the region is closer to the present plate boundaries than the North China block. We have investigated the contrasting active tectonics between the North and South China blocks using a three-dimensional finite element model. The model approximates the geometry of the two blocks and the surrounding tectonic units. The first-order variations of lithospheric rheology, both laterally and vertically, of these blocks are considered. The kinematic boundary conditions based on the GPS data are applied to the model, and the distribution of gravitational buoyancy force within the Asian continent is calculated using digital topography. Our results suggest that the particular boundary conditions surrounding the North and South China blocks may provide the basic explanation for the contrasting seismicity between these two regions. Aligned with the axis of compression from the indenting Indian plate and supported by the stable eastern Siberia, the North China block is predicted to experience strong deviatoric stresses. A weaker crust, as indicated by the widespread Late Cenozoic volcanism and rifts and high heat flow today, further explain the abundance of seismicity in the North China block. The South China block, on the other hand, sits in the "pressure shadow" of the Indo-Asian collision with little tectonic stresses transmitted from the collision zone. The east-southeastward extrusion of the Asian continent following the Indo-Asian collision allowed the South China block to move as a coherent block as shown by the GPS data, resulting in little internal

  13. Differences in Achievement Not in Intelligence in the North and South of Italy: Comments on Lynn (2010a, 2010b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Antonella; Cardaci, Maurizio; Di Nuovo, Santo; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Lynn (2010a, 2010b) argued that individuals from south Italy have a lower IQ than individuals from north Italy, and that these differences in IQ are at the basis of north-south gap in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy. In the present paper, we discuss several theoretical and methodological aspects which we regard as flaws…

  14. Um modelo evolucionário Norte-Sul A North-South evolutionary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work expands the classical Nelson and Winter model of Schumpeterian competition by including two sectors and a North-South dynamics, with a view to analyzing how different institutions and technological regimes affect the processes of convergence and divergence in the international economy. The results suggest that convergence may emerge out of the efforts for imitation in the South when the technological regime is cumulative. But when the regime is science-based, imitation is not enough for a successful catching-up. In this case convergence requires the South to invest in innovation as well. The work also analyses the robustness of the model results using Montecarlo techniques.

  15. A Tale of North and South: Balanced and Sustainable Development of Primary Education in Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Wan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is the driving force of social development, while regional differences have restricted the balance of educational development. This paper provides a political and geospatial analysis of regional inequality across the province from 1990–2015 under a comparative spatiotemporal conceptual framework. Great differences in terms of the distribution and dynamic changes in primary school were found between southern and the northern Ningxia. The southern region has a large number of primary schools with a sharp reduction in these numbers, especially in recent years, while the north has a small but stable number of schools. Spatial accessibility analyses revealed that due to the imbalance between the south and the north, the spatial accessibility of the southern region is much worse than that of the northern region. Our study found the imbalance in the number and spatial distribution of primary schools in the north and south of Ningxia was formed because of multiple factors of policy, geography, and social-economy. The government has pursued a policy of promoting education fairness. However, neglecting differences between north and south, on the contrary, has brought negative effects to the south, worsened the educational environment, and increased education inequities. Our case study in the Ningxia district demonstrates that this research can provide a practical basis for the formulation of policies to guide the rational planning of primary education in Ningxia and/or other similar areas.

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of abyssal deposits in the north region of the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoxian

    1988-01-01

    The ages of abyssal deposits have been studied by TL dating. The ages of the deposits from the wells Weima 1, 5 and 6 at the slope in the north of the South China Sea are 36,100 and 128 thousand years respectively

  17. Migration of Computer Science Graduates from South Asia to Europe and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W. A.; Siddiqi, A. B.; Ahmed, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the influx of computer science graduates from South Asia into Europe and North America. It analyses the need and supply chains between two points and identifies the pros and cons of the education imparted to these graduates. The effects of social disorder due to migrations are addressed. The resulting technological vacuum in…

  18. The life expectancy gap between North and South Korea from 1993 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Ezzati, Majid; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-12

    Comparative research on health outcomes in North and South Korea offers a unique opportunity to explore political and social determinants of health. We examined the age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy (LE) gap between the two Koreas. We calculated the LE at birth in 1993 and 2008 among North and South Koreans, and cause-specific contributions to the LE discrepancy between the two Koreas in 2008. The cause-specific mortality data from South Korea were used as proxies for the cause-specific mortality data in North Korea in 2008. The LE gap between the two Koreas was approximately 1 year in 1993, but grew to approximately 10 years in 2008. This discrepancy was attributable to increased gaps in mortality among children younger than 1 year and adults 55 years of age or older. The major causes of the increased LE gap were circulatory diseases, digestive diseases, infant mortality, external causes, cancers and infectious diseases. This study underscores the urgency of South Korean and international humanitarian aid programs to reduce the mortality rate of the North Korean people.

  19. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Milbank NTMS Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey are reported for the Milbank Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 662 groundwater and 319 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting

  20. Meeting the Challenges of North-South Collaboration: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It then examines the benefits which the implementation of the programme have stimulated as well as the various challenges which confronted the partnership and how they were handled. The implications of the project's implementation experiences for future North-South collaborative research programmes are highlighted.

  1. Epidemiology of MRSA: the North/South study of MRSA in Ireland 1999.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, P

    2003-06-01

    The North\\/South Study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Ireland, 1999, includes a joint review of the epidemiology of MRSA across both jurisdictions on the island of Ireland. Data were gathered on all MRSA cases identified in laboratories in Northern Ireland (the North) and in the Republic of Ireland (the South) over a two-week period. The prevalence rate per 100000 population was 11.4 in the North and 14.0 in the South, with a marked variation across geographical regions. MRSA cases were located throughout hospitals and the community, were slightly more common in males than females, and occurred in all age groups, especially in the elderly. The majority of cases were inpatients in acute hospitals and were distributed across all types of wards. Most cases were colonized with MRSA but 5% of cases in the North and 10% in the South had invasive infection. Invasive infection was associated with intravascular lines and invasive procedures\\/surgery. Continuous surveillance is recommended to monitor the epidemiology of MRSA and the effectiveness of control measures.

  2. North-South Institute Institutional Grant 2011-2012 | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The North-South Institute (NSI) is an established independent thinktank in Canada whose work focuses on international development, poverty reduction and global inequalities. Building on a long history of collaboration between NSI and IDRC, this grant will provide the Institute with core support for 2011-2012. NSI activities ...

  3. Air pollution and forest health studies along a south-north transect in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan Godzik; Jerzy Szdzuj; Tomasz Staszewski; Wlodzimierz Lukasik

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk deposition and throughfall, soil characteristics, needle chemistry, and forest injury were studied on six permanent plots from the south (Brenna and Salmopol in the Beskidy Mountains) to the north (Gac, the Baltic Sea coastal area) in Poland. The concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were the highest at the Katowice location and the...

  4. Periodic Variation of the North-South Asymmetry of Solar Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here a study of various solar activity phenomena occurring in both north and south hemispheres of the Sun during solar cycles 8-23. In the study we have used sunspot data for the period 1832—. 1976, flare index data for the period 1936-1993, Hα flare data 1993-1998 and solar active prominences data ...

  5. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  6. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  7. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1997 • 1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System...

  8. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Climate Data with Water Parameters from North Inlet Meteorological Station, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1982-1996.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Meteorological data with water parameters were collected on an hourly basis from June 3, 1982 through April 29, 1996 in the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown County,...

  9. North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve's (NERR) Estuarine Water Quality Data for the North Inlet and Winyah Bay Estuaries, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1993-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The North Inlet Estuary and the adjacent lower northeastern section of the Winyah Bay Estuary were designated as part of the National Estuarine Research Reserve...

  10. Burden and cost of neurological diseases: a European North-South comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, A; Leonardi, M

    2015-07-01

    To address the relationship between years lived with a disability (YLDs), prevalence and cost of neurological diseases, and to test whether there is a European North-South gradient for national health expenditure, disability, costs and prevalence of neurological diseases. Information on costs, prevalence and YLDs referred to 2010 were taken from the Study on the Cost of Disorders of the Brain and from the Global Burden of Disease study; data on health expenditure were taken from OECD reports. Selected conditions were as follows: brain tumours, stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine and tension-type headache; selected countries were from North (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) and South (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) Europe. The association between the variables for each condition was tested using Spearman's correlation; Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to test North-South Europe differences. Correlations were largely non-significant (except for stroke). YLDs and cost were generally lower in South-European countries, and prevalence was lower in North-European countries, but no significant differences were found. Health expenditure, YLDs, costs and prevalence of neurological conditions were generally not correlated across the eight countries. A clear North-South gradient was found for health expenditures, and partially for YLDs, costs and diseases' prevalence. We hypothesized that this is a consequence of the expansion of morbidity of neurological conditions connected to ageing, that health and welfare systems of selected countries were not prepared to face. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An Assessment of Forest Cover Trends in South and North Korea, From 1980 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments—based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea—suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  12. North-South Colonization Associated with Local Adaptation of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum chilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böndel, Katharina B; Lainer, Hilde; Nosenko, Tetyana; Mboup, Mamadou; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    After colonization population sizes may vary across the species range depending on environmental conditions and following colonizations. An interesting question is whether local adaptation occurs more frequently in large ancestral populations or in small derived populations. A higher number of new mutations and a lower effect of genetic drift should favor selection in large populations, whereas small derived populations may require an initial local adaptation event to facilitate the colonization of new habitats. Wild tomatoes are native to a broad range of different habitats characterized by variable abiotic conditions in South America, and represent an ideal system to study this interplay between demography and natural selection. Population genetic analyses and statistical inference of past demography were conducted on pooled-sequencing data from 30 genes (8,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from an extensive sampling of 23 Solanum chilense populations over Chile and Peru. We reveal first a north-south colonization associated with relaxed purifying selection in the south as shown by a decrease of genetic variation and an increasing proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism from north to south, and population substructure with at least four genetic groups. Second, we uncover a dual picture of adaptation consisting of 1) a decreasing proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions from north to south suggesting that adaptation is favored in large populations, whereas 2) signatures of local adaptation predominantly occur in the smaller populations from the marginal ranges in the south. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The impact on advanced economies of north-south trade in manufacturing and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowthorn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many types of production are being transferred from the rich economies of the North to the poorer economies of the South. Such changes began in manufacturing but are now spreading to services. This paper provides estimates of their past and future impact on employment in the North. About 5 million manufacturing jobs have been lost over the past decade because of trade with low-wage economies. A similar number of service jobs may be lost to low-wage economies over the next decade. Although small compared to total employment, such losses may seriously harm certain localities or types of worker.

  14. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  15. Global health intervention from North to South: (Academic) preparation of students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda

    2018-01-01

    psychiatry/ psychology (Fernando), culture-centered health communication (Dutta) and medical anthropology (Farmer, Nguyen & Lock). The course is framed around a critical conceptualization of globalisation covering spatial and ideological dimensions (Fassin). Today’s practice of global health interventions......Global health intervention from North to South: (Academic) preparation of students By Rashmi Singla & Louise Mubanda Rasmussen, Roskilde University, Denmark This chapter discusses how to conduct before- intervention preparation of students based on a pioneer course collaboration between...... the subjects Health Promotion and International Development Studies at Roskilde University. The focus is on agents of intervention from the Global North with Global South targets. The theoretical framework of the course includes, among others approaches from cultural psychological (Valsiner), critical...

  16. Comparative study on fluorescence spectra of Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lan; He, Qing; Chen, Zhenqiang; Zhu, Siqi

    2016-03-01

    Since the spectral imaging technology emerged, it has gained a lot of application achievements in the military field, precision agriculture and biomedical science. When the fluorescence spectrum imaging first applied to the detection of the feature resource of Chinese herbal medicine, the characteristics of holistic and ambiguity made it a new approach to the traditional Chinese medicine testing. In this paper, we applied this method to study the Chinese medicine north and south isatis root granules by comparing their fluorescence spectra. Using cluster analysis, the results showed that the north and south Banlangen can not be divided by ascription. And these indicate that there is a large difference in the quality of Banlangen granules on the market, and fluorescence spectrum imaging method can be used in monitoring the quality of radix isatidis granules.

  17. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  18. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  19. Comparison on using nuclear energy between South Korea and North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Geon; Kim, Nam Ha; Byeon, Jong Dal

    1988-01-01

    This book is useful to compare glossary of science and technique in nuclear energy between South Korea and North Korea. The term on this book are in alphabetical order. This book arranges the term involving nuclear energy which are using in university, research institute and industry. The technical term are in the textbook and magazine and real life. This book features comparison of term and combination between two nations.

  20. Hierarchical biodiversity and environment impact assessment of South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China

    OpenAIRE

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    In this brief review, the potential environmental and biodiversity impact of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD) project in China on regional environments was assessed. I used the hierarchical environmental impact assessment to classify the possible impacts into three orders caused by the construction of SNWD and then presented the current research advances on each order of the impacts. Further impact assessments should be reinforced during the construction period of SNDW project for the su...

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  2. Measurement of the North-South asymmetry in the solar proton albedo neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ifedili, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    The solar proton albedo neutron flux in the range 10 -2 --10 7 eV measured by a neutron detector on board the Ogo 6 satellite was examined for north-south asymmetry. For the solar proton event of December 19, 1969, the S/N ratio of the solar proton albedo neutron rate at geomagnetic latitude lambda>70 0 was 1.61 +- 0.27 during the event, while for the November 2, 1969, event at 40 0 0 and altitudes ranging from 700 km to 800 km the solar proton albedo neutron rate was 0.40 +- 0.10 count/s in the north and 0.00 +- 0.10 count/s in the south. During the solar proton event of December 18, 1969, the N/S ratio of the solar proton albedo neutron rate at lambda>70 0 was 1.00 +- 0.26. The results are consistent with the expected N-S asymmetry in the solar proton flux. An interplanetary proton anisotropy with the interplanetary magnetic field polarity away from the sun corresponded to larger fluxes of solar proton albedo neutrons at the north polar cap than at the south, while an interplanetary proton anisotropy with the interplanetary magnetic field polarity toward the sun corresponded to larger fluxes of solar proton albedo neutrons at the south polar cap than at the north. This evidence favors the direct access of solar protons to the earth's polar caps via the merged interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines

  3. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cherubini

    Full Text Available Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  4. Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ.

  5. Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

    2013-07-01

    Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

  6. Tree ring and ice core time scales around the Santorini eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfroth, Elin; Muscheler, Raimund; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie

    2010-05-01

    When studying cosmogenic radionuclides in ice core and tree ring archives around the Santorini eruption a ~20 year discrepancy was found between the records (Muscheler 2009). In this study a new 10Be dataset from the NGRIP ice core is presented. It has a resolution of 7 years and spans the period 3752-3244 BP (1803-1295 BC). The NGRIP 10Be record and the previously published 10Be GRIP record were compared to the IntCal datasets to further investigate the discrepancy between the ice core and tree ring chronologies. By modelling the 14C production rate based on atmospheric 14C records a comparison could be made to the 10Be flux which is assumed to represent the 10Be production rate. This showed a time shift of ~23 years between the records. The sensitivity of the results to changes in important model parameters was evaluated. Uncertainties in the carbon cycle model cannot explain a substantial part of the timing differences. Potential influences of climate and atmospheric processes on the 10Be deposition were studied using δ18O from the respective cores and GISP2 ice core ion data. The comparison to δ18O revealed a small but significant correlation between 10Be flux and δ18O when the 14C-derived production signal was removed from the 10Be curves. The ion data, as proxies for atmospheric circulation changes, did not show any correlations to the 10Be record or the 10Be/14C difference. When including possible data uncertainties there is still a minimum discrepancy of ~10 years between the 10Be ice core and the 14C tree ring record. Due to lack of alternative explanations it is concluded that the ice core and/or the tree ring chronologies contains unaccounted errors in this range. This also reconciles the radiocarbon 1627-1600 BC (Friedrich et al., 2006) and ice core 1642±5 BC (Vinther et al., 2006) datings of the Santorini eruption. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., & Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to

  7. THE STELLAR NUMBER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOCAL SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD IS NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Gardner, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We study the number density distribution of a sample of K and M dwarf stars, matched north and south of the Galactic plane within a distance of 2 kpc from the Sun, using observations from the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine distances using the photometric parallax method, and in this context systematic effects exist which could potentially impact the determination of the number density profile with height from the Galactic plane—and ultimately affect a number density north-south asymmetry. They include: (1) the calibration of the various photometric parallax relations, (2) the ability to separate dwarfs from giants in our sample, (3) the role of stellar population differences such as age and metallicity, (4) the ability to determine the offset of the Sun from the Galactic plane, and (5) the correction for reddening from dust in the Galactic plane, though our stars are at high Galactic latitudes. We find the various analyzed systematic effects to have a negligible impact on our observed asymmetry, and using a new and larger sample of stars we confirm and refine the earlier discovery of Widrow et al. of a significant Galactic north-south asymmetry in the stellar number density distribution.

  8. THE STELLAR NUMBER DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LOCAL SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD IS NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanny, Brian; Gardner, Susan

    2013-10-17

    We study the number density distribution of a sample of K and M dwarf stars, matched North and South of the Galactic plane within a distance of 2 kpc from the sun, using observations from the Ninth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine distances using the photometric parallax method, and in this context systematic effects exist which could potentially impact the determination of the number density profile with height from the Galactic plane --- and ultimately affect a number density North-South asymmetry. They include: (i) the calibration of the various photometric parallax relations, (ii) the ability to separate dwarfs from giants in our sample, (iii) the role of stellar population differences such as age and metallicity, (iv) the ability to determine the offset of the sun from the Galactic plane, and (v) the correction for reddening from dust in the Galactic plane, though our stars are at high Galactic latitudes. We find the various analyzed systematic effects to have a negligible impact on our observed asymmetry, and using a new and larger sample of stars we confirm and refine the earlier discovery of Widrow et al. of a significant Galactic North-South asymmetry in the stellar number density distribution.

  9. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Macrobenthos Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1981-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Samples were taken from two estuarine tidal creek stations (designated BB and DD) in the North Inlet Estuary, SC. Two large cores, with a sediment surface area of...

  10. Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions (1976-1986) in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.; Ocaña, O.; Brito, A.

    1993-01-01

    Species of Corallimorpharia collected during the CANCAP expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic are described and discussed, altogether five species belonging to three genera of Corallimorphidae: the shallow water forms Corynactis viridis Allman, 1846, Pseudocorynactis

  11. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina and South Carolina Digital Data Re-release, 1996 (NODC Accession 0049956)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises an update of the Environmental Sensitivity Indexes (ESI) data for North and South Carolina. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and...

  13. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms from 1988-05-04 to 1990-12-18 (NODC Accession 9100058)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and another platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from 1988-10-31 to 1989-07-26 (NODC Accession 8900197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-05-20 to 1992-04-19 (NODC Accession 9200105)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Atlantic Ocean and North/South...

  16. Temperature profile data from XBT and BT casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 1987-04-02 to 1987-11-24 (NODC Accession 8800007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South...

  17. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  18. North-South Commerce and Oficial Development Aid: Some Contradictory Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadi Oliveres Boadella

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available That, traditionally, North-South commerce is unfavorably tilted towards the interests of the former is not new: but how is a countries official Aid for Development implicated in the equation? This two-pronged relationship is the subject of the article, which, based on statistics from 1988 to 1995, underlines the importance of the global petroleum trade in the balance between Spainís contribution to Aid for Development and Spainish commercialimport-export gains with countries in the South. By using petroleum as a key ingredient in analyzing the overall relationship, the author demonstrates the quantitative deterioration of Spainish Aid for Development during this period which, in constant prices, revealsthat only in 1991 did the Aid for Development show favorable results for the countries of the South vis a vis the commercial relationship.

  19. Differences in the Fears of Elementary School Children in North and South America: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.; Ogorchock, Heather N.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the fears of North American and South American children in Grades 2-5. Fears were assessed with English and Spanish versions of the American Fear Survey Schedule (FSSC-AM; Burnham 2005). Specific fears and several most common fears differed across the two countries. Overall, the South American children and the girls from both…

  20. The Asian Criminological Paradigm and How It Links Global North and South: Combining an Extended Conceptual Toolbox from the North with Innovative Asian Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In their recent seminal paper ‘Southern Criminology’, Carrington, Hogg and Sozzo (2016 address the issue of the global divide between South/North relations in the hierarchal production of criminological knowledge. They point out that the divide privileges theories, assumptions and methods that are largely based on the empirical specificities of the global North. Carrington et al. contend that the dominance of global North criminology has led to a severe underdevelopment of criminology in the global South, except ‘in Asia, with the establishment of the Asian Criminological Society and its journal’ (Liu 2009, in Carrington et al. 2016: 3. Carrington et al. propose an important task of bridging the global divide through further developing criminology in the global South. My present paper reviews the development of Asian criminology under the framework of the Asian Criminological Paradigm (Liu 2009. I primarily review the conceptual and theoretical developments, to suggest strategies that can contribute to the task of bridging the gap between global North and South. What Asian criminology has done is expand the theoretical tool box originally developed in the global North through the strategies of transportation of theories, elaboration of theories, and proposing new concepts and theories based on the empirical grounds of Asian contexts.

  1. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  2. Studi Hubungan Budaya dengan Aglomerasi Ekonomi (North-South Corridor Di Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Kresna Sakti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are two things that commonly identify economic activitivities spacially such as concentration and imbalance.  East Java has two concentration poles of Java economic activities spacially. One of the concentration areas in East Java is in Surabaya, and that concentration activity is called North-South Corridor which is close to temple/ archeological site in East Java. Based on the fact, this research answers some questions like (1 Is there any interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension? (2 How does culture dimension interacts with economic dimension? The aims of the research are (a To know the interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension partially and cumulatively, so there will be North-South Corridor in East Java; (b To know the flow of mechanism from the detail of culture dimension interacting with economic dimension. The research was done outside North-South Corridor  area in East Java. The result of the research shows (1 there is a relationship between culture and economic dimension. It can be showed from the difference of each economic subject both inside and outside North-South Corridor in facing Hofstede Culture; (2 the difference of culture is formed by the environment of area inside and outside North-South Corridor.   Keywords: North-South Corridor, culture, economic concentration   ABSTRAKS   Terdapat dua hal yang seringkali menjadi ciri menonjol dari kegiatan perekonomian secara spasial, yaitu adanya konsentrasi dan ketimpangan. Di Pulau Jawa Terdapat dua kutub konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Jawa secara spasial. Salah satunya wilayah konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Surabaya Jawa Timur. Konsentrasi kegiatan tersebut dikenal dengan koridor utara – selatan. Menariknya koridor Utara-Selatan berhimpit dengan letak situs purbakala/candi di Jawa Timur.  Berpijak pada kesenjangan realita tersebut, penelitan ini berusaha menjawab pertanyaan berikut, (1 apakah

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: north/south tieline. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted along the 99 0 longitude meridian from the Canadian border southward to the Mexican border. A total of 1555 line miles of geophysical data were acquired and, subsequently, compiled. The north-south tieline was flown as part of the National Uranium Resources Evaluation. NURE is a program of the US Department of Energy's Grand Junction, Colorado, office to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  4. AFROPOLITANISM, CELEBRITY POLITICS, AND ICONIC IMAGINATIONS OF NORTH-SOUTH RELATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2018-01-01

    In discussions of African cultural politics, a new label of ‘Afropolitan’ refers to diverse engagements by Africans who are typically members of the cultural elite, and participate in diaspora politics, online activism, fashion and literature debates. Simultaneously, in discussions of development...... aid, celebrity has become a way of mediating between proximity and distance in imagining relationships between South and North. Afropolitanism can be usefully considered as an Africa-specific, post-colonial form of cosmopolitanism that spans discourses of elite pan-African culture to theories of elite...

  5. Instabilities associated with the equatorial spread-F phenomenon and their north-south asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghin, C.; Pandey, R.; Roux, D.

    1985-01-01

    Six North to South passes of AUREOL/ARCAD 3 satellite through the equatorial electron density depletion at variable altitude between 400 and 550 km, at night, during a two weeks period, exhibit a similar feature in plasma density irregularities which are thought to be associated with spread F phenomenon. The irregularities are found to be quasi-sinusoidal with a scale size of about 2 km along the satellite trajectory and occur only on the Northern edge of the equatorial electron density depletion. This implies a violation of the generally believed principle of conjugate mapping for those wavelengths. These observations are analysed and discussed in terms of different known generation mechanisms

  6. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  7. Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

  8. Groundwater availability in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Coes, Alissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers and confining units of North and South Carolina are composed of crystalline carbonate rocks, sand, clay, silt, and gravel and contain large volumes of high-quality groundwater. The aquifers have a long history of use dating back to the earliest days of European settlement in the late 1600s. Although extensive areas of some of the aquifers have or currently (2009) are areas of groundwater level declines from large-scale, concentrated pumping centers, large areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain contain substantial quantities of high-quality groundwater that currently (2009) are unused. Groundwater use from the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers in North Carolina and South Carolina has increased during the past 60 years as the population has increased along with demands for municipal, industrial, and agricultural water needs. While North Carolina and South Carolina work to increase development of water supplies in response to the rapid growth in these coastal populations, both States recognize that they are facing a number of unanswered questions regarding availability of groundwater supplies and the best methods to manage these important supplies. An in-depth assessment of groundwater availability of the Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers of North and South Carolina has been completed by the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. This assessment includes (1) a determination of the present status of the Atlantic Coastal Plain groundwater resources; (2) an explanation for how these resources have changed over time; and (3) development of tools to assess the system's response to stresses from potential future climate variability. Results from numerous previous investigations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain by Federal and State agencies have been incorporated into this effort. The primary products of this effort are (1) comprehensive hydrologic datasets such as groundwater levels, groundwater use, and aquifer properties; (2) a

  9. Analysing annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane north district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doussy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an analysis of the annual financial statements of public ordinary secondary schools in the Tshwane North District, South Africa. The analysis was done to assess the quality of these annual financial statements as well as the apparent usefulness thereof for the parents of the learners in the school. These users are probably most concerned with the quality and usefulness of information presented to them for providing the necessary assurance that the funds received by the school are properly accounted for and used to the advantage of their children. The results suggest that assurance in this regard is lacking as audits are not done at all, or are of an extremely poor quality. The quality of the financial statements is also poor, with scant regard for Generally Accepted Accounting Practice or the South African Schools Act. Urgent intervention from the Education Departments is needed to ensure that the South African Schools Act is adhered to and that proper audits are conducted by suitably qualified accountants and auditors. The South African Institute for Chartered Accountants (SAICA should also play a more positive role in this regard by ensuring that audit practices are enforced and quality annual financial statements are presented

  10. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Prozesky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882–1912. This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance–related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012–2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  11. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

    2009-07-01

    This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate

  12. CREEK Project's Oyster Growth and Survival Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  13. CREEK Project's Water Chemistry, Chlorophyll a, and Suspended Sediment Weekly Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  14. Soil respiration rate on the contrasting north- and south-facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Y.; Koike, T.; Matsuura, Y.; Mori, S.; Shibata, H.; Satoh, F.; Masuyagina, O.V.; Zyryanova, O.A.; Prokushkin, A.S.; Prokushkin, S.G.; Abaimov, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate global warming effects, we measured the soil respiration of the contrasting north- and south- facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia, located at Tura City in the Krasnoyarsk District, Russia. The north-facing slope is assumed to be the present condition while the south-facing slope may stand for the future warm condition. As a result of differences in solar radiation, there were clear differences between the north- and south- facing slopes in terms, for example, of the active layer as the growth rate of larch trees. The soil respiration rate was higher on the south-facing slope than on the north-facing slope. At the temperature of 15°C, soil respiration rate of the south-facing slope was ca. 6.2 μ mol CO 2 * m -2 s -1 , which was about 0.6 times lower than that of broad-leaved forests in Hokkaido. There was an exponential correlation between soil temperature at 10 cm depth and the efflux of CO 2 from the soil surface. Various conditions (soil temperature,. nitrogen content and soil water content) seemed to be more favorable for soil respiration on the south-facing slope. (author)

  15. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON, cloud amount/frequency and other data from COLUMBUS ISELIN in the North American Coastline-South and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-23 to 1990-06-13 (NODC Accession 9100150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data was collected from R/V COLUMBUS ISELIN in South Atlantic Ocean and North American Coast line-South during the Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS) between May...

  16. Free Movement of natural persons: North-South Conflicts of Economic Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Uddin Ahammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the General Agreement on Trade in Service (GATS is one of the major achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations. All the trades in services fall within the GATS through four modes of delivery under Article I:2 of GATS. Among the modes, the liberalization of mode 4: Movement of Natural Persons which relates the removal of restrictions on workers travelling abroad temporarily, upon which developing countries have comparative advantage, remains one of the least negotiated issues of the WTO, while the other 3 modes upon which the developed countries have dominance have been liberalized substantially. This study elucidates some logical arguments that mode 4 is the victim of the North-South conflict of economic interests. Besides, this study furnishes arguments how liberalization of mode 4 can be economically beneficial for both North and South. The structural weakness in Articles, Schedules and Annexes of GATS entailing mode 4 needs to be restructured so that developing countries are able to participate meaningfully in the world trade in services and see their economic interests are protected equitably with the developed countries so that the economic interests of both developed and developing countries in trade in services can become mutually supportive.

  17. Metals in molluscs and algae: a north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-09-15

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n=161), Patella caerulea (n=244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n=84). We use Johnson's (1949) [15] probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metals in molluscs and algae: A north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n = 161), Patella caerulea (n = 244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n = 84). We use Johnson's (1949) probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale.

  19. North-south asymmetry of ultra-low-frequency oscillations of Earth's electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Anatol; Klain, Boris; Potapov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    In the paper, we present the result of an experimental study of north-south asymmetry of ultralow-frequency electromagnetic oscillations IPCL. This study is based on observations made at Mirny Observatory (Antarctica). IPCLs are excited in the dayside sector of the auroral oval in the range 3-10 min periods and represent one of the most powerful types of oscillations of Earth's magnetosphere. These oscillations were discovered in the 1970s during IPhE AS USSR polar expeditions organized by Prof. V.A. Troitskaya. We have shown that IPCL activity in Mirny depends on the inclination (north-south asymmetry) of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines to the plane of the geomagnetic equator before the front of the magnetosphere. The result suggests a controlling exposure of IMF on the magnetospheric oscillations and gives rise to the hypothesis that IPCLs are forced oscillations of a nonlinear dynamical system whose major structural elements are dayside polar cusps. The paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor V.A. Troitskaya (1917-2010).

  20. Post-eruptive flooding of Santorini caldera and implications for tsunami generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, P.; Druitt, T. H.; Hübscher, C.; Mather, T. A.; Paulatto, M.; Kalnins, L. M.; Kelfoun, K.; Papanikolaou, D.; Bejelou, K.; Lampridou, D.; Pyle, D. M.; Carey, S.; Watts, A. B.; Weiß, B.; Parks, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Caldera-forming eruptions of island volcanoes generate tsunamis by the interaction of different eruptive phenomena with the sea. Such tsunamis are a major hazard, but forward models of their impacts are limited by poor understanding of source mechanisms. The caldera-forming eruption of Santorini in the Late Bronze Age is known to have been tsunamigenic, and caldera collapse has been proposed as a mechanism. Here, we present bathymetric and seismic evidence showing that the caldera was not open to the sea during the main phase of the eruption, but was flooded once the eruption had finished. Inflow of water and associated landsliding cut a deep, 2.0–2.5 km3, submarine channel, thus filling the caldera in less than a couple of days. If, as at most such volcanoes, caldera collapse occurred syn-eruptively, then it cannot have generated tsunamis. Entry of pyroclastic flows into the sea, combined with slumping of submarine pyroclastic accumulations, were the main mechanisms of tsunami production. PMID:27824353

  1. Blended learning across universities in a South-North-South collaboration: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsiv, Myroslava; Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Bwanga, Freddie; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-09-02

    Increased health research capacity is needed in low- and middle-income countries to respond to local health challenges. Technology-aided teaching approaches, such as blended learning (BL), can stimulate international education collaborations and connect skilled scientists who can jointly contribute to the efforts to address local shortages of high-level research capacity. The African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research (ARCADE HSSR) was a European Union-funded project implemented from 2011 to 2015. The project consortium partners worked together to expand access to research training and to build the research capacity of post-graduate students. This paper presents a case study of the first course in the project, which focused on a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies and was delivered in 2013 through collaboration by universities in Uganda, Sweden and South Africa. We conducted a mixed-methods case study involving student course evaluations, participant observation, interviews with teaching faculty and student feedback collected through group discussion. Quantitative data were analysed using frequencies, and qualitative data using thematic analysis. A traditional face-to-face course was adapted for BL using a mixture of online resources and materials, synchronous online interaction between students and teachers across different countries complemented by face-to-face meetings, and in-class interaction between students and tutors. Synchronous online discussions led by Makerere University were the central learning technique in the course. The learners appreciated the BL design and reported that they were highly motivated and actively engaged throughout the course. The teams implementing the course were small, with individual faculty members and staff members carrying out many extra responsibilities; yet, some necessary competencies for course design were not available. BL is a feasible approach to simultaneously draw globally

  2. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2018-07-01

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea.

  3. Discourses of Deflection: The Politics of Framing China’s South-North Water Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Crow-Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant financial, ecological and social trade-offs, China has moved forward with constructing and operationalising the world’s largest interbasin water transfer project to date, the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP. While it is fundamentally linked to broader political-economic goals within the context of China’s post-Mao development agenda, the SNWTP is frequently discussed in apolitical terms. Based on extensive discourse analysis and interviews with government officials across North China, I argue that the Chinese government is using "discourses of deflection" to present the project as politically neutral in order to serve its ultimate goal of maintaining the high economic growth rates that underpin its continued legitimacy. These discourses, which replace concerns with human-exacerbated water stress with naturalised narratives about water scarcity and the ecological benefits of water transfer, serve to deflect attention away from anthropogenic sources of water stress in the North China Plain and serve as apolitical justifications for pursuing a short-term supply-side approach rather than the more politically challenging and longer-term course of dealing with the underlying drivers of water stress in the region.

  4. Vegetation and flora of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve, lower North Coast of New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, S. J.; Wilson, R.; Maryott-Brown, K.

    2015-01-01

    The vegetation of Booti Booti National Park and Yahoo Nature Reserve on the lower North Coast of New South Wales has been classified and mapped from aerial photography at a scale of 1:25,000. The plant communities so identified are described in terms of their composition and distribution within Booti Booti NP and Yahoo NR. The plant communities are also discussed in terms of their distribution elsewhere in south-eastern Australia, with particular emphasis given to the NSW North Coast where co...

  5. The PROTEUS Experiment: Active Source Seismic Imaging of the Crustal Magma Plumbing Structure of the Santorini Arc Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, E. E. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Warner, M.; Heath, B.; Christopoulou, M. E.; Lampridou, D.; Kementzetzidou, D.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the PROTEUS seismic experiment (Plumbing Reservoirs Of The Earth Under Santorini) is to examine the entire crustal magma plumbing system beneath a continental arc volcano and determine the magma geometry and connections throughout the crust. These physical parameters control magma migration, storage, and eruption and inform the question of how physical and chemical processing of magma at arc volcanoes forms the andesitic rock compositions that dominate the lower continental crust. These physical parameters are also important to understand volcanic-tectonic interactions and geohazards. Santorini is ideal for these goals because the continental crust has been thinned by extension and so the deep magmatic system is more accessible, also it is geologically well studied. Since the volcano is a semi-submerged, it was possible to collect a unique 3D marine-land active source seismic dataset. During the PROTEUS experiment in November-December of 2015, we recorded 14,300 marine sound sources from the US R/V Langseth on 89 OBSIP short period ocean bottom seismometers and 60 German and 5 Greek land seismometers. The experiment was designed for high-density spatial sampling of the seismic wavefield to allow us to apply two state-of-the-art 3D inversion methods: travel time tomography and full waveform inversion. A preliminary travel time tomography model of the upper crustal seismic velocity structure of the volcano and surrounding region is presented in an accompanying poster. We also made marine geophysical maps of the seafloor using multi-beam bathymetry and of the gravity and magnetic fields. The new seafloor map reveals the detailed structure of the major fault system between Santorini and Amorgos, of associated landslides, and of newly discovered volcanic features. The PROTEUS project will provide new insights into the structure of the whole crustal magmatic system of a continental arc volcano and its evolution within the surrounding tectonic setting.

  6. Prosopis pod production - comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e. P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest.

  7. Memory effect in M ≥ 6 earthquakes of South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2013-07-01

    The M ≥ 6 earthquakes occurred in the South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China, during 1901-2008 are taken to study the possible existence of memory effect in large earthquakes. The fluctuation analysis technique is applied to analyze the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time represented in the natural time domain. Calculated results show that the exponents of scaling law of fluctuation versus window length are less than 0.5 for the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time. The migration of earthquakes in study is taken to discuss the possible correlation between events. The phase portraits of two sequent magnitudes and two sequent inter-event times are also applied to explore if large (or small) earthquakes are followed by large (or small) events. Together with all kinds of given information, we conclude that the earthquakes in study is short-term correlated and thus the short-term memory effect would be operative.

  8. Division of volcanic activity cycles in the late mesozoic in South Jiangxi and North Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinglong; Wu Jianhua

    1999-01-01

    Based on stratigraphical unconformity, rock association, fossil assemblage, isotope age and tectonic features, the volcanic activity in late Mesozoic in south Jiangxi and north Guandong can be divided into four cycles: Yutian volcanic activity cycle, Lianhuazhai volcanic activity cycle. Banshi volcanic activity cycle and Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle. Yutian volcanic cycle which occurs in middle Jurassic epoch is the bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Lianhuazhai volcanic cycle which occurs in late Jurassic epoch is unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite. Banshi volcanic cycle occurs from the late stage of early Cretaceous to the early stage of late Cretaceous epoch. There are two types of rock associations related to this cycle: unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite or basalt and bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle which occurred in late stage of late Cretaceous epoch is the unimodal rock association composed of basalt which is the interlayer of the red sedimentary series

  9. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  10. Optimized use of resources in the context of the North-South tensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, H B [Gesamtverband des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen (Germany)

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide, there is no scarcity of energy resources, however, not all can be recovered cost-effectively, but those concentrated in the Third World, however, are being intensively and increasingly exploited by the industrialized countries. The industrialized countries themselves own abundant energy resources (e.g. 'non-conventional' oils) which, however, cannot be cost-effectively recovered unless a substantially higher energy price level assures economic viability. This paper analyses fundamental questions concerning an optimized balance of interests in the field of utilization of resources between the North (rich countries) and the South (poor countries, need for energy; increasing overpopulation). Alternative solutions aiming at better conservation of cost-effectively recoverable resources to the advantage of the Third World countries are discussed as well as viable instruments to be used within the framework of an international energy policy (strategy). 10 refs.

  11. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  12. North and south: Regional footprints on the transition pathway towards a low carbon, global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, G.R.; Hammond, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints are indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption transformed on the basis of biologically productive land area required per capita with prevailing technology. They represent a partial measure of the extent to which the planet, its regions, or nations are moving along a sustainable development pathway. Such footprints vary between countries at different stages of economic development and varying geographic characteristics. A correlation equation for national environmental footprints is used, alongside international projections of population growth and gross regional income, to estimate the relative contributions of the peoples of the industrialised North and populous South that would be needed in order to secure climate-stabilising carbon reductions out to about 2100. The four so-called 'marker scenarios' produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are used to estimate the degree of energy efficiency improvement and carbon mitigation that is feasible. The present footprint projections suggest that a reduction in the consumption of biophysical assets across both the developing and industrialised world is indeed possible. However, the developing world's footprint is shown to overshoot that of the industrialised countries by around 2010-2015. It then levels out and starts to fall, on the most optimistic scenario, by about 2050. In order to achieve global sustainability in the 21st Century a serious commitment to environmental protection is required in both the industrialised North and the 'majority South'. That implies balancing population growth, economic well-being, and environmental impacts in the interests of all the people and wildlife on 'Spaceship Earth'.

  13. Jet grout strut for deep station boxes of the north/south metro line Amsterdam : Design and back analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, S.; Buykx, S.M.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new North/South metro line in Amsterdam contains several stations, some of which with an excavation depth of 30 m below surface. The design of these station boxes is very much determined by the adjacent historic buildings, high water table and the relatively soft soil. A lot of effort is put

  14. LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

  15. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  16. Quarter-Century Offshore Winds from SSM/I and WRF in the North Sea and South China Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We study the wind climate and its long-term variability in the North Sea and South China Sea, areas relevant for offshore wind energy development, using satellite-based wind data, because very few reliable long-term in-situ sea surface wind observations are available. The Special Sensor Microwave...

  17. Optimization and coordination of South-to-North Water Diversion supply chain with strategic customer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-song Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD Project is a significant engineering project meant to solve water shortage problems in North China. Faced with market operations management of the water diversion system, this study defined the supply chain system for the SNWD Project, considering the actual project conditions, built a decentralized decision model and a centralized decision model with strategic customer behavior (SCB using a floating pricing mechanism (FPM, and constructed a coordination mechanism via a revenue-sharing contract. The results suggest the following: (1 owing to water shortage supplements and the excess water sale policy provided by the FPM, the optimal ordering quantity of water resources is less than that without the FPM, and the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor are higher than they would be without the FPM; (2 wholesale pricing and supplementary wholesale pricing with SCB are higher than those without SCB, and the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor are higher than they would be without SCB; and (3 considering SCB and introducing the FPM help increase the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor, and improve the efficiency of water resources usage.

  18. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  19. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Komariah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and developmentstrategy of Torajan's spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 inSanggalangi’ subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied toobserve data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old,the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years oldwith the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calvinginterval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaningmortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. Themost livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year.SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It wasshowed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy ofTorajan’s spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  20. POTENCY AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SPOTTED BUFFALO IN SANGGALANGI SUBDISTRICT, NORTH TORAJA DISTRICT, SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Setyono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the reproduction performances, potency and development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo. This research was done from July to September 2010 in Sanggalangi subdistrict, North Toraja district, South Sulawesi. Purposive sampling was applied to observe data. The primary data were taken by purposive sampling method and collected by interview of 90 farmers. Results showed that sex ratio of male-female was 3:2. The first estrus was 2.48 years old, the estrus period was 23 hours and the oestrus cycle was 19 days. The first mating was 2.87 years old with the conception period about 387 days. Furthermore, the first partus was at 3.74 years old, calving interval was 2 years. Calving rate and calf crops were relatively high. Calf crops were 77%, pre weaning mortality was 2.35%. Service per conception (S/C was 1.85 and conception rate (CR was 86.5%. The most livelihoods in North Toraja is farmer. Spotted Buffalo population declined 24.31 % per year. SWOT analysis showed that score for internal factor was -0.25, whereas external factor was 2.25. It was showed that the sub-district Sanggalangi is in turnaround condition, so the development strategy of Torajans spotted buffalo has to minimize the weakness and reached the opportunities.

  1. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  2. Optical performance of inclined south-north single-axis tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhimin; Liu, Xinyue; Tang, Runsheng

    2010-01-01

    To investigate optical performance of the inclined south-north single-axis (ISN-axis, in short) tracked solar panels, a mathematical procedure to estimate the annual collectible radiation on fixed and tracked panels was suggested based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. For solar panels tracking about ISN-axis, the yearly optimal tilt-angle of ISN-axis for maximizing annual solar gain was about 3 o deviating from the site latitude in most of China except in areas with poor solar resources, and the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISN-axis tracked panels was about 97-98% of that on dual-axis tracked panels; whereas for ISN-axis tracked panels with the tilt-angle of ISN-axis being adjusted four times in a year at three fixed tilt-angles, the annual collectible radiation was almost close to that on dual-axis tracked panels, the optimum date of tilt-angle adjustment of ISN-axis was 23 days from the equinoxes, and the optimum tilt-angle adjustment value for each adjustment was about 22 o . Compared to fixed south-facing solar panels inclined at an optimal tilt-angle, the increase in the annual solar gain due to using ISN-axis sun tracking was above 30% in the areas with abundant solar resources and less than 20% in the areas with poor solar resources.

  3. Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii infection) in the New South Wales mid-north coast, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Shobini; Bannan, Aiveen M; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-05-21

    To determine the geographical, epidemiological and clinical features of sporotrichosis (a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii) in the New South Wales mid-north coast. We undertook a retrospective case review of S. schenckii infections that occurred during the period 2000-2010. Microbiology laboratory staff and medical practitioners in the NSW mid-north coast were contacted to identify cases through database searches and clinical data collection. Thirty-one cases of S. schenckii infection were identified. Twenty-one occurred in males, the mean age of patients was 59 years, and all cases with data available involved cutaneous disease affecting the limbs (multiple lesions in 18 of 20 cases). Despite an impression of temporal clustering (eight cases in 1 year), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). Most cases occurred in months with higher rainfall (13 of 14 cases with data available). Inoculating events included injuries in gardens, in bushland and on farms, and possible bites. Symptom duration before correct diagnosis ranged from 4 to 30 weeks (median, 8 weeks; data available for 15 cases), unnecessary antibacterial therapy was common (13 of 19 cases with data available), and morbidity occurred in the form of recurrence (three cases) and mild itraconazole-induced hepatotoxicity (two cases). In all cases with recorded treatment details, the patients received itraconazole, and the median duration of itraconazole treatment was 24 weeks. These data highlight that health providers on the NSW mid-north coast should consider sporotrichosis when patients present with characteristic lesions after an inoculating injury sustained from or contaminated by decaying vegetation. The risk may be higher in older people and in wetter months. Fungal culture to confirm the diagnosis needs to be specifically requested. In contrast to outbreaks reported from other states, the epidemiological pattern in NSW appears most consistent with sporadic occurrence

  4. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  6. A rapid ethnographic study of breastfeeding in the North and South of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonte Raquel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past ten years have witnessed a rising trend in the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding in Italy, but breastfeeding rates increase in an unequal way; they are higher in the North of Italy than in the South. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences, expectations and beliefs of a sample of mothers, and to identify differences, if any, between the North and the South of Italy. Methods The study was conducted in two regions of Italy, Friuli Venezia Giulia in the Northeast and Basilicata in the South. Two hundred and seventy-nine mothers of infants and children 6 to 23 months of age were interviewed using an 85-item questionnaire including closed and open questions on infant feeding experiences and beliefs, sources of information and support, reasons for intended and actual choices and practices, and some demographic and social variables. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between May 2001 and September 2002. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data analysis. Results The distribution of the mothers by age, education, employment and parity did not differ from that of the general population of the two regions. The reported rates of initiation and duration of breastfeeding were also similar: 95% started breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at three and 9% at six months, with 64% and 35% of any breastfeeding, respectively. Some differences were reported in the rates of full breastfeeding, reflecting different ages of introduction of non-nutritive fluids. These, as well as nutritive fluids – including infant formula – and complementary foods, were introduced far too early. Advice on infant feeding was generally provided by health professionals and often was not based on up-to-date recommendations. Mothers were generally aware of the advantages of breastfeeding, but at the same time reported problems that they were not able to solve alone or through social and health system

  7. Evidence from cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating for the existence of a pre-Minoan caldera on Santorini, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassas, C. D.; Bourlès, D. L.; Braucher, R.; Druitt, T. H.; Nomikou, P.; Léanni, L.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) dating was performed on the caldera cliffs of Santorini with the aim of detecting cliff segments predating the Minoan eruption (17th century BCE). The methodology involved the determination of in situ-produced cosmogenic 36Cl concentration in basaltic-to-rhyodacitic whole rocks cropping out in the cliffs. After the samples were processed following the chemical protocol of 36Cl preparation for silicate rocks, 36Cl concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Important challenges during the implementation procedure were related to large amounts of radiogenic 36Cl, complex modeling of inherited 36Cl, and dominance of the thermal and epithermal (low-energy) neutron capture production pathway. Nevertheless, quantitative assessments on the basis of the contribution of the low-energy neutron capture pathway percent to the total production rate validated the calculated CRE dates. Current CRE ages demonstrate that an ancient caldera existed on pre-Minoan Santorini, occupying at least the northern half of the modern-day caldera.

  8. Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers, northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina, October 2005 to September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Feaster, Toby D.; Petkewich, Mattew D.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, evaluated the concentrations, loads, and yields of suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus at sites in the South Pacolet, North Pacolet, and Pacolet Rivers in northern South Carolina and southwestern North Carolina from October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2009 (water years 2006 to 2009). Nutrient and sediment loads and yields also were computed for the intervening subbasin of the Pacolet River not represented by the South and North Pacolet River Basins. Except for a few outliers, the majority of the measurements of total nitrogen concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.69 milligram per liter for streams and rivers in the nutrient ecoregion IX, which includes the study area within the Pacolet River Basin. Dissolved orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus, and total phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower at the South Pacolet River site compared to the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites. About 90 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the South Pacolet River site were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline of 0.37 milligram per liter, and more than 75 percent of the total phosphorus concentrations at the North Pacolet and Pacolet River sites were above that guideline. At all sites, minimum annual nutrient loads for the estimation period were observed during water year 2008 when severe drought conditions were present. An estimated mean annual total nitrogen load of 37,770 kilograms per year and yield of 2.63 kilograms per hectare per year were determined for the South Pacolet River site for the estimation period. The North Pacolet River site had a mean annual total nitrogen load of 65,890 kilograms per year and yield of 2.19 kilograms per hectare per year

  9. "The way the country has been carved up by researchers": ethics and power in north-south public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Aisling; Brugha, Ruairi; Byrne, Elaine

    2016-12-12

    Despite the recognition of power as being central to health research collaborations between high income countries and low and middle income countries, there has been insufficient detailed analysis of power within these partnerships. The politics of research in the global south is often considered outside of the remit of research ethics. This article reports on an analysis of power in north-south public health research, using Zambia as a case study. Primary data were collected in 2011/2012, through 53 in-depth interviews with: Zambian researchers (n = 20), Zambian national stakeholders (n = 8) and northern researchers who had been involved in public health research collaborations involving Zambia and the global north (n = 25). Thematic analysis, utilising a situated ethics perspective, was undertaken using Nvivo 10. Most interviewees perceived roles and relationships to be inequitable with power remaining with the north. Concepts from Bourdieu's theory of Power and Practice highlight new aspects of research ethics: Northern and southern researchers perceive that different habituses exist, north and south - habituses of domination (northern) and subordination (Zambian) in relation to researcher relationships. Bourdieu's hysteresis effect provides a possible explanation for why power differentials continue to exist. In some cases, new opportunities have arisen for Zambian researchers; however, they may not immediately recognise and grasp them. Bourdieu's concept of Capitals offers an explanation of how diverse resources are used to explain these power imbalances, where northern researchers are often in possession of more economic, symbolic and social capital; while Zambian researchers possess more cultural capital. Inequities and power imbalances need to be recognised and addressed in research partnerships. A situated ethics approach is central in understanding this relationship in north-south public health research.

  10. How three countries in the Americas are fortifying dietary salt reduction: a north and south perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowski, Barbara; Legetic, Branka

    2011-09-01

    A chronic disease/risk factor prevention framework with three policy environments--communications, physical and economic--was used to organize population level interventions that address the "over consumption of dietary salt", a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The framework was then used to map the population based strategies to reduce dietary salt consumption being applied in three countries in the Americas--Argentina, Canada and Chile--each with a history of multi-sector approaches to deal with the risk factors for chronic disease, offering a north versus south perspective. Results show that in all three countries policy instruments are concentrated in the communications environment, e.g., media and education campaigns and/or regulations for standardized information on the salt or sodium content of packaged food products. Notable gaps are the requirement for nutrient information on meals and food items prepared by food establishments and restrictions on advertising and marketing of foods to children. In the physical environment, referring to the sodium levels in commercially prepared foods and meals available on the market, voluntary reformulation of food products is underway at this time in the three countries. Argentina and Chile began with bread and have gradually added other food categories; Canada at the outset is addressing all food categories where products have added salt. Argentina alone is at this point actively approaching regulations to limit the salt content of food, preferring this over ongoing monitoring of voluntary targets. No government in the three counties has yet considered action in the economic environment, a complex area where the research on and initiatives to limit or disadvantage energy-dense food products to address obesity may also capture foods that are highly salted. In the meantime, with recent research estimating substantially higher gains in population health from government legislation to limit salt in foods

  11. Violence Research from North Africa to South Asia: A Historical and Structural Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hippler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This is a historical and sociological overview of violence and violence research in and on North Africa, West Asia, and South Asia, considering only studies for a global audience. The main focus is on political violence, with a brief look at religious and communal violence, youth violence, and domestic and gendered violence. These regions have been consistently affected by political violence for many decades, the main source of which seems to be the ongoing state formation process, as well as social transformation in general. The literature on violence is dominated by international debates, at

  12. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  13. Barriers to Institutional Childbirth in Rumbek North County, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calistus Wilunda

    Full Text Available South Sudan has one of the world's poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County.Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis.The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1 Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2 Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3 Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4 Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission.Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested.

  14. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  15. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The decision to receive influenza vaccination among nurses in North and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Laurie Jo; Stenvig, Thomas; Wey, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships between factors (intention, habit, facilitating conditions, and social, cognitive, and affective factors) and nurses' decisions about influenza vaccinations to understand why some get vaccinated while others do not. In a descriptive correlational design, the Triandis model of interpersonal behavior was used to examine the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. Participants were a random sample (N=193) of registered nurses in North and South Dakota drawn from the respective state nursing licensing board lists. Instrument construction and mail survey procedures followed Dillman's tailored design method. The response rate exceeded 80%. The findings revealed significant, positive correlations among all model variables. Item analysis showed that false beliefs about influenza disease and vaccinations were prevalent and that there was a wide variation in employer support for nurses getting vaccinated. Educational and social marketing strategies may improve nurse's knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine and increase vaccine uptake. Employers should be encouraged to promote and improve influenza vaccine accessibility in the workplace. Additional study is needed to understand how best to strengthen the influence of intention and habit on the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. North/south relations: Representations of the other in the construction of transnational networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Rueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern-day process of cultural recomposition, cinema occupies an important position through the meeting spaces created by the North to help cinema in the South to develop. The increase in aid funding by the “countries of the North”, which explains the relative good health of cinema from the “South”, illustrates well the necessary internationalisation of networks, a factor that enables these films to be viewed abroad. Cinema is understood in this way, as a vector of identity and as a social and intercultural connection. As films circulate, and filmmakers and producers meet one another, an embryo of community is constituted; “a generator of exchanges in all senses and of all kinds”. Thus we are witnessing the emergence of new categories: that of the “South”, which conserves traces of an asymmetrical “geopolitics”, and that of independence, which refers to a more international “community” (and which even goes beyond national geographical limits of resistance to the “dominant” cinema. What is happening is that an intercultural connection is being created that mixes up the old centre/periphery relations. These spaces of exchange, while they enable, in effect, cinematographic production to develop in certain countries, represent repertories administrated by the “centre”. The discourse on the “Other” reveals a tormented cartography of world geopolitical relations.

  18. Prosopis pod production: comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiin, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e., P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Trees in the driest irrigation treatment had the greatest pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest. 32 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Spartanburg Quadrangle, South Carolina and North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schot, E.H.; Galipeau, J.M.

    1980-11-01

    The Spartanburg Quadrangle, South Carolina and North Carolina, was evaluated for uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The evaluation included the study and analysis of published and collected geologic, geophysical, and geochemical data from subsurface, surface, and aerial studies. Five environments are favorable for uranium deposits. The Triassic Wadesboro Basin has ground waters with anomalously high uranium concentrations and uranium-to-conductivity ratios. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa-Middendorf Formation is near a uranium source and has sediments favorable for uranium deposition. The contact-metamorphic aureoles associated with the Liberty Hill-Kershaw and Winnsboro-Rion plutonic complexes are close to uranium sources and contain the reductants (sulfides, graphite) necessary for precipitation. The East Fork area in the Charlotte Belt has ground waters with uranium concentrations 4 to 132 times the mean concentration reported for the surrounding Piedmont area. Unfavorable environments include the Catawba Granite, the area west of the Winnsboro-Rion complex, gold-quartz veins, the vermiculite district, and the Western Monazite Belt

  20. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-01

    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  1. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  2. An Analysis of the Heroine of North and South---Margaret Hale as an Independent Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mrs. Gaskell is a very important woman writer in the 19th century in Britain, and she is famous for her social novels, in which she highlights complicated social conflicts. North and South is usually considered as the turning point of Mrs. Gaskell’s literary creation, in which she suggests for the first time that there should be a hope of a reconciliation between the working class and the bourgeoisie. Also, the author vividly depicted an independent woman with a sharp mind and a deliberate manner in the book, that is, Margaret Hale. She seems to be very special when compared with the women around her and very attractive to men for her peculiar thoughts as well as her beautiful looks. This thesis mainly analyzes the attractive heroine of the novel in three aspects: her independent character, her independent action and her independent thoughts. What’s more, the thesis aims to shed light on the characteristics a “New Woman” should be endowed with. The heroine, to some extent, is the author Mrs. Gaskell herself, rejecting inferiority to men and defending the rights to express themselves freely. All in all, this thesis tries to enlighten people on woman’s position in today’s society by deriving some inspirations from the literary work.

  3. Chemical Characterization of the Inner Galactic bulge: North-South Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, G.; Ryde, N.; Schultheis, M.; Thorsbro, B.; Jönsson, H.; Barklem, P. S.; Rich, R. M.; Fragkoudi, F.

    2018-05-01

    While the number of stars in the Galactic bulge with detailed chemical abundance measurements is increasing rapidly, the inner Galactic bulge (|b| detect a bimodal MDF with a metal-rich peak at ˜ +0.3 dex and a metal-poor peak at ˜ -0.5 dex, and no stars with [Fe/H] > +0.6 dex. The Galactic Center field reveals in contrast a mainly metal-rich population with a mean metallicity of +0.3 dex. We derived [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] abundances which are consistent with trends from the outer bulge. We confirm for the supersolar metallicity stars the decreasing trend in [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] as expected from chemical evolution models. With the caveat of a relatively small sample, we do not find significant differences in the chemical abundances between the Northern and the Southern fields, hence the evidence is consistent with symmetry in chemistry between North and South.

  4. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The South Carolina Department of Transportation operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a cooperative investigation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation to characterize water-quality constituents that are transported in stormwater from representative maintenance yard and section shed facilities in South Carolina. At a section shed in Ballentine, S.C., stormwater discharges to a retention pond outfall (Ballentine). At the Conway maintenance yard, stormwater in the southernmost section discharges to a pipe outfall (Conway1), and stormwater in the remaining area discharges to a grass-lined ditch (Conway2). At the North Charleston maintenance yard, stormwater discharges from the yard to Turkey Creek through a combination of pipes, ditches, and overland flow; therefore, samples were collected from the main channel of Turkey Creek at the upstream (North Charleston1) and downstream (North Charleston2) limits of the North Charleston maintenance yard facility. The storms sampled during this study had a wide range of rainfall amounts, durations, and intensities at each of the facilities and, therefore, were considered to be reasonably representative of the potential for contaminant transport. At all facilities, stormwater discharge was significantly correlated to rainfall amount and intensity. Event-mean unit-area stormwater discharge increased with increasing impervious surface at the Conway and North Charleston maintenance yards. The Ballentine facility with 79 percent impervious surface had a mean unit-area discharge similar to that of the North Charleston maintenance yard (62 percent impervious surface). That similarity may be attributed, in part, to the effects of the retention pond on the stormwater runoff at the Ballentine facility and to the greater rainfall intensities and amounts at the North Charleston facility. Stormwater samples from the facilities were analyzed for multiple

  7. Towards north-south interconnectedness: a critique of gender dualities in sustainable development, the environment and women's health

    OpenAIRE

    Simon-Kumar, Rachel; MacBride-Stewart, Sara; Baker, Susan; Patnaik Saxena, L.

    2017-01-01

    Well-established bodies of scholarship that inform contemporary global debates on gender, environment and health are fundamentally based on dualistic representations of women, such as First/Third World, rich/poor and victim/polluter. In this paper, we argue that recent socioeconomic transitions — affluence in the global South and rising inequality in the global North — demand the development of gender analytical frameworks that better recognize the diversity of roles that women play in the ch...

  8. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kieren J.; Bray, Sarah C.; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Trem...

  9. Successes and challenges of north-south partnerships - key lessons from the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färnman, Rosanna; Diwan, Vishal; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Atkins, Salla

    2016-01-01

    Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health. This article aims to outline the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the life course of the projects, focusing on the key outputs and experiences of developing and implementing these two projects together with sub-Saharan African, Asian and European institution partners. Sixteen participants from 12 partner institutions were interviewed. The data were analysed using thematic content analysis, which resulted in four themes and three sub-categories. These data were complemented by a review of project reports. The results indicated that the ARCADE projects have been successful in developing and delivering courses, and have reached over 920 postgraduate students. Some partners thought the north-south and south-south partnerships that evolved during the project were the main achievement. However, others found there to be a 'north-south divide' in certain aspects. Challenges included technical constraints and quality assurance. Additionally, adapting new teaching and learning methods into current university systems was challenging, combined with not being able to award students with credits for their degrees. The ARCADE projects were introduced as an innovative and ambitious project idea, although not designed appropriately for all partner institutions. Some challenges were underestimated

  10. Male commuters in north and south England: risk factors for the presence of faecal bacteria on hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donachie Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study found that the prevalence of contamination with bacteria of faecal-origin on the hands of men differed across UK cities, with a general trend of increased contamination in northern cities. The aim of this study was to (1 confirm the north-south trend (2 identify causes for the trend. Methods Hand swabs from commuters (n = 308 at train stations in 4 cities were tested for the presence of faecal bacteria. Results The prevalence of hand contamination with faecal bacteria was again higher in cities in the north compared to the south (5% in London, 4% in Birmingham, 10% in Liverpool and 19% in Newcastle. Contamination risk decreased with age and better personal hygiene (self-reported. Soil contact and shaking hands increased contamination with faecal bacteria. However, in multivariable analysis, none of these factors fully explained the variation in contamination across cities. Conclusion The study confirmed the north-south differences in faecal contamination of hands without finding a clear cause for the trend. Faecal contamination of hands was associated with personal hygiene indicators suggesting that microbiological testing may contribute to evaluating hygiene promotion campaigns.

  11. Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) National Weather Service Station Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1986 - 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Meteorological data were collected on a daily basis from December 1, 1986 through March 3, 1996 at the Oyster Landing Research site in the North Inlet Estuary,...

  12. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The central purpose of this report is to present methods : for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on : urban and small, rural streams in the Southeast United States : with particular focus on Georgia, South Carolina, and North : Carolin...

  13. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data collected by the SCRIPPS Institute of Oceanography from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002. Data were collected...

  14. [Composition, distribution and abundance of gastropod larvae in the South of Quintana Roo,Mexico and north of Belice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Rivera, J; de Jesús Navarrete, A

    2000-12-01

    To know the composition, abundance and distribution of gastropod larvae, monthly samplings were carried out in the south of Quintana Roo, Mexico and north of Belize, from April to December, 1996. Collections were made in six sites at Chinchorro Bank, four in the South Coast and six at Hol-Chan, Belize, between the 10 and 20 hrs. At each station 2.5 m3 of seawater were pumped through a 202 microns mesh; 27 species were identified. The most abundant species were: South Coast, Rissoina sp. 1., Limacina sp. 1 and Natica sp. 1, Chinchorro Bank, Limacina sp. 1, Creseis acicula, Cerithiopsis hero and Rissoina sp. 1 and Hol-Chan, Limacina sp. 2, Alaba incerta and Rissoina sp. 1. The highest abundance was in rainy season. Apparently the presence of winds, coastal currents and food availability, control the distribution and abundance of larvae.

  15. Health Behavior and Factors Associated with Depression in North Korean Adolescent Defectors in South Korea: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Joung; Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Sunyoung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Byung Sung

    2017-09-01

    The number of North Korean adolescent defectors entering South Korea has been increasing. The health behavior, including mental health-related behavior, and factors associated with depression in North Korean adolescent defectors residing in South Korea were investigated. Data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2011-2014) dataset were utilized. In total, 206 North Korean adolescent defectors were selected, and for the control group, 618 matched South Korean adolescents were selected. Frequency analysis was used to determine the place of birth and nationality of the parents, chi-square tests were used to compare the general characteristics of the North and South Korean subjects, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to compare the health behavior of the two sets of subjects. To determine the factors associated with depression in the North Korean subjects, a logistic regression was performed. The North Korean adolescents reported higher current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 4.35), current drinking (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.99), and drug use rates (aOR, 10.99; 95% CI, 4.04 to 29.88) than did the South Korean adolescents. The factors associated with depression in the North Korean adolescents were current smoking (aOR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30.06), lifetime drinking experience (aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 18.75), and perceived stress (aOR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.74 to 12.90). There were differences in health behavior between the North and South Korean adolescents. A specialized approach for North Korean adolescent defectors is required to promote proper health behavior and adaptation to South Korean society.

  16. Strong tidal modulation of net ecosystem exchange in a salt marsh in North Inlet, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, T. L.; Smith, E. M.; Bogoev, I.

    2017-12-01

    Along the southeastern US, intertidal salt marshes represent a critical habitat at the interface of the terrestrial and marine environments and perform a variety of ecological functions and services that make them of great economic importance for coastal communities They provide essential fish and shellfish habitat, with a majority of all commercially- and recreationally important fish species being dependent on intertidal marsh habitat during some portion of their life cycle. The penaeid shrimp industry, South Carolina's most economically important fishery, would cease to exist without the critical nursery function provided by intertidal salt marshes. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is a keystone species in the high salinity marshes of the southeastern U.S., and its functioning is essential to the health and survival of salt marshes under rising sea levels. To better quantify and facilitate prediction of future salt marsh productivity, in May of 2017, we established a new integrated eddy covariance tower system to measure the net ecosystem exchange of carbon in a salt marsh in coastal South Carolina. The tower site is co-located with long-term, ongoing measurements as part of the North Inlet-Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NI-WB NERR). Current sampling conducted within the eddy flux footprint includes: annual measures of the vegetation community at the time of peak biomass; bi-monthly measures of sediment elevation at Sediment Elevation Tables (SETs) located at the upper and lower ends of the flux footprint; monthly sediment porewater salinity and nutrient (ammonium, orthophosphate) and sulfide concentrations; and biannual sediment elevation surveys by RTK-GPS. A suite of water quality measurements are made every 15 minutes in the main creek that floods the marsh platform in the flux footprint. Here we present our first six months of observations investigating the abiotic drivers of productivity on daily (intratidal) to monthly timescales

  17. North-South Partnership in Training and Education in Space Research and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, E.

    tackled by capturing the interest of young people in science, by appealing to space science. This is an area of cooperation in which complementarities of experience, stemming from different cultural origins can yield positive results. Researches into the utilization of space-based observation to monitor and control environmental resources (forests, oceans, atmosphere etc.) and climate change, are other examples of areas in which North-South Space Research and Application partnership can be established and sustained. Another area of partnership is in the development of space-based experiments, especially in the area of Communication Satellites, Earth threatening Asteroids and Comets, Global Navigation Satellites Systems, and the promotion of public awareness in space science and technology applications. Such activities will encourage mutual exchange of ideas and intellectual input by both partners in the progress, as opposed to a unilateral transfer of ideas from one partner to the other. Collaborative projects between partners from the North and South should involve university systems, the polytechnics, elementary and secondary school systems, colleges of education, research centers and organizations, corporate enterprise training, the Internet, and all those institutions whose responsibilities are to manage education and training in the developing world. Partnership in space science and technology, if nurtured in these institutions, can in the long run become one of mutual interaction, and can be sustained for a very long time.

  18. Micro and Macroscale Drivers of Nutrient Concentrations in Urban Streams in South, Central and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven A; Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Davi; Shupe, Scott; Valiente, Elsa; Rocha, Luciana; Heasley, Eleanore; Belmont, Patricia Pérez; Baruch, Avinoam

    Global metrics of land cover and land use provide a fundamental basis to examine the spatial variability of human-induced impacts on freshwater ecosystems. However, microscale processes and site specific conditions related to bank vegetation, pollution sources, adjacent land use and water uses can have important influences on ecosystem conditions, in particular in smaller tributary rivers. Compared to larger order rivers, these low-order streams and rivers are more numerous, yet often under-monitored. The present study explored the relationship of nutrient concentrations in 150 streams in 57 hydrological basins in South, Central and North America (Buenos Aires, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Mexico City and Vancouver) with macroscale information available from global datasets and microscale data acquired by trained citizen scientists. Average sub-basin phosphate (P-PO4) concentrations were found to be well correlated with sub-basin attributes on both macro and microscales, while the relationships between sub-basin attributes and nitrate (N-NO3) concentrations were limited. A phosphate threshold for eutrophic conditions (>0.1 mg L-1 P-PO4) was exceeded in basins where microscale point source discharge points (eg. residential, industrial, urban/road) were identified in more than 86% of stream reaches monitored by citizen scientists. The presence of bankside vegetation covaried (rho = -0.53) with lower phosphate concentrations in the ecosystems studied. Macroscale information on nutrient loading allowed for a strong separation between basins with and without eutrophic conditions. Most importantly, the combination of macroscale and microscale information acquired increased our ability to explain sub-basin variability of P-PO4 concentrations. The identification of microscale point sources and bank vegetation conditions by citizen scientists provided important information that local authorities could use to improve their management of lower order river ecosystems.

  19. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available European wolves (Canis lupus show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part.

  20. Genetic connectivity between north and south Mid-Atlantic Ridge chemosynthetic bivalves and their symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina van der Heijden

    Full Text Available Transform faults are geological structures that interrupt the continuity of mid-ocean ridges and can act as dispersal barriers for hydrothermal vent organisms. In the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, it has been hypothesized that long transform faults impede gene flow between the northern and the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR and disconnect a northern from a southern biogeographic province. To test if there is a barrier effect in the equatorial Atlantic, we examined phylogenetic relationships of chemosynthetic bivalves and their bacterial symbionts from the recently discovered southern MAR hydrothermal vents at 5°S and 9°S. We examined Bathymodiolus spp. mussels and Abyssogena southwardae clams using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene as a phylogenetic marker for the hosts and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene as a marker for the symbionts. Bathymodiolus spp. from the two southern sites were genetically divergent from the northern MAR species B. azoricus and B. puteoserpentis but all four host lineages form a monophyletic group indicating that they radiated after divergence from their northern Atlantic sister group, the B. boomerang species complex. This suggests dispersal of Bathymodiolus species from north to south across the equatorial belt. 16S rRNA genealogies of chemoautotrophic and methanotrophic symbionts of Bathymodiolus spp. were inconsistent and did not match the host COI genealogy indicating disconnected biogeography patterns. The vesicomyid clam Abyssogena southwardae from 5°S shared an identical COI haplotype with A. southwardae from the Logatchev vent field on the northern MAR and their symbionts shared identical 16S phylotypes, suggesting gene flow across the Equator. Our results indicate genetic connectivity between the northern and southern MAR and suggest that a strict dispersal barrier does not exist.

  1. A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holmgren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a climatic and oceanographic phenomenon, but it has profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Although the ecological effects of ENSO are becoming increasingly known from a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holmgren et al., 2001, their impacts have been more intensively studied in arid and semiarid systems. In this brief communication, we summarize the main conclusions of a recent symposium on the effects of ENSO in these ecosystems, which was convened as part of the First Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on the El Niño Phenomenon and its Global Impact, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 16–20 May 2005. Participants in the symposium shared results and perspectives from research conducted in North and South America and Australia, regions where the ecological effects of ENSO have been studied in depth. Although the reports covered a wide array of organisms and ecological systems (Fig. 1, a recurring theme was the strong increase in rainfall associated with ENSO events in dry ecosystems (during the El Niño phase of the oscillation in the Americas and the La Niña phase in Australia. Because inter-annual variability in precipitation is such a strong determinant of productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, increased ENSO rainfall is crucial for plant recruitment, productivity and diversity in these ecosystems. Several long-term studies show that this pulse in primary productivity causes a subsequent increase in herbivores, followed by an increase in carnivores, with consequences for changes in ecosystem structure and functioning that can be quite complex.

  2. Farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry systems in North and South Kordofanstates, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in North and South Kordofan States with objectives of to identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, to characterize major tree species in different agroforestry system, to prioritize major constraints on agroforestry systems in the region, and to study the current status of gum Arabic trees and their contribution on farmers livelihood. Data were collected through community meeting, individual interviews and direct field observation. The common agroforestry systems in the region are scatter trees on farm land, followed by wind breaks and boundary planting. The important trees in the study area are Acacia senegal83%, followed by Fadherbia albida 46%, Ziziphus spina- christia43% and Balanites aegyptiaca 41%. The most important field crops that cultivated in agroforestry system are groundnuts, millet, sorghum, sesame and roselle. The environmental benefits of trees in farm which was identified by the respondents include protection of farm against wind erosion, improvement of the soil properties, improvement of the micro-climate and providing a source for income which was indicated by the majority of respondents. Across all sites 93% of respondents showed that gum Arabic have a significant contribution to their family income. The study recommended that a multi-purpose tree species such as Acacia senegal should be maintained for amelioration of soils fertility and increase crop productivity in the fragile ecosystems such as that of the study sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12624 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 53-67

  3. Food Leftover Practices among Consumers in Selected Countries in Europe, South and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Higa, Federica; Godwin, Sandria; Gutierrez, Nelson; Shalimov, Roman; Cardinal, Paula; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Sosa, Miriam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Timberg, Loreida; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-09-21

    Foodborne illnesses may be related to many food production factors with home practices of consumers playing an important role in food safety. Consumer behavior for handling food leftovers has been studied, however little work on comparisons among countries has been published. The objective of this study was to investigate home food leftover practices of people from North American, South American, and European countries. Surveys were conducted with approximately 100 or more consumers in Argentina, Colombia, the United States, Estonia, Italy, Russia, and Spain. The participants responded to questions related to the length of time different types of food leftovers; such as meat, fresh salads, or restaurant dishes would be kept refrigerated or would be left at room temperature before refrigeration. Researchers also investigated how consumers would determine if the food was still safe for consumption. Potentially risky behaviors were observed in all seven countries. For instance, 55.8% of Estonians, 25% of Russians and 25.8% of Argentinean participants left food out at room temperature for several hours before storing in the refrigerator. Furthermore, 25%-29% of Colombian, Estonian, and Spanish consumers would look, smell, and taste leftovers to determine its probable safety. Correct handling of leftovers is an important aspect of consumer food safety. Although the surveys cannot be representative of all consumers in each country, they do provide an initial overview of comparative practices for handling leftovers among different countries. This provides government and educators with information on potential universal and unique consumer food safety issues related to handling leftover foods among various countries.

  4. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  5. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  6. Mortality in patients with HIV-1 infection starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: a collaborative analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Boulle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America.Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa, and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24, and 24-48 months on ART for the period 2001-2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America], 20,306 (67%, 9,961 (34%, and 824 (12% were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count <50 cells/µl. Cumulative mortality at 4 years was 16.6%, 4.7%, and 15.3% in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa. While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage.After accounting for under

  7. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belucz, Bernadett; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2013-01-01

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  8. Role of asymmetric meridional circulation in producing north-south asymmetry in a solar cycle dynamo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belucz, Bernadett [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, 1518 Budapest, Pf. 32 (Hungary); Dikpati, Mausumi [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Solar cycles in the north and south hemispheres differ in cycle length, amplitude, profile, polar fields, and coronal structure. To show what role differences in meridional flow could play in producing these differences, we present the results of three sets of numerical simulations from a flux transport dynamo in which one property of meridional circulation has been changed in the south only. The changes are in amplitude and the presence of a second cell in latitude or in depth. An ascending phase speedup causes weakening of polar and toroidal fields; a speed decrease in a late descending phase does not change amplitudes. A long-duration speed increase leads to lower toroidal field peaks but unchanged polar field peaks. A second high-latitude circulation cell in an ascending phase weakens the next polar and toroidal field peaks, and the ascending phase is lengthened. A second cell in a late descending phase speeds up the cycle. A long-duration second cell leads to a poleward branch of the butterfly diagram and weaker polar fields. A second cell in depth reverses the tilt of the butterfly wing, decreasing polar fields when added during an ascending phase and increasing them during a late descending phase. A long-duration presence of a second cell in radius evolves the butterfly diagram far away from the observed one, with different dynamo periods in low and high latitudes. Thus, a second cell in depth is unlikely to persist more than a few years if the solar dynamo is advection-dominated. Our results show the importance of time variation and north-south asymmetry in meridional circulation in producing differing cycles in the north and south.

  9. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n = 44), North (n = 35), and South (n = 22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p = 0.0005) and Central vs South (p = 0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  10. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  11. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  12. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotope geochemistry of recent magmatism in the Aegean arc: Sr, Nd, Hf, and O isotopic ratios in the lavas of Milos and Santorini-geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briqueu, L.; Javoy, M.; Lancelot, J.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1986-01-01

    In this comparative study of variations in the isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd, O and Hf) of the calc-alkaline magmas of the largest two volcanoes, Milos and Santorini, of the Aegean arc (eastern Mediterranean) we demonstrate the complexity of the processes governing the evolution of the magmas on the scale both of the arc and of each volcano. On Santorini, the crustal contamination processes have been limited, effecting the magma gradually during its differentiation. The most differentiated lavas (rhyodacite and pumice) are also the most contaminated. On Milos, by contrast, these processes are very extensive. They are expressed in the 143Nd/144Nd vs. 87Sr/86Sr diagram as a continuous mixing curve between a mantle and a crustal end member pole defined by schists and metavolcanic rocks outcropping on these volcanoes. In contrast with Santorini, the least differentiated lavas on Milos are the most contaminated. These isotopic singularities can be correlated with the geodynamic evolution of the Aegean subduction zone, consisting of alternating tectonic phases of distension and compression. The genesis of rhyolitic magmas can be linked to the two phases of distension, and the contamination of the calc-alkaline mantle-derived magmas with the intermediate compressive phase. The isotopic characteristics of uncontaminated calc-alkaline primitive magmas of Milos and Santorini are directly comparable to those of magmas generated in subduction zones for which a contribution of subducted sediments to partial melts from the mantle is suggested, such as in the Aleutian, Sunda, and lesser Antilles island arcs. However, in spite of the importance of the sediment pile in the eastern Mediterranen oceanic crust (6-10 km), the contribution of the subducted terrigenous materials remains of limited amplitude. ?? 1986.

  14. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America) at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27–2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa). While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage. Conclusions After accounting for under-ascertainment of mortality

  15. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  16. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong

    2017-11-01

    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Disturbance effects of hurricane Hugo on a pristine coastal landscape: North Inlet, South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L. R.; Michener, W. K.; Williams, T. M.; Blood, E. R.; Kjerve, B.; Smock, L. A.; Lipscomb, D. J.; Gresham, C.

    Despite its intensity and landfall at high tide, Hurricane Hugo (22 Sept. 1989) had only a modest impact on the geomorphology of the undeveloped coastal landscape at North Inlet, South Carolina. Pre- and post-Hugo aerial photographs (April 1987 and October 1989) showed no change in the salt-marsh creek network, nor could changes be seen in the size or shape of sand bars within the creeks. Several new, small washover fans formed on the adjacent barrier islands. These lobate fans extend 50 to 100 m from the dune line into the back barrier area and are deposited on older but recently formed fans in areas where the islands are thin and devoid of large shrubs and trees. Hugo's failure to have a more dramatic geomorphic effect was probably related to the rapid approach of the storm along a path perpendicular to the coast. This allowed minimal time for the surge to build and for wave attack to modify the shoreface. In contrast, the nearby coastal forest experienced extensive wind damage as well as tree mortality due to soil salinization by the surge. Wind damage was a function of tree species, diameter and soil type. The most severe damage occurred in mixed bottomland hardwood sites on Rutledge (sandy, silicious, thermic Typic Humaquepts) soils. Salt-induced foliage discoloration and defoliation became fully evident in the surge-inundated area by January 1990. Above-normal salt concentrations were found in shallow groundwater samples from sites up to the 3.0-m contour (MSL). Salt concentrations generally decreased inland from the forest-marsh boundary and with the passage of time. Trees standing along the forest-marsh boundary and in swales suffered the most severe salt-induced mortality. As of June 1991, new understory vegetation and pine seedlings appeared to be flourishing in the salt-affected area. Salinization also mobilized ammonium from soil storage as a result of ion exchange with seawater cations and disruption of nitrogen cycling processes. There was a virtual

  19. India's Approach to Climate Negotiations. From the South to the North?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    India's approach to climate negotiations results from the interplay of two distinct logics, an external one and an internal one. While the external logic is derived from quantitative attributes at the aggregate level, such as the overall size of India's economy, the internal logic is derived from qualitative attributes at the individual level such as per person incomes and productivity. For three decades, from the early 1970's to the early 2000's, India's internal and external logics overlapped. India saw the global environmental issue as a struggle of the poor against the rich with itself at the forefront, and it strongly opposed any binding mitigation commitment. The endurance of this position rested on the fact that it was consistent with India's traditional bargaining positioning as leader of the developing world in north-south negotiations, which reflected a mixture of domestic pressure and a preference for a certain world order that favoured the poor. This changed as the size of India's economy grew to match that of large powerful countries. Indeed, by the early 2000's, there was widespread belief that India was on its way to become a 'rising power' and the Indian leadership sought to re-frame its climate position to suit the new label. From then on, India sought to have a more constructive approach and began a shift toward some form of mitigation commitment. In other words, the signals from India on climate policy positions tended to betray a tilt in favour of its foreign policy positions or its 'external logic'. This however led to a growing contradiction with the internal logic, and hence, to a persistent dilemma in India's negotiating posture. But of the two conflicting logics, the internal one is likely to overcome the external one. Immediate concerns such as poverty alleviation, development and the need for economic growth are seen to be more important than the contribution to global climate mitigation action. Thus, there is low probability of India

  20. Production of dissolved organic carbon in forest soils along the north-south European transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Paces, T.; Jackova, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the C loss from forest soils due to the production of dissolved organic C (DOC) along a north-south European transect. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from the forest soils incubated at a controlled temperature and water content. Soils were sampled from forest plots from Sweden to Italy. The plots represent monocultures of spruce, pine and beech and three selected chronosequences of spruce and beech spanning a range of mean annual temperature from 2 to 14 deg. C. The DOM was characterized by its DOC/DON ratio and the C isotope composition δ 13 C. The DOC/DON ratio of DOM varied from 25 to 15 after 16 days of incubation and it decreased to between 16 and 10 after 126 days. At the beginning of incubation the δ 13 C values of DOC were 1 per mille or 2 per mille less negative than incubated soils. At the end of the experiment δ 13 C of DOC were the same as soil values. In addition to DOC production heterotrophic respiration and N mineralization were measured on the incubated soils. The DON production rates decreased from 30 to 5 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 16 days of incubation to constant values from 5 to 2 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 126 days at the end of experiment. The DIN production rates were nearly constant during the experiments with values ranging from 20 to 4 μgN gC -1 d -1 . DOC production followed first-order reaction kinetics and heterotrophic respiration followed zero-order reaction kinetics. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data yielded mean annual DOC and respiration productions with respect to sites. Mean annual estimates of DOC flux varied from 3 to 29 g of C m -2 (1-19 mg C g -1 of available C), corresponding to mean DOC concentrations from 2 to 85 mg C L -1 .

  1. Optical performance of inclined south-north axis three-positions tracked solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Hao; Li, Guihua; Tang, Runsheng; Dong, Wenli

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the optical performance of solar panels with a new sun-tracking technique was theoretically investigated based on the proposed mathematical method and monthly horizontal radiation. The mechanism of the investigated sun-tracking is that the attitude angle of solar panels is daily adjusted three times at three fixed positions: eastward, southward, and westward in the morning, noon, and afternoon, respectively, by rotating solar panels about the inclined south-north axis (ISNA-3P sun-tracking). Calculation results showed that, for ISNA-3P tracked solar panels with a yearly fixed tilt-angle of the ISNA, the maximum annual collectible radiation on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels was about 93% of that on a solar panel with 2-axis sun-tracking; whereas for those with the ISNA being yearly adjusted four times at three fixed tilt-angles, it was about 96%. Results also indicated that the attempt to further increase the annual solar gain on ISNA-3P tracked solar panels by seasonally optimizing design of the sun-tracking system for maximizing solar gain in each of four seasons was not efficient, and thus not advisable in practical applications. Optimal parametric designs of such sun-tracking system for maximizing the annual solar gain on solar panels in different cases were also presented. -- Research highlights: → The paper presented a new sun-tracking technique (ISNA-3P) for possible applications in PV generating systems. → Algorithms to estimate daily collectible radiation on the fixed, 2-axis and ISNA-3P tracked solar panels were proposed based on solar geometry and monthly horizontal radiation. → A detailed theoretical study on the optical performance of such tracked solar panels in terms of R 3P-0 and R 3P-2 , the ratios of maximum annual solar gain to that on fixed and 2-axis tracked solar panels; optimal parameters affecting the optical performance of the systems were presented in the different cases. → Results showed that such sun-tracking system

  2. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  3. Views from the Global South: exploring how student volunteers from the Global North can achieve sustainable impact in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Brian D O; Dimaras, Helen

    2013-07-26

    The body of research and practice regarding student volunteer abroad experiences largely focuses on ensuring the optimal learning experience for the student from the Global North, without equivalent attention to the benefits, if any, to the host institution in the Global South. In this debate article, we examine an often overlooked component of global student volunteer programs: the views of the local partner on what makes for a mutually beneficial partnership between volunteers from the Global North and institutions in the Global South. To guide our discussion, we drew upon the experiences of a Kenyan NGO with a Canadian student volunteer in the summer of 2012, organized via a formalized partnership with a Canadian university. We found that the approach of the NGO to hosting the student mirrored the organizational behaviour theories of Margaret J. Wheatley, who emphasized a disorderly or 'chaotic' approach to acquiring impactful change, coupled with a focus on building solid human relationships. Rather than following a set of rigid goals or tasks, the student was encouraged to critically engage and participate in all aspects of the culture of the organization and country, to naturally discover an area where his priorities aligned with the needs of the NGO. Solid networks and interpersonal connections resulted in a process useful for the organization long after the student's short-term placement ended. Our discussion reveals key features of successful academic volunteer abroad placements: equal partnership in the design phase between organizations in the Global North and Global South; the absence of rigid structures or preplanned tasks during the student's placement; participatory observation and critical engagement of the student volunteer; and a willingness of the partners to measure impact by the resultant process instead of tangible outcomes.

  4. Postcolonial Reflection on the Christian Mission: The Case of North Korean Refugees in China and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ji Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to challenge the dominant narrative of Christian service providers working for North Korean refugees’ welfare, and to articulate the perspectives of non-Christian aid recipients, especially North Korean refugees in China and South Korea. Drawing upon postcolonialism, I will unpack dysfunctions of Christian missions and ministries while relating them to anthropological insights and ethnographic research data. As a Christian scholar, I attempt to invite Christian leaders and field workers to engage in critical reflections on their goals, dispositions, and strategies in relating to the culturally, politically, and economically marginalized. This paper is aimed to offer opportunities for Christian missionaries to critique their colonial models and to reclaim their missions that decolonize both missionaries and the missionized.

  5. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham; Prakash Kumar Mallick; Pradipta Paul

    2018-01-01

    Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10%...

  6. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD, BT, and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and North/South Atlantic Ocean from 1973-01-13 to 1983-03-14 (NODC Accession 8300091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD, BT, and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the North/South Pacific Ocean and...

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection among the general Uygur population from south and north region of Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is a complex multifocal neoplasm and is the major cause of death for about 50% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic virus with a causal role in the development of all types of KS. KS is prevalent among the Uygur people in Xinjiang, especially in south area. Here we carried out a cross-sectional study among 1534 general Uygur individuals from south and north region of Xinjiang to assess the seroprevalence of KSHV and to identify the potential correlation between KSHV seroprevalence and KS incidence. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV in South and North Xinjiang was 23.1% and 25.9%, respectively. Older age was independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. In subjects from South Xinjiang, lower educational level and reported drinking were each independently associated with higher KSHV seroprevalence. Furthermore, the antibody titer was significantly lower in both south and north KSHV seropositive individuals compared with KS patients, as analyzed by gradient dilution (P Conclusion KSHV is highly prevalent in the general Uygur population in both South and North Xinjiang. Interestingly, the infection rate of KSHV in these two geographical areas did not correlate well with KS incidence. Perhaps unknown factors exist that promote the progression of KSHV infection to KS development in the local minority groups.

  8. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  9. Truck Rates For Selected North, South, And Northeastern Brazilian Soybean Export Transportation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Compares monthly truck rates from north Mato Grosso and East Tocantins to the ports Itaituba, Porto Velho, Santarém, São Luís, Santos, and Paranaguá. This is figure...

  10. Comparison between the shrimp species richness (Caridea and Dendrobranchiata, Decapoda, Crustacea of the south and north mid Atlantic ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Azevedo Cardoso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR is a seamount chain extending for 60.000 km, divided into south and north regions by the Equatorial Fracture which cuts across it. This latter has a maximum depth of 7,760 m and an average width of 19 km. In this study we include data from the two cruises of the international project MAR-ECO, undertaken, respectively, one on the north and the other on the south MAR. Our main objective is to compare the species richness and species composition of pelagic and benthic decapod shrimps of these two areas to observe the patterns of their latitudinal distribution along the MAR. Using rarefaction methods, we obtained interesting results: the pelagic samples curve of the northern MAR is almost an asymptote, so we concluded that we are close to the true number of pelagic shrimp species for this region. The pelagic samples curve of the southern MAR had the greatest slope, so our conclusion is that we are still far from the true number of species for this region. A comparison of species richness at 12 samples (the smallest number of samples shared by both the surveys revealed that the pelagic species richness was greater than the demersal, and that the northern MAR contained a larger number of species than the southern.

  11. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  12. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  13. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  14. Gravity anomaly and crustal structure characteristics in North-South Seismic Belt of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Xuan, Songtbai; Yang, Guangliang; Wu, Guiju

    2017-04-01

    The North-South Seismic Belt (NSSB) is the binary system boundary what is formed by the western Indian plate subduction pushing and the eastern west Pacific asthenosphere rising, and it is one of the three major seismic belts (Tianshan, Taiwan and NSSB) and mainly located between E102°and E107°. And it is mainly composed of topographic gradient zones, faults, cenozoic basins and strong earthquake zones, which form two distinct parts of tectonic and physical features in the west and east. The research results of geophysical and deep tectonic setting in the NSSB show that it is not only a gravity anomaly gradient zone, it is but also a belt of crustal thickness increasing sharply westward of abrupt change. Seismic tomography results show that the anomaly zone is deeper than hundreds of kilometers in the NSSB, and the composition and structure of the crust are more complex. We deployed multiple Gravity and GNSS synchronous detection profiles in the NSSB, and these profiles crossed the mainly faults structure and got thousands of points data. In the research, source analysis, density structure inversion, residual gravity related imaging and normalized full gradient methods were used, and analyzed gravity field, density and their structure features in different positions, finally obtained the crustal density structure section characteristics and depth structure differences. The research results showed that the gravity Bouguer anomaly is similar to the existing large scale result. The Bouguer anomaly is rising significantly from west to east, its trend variation coincides well with the trend change of Moho depth, which is agreeing with the material flows to the peripheral situation of the Tibetan plateau. The obvious difference changes of the residual anomaly is relative to the boundary of structure or main tectonics, it's also connected with the stop degree of the eurasian plate when the material migrates around. The density structure of the gravity profiles mainly

  15. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  16. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  17. Crab Haul Creek Tide Gauge Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2001 • Feb2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services The Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) collects, analyzes and...

  18. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    ... maintains friendly relations with both Koreas, currently the only country to do so. Nearly fifteen years after this normalization, South Korea and China still enjoy a strong relationship that generally continues to improve...

  19. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  20. K-Ar ages, paleomagnetism, and geochemistry of the South Auckland volcanic field, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.M.; Okada, T.; Itaya, T.; Shibuya, H.; Smith, I.E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The South Auckland volcanic field is one of the Pliocene-Quaternary intraplate basaltic fields in northern North Island. It consists of at least 97 monogenetic volcanic centres covering an area of c. 300 km 2 , 38 km south of Auckland. Fifty-nine of the volcanic centres are characterised by mainly magmatic or effusive activity that constructed scoria cones and lava flows, while 38 are mainly phreatomagmatic or explosive that produced tuff rings and maars. Rock types consist of basanites, hawaiites, nepheline hawaiites, transitional basalts, and ol-tholeiitic basalts, with relatively minor amounts of nephelinites, alkali basalts, Q-tholeiitic basalts, and nepheline mugearites. Forty-three new K-Ar ages are presented, which range from 0.51 to 1.59 Ma, and show two peaks of activity at 0.6 and 1.3 Ma. Paleomagnetic determinations at 26 selected sites agree well with the paleomagnetic reversal time scale and support the K-Ar age data. Age data from each of the volcanic fields of Okete, Ngatutura, South Auckland, and Auckland, which constitute the Auckland intraplate basaltic province, show that they have developed within a time span of 0.3-1.1 Ma. After activity ceased in any particular field, a new field then developed 35-38 km to the north. These consistent time/space patterns indicate the possibility of a mantle source migrating northwards at c. 5 cm/yr. There is no correlation of rock composition with time, which is consistent with observations in the Northland intraplate province, but is not consistent with the formerly invoked rising diapir model. (author). 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. North-south patterning of millet agriculture on the Loess Plateau: Late Neolithic adaptations to water stress, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, P.; Shang, X.; Yang, L.; Jones, M.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: Water availability and climatic condition profoundly affect agricultural system in different areas. The Loess Plateau, which lies on the marginal area of the East Asian monsoonal climatic zone, is one of the most ideal region to study the agricultural decision-making by ancient farm communities to adapt to different water stress level in same geographic region. Here we report new results of archaeobotanical research on the analysis of charred seeds from two late Neolithic sites on the northern Loess Plateau and review many contemporaneous archaeobotanical data recovered from the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau. It is indicative of that common millet-based millet agriculture was developed in the arid northern Loess Plateau from the late Yangshao to Longshan periods (3000 1800 BC). Yet, there is a clear preference of foxtail millet farming with rice and wheat production as a supplement in the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau during the same period. The north-south patterns of millet farming preferring by ancient farmers certainly promoted the social diversity and different evolutionary trajectories of human culture in both areas during the Mid-Late Holocene.

  3. Seasonal and spatial distributions of dinoflgellates in relation to environmental factors along the north and south coasts of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Rekik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates in relation to environmental factors in north (restored and south (not yet restored coasts of Sfax. Methods: The present study was conducted during the year of 2010 and 2011 at 12 stations for evaluation of the spatial and seasonal distribution of dinoflagellates and abiotic parameters. Results: Results revealed a striking difference between the two coasts regarding pH with strong acidification of seawater in the south, which may be caused by industrial activity. Suspended matter was more in the north than in the south, which may be reasonably attributed to the recently added soil that has not yet fully stabilised. Inverted microscopy analysis of dinoflagellates showed 35 and 28 taxa in the north and south coasts of Sfax, respectively. Dinoflagellates developed in association with an important proliferation of common species like Gymnodinium sp., Prorocentrum lima and Prorocentrum micans. Two distinct associations of dinoflagellates species were identified: a north association involving an important abundance of Peridinium sp. and Protoperidinium sp., and a south assemblage concerning mainly Prorocentum triestinum. Chlorophyll a concentrations on the north [(2.48 ± 2.12 mg/L] and south [(4.95 ± 6.60 mg/L] coasts of Sfax were not correlated with dinoflagellates abundance, probably explained by the fact that an important number of dinoflagellates species are deprived of chloroplasts. The highest heterotrophic dinoflagellates mean abundance was recorded in south Sfax coast (1.64 × 102 cells/L during summer. Conclusions: This study shows that environmental variables were in relation with the dinoflagellates community composition which exhibited clear variations over the study area.

  4. Taxonomy of North and South Island snipe (Aves : Scolopacidae : Coenocorypha), with analysis of a remarkable collection of snipe bones from Greymouth, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Miskelly, C.M.; Ching, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The taxonomy of the extinct New Zealand snipe (Coenocorypha spp.), formerly resident in both the North and South islands, is addressed by morphometric analysis of fossil bones from widespread localities in both islands compared with a large sample of South Island snipe bones from a fossil site at Cobden Quarry, Greymouth. A single radiocarbon age of 3656 ± 80 yr BP and the presence of the Pacific rat Rattus exulans, introduced to New Zealand c. 650 yr BP or perhaps as early as 2000 yr BP, indiates a Late Holocene age for the Cobden fauna. Comparisons of the North and South Island fossil bones with historically known or extant taxa from offshore islands support the specific distinction of North and South Island birds, and their referral to C. barrierensis Oliver, 1995 or North Island snipe and C. iredalei Rothschild, 1921 or South Island snipe, respectively. In addition, the mensural data support the elevation of the Snares Island snipe to species level as C. huegeli. The data support the taxonomic status quo for Chatham Island snipe C. pusilla, Auckland Island snipe C. aucklandica, and Antipodes Island snipe C. a. meinertzhagenae Rothschild, 1927. The status of the extinct Forbes' snipe C. chathamica was not examined. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Along Freedom Road. Hyde County, North Carolina and the Fate of Black Schools in the South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecelski, David S.

    The 1968-69 school boycott in Hyde County (North Carolina) was one of the most sustained and successful protests of the civil rights movement. For a year, the county's black citizens refused to send their children to school in protest of a desegregation plan that required closing two historically black schools in their remote coastal community.…

  6. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  7. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Behavioral Inhibition in Toddlers: East-West-North-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Kenneth H.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Chen, Xinyin; Hastings, Paul; Sanson, Ann; Coco, Alida Lo; Zappulla, Carla; Chung, Ock-Boon; Park, Sung-Yun; Doh, Hyun Sim; Chen, Huichang; Sun, Ling; Yoon, Chong-Hee; Cui, Liyin

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of behavioral inhibition in toddlers was examined in five cultures. Participants in this study included 110 Australian, 108 Canadian, 151 Chinese, 104 Italian, and 113 South Korean toddlers and their mothers who were observed during a structured observational laboratory session. Matched procedures were used in each country, with…

  9. Education and Countering Violent Extremism: Western Logics from South to North?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the way education and conflict have become entangled during the post-9/11 "war on terror" response to "radical Islam" at home and abroad. The paper charts the complex ways that education has been deployed to serve Western military and security objectives in multiple locations in the global south and how…

  10. Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 Meteorological Applications Vol. 21(3) Seasonal forecasts of the SINTEX-F coupled model applied to maize yield and streamflow estimates over north-eastern South Africa J. Malherbe,a* W. A. Landman,b,c C. Olivier,d H. Sakumae and J- J. Luof a Institute... for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa b Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa c Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology...

  11. The north-south asymmetry of solar filaments separately at low and high latitudes in solar cycle 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong De-Fang; Qu Zhi-Ning; Guo Qiao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the north-south asymmetry of solar filaments at low (<50°) and high (>60°) latitudes using daily filament numbers from January 1998 to November 2008 (solar cycle 23). It is found that the northern hemisphere is dominant at low latitudes for cycle 23. However, a similar asymmetry does not occur for solar filaments at high latitudes. The present study indicates that the hemispheric asymmetry of solar filaments at high latitudes in a cycle appears to have little connection with that at low latitudes. Our results support that the observed magnetic fields at high latitudes include two components: one comes from the emergence of the magnetic fields from the solar interior and the other comes from the drift of the magnetic activity at low latitudes. (research papers)

  12. Bathymetric maps and water-quality profiles of Table Rock and North Saluda Reservoirs, Greenville County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Nagle, Doug D.; Lanier, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Lakes and reservoirs are the water-supply source for many communities. As such, water-resource managers that oversee these water supplies require monitoring of the quantity and quality of the resource. Monitoring information can be used to assess the basic conditions within the reservoir and to establish a reliable estimate of storage capacity. In April and May 2013, a global navigation satellite system receiver and fathometer were used to collect bathymetric data, and an autonomous underwater vehicle was used to collect water-quality and bathymetric data at Table Rock Reservoir and North Saluda Reservoir in Greenville County, South Carolina. These bathymetric data were used to create a bathymetric contour map and stage-area and stage-volume relation tables for each reservoir. Additionally, statistical summaries of the water-quality data were used to provide a general description of water-quality conditions in the reservoirs.

  13. Critical chain construction with multi-resource constraints based on portfolio technology in South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the critical chain study has become a hot issue in the project management research field. The construction of the critical chain with multi-resource constraints is a new research subject. According to the system analysis theory and project portfolio theory, this paper discusses the creation of project portfolios based on the similarity principle and gives the definition of priority in multi-resource allocation based on quantitative analysis. A model with multi-resource constraints, which can be applied to the critical chain construction of the A-bid section in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, was proposed. Contrast analysis with the comprehensive treatment construction method and aggressive treatment construction method was carried out. This paper also makes suggestions for further research directions and subjects, which will be useful in improving the theories in relevant research fields.

  14. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  15. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  16. Study on the patterns and trend in contraceptive use in South-South and North-Western zones of Nigeria: 2003–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezire O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Onoriode Ezire,1 Omokhudu Idogho,2 Ajibade Theophilus,3 Samuel Ikani,4 Obi Oluigbo1 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Nigeria; 2Enhancing Nigeria’s Response to HIV and AIDS Programme, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Population Council, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Strengthening HIV Prevention Services for Most-At-Risk Populations, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Nigeria is ranked 13th among countries with the highest fertility rates in the world – 5.7 births per woman on average. Age specific fertility rates are as high as 121 and 225 per 1,000 for ages 15–19 and 20–24 years, respectively. Only 9.7% of currently married women in Nigeria use modern methods of family planning (FP. This figure, however, does not reveal important age, geographical, or educational differences in Nigeria. The overall purpose of the study is to establish hidden demographic factors that enhance usage of modern methods of FP. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from four waves of the National and State Specific HIV and AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey – NARHS/SARHS (2003, 2005, 2007, and 2011. Data were collected among men and women of reproductive age in the 36 states of Nigeria including Federal Capital Territory (FCT. For the analysis, the study was however limited to North West and South-South zones of Nigeria. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression was performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Use of modern methods of FP has increased over time with an average annual increase of 0.47%. Different age groups, zones, and educational attainment prefer different modern methods of FP. Of all users of modern methods of FP, long lasting methods account for just 3% while condoms account for as high as 58%. Eighty-six percent of sexually active never married women use condoms for FP. Women in South-South Nigeria are over three times and five times more likely to use a modern method of FP and a condom, respectively. Conclusion: Demographic

  17. Incidence of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria: Data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Angela O; Efekemo, Oghenevwairhe P; Soluade, Mojisola G; Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A

    2018-08-01

    Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases of cassava, an important staple food for over 800 million people in the tropics. Although several Cassava mosaic virus species associated with CMD have been isolated and characterized over the years, several new super virulent strains of these viruses have evolved due to genetic recombination between diverse species. In this data article, field survey data collected from 184 cassava farms in 12 South Western and North Central States of Nigeria in 2015 are presented and extensively explored. In each State, one cassava farm was randomly selected as the first farm and subsequent farms were selected at 10 km intervals, except in locations were cassava farms are sporadically located. In each selected farm, 30 cassava plants were sampled along two diagonals and all selected plant was scored for the presence or absence of CMD symptoms. Cassava mosaic disease incidence and associated whitefly vectors in South West and North Central Nigeria are explored using relevant descriptive statistics, box plots, bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. In addition, correlation analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison post-hoc tests are performed to understand the relationship between the numbers of whiteflies counted, uninfected farms, infected farms, and the mean of symptom severity in and across the States under investigation. The data exploration provided in this data article is considered adequate for objective assessment of the incidence and symptom severity of cassava mosaic disease and associated whitefly vectors in farmers' fields in these parts of Nigeria where cassava is heavily cultivated.

  18. Bedrock geology and mineral resources of the Knoxville 1° x 2° quadrangle, Tennessee, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Lesure, Frank G.; Marlowe, J. I.; Foley, Nora K.; Clark, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The Knoxville 1°x 2° quadrangle spans the Southern Blue Ridge physiographic province at its widest point from eastern Tennessee across western North Carolina to the northwest corner of South Carolina. The quadrangle also contains small parts of the Valley and Ridge province in Tennessee and the Piedmont province in North and South Carolina. Bedrock in the Valley and Ridge consists of unmetamorphosed, folded and thrust-faulted Paleozoic miogeoclinal sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cambrian to Mississippian. The Blue Ridge is a complex of stacked thrust sheets divided into three parts: (1) a west flank underlain by rocks of the Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group and slightly metamorphosed Late Proterozoic Ocoee Supergroup west of the Greenbrier fault; (2) a central part containing crystalline basement of Middle Proterozoic age (Grenville), Ocoee Supergroup rocks east of the Greenbrier fault, and rocks of the Murphy belt; and (3) an east flank containing the Helen, Tallulah Falls, and Richard Russell thrust sheets and the amphibolitic basement complex. All of the east flank thrust sheets contain polydeformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks of mostly Proterozoic age. The Blue Ridge is separated by the Brevard fault zone from a large area of rocks of the Inner Piedmont to the east, which contains the Six Mile thrust sheet and the ChaugaWalhalla thrust complex. All of these rocks are also polydeformed and metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks. The Inner Piedmont rocks in this area occupy both the Piedmont and part of the Blue Ridge physiographic provinces.

  19. South-South Migration and Remittances

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William

    2007-01-01

    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  20. Postglacial sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    , in the outer delta, a dune field suggesting westerly-directed sediment transport is identified. The two dune fields appear to be separated by minor indefinite bed forms. The northern part of the Lister Tief is characterised by the presence of a channel with a depth of 20-30 mbsf (meter below sea level) (30......-40 msec TWT (Two Way Traveltime)) and displaying erosion towards the north. At the western termination of the channel the sediment transport pathway appears to be divided into two directions; one towards the outer delta, and one towards the sediment depocenter SW of Rømø. The Lister Ley is characterized......During the past 5 years the coastal zone offshore the northern part of the island of Sylt, has been investigated by sparker seismics and high-resolution subbottom profiling. The North Sea sector of the area is characterized by northward-directed sediment bypass as a result of strong long...

  1. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    silty loams with moderate erosion and poor permeability. Normally used for pastureland. Sansarc- Opal : clays with minor erosion and permeability...One active sand and gravel mining area is located on Oahe project lands at Fort Yates, North Dakota. There is also a small amount of sand and...consist of sand and gravel deposits and Pierre Shale. The sand and gravel deposits are mined for road construction materials and concrete aggregate

  2. North-South Climate Change Negotiations. A Sequential Game with Asymmetric Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caparros, A.; Tazdait, T.; Pereau, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    This article determines the conditions under which the Southern countries should act together, or separately, while negotiating with the North about climate change policy and about the conditions for future Southern engagement. The paper models the international negotiations with complete and with asymmetric information in a dynamic framework. Results show that, depending on their characteristics, the different players can obtain benefits delaying the moment of the agreement

  3. Current meter and bathythermograph data from moored current meter and xbt casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf - South Atlantic (OCS-South Atlantic) project from 1982-02-16 to 1985-07-01 (NODC Accession 8600124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North American Coastline-South from...

  4. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  5. A preliminary report on the biomass of chaetognaths in the Indian Ocean comparing the south-west and north-east monsoon periods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    sorted and the total number of chaetognaths in the samples were then computed The average number of chaetognaths for all samples from each 5 degrees Marsden Square is separately estimated for the south-west and north-east monsoon periods The period mid...

  6. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  7. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau. This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5.41% along Qilian Shan and 3.85% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. The iron fractional solubility averages about 0.25% in Eastern Tien Shan, 0.05–2% along Qilian Shan and 1.5% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. Among the controlling factors that can affect iron solubility in Asian dust, such as dust composition and particle grain size, acidity seems to be the most significant and can increase the iron solubility by one or two orders of magnitude with acidification of pH=0.66. Our results reveal that iron solubility of dust in the remote downwind sites is higher than that in high-alpine snow, confirming the strong pH-dependence of iron solubility, and indicating that Asian dust shows a large variation in iron solubility on a regional scale.

  8. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  9. In search of a merged identity: the case of multi-campus North-West University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kamsteeg

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s post–apartheid governments have taken far–reaching policy measures to transform the system of higher education, do away with its strongly segregated character, and develop an efficient and internationally recognised system that provides equal chances for all ethnic groups. Since 2002 higher education has become the explicit target of a government policy, geared to cultural development and intervention, including the enforcement of a series of mergers between traditionally white and black universities and former technikons (currently universities of technology. This process has caused intense debate at the level of leadership and among policy makers in these institutions, but little is known of how this ideological battle over educational development has affected daily academic practice. This paper gives a first, somewhat tentative discussion on the current effects of the changes in higher education in South Africa, and in particular at one of the institutions affected: the newly merged North-West University (NWU. The article is based on documentary research and three personal visits to the university; in the process a joint research project was initiated between the VU University of Amsterdam (VUUA and NWU. This paper attempts to shed some early light on how efficiency and social equity goals are met within NWU’s institutional merger, beginning from a cultural perspective that focuses on the construction of ‘merger narratives’. The paper also gives a voice to critical reactions, narratives of resistance that have emerged from the university shop floor.

  10. A molecular characterization of a newly discovered megafaunal fossil site in North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentoft, M.E.; Scofield, R.P.; Oskam, C.L.; Hale, M.L.; Holdaway, R.N.; Bunce, M.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2008 an assemblage of large fossil bones was unearthed in a field near Waikari, North Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand. We describe this new fossil site, Rosslea, and provide an inventory of the excavated material. The bones were generally well preserved although stained deep brown, typical of peat preservation. Eight Rosslea bones were 14 C AMS dated and median calibrated ages ranged from 7839 to 1482 years BP. Ancient DNA was isolated from 14 bones and a single piece of eggshell. Genetic species identifications based on mitochondrial DNA matched those based on morphology, confirming that three species of extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were present. Also, remains of an extinct South Island Adzebill (Aptornis defossor) were identified. The species composition in the Rosslea assemblage proved typical for the time and region but comparative analyses revealed that each of five major fossil deposits in the area displayed a significantly different relative abundance of moa taxa, despite their proximity and relative contemporaneity (all contain Holocene moa bones). Lastly, indications of DNA damage and failed attempts to amplify nuclear DNA indicated that DNA preservation at Rosslea was relatively poor compared to the preservation known from adjacent deposits. (author). 50 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. On the Melody Types between the North and the South Dong Folks%南北侗族民歌的旋律类型探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏金梅

    2014-01-01

    South and North Dong Minority , the two branches of Dong , have remarkable differences in the music style of folk songs . South Dong'folk song is mild and obscure while North Dong'folk song is lyric and straightforward . The formation of their differences is closely related to their melody types :the melody type of South Dong's folk song is mainly small wave while the melody type of North Dong's folk song is with ups and small wave ;though both South and North Dong's folk songs enjoy small wave type , there are differences in the music development mode of small wave type . The differences of melody types in South and North Dong's folk songs are connected with their own cultural ecology , i . e , the differences of South and North Dong area's ecological and cultural environment mold out the characteristics of South and North Dong's folk song which is reflected in their different melody types .%南、北侗族作为侗族旗下的两个分支,在民歌音乐风格方面差别显著:南侗民歌平和、含蓄,北侗民歌抒情、直白。这种差异的形成与二者的旋律类型存有紧密联系:南侗民歌的旋律类型仅以小波浪式为主,北侗民歌以跌宕式与小波浪式两种类型为主;南北侗族民歌虽都喜好小波浪式,但二者的小波浪式在音乐发展模式上也不同。而南、北侗族民歌旋律类型的差异正好与彼此所处的文化生态是相互耦合的,也即是说,南、北侗族地区生态文化环境的差异模塑出南北侗族民歌的特性,这一特性在其民歌的旋律类型中得以表现。

  12. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  13. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  14. The power of knowledge in collaborative projects across North and South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    This paper studies outcome of collaboration between universities in Africa and Scandinavia. The African higher education landscape is a product of the colonial powers and subsequent uneven development leading to an academic dependency as argued by a number of African researchers. Today, many...... in the paper, where we (i) explores how North-driven projects approach knowledge as universal and transferable and thereby ignore diversity and local historical context; (ii) analyses the cultural production of African academics and methodological hegemony in collaborative projects; (iii) concludes...

  15. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  16. Differences in harm from legal BZP/TFMPP party pills between North Island and South Island users in New Zealand: a case of effective industry self-regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Sweetsur, Paul

    2010-01-01

    'Party' pills containing benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) were sold legally in New Zealand until early 2008. Prospective studies of hospital emergency department admissions appeared to suggest that the harm from party pills was greater among South Island than North Island users. The party pill industry association (the Social Tonics Association of New Zealand or STANZ) claimed these differences were due to the voluntary code of practice adopted by their members in the North Island. The aims of this study were to examine differences in harm from party pills between North and South Island users in New Zealand, and to investigate possible reasons for any differences in harm, including the impact of industry self-regulation. A national household survey of BZP/TFMPP party pill use was conducted in New Zealand. Information on the ingredients of party pills was provided by the National Poisons Centre. In a number of instances last year users of party pills from the South Island were more likely than last year users from the North Island to report harm from party pills. There were no differences between the North and South Island users with regard to the mean number of BZP/TFMPP party pills taken, mean total milligrams of BZP/TFMPP ingested or prevalence of use of other drug types in combination with party pills. A minority of users in the South Island reported using extremely high numbers of BZP/TFMPP party pills in a single session and using extremely high potency brands of party pills. Last year party pill users from the South Island were more likely than those from the North Island to be students. A number of factors may have contributed to the greater harm from BZP/TFMPP party pills among South Island users including a higher proportion of student users with higher consumption of alcohol and other drugs. Users from both Islands commonly exceeded the dosage of BZP/TFMPP recommended by STANZ suggesting the STANZ code of conduct was

  17. A new perspective on the regional hydrologic cycle over North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Ping

    The GEOS-1 vertically-integrated 3-hr moisture flux reanalyses and hourly-gridded United States station precipitation plus a satellite-based, 6-hr global precipitation estimate were employed to investigate the impacts of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) on the regional hydrological cycle over the central United States (Part I) and the subtropical plains of South America (Part II). Research stressed the influences of upper-level synoptic-scale waves (i.e., synoptic-scale forcings) upon the regional hydrologic processes, which were explored by the impacts associated with the occurrence of LLJ. Besides the conventional budget analysis, the adopted `synoptic-forcing approach' was proven illustrative in describing these impacts through the down-scaling process of LLJs. In Part 1, the major findings include: (1)the seasonal-averaged hydrological cycle over the Great Plains is strongly affected by the occurrence of GPLLJ, (2)the synoptic-scale forcing provided by the upper-level propagating jet (ULJ) streams is essential in generating the large-scale precipitation after the GPLLJ forms from the diurnal boundary layer process, (3)without the dynamic coupling between the ULJ and LLJ, the impact of LLJ on the hydrological cycle is demonstrated to be less important, and (4)the importance of synoptic-scale forcings in preconditioning the setting of wet/dry seasons in the interannual variability of rainfall anomaly is further illustrated by examining the changes of intensity as well as the occurrence frequency between the different types of LLJ. In Part II of this study, it was found that the occurrence of Andean LLJ represents a transient episode that detours the climatic rainfall activity along the South Atlantic Convergent Zone (SACZ) to the subtropical plains (Brazilian Nordeste) in its southwestern (northeastern) flank. The appearance of a seesaw pattern in the rainfall and flux convergence anomalies along the southeastern portion of South America, which is spatially in

  18. Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among North Korean Adolescent Refugees Residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2017-08-14

    We examined factors affecting the depressive symptoms and the relationship between depression and quality of life among 131 North Korean adolescent refugees aged 12-24 years. We compared sociodemographic, social, and individual characteristics and perceived the quality of life between participants with and without depression. Thirty-seven refugees (28.2%) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. The refugees with depression were younger ( t = 2.67; p = 0.009), more likely to be male (χ² = 6.98; p = 0.009), and more likely to have a Chinese father (χ² = 9.05; p = 0.003) than those without depression. The refugees with depression had lower levels of psychological social support ( t = 2.96; p = 0.004) and resilience ( t = 4.24; p refugees at risk of depression.

  19. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  20. O gigante dormente: O lugar nos trilhos da ferrovia Norte-Sul / The railway sleeper giant: The place in the tracks of the North-South railroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Mendes Mendes da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Great Engineering Projects are events that change the space, altering their natural and socio-cultural elements. The socio-spatial effects of these developments can be positive and / or negative. The construction of the NorthSouth railway is considered a major project. This suggests a path with railways of approximately 2100 km across the Midwest and north of the country, connecting the north with the Carajás Railroad and south with the Central Atlantic Railroad. With that reduces freight costs for long distances, and can raise the economic development of the Brazilian Cerrado. Despite the developmental objectives of the FNS, this paper seeks to reflect on the impact that the railroad can bring to the rural and urban in the city of Anápolis - GO, taking place as a category of this analysis. There is no way to integrate, include, accommodate a large number of people who ‘has no place’ in society exclusionary. Moreover, the forms of inclusion and reinstatement are increasingly encountered and degrading little to a condition of social welfare. Aiming to spatialize and illustrate this reflection, the geographical treatment that is intended to give the perspective of space - place mentions the construction of a major infrastructure project in the transport logistics Mid- Region the Center of Goiás, at the southern entrance of the city of Anápolis, in State of Goiás, the North South Railway - FNS and its socio-spatial implications.

  1. Growth status of Korean orphans raised in the affluent West: anthropometric trend, multivariate determinants, and descriptive comparison with their North and South Korean peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the trend in height among adult Korean orphans who were adopted in early life into affluent Western nations. Final heights of 148 females were analyzed based on a Korean government survey conducted in 2008. Height of the orphans was descriptively compared against final heights of South and North Koreans. Furthermore, statistical determinants of orphan height were investigated in multivariate regressions. Mean height of Korean orphans was 160.44 cm (SD 5.89), which was higher than that of South Koreans at 158.83 cm (SD 5.01). Both Korean orphans and South Koreans were taller than North Koreans at 155.30 cm (SD 4.94). However, height of Korean orphans stagnated at around 160-161 cm while those of North and South Koreans improved over time. In the regression analysis, the socioeconomic status of the adoptive family was statistically significant in all models, while dummies for the adoptive nations and age at adoption were insignificant. This study shows that the mean final height of women experiencing extreme environmental improvements in early-life is capped at 160-161 cm, tentatively suggesting that social stress factors in the host nation or early-life factors in the birth nation might have offset some of the environmental enrichment effects achieved through intercountry adoption.

  2. A cluster of patients infected with I221V influenza b virus variants with reduced oseltamivir susceptibility--North Carolina and South Carolina, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Moore, Zack; Lee, Nicole; McKenna, John; Bishop, Amber; Fleischauer, Aaron; Springs, Chasisity B; Nguyen, Ha T; Sheu, Tiffany G; Sleeman, Katrina; Finelli, Lyn; Gubareva, Larisa; Fry, Alicia M

    2013-03-15

    During 2010-2011, influenza B viruses with a novel neuraminidase substitution, denoted I221V (B/I221V), associated with reduced in vitro oseltamivir susceptibility were detected in North Carolina. We determined the prevalence of I221V among B viruses submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for antiviral resistance surveillance, including all B viruses submitted to North Carolina and South Carolina state laboratories, during October 2010-September 2011.We conducted chart reviews and telephone interviews to characterize North Carolina and South Carolina patients with B/I221V vs wild-type B virus infection (B/WT). We detected I221V in 45 (22%) of 209 B viruses from North Carolina and 8 (10%) of 82 B viruses from South Carolina. We detected I221V in 3 (0.3%) of 881 B viruses tested from 45 other states. B/I221V infection was not associated with differences in underlying conditions or illness severity, compared with B/WT infection. No patients with B/I221V infection received oseltamivir prior to specimen collection. Among patients who completed oseltamivir, those with B/I221V infection reported a longer duration until illness resolution (5 vs 3 days; P = .02). B/I221V cocirculated with B/WT in North Carolina and South Carolina during 2010-2011. I221V did not alter illness severity but may have reduced oseltamivir effectiveness. Thus, global surveillance for I221V is important.

  3. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  4. The Upper 1000-m Slope Currents North of the South Shetland Islands and Elephant Island Based on Ship Cruise Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guangqian; Zhang, Zhaoru; Zhou, Meng; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhong, Yisen

    2018-04-01

    While the Antarctic Slope Current (ASC) has been intensively studied for the East Antarctica slope area and the Weddell Sea, its fate in the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region remains much less known. Data from two cruises conducted near the South Shetland Islands (SSIs) and the Elephant Island (EI), one in austral summer of 2004 and one in austral winter of 2006, were analyzed to provide a broad picture of the circulation pattern over the continental slope of the surveyed area, and an insight into the dynamical balance of the circulation. The results indicate that southwestward currents are present over the upper slope in the study area, indicating the ASC in the WAP region. Near the Shackleton Gap (SG) north of the EI, the southwestward slope currents near the shelf break are characterized by a water mass colder and fresher than the ambient water, which produces cross-slope density gradients and then vertical shear of the along-slope (or along-isobath) velocity. The vertical shear is associated with a reversal of the along-slope current from northeastward at surface to southwestward in deeper layers, or a depth-intensification of the southwestward slope currents. The water mass with temperature and salinity characteristics similar to the observed cold and fresh water is also revealed on the southern slope of the Scotia Sea, suggesting that this cold and fresh water is originated from the Scotia Sea slope and flows southwestward through the SG. Over the shelf north of the SSIs, the cold and fresh water mass is also observed and originates mainly from the Bransfield Strait. In this area, vertical structure of the southwestward slope currents is associated with the onshore intrusion of the upper Circumpolar Deep Water that creates cross-slope density gradients.

  5. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  6. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  7. Comparative life history of the south temperate Cape Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus minutus) and north temperate Remizidae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Frauenknecht, Bernhard D.; du Plessis, Morné A.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the breeding biology of the south temperate Cape Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus minutus) in order to compare its life history traits with those of related north temperate members of the family Remizidae, namely the Eurasian Penduline Tit (Remiz pendulinus) and the Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We used this comparison to test key predictions of three hypotheses thought to explain latitudinal variation in life histories among bird species—the seasonality and food limitation hypothesis, nest predation hypothesis and adult mortality hypothesis. Contrary to the general pattern of smaller clutch size and lower adult mortality among south-temperate birds living in less seasonal environments, the Cape Penduline Tit has a clutch size larger than that of the Verdin and similar to that of the Eurasian Penduline Tit, and higher adult mortality than both of the other two species. The most notable difference between the Cape Penduline Tit and the two other species is in parental behavioural strategy, with the former exhibiting bi-parental care at all stages of nesting together with facultative cooperative breeding, whereas the Eurasian Penduline Tit has uni-parental care and the Verdin has a combination of female-only incubation but bi-parental nestling care. Consequently, in comparison to the other two species, the Cape Penduline Tit exhibits greater nest attentiveness during incubation, a similar per-nestling feeding rate and greater post-fledging survival. Its relatively large clutch size, high parental investment and associated high adult mortality in a less seasonal environment are consistent with key predictions of the adult mortality hypothesis but not with key predictions of the seasonality and food limitation hypothesis in explaining life history variation among Remizidae species. These results add to a growing body of evidence of the importance of age-specific mortality in shaping life history evolution.

  8. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  9. A comparison of resident fish assemblages in managed and unmanaged coastal wetlands in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant fish species within impounded coastal wetlands in the southeastern US may be different from the species that dominate natural marshes. We tested the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages inhabiting impounded coastal wetlands in South Carolina would differ from resident assemblages in natural marshes of the southeastern United States. We used rarefied species richness, Shannon's H' diversity,J' evenness, Morisita's index of similarity, and the percent similarity index to compare resident fish assemblages from two impoundments to 12 open-marsh resident fish assemblages from previously published studies in North and South Carolina. We used rotenone to sample fish assemblages in impoundments. The assemblages in natural marsh habitat had been sampled with rotenone and seines. We classified comparisons yielding a similarity index ≥0.50 as moderately similar and those with an index ≥0.75 as very similar. Fifty-three percent of the among-impoundment comparisons (Morisita's index) were at least moderately similar, whereas 7% of impoundment—natural marsh comparisons were moderately similar. A difference in tidal influence was the only parameter in the best-fitting model describing the observed Morisita's indices. The index of similarity decreased by 63% when tidal influence differed between compared assemblages. Species richness and diversity were greater in impoundments than natural marshes, but evenness was similar between habitat types. Our results support the hypothesis that resident fish assemblages in impounded wetlands and natural marshes are different, and suggest that a degree of tidal influence is the most important factor behind the difference.

  10. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavergne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N and western Argentina (41.10° S, we specifically aim at (1 evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2 identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3 defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations and simulated (by global circulation model δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil–vegetation–atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  11. From South to North: flowering phenological responses at different geographical latitudes in 12 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Barbara; Lehoczky, Annamária; Filzmoser, Peter; Templ, Matthias; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pongrácz, Rita; Ortner, Thomas; Mert, Can; Czúcz, Bálint

    2014-05-01

    Phenological sensitivity of plants strongly depends on regional climate variability, moreover it is also influenced by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Plants in different environmental conditions (determined by geographical latitude and longitude, altitude, continentality) may show diverse responses to climate change. The first results of an international cooperation aiming at the analysis of plant phenological data along a latitudinal gradient over 12 European countries (Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland) are presented. The spatio-temporal changes in the flowering onset dates of common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.) during the period of 1970-2000 were analysed. To characterise the environmental conditions driving the phenological responses, climatic variables (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, precipitation) obtained from a gridded observational dataset (E-OBS 9.0) and time series of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index were used. Preliminary results for this particular species found a gradual advance of mean flowering onsets along latitudes from 40° N to 65° N, at the rate of -0.12 to -0.32 day/year. Significant zonal differences were found in these rates, which can be explained by the sensitivity of flowering to climatic conditions while moving from Mediterranen to boreal regions of Europe. Thus our results were coherent with most observations in the literature, that higher latitudes can exhibit more pronounced responses, particularly in case of spring phenological events.

  12. SDH-NET: a South-North-South collaboration to build sustainable research capacities on social determinants of health in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Guerra, German; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly

    2015-10-22

    It is desirable that health researchers have the ability to conduct research on health equity and contribute to the development of their national health system and policymaking processes. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a limited capacity to conduct this type of research due to reasons mostly associated with the status of national (health) research systems. Building sustainable research capacity in LMICs through the triangulation of South-North-South (S-N-S) collaborative networks seems to be an effective way to maximize limited national resources to strengthen these capacities. This article describes how a collaborative project (SDH-Net), funded by the European Commission, has successfully designed a study protocol and a S-N-S collaborative network to effectively support research capacity building in LMICs, specifically in the area of social determinants of health (SDH); this project seeks to elaborate on the vital role of global collaborative networks in strengthening this practice. The implementation of SDH-Net comprised diverse activities developed in three phases. Phase 1: national level mapping exercises were conducted to assess the needs for SDH capacity building or strengthening in local research systems. Four strategic areas were defined, namely research implementation and system performance, social appropriation of knowledge, institutional and national research infrastructure, and research skills and training/networks. Phase 2: development of tools to address the identified capacity building needs, as well as knowledge management and network strengthening activities. Phase 3: identifying lessons learned in terms of research ethics, and how policies can support the capacity building process in SDH research. The implementation of the protocol has led the network to design innovative tools for strengthening SDH research capacities, under a successful S-N-S collaboration that included national mapping reports, a global open

  13. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination.  For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less

  14. Dispersion in North Atlantic Deep Water transfer between the northern source region and the South Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Oliver; Roether, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) represents the Atlantic part of the deep, southward return arm of the oceanic 'conveyor belt', which moderates Europe's climate and effects most of the water transfer from the ocean surface into the deep waters globally. The transfer starts from the NADW formation regions, which in the case of upper NADW (approx. 1500-2000 m depth) is the Labrador Sea (far NW Atlantic). NADW is found concentrated toward the continental slope of the Americas, but subject to meandering, and to recirculation into, and mixing with, the waters of the interior Atlantic. Individual water parcels thus follow a complex ensemble of trajectories. We have obtained characteristics of that ensemble by fitting the free parameters of a suitable function using extensive observations of the transient tracers CFC-11, CFC-12, CCl{sub 4}, and tritium. A tracer transfer function of ocean-surface concentrations to those in newly formed NADW was derived as a precursory step. In the upper NADW we obtain RMS transfer-time dispersions on the way from the Labrador Sea of 31 years at 6 N rising to 53 years at 20 S, compared to mean transfer times ranging 46 to 79 years ({+-}20 %); furthermore, approximately 10 % to 40 % of the water is old, tracer-free water admixed on the way. Similar results have been obtained for lower NADW (approx. 2500-4000 m). The combination of tritium and CFC observations is particularly suited to constrain the dispersion, since it acts on the concentrations of these tracers in an opposite way. The tracer-adjusted transfer functions allow quantification of the NADW transport of pollutants and other compounds delivered to the NADW formation region. The results can furthermore check mean transfer times and large-scale dispersion of the NADW part of dynamic ocean circulation models.

  15. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  16. An observational study of frequency of provider hand contacts in child care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Angela; Wohlgenant, Kelly; Cates, Sheryl; Chen, Xi; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Li, You; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Children enrolled in child care are 2.3-3.5 times more likely to experience acute gastrointestinal illness than children cared for in their own homes. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency surfaces were touched by child care providers to identify surfaces that should be cleaned and sanitized. Observation data from a convenience sample of 37 child care facilities in North Carolina and South Carolina were analyzed. Trained data collectors used iPods (Apple, Cupertino, CA) to record hand touch events of 1 child care provider for 45 minutes in up to 2 classrooms in each facility. Across the 37 facilities, 10,134 hand contacts were observed in 51 classrooms. Most (4,536) were contacts with porous surfaces, with an average of 88.9 events per classroom observation. The most frequently touched porous surface was children's clothing. The most frequently touched nonporous surface was food contact surfaces (18.6 contacts/observation). Surfaces commonly identified as high-touch surfaces (ie, light switches, handrails, doorknobs) were touched the least. General cleaning and sanitizing guidelines should include detailed procedures for cleaning and sanitizing high-touch surfaces (ie, clothes, furniture, soft toys). Guidelines are available for nonporous surfaces but not for porous surfaces (eg, clothing, carpeting). Additional research is needed to inform the development of evidence-based practices to effectively treat porous surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  18. Analysis of precipitation characteristics of South and North China based on the power-law tail exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guolin; Zhang Daquan; Gong Zhiqiang; Zhi Rong

    2008-01-01

    Precipitation sequence is a typical nonlinear and chaotic observational series, and studies on precipitation forecasts are restricted to the use of traditional linear statistical methods, especially when analysing the regional characteristics of precipitation. In the context of 20 stations' daily precipitation series (from 1956 to 2000) in South China (SC) and North China (NC), we divide each precipitation series into many self-stationary segments by using the heuristic segmentation algorithm (briefly BG algorithm). For each station's precipitation series, we calculate the exponent of power-law tail (EPT) of the cumulative probability distribution of segments with a length larger than l for precipitation and temperature series. Our results show that the power-law decay of the cumulative probability distribution of stationary segments might be a common attribution for precipitation and other nonstationary time series; the EPT somewhat indicates the precipitation duration and its spatial distribution that might be different from area to area. The EPT in NC is larger than in SC; Meanwhile, EPT might be another effective way to study the abrupt changes in nonlinear and nonstationary time series. (geophysics, astronomy and astrophysics)

  19. Grain size dependent magnetic discrimination of Iceland and South Greenland terrestrial sediments in the northern North Atlantic sediment record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Robert G.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Reilly, Brendan T.; Tepley, Frank J.; Wheeler, Benjamin H.; Housen, Bernard A.

    2017-09-01

    We use isothermal and temperature dependent in-field and magnetic remanence methods together with electron microscopy to characterize different sieved size fractions from terrestrial sediments collected in Iceland and southern Greenland. The magnetic fraction of Greenland silts (3-63 μm) and sands (>63 μm) is primarily composed of near-stoichiometric magnetite that may be oxidized in the finer clay (samples, in contrast to coarser PSD and multi-domain (MD) discrete magnetites from southern Greenland. We demonstrate the potential of using magnetic properties of the silt fraction for source unmixing by creating known endmember mixtures and by using naturally mixed marine sediments from the Eirik Ridge south of Greenland. We develop a novel approach to ferrimagnetic source unmixing by using low temperature magnetic susceptibility curves that are sensitive to the different crystallinity and cation substitution characteristics of the different source regions. Covariation of these properties with hysteresis parameters suggests sediment source changes have driven the magnetic mineral variations observed in Eirik Ridge sediments since the last glacial maximum. These observations assist the development of a routine method and interpretative framework to quantitatively determine provenance in a geologically realistic and meaningful way and assess how different processes combine to drive magnetic variation in the North Atlantic sediment record.

  20. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  2. Variable impact of late-Quaternary megafaunal extinction in causing ecological state shifts in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Anthony D.; Lindsey, Emily L.; Villavicencio, Natalia A.; Bostelmann, Enrique; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Wanket, James; Marshall, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of megafauna, an aspect of defaunation, can precipitate many ecological changes over short time scales. We examine whether megafauna loss can also explain features of lasting ecological state shifts that occurred as the Pleistocene gave way to the Holocene. We compare ecological impacts of late-Quaternary megafauna extinction in five American regions: southwestern Patagonia, the Pampas, northeastern United States, northwestern United States, and Beringia. We find that major ecological state shifts were consistent with expectations of defaunation in North American sites but not in South American ones. The differential responses highlight two factors necessary for defaunation to trigger lasting ecological state shifts discernable in the fossil record: (i) lost megafauna need to have been effective ecosystem engineers, like proboscideans; and (ii) historical contingencies must have provided the ecosystem with plant species likely to respond to megafaunal loss. These findings help in identifying modern ecosystems that are most at risk for disappearing should current pressures on the ecosystems' large animals continue and highlight the critical role of both individual species ecologies and ecosystem context in predicting the lasting impacts of defaunation currently underway.

  3. African catfish Clarias gariepinus farming practices in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus is widely cultured due to its tolerance to environmental extremes, high production and good feed conversion rate. This communication describes the farming practices of C. gariepinus in North and South 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal. Clarias gariepinus is cultured in ponds of 0.1–0.75 ha, where fingerlings were stocked at a density of 860–1150 cubic meter–1. The current practices of seed transportation were stressful to fish as the majority of the farmers noticed 5–10% mortalities, despite the use of antibiotics. Acclimatization of seeds was practiced by the majority of farmers before stocking. Different feeds including slaughter-house wastes and dead poultry were supplied. Multiple stocking and harvesting were a common practice. Major problems identified were insufficient feed, disease, transport, poor seed quality and lack of financial support. The survival percentage was poor, as 88% of the farmers recorded <40–50% survival at harvest. Dropsy was the most common disease and had a significant impact on economy. Antibiotics or other aquadrugs were frequently used for treatment, although the success varied. In general, the C. gariepinus farming has helped to recycle the wastes generated in and around metropolitan Kolkata and adjacent municipalities into wealth, but it suffers from management issues and huge economic losses. This calls for immediate attention from researchers, administrators and extension personals.

  4. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  5. North-south comparison of springtime dark slope structures on Mars, and the possibility of liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Berczi, Sz.; Horvath, A.; Ganti, T.; Kuti, A.; Pocs, T.; Sik, A.; Szathmary, E.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Various polar seasonal surface albedo structures were analyzed by several authors in the past [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9], partly in connection with the possibility of liquid water. In our previous work [10] we identified two groups of slope streaks emanating form Dark Dune Spots of polar dunes, which grow in size and number during spring with the advancement of the season. The diffuse shaped group appears earlier and formed probably by CO2 geysers [8]. The confine shaped group appears in a later seasonal phase, when the temperature is higher. They are probably connected with exposed water-ice on the surface, and may formed by the seepage of undercooled interfacial water on microscopic scale [11]. Methods For the analysis of northern slope structures we used MGS MOC, MRO HiRISE images, and MRG TES data [12] using the "vanilla" software. Temperature data show annual trend, and were derived for daytime. Note that the surface temperature values have spatial resolution around 3 km, and they can be taken only as a rough approach of the surface temperature of the whole dune complex, and not different parts of it. Discussion The target area of the analysis was (84N 233E) in the northern circumpolar sand sea, with 300-500 m diameter overlapping dunes. We searched for springtime confined and elongated dark slope streaks, similar to those, which we observed at south. Basic similarities between northern and southern structures are: 1. streaks always emanate from Dark Dune Spots in downward direction, 2. streaks are present in local spring, when the temperature is above the CO2 buffered level, suggesting there are parts of the surface without CO2 ice, where possibly H2O ice is exposed (Fig. 1.), 4. the streaks show branching pattern (Fig. 2.). Basic differences between the northern and southern structures: 1. at north there is a dark annulus around the Dark Dune Spots, which is absent at south, 2. there are fewer and fainter diffuse streaks of gas jet activity

  6. A Ricardian Model with a Continuum of Goods under Non-homothetic Preferences: Demand Complementarities, Income Distribution, and North-South Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminori Matsuyama

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a Ricardian model with a continuum of goods when consumers have nonhomothetic preferences. Goods are indexed in terms of priority, and the households add higher-indexed goods to their consumption baskets, as they become richer. South (North) has comparative advantage in a lower (higher) spectrum of goods, hence specializing in goods with lower (higher) income elasticities of demand. Due to the income elasticity difference, a variety of exogenous changes have asymmetric eff...

  7. Biofuels and the globalization of risk. The biggest change in North-South relationships since colonialism?; Biotreibstoff. Eine Idee wird zum Bumerang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [ESRC Innogen Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Johannesburg Univ. (South Africa)

    2012-11-01

    A world, driven by bio-energy: green, clean, sustainable and peaceful? The dream has been come to an end. The author of the book under consideration reports unemotionally and objectively on the drastic consequences of the cultivation and sales of bio fuels. The author describes the ''green'' turnaround as a modern form of colonization resulting in a further intensification of the global north-south conflict.

  8. Magnetotelluric Investigation of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisperi, Despina; Romano, Gerardo; Smirnov, Maxim; Kouli, Maria; Perrone, Angela; Makris, John P.; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The South Aegean Volcanic Arc (SAVA) is a chain of volcanic islands in the South Aegean resulting from the subduction of the African tectonic plate beneath the Eurasian plate. It extends from Methana, northwest, to the Island of Nisyros southeast (450 km total length). SAVA comprises a series of dormant and historically active volcanoes, with the most prominent to be Aegina, Methana, Milos, Santorini, Kolumbo, Kos and Nisyros. The aim of the ongoing research project "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)" is to contribute to the investigation of the geoelectric structure of Southern Aegean, and particularly to attempt to image the Hellenic Subduction Zone. In this context, onshore magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recently carried out on the central and eastern part of SAVA (Milos, Santorini, Nisyros and Kos Islands). Data were collected using two MT systems running simultaneously plus a remote reference station installed in Omalos plateau (Western Crete). Robust MT data analysis of the broad-band MT soundings and the resulting model of the conductivity structure of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc is presented. The research is co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and National Resources under the Operational Programme 'Education and Lifelong Learning (EdLL) within the context of the Action 'Supporting Postdoctoral Researchers' in the framework of the project title "MagnetoTellurics in studying Geodynamics of the hEllenic ARc (MT-GEAR)".

  9. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platform from 16 February 1991 to 98 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9200156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from 16...

  10. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  11. Current meter and other data from current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North and South Pacific Ocean from 1984-06-28 to 1984-07-01 (NODC Accession 8500226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and other data were collected using current meter casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from June 28, 1984 to July 1, 1984....

  12. Temperature profile and other data collected using CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and other platform from 1990-02-23 to 1990-12-06 (NODC Accession 9200013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using CTD casts from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE and NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North/South Pacific Ocean from 23...

  13. Temperature profile collected using XBT casts in the North/South Atlantic Ocean from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER from 1977-11-05 to 1979-02-13 (NODC Accession 7900324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile were collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in North/South Atlantic Ocean from 05 November 1977 to 13 February 1979. Data...

  14. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from DALE and other platforms using BT and XBT casts in the North / South Pacific Ocean from 09 November 1979 to 25 November 1985 (NODC Accession 8900063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the DALE and other platforms in the North / South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  15. Physical, nutrients, and chemical data from bottle casts and other instruments in the North and South Pacific Ocean by the Naval Oceanographic Office from 26 June 1925 to 28 April 1996 (NODC Accession 9600158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and chemical data were collected using bottle, CTD, XBT, XSV, AXBT, thermometer, and tide gauge casts from AIRCRAFT in the North and South...

  16. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  17. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data for the High Resolution XBT Network for PX37, PX10, and PX44 were collected by the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from March 2001 to June 2009 (NODC Accession 0056790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from March 2001 to June 2009. Data were collected and...

  18. Physical and chemical data from bottle casts and visual observations in the North and South Atlantic Ocean as part of the Data Archaeology and Rescue project, from 1970-08-27 to 1976-11-19 (NODC Accession 9900036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts and visual observation from the ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT in the North and South Atlantic Ocean from August...

  19. Theological Libraries and “The Next Christendom:” Connecting North American Theological Education to Uses of the Book in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Weaver

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey of the past thirty years of librarian literature on the documentation of world Christianity indicates a number of trends in theological librarianship, including a relative inattention to the connection between the documentation of world Christianity in ATLA libraries, and the needs of theological researchers in North America. A trilogy of recent books by Philip Jenkins on the globalization of Christianity argues for the significance of the writings of the “global South” to reading habits in the “global North.” Based on the work of Jenkins and other scholars, this paper identifies ten specific connections between North American theological education and the documentation of world Christianity – connections that are rooted in the uses of the book in the global South. These are reasons for increased promotion and support of the documentation of world Christianity among ATLA libraries.

  20. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  1. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  2. Geochemical constraints on genesis of Paleoproterozoic A-type granite in the south margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuo; Xu, Yang; Ling, Ming-Xing; Kang, Qing-Qing; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Sai-Jun; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Zhe-Kun; Luo, Ze-Bin; Liu, Yu-Long; Sun, Weidong

    2018-04-01

    Paleoproterozoic A-type granites are widely outcropped in the North China Craton (NCC), particularly in the Trans-North China Orogen. However, their genesis and tectonic significance remain obscure. Here we report systematic studies on geochronology and geochemical characteristics of A-type granite in Huayangchuan, south margin of the NCC. The samples are enriched in total alkali (K2O + Na2O > 8.97 wt%), and depleted in MgO (0.84-0.93 wt%), CaO (1.28-1.90 wt%) and P2O5 (0.18-0.20 wt%), with high FeOT/MgO (5.69-6.67). They are characterized by high Zr + Y + Nb + Ce values (1293-1392 ppm) and 10,000 × Ga/Al ratios (3.14-3.35), which are typical characteristics of A-type granite. The Huayangchuan A-type granite can be further classified as A1-type subgroup based on particular geochemical features, e.g., low Y/Nb (0.87-1.00) and Yb/Ta (0.88-1.10). High precision zircon U-Pb dating of the A-type granite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yields Paleoproterozoic 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1829.5 ± 2.5 Ma. The low zircon ɛHf(t) values (-6.97 to -10.45), along with zircon Hf model age of 2.7-2.9 Ga, indicate that the Huayangchuan A-type granite was derived from partial melting of the ancient continental crust with contribution of enriched mantle components. The low zircon δ18O composition (4.00 to 6.78‰) indicates that the zircons were crystallized from low δ18O magmas, which derived from the crust metasomatized by low δ18O mantle fluids or melts. The E-W trend A1-type granitic plutons in the NCC are generally outcropped in a rift tectonic regime, which is consistent with the development of the mantle plume in the Xiong'er district. The large volume of basaltic magmas, generated by mantle plume head, underplated the lower continental crust and formed the Huayangchuan A-type granite.

  3. Tectonic Divisions Based on Gravity Data and Earthquake Distribution Characteristics in the North South Seismic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The North South Seismic Belt is located in the middle of China, and this seismic belt can be divided into 12 tectonic zones, including the South West Yunnan (I), the Sichuan Yunnan (II), the Qiang Tang (III), the Bayan Har (IV), the East Kunlun Qaidam (V), the Qi Lian Mountain (VI), the Tarim(VII), the East Alashan (VIII), the East Sichuan (IX), the Ordos(X), the Middle Yangtze River (XI) and the Edge of Qinghai Tibet Block (XII) zone. Based on the Bouguer Gravity data calculated from the EGM2008 model, the Euler deconvolution was used to obtain the edge of tectonic zone to amend the traditional tectonic divisions. In every tectonic zone and the whole research area, the logarithm of the total energy of seismic was calculated. The Time Series Analysis (TSA) for all tectonic zones and the whole area were progressed in R, and 12 equal divisions were made (A1-3, B1-3, C1-3, D1-3) by latitude and longitude as a control group. A simple linear trend fitting of time was used, and the QQ figure was used to show the residual distribution features. Among the zones according to Gravity anomalies, I, II and XII show similar statistical characteristic, with no earthquake free year (on which year there was no earthquake in the zone), and it shows that the more seismic activity area is more similar in statistical characteristic as the large area, no matter how large the zone is or how many earthquakes are in the zone. Zone IV, V, IX, III, VII and VIII show one or several seismic free year during 1970s (IV, V and IX) and 1980s (III, VII and VIII), which may implicate the earthquake activity were low decades ago or the earthquake catalogue were not complete in these zones, or both. Zone VI, X and XI show many earthquake free years even in this decade, which means in these zones the earthquake activity were very low even if the catalogue were not complete. In the control group, the earthquake free year zone appeared random and independent of the seismic density, and in all equal

  4. Reentrainment of the circadian pacemaker during jet lag: East-west asymmetry and the effects of north-south travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Casey O; Bose, Amitabha

    2018-01-21

    The normal alignment of circadian rhythms with the 24-h light-dark cycle is disrupted after rapid travel between home and destination time zones, leading to sleep problems, indigestion, and other symptoms collectively known as jet lag. Using mathematical and computational analysis, we study the process of reentrainment to the light-dark cycle of the destination time zone in a model of the human circadian pacemaker. We calculate the reentrainment time for travel between any two points on the globe at any time of the day and year. We construct one-dimensional entrainment maps to explain several properties of jet lag, such as why most people experience worse jet lag after traveling east than west. We show that this east-west asymmetry depends on the endogenous period of the traveler's circadian clock as well as daylength. Thus the critical factor is not simply whether the endogenous period is greater than or less than 24 h as is commonly assumed. We show that the unstable fixed point of an entrainment map determines whether a traveler reentrains through phase advances or phase delays, providing an understanding of the threshold that separates orthodromic and antidromic modes of reentrainment. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that jet lag only occurs after east-west travel across multiple time zones, we predict that the change in daylength encountered during north-south travel can cause jet lag even when no time zones are crossed. Our techniques could be used to provide advice to travelers on how to minimize jet lag on trips involving multiple destinations and a combination of transmeridian and translatitudinal travel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of Contaminated Groundwater at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. Engineered remediation aspects at the site consist of a zero-valent-iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed in December 2002 intercepting the contamination plume and a phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees planted in the source area in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey planted an additional phytoremediation test stand of loblolly pine trees on the upgradient side of the southern end of the PRB in February 2008. At least once during the summer, however, the trees were inadvertently mowed during lawn cutting activity. The PRB along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells upgradient from the PRB showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest downgradient from the PRB showed a sharp increase in 2005, followed by a decrease in 2006. Farther downgradient in the forest, the VOC concentrations began to increase in 2007 and continued to increase into 2008. The VOC-concentration changes in groundwater beneath the forest appear to indicate movement of a groundwater-contaminant pulse through the forest. It also is possible that the data may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in groundwater-flow direction.

  6. An evaluation of the predictive performance of distributional models for flora and fauna in north-east New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J; Ferrier, S; Scotts, D

    2001-06-01

    To use models of species distributions effectively in conservation planning, it is important to determine the predictive accuracy of such models. Extensive modelling of the distribution of vascular plant and vertebrate fauna species within north-east New South Wales has been undertaken by linking field survey data to environmental and geographical predictors using logistic regression. These models have been used in the development of a comprehensive and adequate reserve system within the region. We evaluate the predictive accuracy of models for 153 small reptile, arboreal marsupial, diurnal bird and vascular plant species for which independent evaluation data were available. The predictive performance of each model was evaluated using the relative operating characteristic curve to measure discrimination capacity. Good discrimination ability implies that a model's predictions provide an acceptable index of species occurrence. The discrimination capacity of 89% of the models was significantly better than random, with 70% of the models providing high levels of discrimination. Predictions generated by this type of modelling therefore provide a reasonably sound basis for regional conservation planning. The discrimination ability of models was highest for the less mobile biological groups, particularly the vascular plants and small reptiles. In the case of diurnal birds, poor performing models tended to be for species which occur mainly within specific habitats not well sampled by either the model development or evaluation data, highly mobile species, species that are locally nomadic or those that display very broad habitat requirements. Particular care needs to be exercised when employing models for these types of species in conservation planning.

  7. Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejia; Qin, Dahe

    2017-05-01

    Pollutants that are usually transported from southern Asia to the Tibetan Plateau deposit on the Plateau surface, change snow albedo and thereby surface radiative flux. This results numerous climatic implications like as erratic monsoon, perturbation in hydrological cycle, etc. However, the accurate estimation of these climatic implications is not well understood, because the atmospheric pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types. Therefore, this part of climate research requires a detailed investigation of physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants. This study aimed to examine the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the Himalayan regions along two transboundary south-north transects. The information of individual-particles was obtained using microscopy-based techniques that comprises transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Study capture the signatures of various types of atmospheric species such as black carbon (BC), mineral dust, fly ash, organic matter, sulfate, nitrite, ammonium, and NaCl. Microscopy-based techniques confirm that these particles were generally in mixing state, for example salt-coated particles accounting for 25-56% of the total particles in sampled locations. Our analysis shows that urban and rural locations are characterized with atmospheric particles which sourced from anthropogenic activities, whereas remote locations with those released from natural crustal. However, the relative contributions of anthropogenic particles were higher than that of particles released from natural crustal. The presence of such particles over remote locations of Himalayan region provides an evidence of prevailing atmospheric transport processes, which further need to be well understood. It is expected that this work would be helpful in understanding the regional atmospheric conditions and the transboundary transport process of haze particles. As these

  8. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult chronic care patients in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvin Bhana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB, heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. Objective. To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three public health clinic facilities in the North West Province of SA. A total of 1 322 patients were recruited from non-emergency waiting areas. Results. Proportions of patients with abstinence, hazardous, harmful and dependent consumption were determined using logistic regression. Of the patients screened, nearly half (45% drank alcohol and, of these, 10% were classified as hazardous drinkers, 1.7% as harmful drinkers, and 1.6% as dependent drinkers (overall 3% alcohol use disorder. Abstinence proportions were 60% and 38% among women and men, respectively. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores for men were 63% higher than for women. The lowest patient abstinence proportion (47% and highest dependent drinking (10% was for TB. The highest abstinence proportion was for diabetes (65%, and the highest hazardous and harmful drinking was among TB (14% and HIV (7% patients. Conclusions. The high levels of risky drinking among chronic care patients, particularly among patients receiving treatment for HIV and TB, are concerning. Instituting appropriate screening measures and referral to treatment would be an important first step in mitigating the effects of risky alcohol use among chronic care patients.

  9. Estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for such things as the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, Flood Insurance Studies, and flood-plain management. The flood-frequency estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. A multistate approach was used to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The multistate approach has the advantage over a single state approach of increasing the number of stations available for analysis, expanding the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across state boundaries, and building on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) in the Southeastern United States. In addition, streamgages from the inner Coastal Plain of New Jersey were included in the analysis. Generalized least-squares regression techniques were used to generate predictive equations for estimating the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows for urban and small, rural ungaged basins for three hydrologic regions; the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley, Sand Hills, and Coastal Plain. Incorporation of urban streamgages from New Jersey also allowed for the expansion of the applicability of the predictive equations in the Coastal Plain from 2.1 to 53.5 square miles. Explanatory variables in the regression equations included drainage area (DA) and percent of impervious area (IA) for the Piedmont-Ridge and Valley region; DA and percent of developed land for the Sand Hills; and DA, IA, and 24-hour, 50-year maximum precipitation for the Coastal Plain. An application spreadsheet also was developed that can be used to compute the flood-frequency estimates along with the 95-percent prediction

  10. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  11. North-south asymmetry of solar activity as a superposition of two realizations - the sign and absolute value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalyan, O. G.; Obridko, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Since the occurrence of north-south asymmetry (NSA) of alternating sign may be determined by different mechanisms, the frequency and amplitude characteristics of this phenomenon should be considered separately. Aims: We propose a new approach to the description of the NSA of solar activity. Methods: The asymmetry defined as A = (N-S)/(N + S) (where N and S are, respectively, the indices of activity of the northern and southern hemispheres) is treated as a superposition of two functions: the sign of asymmetry (signature) and its absolute value (modulus). This approach is applied to the analysis of the NSA of sunspot group areas for the period 1874-2013. Results: We show that the sign of asymmetry provides information on the behavior of the asymmetry. In particular, it displays quasi-periodic variation with a period of 12 yr and quasi-biennial oscillations as the asymmetry itself. The statistics of the so-called monochrome intervals (long periods of positive or negative asymmetry) are considered and it is shown that the distribution of these intervals is described by the random distribution law. This means that the dynamo mechanisms governing the cyclic variation of solar activity must involve random processes. At the same time, the asymmetry modulus has completely different statistical properties and is probably associated with processes that determine the amplitude of the cycle. One can reliably isolate an 11-yr cycle in the behavior of the asymmetry absolute value shifted by half a period with respect to the Wolf numbers. It is shown that the asymmetry modulus has a significant prognostic value: the higher the maximum of the asymmetry modulus, the lower the following Wolf number maximum. Conclusions: A fundamental nature of this concept of NSA is discussed in the context of the general methodology of cognizing the world. It is supposed that the proposed description of the NSA will help clarify the nature of this phenomenon.

  12. North Inlet • Winyah Bay (NIW) National Estuarine Research Reserve Meteorological Data, North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 2000 • 2004.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — National Estuarine Research Reserve System The National Estuarine Research Reserve System was established by the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (as amended) and...

  13. Capitalising on North American speech resources for the development of a South African English large vocabulary speech recognition system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kamper, H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available -West University, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa 2Human Language Technologies Research Group, Meraka Institute, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa {etienne.barnard, marelie.davel, cvheerden}@gmail.com, {fdwet, jbadenhorst}@csir.co.za Abstract The NCHLT speech...

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin C deficiency in north and south India: a two centre population based study in people aged 60 years and over.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravilla D Ravindran

    Full Text Available Studies from the UK and North America have reported vitamin C deficiency in around 1 in 5 men and 1 in 9 women in low income groups. There are few data on vitamin C deficiency in resource poor countries.To investigate the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in India.We carried out a population-based cross-sectional survey in two areas of north and south India. Randomly sampled clusters were enumerated to identify people aged 60 and over. Participants (75% response rate were interviewed for tobacco, alcohol, cooking fuel use, 24 hour diet recall and underwent anthropometry and blood collection. Vitamin C was measured using an enzyme-based assay in plasma stabilized with metaphosphoric acid. We categorised vitamin C status as deficient (28 µmol/L. We investigated factors associated with vitamin C deficiency using multivariable Poisson regression.The age, sex and season standardized prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was 73.9% (95% confidence Interval, CI 70.4,77.5 in 2668 people in north India and 45.7% (95% CI 42.5,48.9 in 2970 from south India. Only 10.8% in the north and 25.9% in the south met the criteria for adequate levels. Vitamin C deficiency varied by season, and was more prevalent in men, with increasing age, users of tobacco and biomass fuels, in those with anthropometric indicators of poor nutrition and with lower intakes of dietary vitamin C.In poor communities, such as in our study, consideration needs to be given to measures to improve the consumption of vitamin C rich foods and to discourage the use of tobacco.

  15. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  16. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  17. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  18. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  19. Climatic change and contemporaneous land-use phases north and south of the Alps 2300 BC to 800 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Lotter, André F.; Ammann, Brigitta; Conedera, Marco; Hubschmid, Priska; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Wehrli, Michael

    2003-06-01

    Fluctuations in the Δ 14C curve and subsequent gaps of archaeological findings at 800-650 and 400-100 BC in western and central Europe may indicate major climate-driven land-abandonment phases. To address this hypothesis radiocarbon-dated sediments from four lakes in Switzerland were studied palynologically. Pollen analysis indicates contemporaneous phases of forest clearances and of intensified land-use at 1450-1250 BC, 650-450 BC, 50 BC-100 AD and around 700 AD. These land-use expansions coincided with periods of warm climate as recorded by the Alpine dendroclimatic and Greenland oxygen isotope records. Our results suggest that harvest yields would have increased synchronously over wide areas of central and southern Europe during periods of warm and dry climate. Combined interpretation of palaeoecological and archaeological findings suggests that higher food production led to increased human populations. Positive long-term trends in pollen values of Cerealia and Plantago lanceolata indicate that technical innovations during the Bronze and Iron Age (e.g. metal ploughs, scythes, hay production, fertilising methods) gradually increased agricultural productivity. The successful adoption of yield-increasing advances cannot be explained by climatic determinism alone. Combined with archaeological evidence, our results suggest that despite considerable cycles of spatial and demographic reorganisation (repeated land abandonments and expansions, as well as large-scale migrations and population decreases), human societies were able to shift to lower subsistence levels without dramatic ruptures in material culture. However, our data imply that human societies were not able to compensate rapidly for harvest failures when climate deteriorated. Agriculture in marginal areas was abandoned, and spontaneous reforestations took place on abandoned land south and north of the Alps. Only when the climate changed again to drier and warmer conditions did a new wide-spread phase of

  20. Scaling-up and rooting-down: a case study of North-South partnerships for health from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Th. Lie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: North-South Partnership (NSP is the mandated blueprint for much global health action. Northern partners contribute funding and expertise and Southern partners contribute capacity for local action. Potential Northern partners are attracted to Southern organizations that have a track record of participating in well-performing NSPs. This often leads to the rapid ‘scaling up’ of the Southern organization's activities, and more predictable and stable access to resources. Yet, scaling up may also present challenges and threats, as the literature on rapid organization growth shows. However, studies of the impact of scaling up within NSPs in particular are absent from the literature, and the positive and negative impact of scaling up on Southern partners’ functioning is a matter of speculation. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine how scaling up affects a Southern partner's organizational functioning, in a Southern grassroots NGO with 20 years of scaling up experience. Design: A case study design was used to explore the process and impact of scaling up in KIWAKKUKI, a women's grassroots organization working on issues of HIV and AIDS in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Data included documents, observation notes and in-depth interviews with six participants. The data were analyzed by applying an established systems framework of partnership functioning, in addition to a scaling up typology. Results: KIWAKKUKI has experienced significant scale-up of activities over the past 20 years. Over time, successful partnerships and programs have created synergy and led to further growth. As KIWAKUKKI expanded so did both its partnerships and grassroots base. The need for capacity building for volunteers exceeded the financial resources provided by Northern partners. Some partners did not have such capacity building as part of their own central mission. This gap in training has produced negative cycles within the organization and its

  1. Re-making the global economy of knowledge: do new fields of research change the structure of North-South relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn; Pearse, Rebecca; Collyer, Fran; Maia, João; Morrell, Robert

    2017-08-17

    How is global-North predominance in the making of organized knowledge affected by the rise of new domains of research? This question is examined empirically in three interdisciplinary areas - climate change, HIV-AIDS, and gender studies - through interviews with 70 researchers in Southern-tier countries Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The study found that the centrality of the North was reinstituted as these domains came into existence, through resource inequalities, workforce mechanisms, and intellectual framing. Yet there are tensions in the global economy of knowledge, around workforce formation, hierarchies of disciplines, neoliberal management strategies, and mismatches with social need. Intellectual workers in the Southern tier have built significant research centres, workforces and some distinctive knowledge projects. These create wider possibilities of change in the global structure of organized knowledge production. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  2. The contribution to nitrogen deposition and ozone formation in South Norway from atmospheric emissions related to the petroleum activity in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solberg, S.; Walker, S.-E.; Knudsen, S.; Lazaridis, M.; Beine, H.J.; Semb, A.

    1999-03-01

    A photochemical plume model has been developed and refined. The model is designed to simulate the advection and photochemistry for several simultaneous point sources as well as the atmospheric mixing. the model has been used to calculate nitrogen deposition and ozone formation due to offshore emissions in the North Sea. Based on meteorological data for 1992 the calculations give a total contribution of 60-80 mg (N)/m 2 at most in South Norway. Emission from British and Norwegian sector is calculated to contribute less than 5% each to the AOT40 index for ozone. (author)

  3. The contribution to nitrogen deposition and ozone formation in South Norway from atmospheric emissions related to the petroleum activity in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, S; Walker, S -E; Knudsen, S; Lazaridis, M; Beine, H J; Semb, A

    1999-03-01

    A photochemical plume model has been developed and refined. The model is designed to simulate the advection and photochemistry for several simultaneous point sources as well as the atmospheric mixing. the model has been used to calculate nitrogen deposition and ozone formation due to offshore emissions in the North Sea. Based on meteorological data for 1992 the calculations give a total contribution of 60-80 mg (N)/m{sub 2} at most in South Norway. Emission from British and Norwegian sector is calculated to contribute less than 5% each to the AOT40 index for ozone. (author)

  4. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  5. Targeted case finding for hepatitis B using dry blood spot testing in the British-Chinese and South Asian populations of the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, S; Valappil, M; Moses, S E; Eltringham, G; Miller, C; Baxter, K; Chan, A; Shafiq, K; Saeed, A; Qureshi, R; Hudson, M; Bassendine, M F

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a frequent cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Targeted HBV screening is recommended by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention for subjects born in countries with >2% HBV prevalence. However, there are no UK guidelines. Here, we applied the (CDC) recommendations to the British-Chinese and British-South Asian community of North-East (NE) England. British-Chinese and South Asian subjects were invited to attend for HBV education and screening sessions held in community centres. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core total antibody (HBcAb) were tested with dry blood spot tests. South Asians were also tested for hepatitis C antibody (HCVAb). A total of 1126 subjects (606 Chinese and 520 South Asian) were screened. Sixty-two (5.5%) were HBsAg positive. Ten of these reported a previous diagnosis of HBV. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity was 4.6% when previously diagnosed individuals were excluded. The HBsAg prevalence was significantly higher in the Chinese subjects compared with South Asians (8.7% VS. 1.7% P < 0.001). In Chinese subjects, HBsAg positivity was highest in subjects born in Vietnam (17.4%), followed by China (11%), Hong Kong (7.8%) and the UK (6.7%). Subjects from Pakistan had the highest HBsAg and HCV Ab prevalence in the South Asians (3.1% and 1.8%, respectively). Ten percentage of HBsAg positive patients who had follow-up assessment had active disease requiring antiviral treatment. Undiagnosed HBV infection was above the 2% threshold for screening suggested by the CDC in the British-Chinese and Pakistani community of NE England, which provides evidence for a UK HBV-targeted screening programme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Seasonal Evolution of the North and South Polar Vortex on Titan From 2004 to 2017 as Seen by Cassini/VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Robidel, R.; Rousseau, B.; Rodriguez, S.; Cornet, T.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Cassini entered in Saturn's orbit in July 2004. In thirteen years, 127 targeted flybys of Titan have been performed. We focus our study on the analysis of the complete Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer data set, with a particular emphasis on the evolving features on both poles. We have computed individual global maps of the north and south poles for each of the 127 targeted flybys, using VIMS wavelengths sensitive both to clouds and surface features. First evidences for a vast ethane cloud covering the North Pole is seen as soon as the first and second targeted flyby in October 2004 and December 2005 [1]. The first detailed imaging of this north polar feature with VIMS was obtained in December 2006, thanks to a change in inclination of the spacecraft orbit [2]. At this time, the northern lakes and seas of Titan were totally masked to the optical instruments by the haze and clouds, whereas the southern pole was well illuminated and mostly clear of haze and vast clouds. The vast north polar feature progressively vanished around the equinox in 2009 [2,3,4], in agreement with the predictions of Global Circulation Models [5]. It revealed progressively the underlying lakes to the ISS and VIMS instruments, which show up very nicely in VIMS in a series of flybys between T90 and T100. First evidences of an atmospheric vortex growing over the south pole occurred in May 2012 (T82), with a high altitude feature being detected consistently at each flyby up to the last T126 targeted flyby, and also appearing in more distant observations up to the end of the Cassini mission. Cassini has covered almost half a titanian year, corresponding to two seasons. The situation observed at the South Pole in the last images may correspond to what was observed in the north as Cassini just arrived. [1] Griffith et al., Science, 2006. [2] Le Mouélic et al., PSS, 2012. [3] Rodriguez et al., Nature, 2009. [4] Rodriguez et al., Icarus 2011. [4] Hirtzig et al., Icarus, 2013. [5] Rannou et al

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2016-02-20 to 2016-05-08 (NCEI Accession 0160572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160572 includes Surface underway, chemical and meteorological data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  12. Can North Korean Airborne Special Purpose Forces Successfully Conduct Military Operations Against the United States and South Korea?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allmond, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    ...; and secondly by producing the world's largest SPF. North Korea (NK) has built the world's largest SPF in the world with more than 100,000 men to support surprise attacks to disrupt CFC combat buildup and operations...

  13. South Atlantic Bight Habitat Mapping on NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in North Atlantic Ocean between 20070626 and 20070702

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This expedition on the NOAA Ship Nancy Foster used the recently-developed National Undersea Research Center for the North Atlantic and Great Lakes (NURC-NAGL) ROV...

  14. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  15. Investigation of Ground-Water Contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. The primary contaminants of interest are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. In general, the hydrogeology of Solid Waste Management Unit 12 consists of a surficial aquifer, composed of sand to clayey sand, overlain by dense clay that extends from about land surface to a depth of about 8 to 10 feet and substantially limits local recharge. During some months in the summer, evapotranspiration and limited local recharge result in ground-water level depressions in the forested area near wells 12MW-12S and 12MW-17S, seasonally reflecting the effects of evapotranspiration. Changes in surface-water levels following Hurricane Gaston in 2004 resulted in a substantial change in the ground-water levels at the site that, in turn, may have caused lateral shifting of the contaminant plume. Hydraulic conductivity, determined by slug tests, is higher along the axis of the plume in the downgradient part of the forests than adjacent to the plume, implying that there is some degree of lithologic control on the plume location. Hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic gradient, sulfur-hexafluoride measurements, and historical data indicate that ground-water flow rates are substantially slower in the forested area relative to upgradient areas. The ground-water contamination, consisting of chlorinated volatile organic compounds, extends eastward in the surficial aquifer from the probable source area near a former underground storage tank. Engineered remediation approaches include a permeable reactive barrier and phytoremediation. The central part of the permeable reactive barrier along the

  16. Sex difference in blood pressure among South Asian diaspora in Europe and North America and the role of BMI: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, J S L; Agyemang, C; van Valkengoed, I G; Bhopal, R; Stronks, K

    2011-07-01

    It is unclear whether the sex difference that is known to occur in blood pressure (BP) is similar in some South Asian populations. This study presents a meta-analysis of the sex difference in BP, hypertension and the role of body mass index (BMI) in South Asian diaspora compared with populations of European descent. We systematically searched for studies that reported BP and hypertension among South Asian descent populations living in Europe and North America. Weighted mean differences in BP and risk ratios (RR) for hypertension were calculated for men and women. We included 11 studies in this meta-analysis. In general, men had a higher BP and prevalence of hypertension than women, for example, systolic BP was higher in men than in women among the Indian (7.21 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.46-9.95) and European populations (6.12 mm Hg, 95% CI: 4.45-7.80). The difference was less in the Pakistani population (4.00 mm Hg, 95% CI: 2.65-5.36). The Bangladeshi population showed a comparatively small sex difference in systolic (2.93 mm Hg, 95% CI: 1.20-4.66) and diastolic BP (0.68 mm Hg, 95% CI: -1.76 to 3.12) and prevalence of hypertension (RR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.66-2.46). Sex differences in BMI for the South Asian populations were greater than those in Europeans. The Indian population had similar sex differences in BP and hypertension compared with Europeans, but Pakistani and Bangladeshi had smaller sex differences. Sex differences in BMI might relate to the blunted sex differences in BP in Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations. Further research should focus on factors that underlie this intriguing sex difference among South Asian populations.

  17. CISNet Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for the North Inlet and Ace Basin Estuaries, South Carolina: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — EPA/NOAA/NASA CISNet Partnership The Coastal Intensive Site Network (CISNet) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and...

  18. Groundwater Dynamics along Forest-Marsh-Tidal Creek Transects in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Ground water level elevations were collected every 10 to 15 days from piezometers stationed along three forest-marsh-tidal creek transects (B, C, and D) across the...

  19. Paradiplomacy : a comparative analysis of the international relations of South Africa’s Gauteng, North West and Western Cape provinces

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. (Politics) South Africa’s 1996 Constitution makes provision for relatively autonomous provincial administrations, which share responsibility with the national government for important functional areas while also exercising exclusive authority over others. Although the Constitution is not explicit on the distribution of foreign policy competence, the dominant interpretation among South African policy-makers is that this functional area is the exclusive domain of the nationa...

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Lolliguncula steenstrup, 1881 based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences indicates genetic isolation of populations from north and South atlantic, and the possible presence of further cryptic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bráullio L Sales

    Full Text Available Squid of the genus Lolliguncula Steenstrup, 1881 are small bodied, coastal species capable of tolerating low salinity. Lolliguncula sp. are found exclusively in the New World, although only one of the four recognized species (Lolliguncula brevis occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. Preliminary morphological analyses suggest that Lolliguncula brevis populations in the North and South Atlantic may represent distinct species. The principal objective of the present study was to verify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and test for the presence of possible cryptic species. Both gene and species tree topologies indicated that Lolliguncula brevis specimens from the North and South Atlantic represent distinct phylogenetic clades. In contrast with previous studies, L. panamensis was identified as the basal species of the genus. Our results provide important insights into the phylogenetic relationships among the Lolliguncula specimens analyzed, and confirm the genetic separation of Lolliguncula brevis populations of the North and South Atlantic at the level of sister species.

  1. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  2. Millennial-scale precipitation variability over Easter Island (South Pacific) during MIS 3: inter-hemispheric teleconnections with North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, O.; Cacho, I.; Pla-Rabes, S.; Cañellas-Boltà, N.; Pueyo, J. J.; Sáez, A.; Pena, L. D.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Rull, V.; Giralt, S.

    2015-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3, 59.4-27.8 kyr BP) is characterized by the occurrence of rapid millennial-scale climate oscillations known as Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles (DO) and by abrupt cooling events in the North Atlantic known as Heinrich events. Although both the timing and dynamics of these events have been broadly explored in North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes to these rapid climatic excursions, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains unclear. The Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, 27° S) provides a unique opportunity to understand atmospheric and oceanic changes in the South Pacific during these DO cycles because of its singular location, which is influenced by the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA), the Southern Westerlies (SW), and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) linked to the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The Rano Aroi sequence records 6 major events of enhanced precipitation between 38 and 65 kyr BP. These events are compared with other hydrological records from the tropical and subtropical band supporting a coherent regional picture, with the dominance of humid conditions in Southern Hemisphere tropical band during Heinrich Stadials (HS) 5, 5a and 6 and other Stadials while dry conditions prevailed in the Northern tropics. This antiphased hydrological pattern between hemispheres has been attributed to ITCZ migration, which in turn might be associated with an eastward expansion of the SPCZ storm track, leading to an increased intensity of cyclogenic storms reaching Easter Island. Low Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradients across the Equator were coincident with the here-defined Rano Aroi humid events and consistent with a reorganization of Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic circulation also at higher latitudes during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials.

  3. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W... and South, bank to bank, of position 29[deg]48.77' N 091[deg]33.02' W, Charenton Drainage and Navigation Canal, St. Mary Parish, LA. This Safety Zone is needed to protect the general public, vessels and...

  4. Demand for family planning among HIV positive women on ART: the case of South Gondar and North Wollo Zones Amhara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeje, Gedefaw; Motbaynor, Achenef

    2016-01-25

    Although family planning for human immune deficiency virus positive women has numerous advantages, evidences in different parts of the world showed the existence of persistent unmet need. There were few studies done in Ethiopia on level of unmet need for family planning among women in reproductive age on antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study was therefore done to determine the level of demand and unmet need for family planning among women on ART in South Gondar and North Wollo Zones, Amhara region. Institution based cross-sectional study design was used. Data was collected from June 15 to 25, 2013 in South Gondar and North Wollo Zones. Study participants were recruited from six health centers and two hospitals. The study participants were proportionally allocated to the health institutions. Multistage sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. Trained nurses interviewed the respondents using pretested structured Amharic questionnaire. Data was entered, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 16. Ratios and proportions were computed to determine demand and unmet need for family planning. A total of 530 women in reproductive age on ART were interviewed in this study. Two hundred ninety-three women were married. Fourteen (2.6%) women were pregnant at the time of interview. Five of these pregnancies were not planned. In this study, 242 (45.7%) women reported that they were using contraceptives. Most women (74.4%) were using injectable (depo). Among those who were not using contraceptives, 84 (29.2%) reported that they will use in the future. Fifty-two (61.9%) of them said that they will use injectables (depo). In this study, the total demand for family planning among women on ART was 86.7%. From this, 62.1% and 24.6% was met and unmet need respectively. This study revealed that the level of demand and met need for modern contraceptives among reproductive age women on antiretroviral therapy in South Gondar and North

  5. Is Sauce for the Goose Sauce for the Gander? Some Comparative Reflections on Minority Language Planning in North and South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clinton D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Compares efforts to support minority languages in the developed, industrialized countries of the north and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The article examines whether comparable principles are being applied to minority language planning, and if not, what the underlying reasons for the differences are. (33 references)…

  6. Different orbital rhythms in the Asian summer monsoon records from North and South China during the Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ao, H.; Dekkers, M.J.; Xiao, G.; Yang, X.; Qin, L.; Liu, X; Qiang, X.; Chang, H.; Zhao, H.

    2012-01-01

    Here we construct a Pleistocene astronomical timescale for the Nihewan fluvio–lacustrine sediments (North China), via tuning a stacked summer monsoon index generated from grain size and low-field magnetic susceptibility records to orbital obliquity and precession. Combining the summer monsoon

  7. A Predictive Model on North Korean Refugees' Adaptation to South Korean Society: Resilience in Response to Psychological Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hee Lim, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that resilience can be improved through self-efficacy. It was the most significant factor decreasing psychological trauma and increasing resilience. Therefore, we need to develop programs for self-efficacy. The results also provide basic data for policy making for North Korean refugees.

  8. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  9. Modelling survival and connectivity of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the south-western North Sea and Scheldt estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Molen, J.; van Beek, J.; Augustine, Starrlight

    2015-01-01

    Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low-resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coup...

  10. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Managed aquifer recharge on the west coast north of Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Colvin, C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme (AWRMS) located some 40 km north of Cape Town shows how insightful planning and management can expand the groundwater supply potential of a primary aquifer for bulk urban water supply. The AWRMS...

  11. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  12. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  13. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  14. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Ocean circulation and cycling of trace elements within the oceanic water column is of great significance for modern and past climates. The global overturning circulation is responsible for the distribution of water masses, heat and particulate and dissolved compounds, while biological and chemical processes, such as primary productivity or particle scavenging, control the cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the ocean, and ultimately influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon. Rare earth elements (REE) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes are widely used as tracers for lithogenic element fluxes and modern and past ocean circulation and water mass mixing. The use of Nd isotopes in paleoceanographic investigations is based on the precise knowledge of processes involved in REE cycling and of the modern oceanic Nd isotope distribution. The Pacific is the largest of the world oceans, but it is highly underrepresented in present-day and past seawater Nd isotope and REE investigations compared to the Atlantic Ocean. In this study, Nd isotopes and REEs are analysed in North Pacific seawater (chapter 2) and sediment samples from the South Pacific (chapters 3-5) to contribute to a better understanding of sources and cycling of REEs and Nd isotopes in present-day seawater and to investigate past water mass mixing and circulation changes during the last glacial termination and throughout the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Neodymium isotopes in seawater and sedimentary archives (fossil fish teeth and debris, foraminifera, ferromanganese oxides, lithogenic particles) were analysed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS), and REE concentrations were analysed using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Results from combined analysis of REEs, and Nd and radium isotopes from North Pacific seawater (coastal seawaters of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu and seawater from the offshore Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station ALOHA) show a clear influence of the

  15. Long-Term Large Mesozooplankton (Motile Epibenthos) Data for the North Inlet Estuary, Georgetown, South Carolina: 1981-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — Three consecutive tows of an epibenthic sled fitted with a 365-micron mesh net were used to collect small (1-20 mm) motile animals from just above the bottom of two...

  16. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Ruben G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...... and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change...

  17. A safe take-off for developing countries. The results of CoP-6 in the light of North-South relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The opposing views of the European Union and the United States have dominated public perception of the failure of the International Climate Change Conference in The Hague. This confrontation strengthens the view that international climate change policy is primarily a concern of rich, industrialised countries in the North. But the long term success of international climate change policy really depends on establishing sensible agreements with the poor, developing countries in the South. The seeds for such agreements were already incorporated in the Kyoto treaty, but unfortunately they had no chance for germination in The Hague. In particular, the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism did not progress. In this article it is argued that this state of affairs is just as worrisome for the future of the planet as the confrontation between divided Europeans and opportunistic Americans

  18. Fuel Efficient Stoves for Darfur Camps of Internally DisplacedPersons - Report of Field Trip to North and South Darfur, Nov. 16 -Dec.17, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Gadgil, Ashok; Jacobs, Mark; Lee, Yoo-Mi

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 2.2 million internally displaced persons (''IDPs'') in Darfur are living in dense camps scattered in arid areas with low fuelwood productivity. Unsustainable harvesting of fuelwood by the IDPs has created ever increasing zones of denudation, that now (in November 2005) have reached several kilometers from the camp boundaries. Leaving the safety of the camps to fetch fuelwood from farther and farther away imposes great risk and hardship on the IDP women. Three different metal fuel efficient stove (''FES'') designs were tested in Darfur IDP camps for their suitability to substantially reduce the fuelwood needs of IDPs. The mud-and-dung ''ITDG'' stoves being promoted under the current FES program were also examined and tested. A modified design of the ITDG mud-and-dung stove, ''Avi'', was developed, built and tested. Systematic informal surveys of IDP households were undertaken in North and South Darfur to understand the household parameters related to family size, food, fuel, cooking habits, cooking pots, expenditure on fuel, and preferences related to alternative ways to spend time/money if fuel could be saved. Surveys found that a significant fraction of families are missing meals for lack of fuel (50% in South Darfur, and 90% in the North Darfur camps visited by the mission). About 60% of women in South Darfur, and about 90% of women in North Darfur camps purchase fuelwood. Selling some of the food rations to purchase fuel to cook meals was significant (40%) in South Darfur and has become common (80%) in North Darfur. The LBNL mission found that two of the metal stoves and the mud-and-dung Avi can significantly reduce fuelwood consumption using the same fuel, pot, cooking methods, and food ingredients used by Darfur IDPs. The most suitable design for Darfur conditions would be a modified ''Tara'' stove. With training of the cooks in tending the fire

  19. Long-term north-south asymmetry in solar wind speed inferred from geomagnetic activity: A new type of century-scale solar oscillation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mursula, K.; Zieger, B.

    2001-01-01

    A significant and very similar annual variation in solar wind speed and in geomagnetic activity was recently found around all the four solar cycle minima covered by direct SW observations since mid-1960's. We have shown that the phase of this annual variation reverses with the Sun's polarity...... reversal, depicting a new form of 22-year periodicity. The annual variation results from a small north-south asymmetry in SW speed distribution where the minimum speed region is shifted toward the northern magnetic hemisphere. Here we study the very long-term evolution of the annual variation using early...... registrations of geomagnetic activity. We find a significant annual variation during the high-activity solar cycles in mid-19th century and since 1930's. Most interestingly, the SW speed asymmetry in mid-19th century was opposite to the present asymmetry, i.e., the minimum speed region was then shifted toward...

  20. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  1. THE RECENT STRUCTURE AND THE ASSUMED HISTORY OF FORMATION OF THE CRUST IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN SEGMENT OF THE NORTH ASIAN CRATON ALONG REFERENCE PROFILE 3-DV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Goshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of specialized processing of the deep seismic profile along a part of Reference Profile 3-DV which crosses the Aldan-Stanovoi shield in the meridian direction and goes across its buried northern slope. The study is aimed at determining frequency-energy characteristics of the seismic wave field which are related to physical conditions of geological features of the crust. Based on analysis and interpretation of the dynamic profiles, it is possible to reveal and contour the Archean cores of consolidation of the Aldan shield and its buried continuation that is covered by sediments of the Middle Lena monocline and to input new facts in the proposed geodynamic model showing formation of the crust in the south-eastern segment of the North Asian craton.

  2. The MEarth-North and MEarth-South Transit Surveys: Searching for Habitable Super-Earth Exoplanets Around Nearby M-dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jonathan M.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Dittmann, Jason; Falco, Emilio E.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Nutzman, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Detection and characterization of potentially habitable Earth-size extrasolar planets is one of the major goals of contemporary astronomy. By applying the transit method to very low-mass M-dwarfs , it is possible to find these planets from the ground with present-day instrumentation and observational techniques. The MEarth project is one such survey with stations in both hemispheres: MEarth-North at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Mount Hopkins, Arizona, and MEarth-South at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. We present an update on recent results of this survey, for planet occurrence rates, and interesting stellar astrophysics, for which our sample of 3000 nearby mid-to-late M-dwarfs has been very fruitful. All light curves gathered during the survey are made publicly available after one year, and we describe how to access and use these data.

  3. Contamination movement around a permeable reactive barrier at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound groundwater contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. In early 2004, groundwater contaminants began moving around the southern end of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) installed by a consultant in December 2002. The PRB is a 130-foot-long and 3-foot-wide barrier consisting of varying amounts of zero-valent iron with or without sand mixture. Contamination moving around the PRB probably has been transported at least 75 feet downgradient from the PRB at a rate of about 15 to 29 feet per year.

  4. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  5. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, portions of the North Platte and South Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Ball, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2009 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Flight lines for the survey totaled 937 line kilometers (582 line miles). The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., is to improve the understanding of the relation between surface-water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. A unique aspect of the survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines was flown in a zig-zag pattern extending along the length of the previously collected airborne data. The success of this survey design depended on a well-understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin and the airborne geophysical data collected in 2008. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines, separated by about 400 meters were carried out for three blocks in the North Platte NRD, the South Platte NRD and in the area of Crescent Lakes. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. An additional survey was flown over the Crescent Lake area. The objective of this survey, funded by the USGS Office of Groundwater, was to map shallow hydrogeologic features of the southwestern part of the Sand Hills that contain a mix of fresh to saline lakes.

  6. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Beselam; Worku, Alemayehu; Kumie, Abera; Yimer, Solomon Abebe

    2017-11-01

    Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas. The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001). MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001). Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (Phygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma elimination target by the year 2020 as set by the WHO, continued WaSH interventions and periodic monitoring, evaluation and reporting of the impact of WaSH on active trachoma is warranted.

  7. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  8. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  9. Monitoraggio remoto delle deformazioni nell’isola di Santorini: una procedura integrata di analisi dati GPS presso la Sezione INGV di Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Pesci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Il GPS (Global Positioning System è un noto sistema di posizionamento globale in grado di fornire le coordinate spaziali di unoperatore, se munito di antenna e ricevitore satellitari, in qualunque punto della terra esso si trovi, in qualunque condizionemeteo ed in qualsiasi ora del giorno. Oggi al GPS, che è di proprietà del Dipartimento della Difesa degli Stati Uniti d'America(US DoD, si affiancano il GLONASS (sistema analogo russo e altri sistemi di posizionamento globale basati su tecniche interferometriche spaziali a partire da segnali a microonde, ad esempio i nascenti Galileo (europeo e BeiDou (cinese. Per questo motivo si parla diffusamente di sistemi GNSS cioè Global Navigation Satellite System.   Remote monitoring of deformations in the island of Santorini: an integrated procedure for GPS data analysis at the INGV in Bologna The GPS (Global Positioning System is a well-known global positioning  system  capable  of  providing  the  spatial  coordi-nates of an operator, if equipped with an antenna and a re-ceiver satellite, at any point on the earth , and in any weather conditions and at any time of the day. Today, the GPS, which is owned by the Department of Defense of the United States of America (U.S. DoD, is aided by the GLONASS (the Russian analogue system and other global positioning systems based on interferometry from space microwave signals, for example, the  nascent  Galileo  (European  and  Beidou  (China.  For  this reason we talk at today about GNSS Global Navigation Satel-lite System.

  10. Setting an ecological baseline prior to the bottom-up establishment of a marine protected area in Santorini island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALOMIDI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, a bottom-up initiative has been launched in Santorini Island (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean for the establishment of the first fully-protected marine protected area in the Cyclades, aiming at improving fisheries and enhancing responsible recreational uses at sea. Following discussions with local small-scale fishers and divers, two sites along the southern and southeastern coasts of the island were suggested as suitable to this end. In 2012, a baseline study was conducted at these areas to assess their state and provide an ecological snapshot that would enable sound designation and monitoring. Several ad hoc indices and metrics were applied, taking into account structural and functional features of the upper infralittoral algae and Posidonia oceanica beds. An integrated assessment of the infralittoral fish assemblages and their associated benthic communities was also performed. Our most important findings were: (i the low total fish biomass and the absence of adult top predators, indicating overfishing; (ii the overgrazing effects of the overabundant alien herbivore spinefoot fishes (Siganus spp., as reflected by the abnormal structure of the algal communities; (iii the scarcity of signs of pollution or other direct anthropogenic pressures, as indicated by the good environmental status of the P. oceanica meadows and the upper infralittoral vegetation; and (iv the presence of a rich diversity of species and habitats, especially along the Akrotiri Peninsula and the wider volcanic Caldera. These findings provide useful insights on strengths and weaknesses of the study area and are discussed together with their implications for protection and management.

  11. A geochemical study of Nea-Kameni hyalodacites (Santorini Volcano, Aegean island arc). Inferences concerning the origin and effects of solfataras and magmatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briqueu, Louis; Lancelot, Joël R.

    1984-03-01

    Since the Santorini Volcano (Aegean arc, eastern Mediterranean Sea) collapsed, volcanic activity has been located at the center of the flooded caldera. Over the past 800 years, five lava flows have formed one of the central islets (Nea-Kameni). Since 1951, when the last eruption occurred, a permanent fumarolic activity has remained. We present chemical analyses (major elements, trace-elements and Sr isotopic ratios) of ten samples from the five hyalodacitic lava flows, showing different stages of alteration, from a completely fresh lava up to one bearing native sulfur and other sublimates. Only the macroscopic aspect of these hyalodacites is affected by fumarolic activity. The elements that are mobile as a result of hydrothermal processes, such as the alkaline (K, Rb) or the chalcophile elements (Zn, Pb), show great homogeneity; the same can be said for the Sr isotopic compositions which range from 0.7046 to 0.7049. None of the analyzed samples has an Sr isotopic composition as high as those reported by Puchelt and Hoefs (1971) for rock samples collected in the same lava flows. If we take into account the marine surroundings of Nea-Kameni islet, these observations put severe restraints on the different hypotheses regarding the origin of the halogens (seawater or meteoric water). The contamination processes of these dacitic lavas are clearly less important than assumed by other authors according to previous Sr isotopic data. Finally, the homogeneity of the elements with low partition coefficients is sufficient to show that the magma has not undergone any perceptible evolution during the last 300 years.

  12. Chemistry of surface sediment along a north-south transect across the equator in the Central Indian Basin: An assessment of biogenic and detrital influences on elemental burial on the seafloor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    indicator of productivity as it has shown a close relationship with carbonate north of equator and opal south of the equator, and its similar proportion in the bulk Al along the transect is comparable with nearly similar primary productivity in the region...

  13. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  14. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  15. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes, situated nearly the Pacific coast of the North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    The Pacific coast of the North and South America is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the world forming part of the so-called Ring of Fire More than 10 earthquakes with the Richter scale magnitude 4 5 were analyzed They were located in the regions with small seasonal variations and limited vegetation to facilitate the tracking of features associated with the seismic activity only High resolution Aster satellite images were used to extract the principal lineaments using The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis LESSA software package It was found that the number and orientation of lineaments changed significantly about one month before an earthquake approximately and a few months later the system returns to its initial state This effect increases with the earthquake magnitude and it is much more easily detectable in case of convergent plate boundaries for example Nasca and South American plates The results obtained open the possibility to develop a methodology able to evaluate the seismic risk in the regions with similar geological conditions

  16. Knowledge and practice of condom use among first year students at University of the North, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    K Peltzer

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD=3.4), with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2%) of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answer...

  17. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued... Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam for transactions which are not inconsistent with the purposes of...

  18. Assessment of Particulate Matter Levels in Vulnerable Communities in North Charleston, South Carolina prior to Port Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik R. Svendsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Port of Charleston, one of the busiest US ports, currently operates five terminals. The fifth terminal is being planned for expansion to accommodate container ships from the proposed Panama Canal expansion. Such expansion is expected to increase traffic within local vulnerable North Charleston neck communities by at least 7,000 diesel truck trips per day, more than a 70% increase from the present average rate of 10,000 trucks per day. Our objective was to measure the current particulate matter (PM concentrations in North Charleston communities as a baseline to contrast against future air pollution after the proposed port expansion. Methods Saturation study was performed to determine spatial variability of PM in local Charleston neck communities. In addition, the temporal trends in particulate air pollution within the region were determined across several decades. With the BGI sampler, PM samples were collected for 24 hours comparable to the federal reference method protocol. Gravimetric analysis of the PM filter samples was conducted following EPA protocol. Results The range of the PM 10 annual average across the region from 1982 to 2006 was 17.0-55.0 μg/m 3 . On only two occasions were the records of PM 10 averaged above the 50.0 μg/m 3 national standard. In the case of PM 2.5 , the annual average for 1999-2006 ranged from 11.0 to 13.5 μg/m 3 and no annual average exceeded the 15.0 μg/m 3 PM 2.5 annual standard. Conclusions Although ambient PM levels have fallen in the Charleston region since the 1960s due to aggressive monitoring by the stakeholders against air pollution, local air pollution sources within the North Charleston neck communities have consistently contributed to the PM levels in the region for several decades. This baseline assessment of ambient PM will allow for comparisons with future assessments to ascertain the impact of the increased truck and port traffic on PM concentrations.

  19. z ~ 7 Galaxy Candidates from NICMOS Observations Over the HDF-South and the CDF-South and HDF-North Goods Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth D.; González, Valentino; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Blakeslee, John; van Dokkum, Pieter; Holden, Brad; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; Zheng, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We use ~88 arcmin2 of deep (gsim26.5 mag at 5σ) NICMOS data over the two GOODS fields and the HDF-South to conduct a search for bright z >~ 7 galaxy candidates. This search takes advantage of an efficient preselection over 58 arcmin2 of NICMOS H 160-band data where only plausible z >~ 7 candidates are followed up with NICMOS J 110-band observations. ~248 arcmin2 of deep ground-based near-infrared data (gsim25.5 mag, 5σ) are also considered in the search. In total, we report 15 z 850-dropout candidates over this area—7 of which are new to these search fields. Two possible z ~ 9 J 110-dropout candidates are also found, but seem unlikely to correspond to z ~ 9 galaxies (given the estimated contamination levels). The present z ~ 9 search is used to set upper limits on the prevalence of such sources. Rigorous testing is undertaken to establish the level of contamination of our selections by photometric scatter, low-mass stars, supernovae, and spurious sources. The estimated contamination rate of our z ~ 7 selection is ~24%. Through careful simulations, the effective volume available to our z >~ 7 selections is estimated and used to establish constraints on the volume density of luminous (L* z = 3, or ~-21 mag) galaxies from these searches. We find that the volume density of luminous star-forming galaxies at z ~ 7 is 13+8 -5 times lower than at z ~ 4 and >25 times lower (1σ) at z ~ 9 than at z ~ 4. This is the most stringent constraint yet available on the volume density of gsimL* z = 3 galaxies at z ~ 9. The present wide-area, multi-field search limits cosmic variance to lsim20%. The evolution we find at the bright end of the UV LF is similar to that found from recent Subaru Suprime-Cam, HAWK-I or ERS WFC3/IR searches. The present paper also includes a complete summary of our final z ~ 7 z 850-dropout sample (18 candidates) identified from all NICMOS observations to date (over the two GOODS fields, the HUDF, galaxy clusters). Based on observations made with the

  20. z ∼ 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES FROM NICMOS OBSERVATIONS OVER THE HDF-SOUTH AND THE CDF-SOUTH AND HDF-NORTH GOODS FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Gonzalez, Valentino; Holden, Brad; Magee, Dan; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Blakeslee, John; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Marchesini, Danilo; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    We use ∼88 arcmin 2 of deep (∼>26.5 mag at 5σ) NICMOS data over the two GOODS fields and the HDF-South to conduct a search for bright z ∼> 7 galaxy candidates. This search takes advantage of an efficient preselection over 58 arcmin 2 of NICMOS H 160 -band data where only plausible z ∼> 7 candidates are followed up with NICMOS J 110 -band observations. ∼248 arcmin 2 of deep ground-based near-infrared data (∼>25.5 mag, 5σ) are also considered in the search. In total, we report 15 z 850 -dropout candidates over this area-7 of which are new to these search fields. Two possible z ∼ 9 J 110 -dropout candidates are also found, but seem unlikely to correspond to z ∼ 9 galaxies (given the estimated contamination levels). The present z ∼ 9 search is used to set upper limits on the prevalence of such sources. Rigorous testing is undertaken to establish the level of contamination of our selections by photometric scatter, low-mass stars, supernovae, and spurious sources. The estimated contamination rate of our z ∼ 7 selection is ∼24%. Through careful simulations, the effective volume available to our z ∼> 7 selections is estimated and used to establish constraints on the volume density of luminous (L* z =3 , or ∼-21 mag) galaxies from these searches. We find that the volume density of luminous star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 7 is 13 +8 -5 times lower than at z ∼ 4 and >25 times lower (1σ) at z ∼ 9 than at z ∼ 4. This is the most stringent constraint yet available on the volume density of ∼>L* z =3 galaxies at z ∼ 9. The present wide-area, multi-field search limits cosmic variance to ∼ 850 -dropout sample (18 candidates) identified from all NICMOS observations to date (over the two GOODS fields, the HUDF, galaxy clusters).

  1. Spatio-temporal distributions of dicarboxylic acids, ω-oxocarboxylic acids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids in the marine aerosols from the North and South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mir Md. Mozammal; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2017-03-01

    Aerosol samples (TSP) were collected during a cruise in the North (3°05‧N-34°02‧N) and South (6°59‧S-25°46‧S) Pacific to investigate the spatio-temporal distributions of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids and related compounds. The molecular distributions of diacids were characterized by the predominance of oxalic (C2) acid followed by malonic (C3) and then succinic (C4) acid. However, we found a predominance of C4 over C3 in the aerosol sample that was collected in the western North Pacific Rim with a heavy influence from continental air masses. Atmospheric abundances of short chain diacids (C2-C4) are 2-3 times higher in the North Pacific than in the South Pacific. During the cruise, abundances of C2 in the western North Pacific are 5 times higher than those in the rest of the samples collected. Moreover, the aerosol samples collected in the western North Pacific demonstrated that glyoxylic (ωC2) acid and methylglyoxal (MeGly) were dominant together with C2. We found a strong correlation between C2 and ωC2 (r = 0.87) and C2 and MeGly (r = 0.97) in the western North Pacific aerosols but the correlations are significantly weak in the samples from the central North Pacific and Southern Ocean. Diacids were found to account for 1.6 to 14% of organic carbon with higher values in the western North Pacific. These results, together with 7-day backward air mass trajectories, indicate that ωC2 and MeGly are both originated from the photochemical oxidation of continent-derived organic precursors including isoprene, which can serve as precursors for the production of C2 during long-range atmospheric transport.

  2. Indoor and outdoor PM10 levels at schools located near mine dumps in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusumuzi Nkosi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in South Africa have investigated the exposure of asthmatic learners to indoor and outdoor air pollution at schools. This study compared outdoor PM10 and SO2 exposure levels in exposed (1–2 km from gold mine dumps and unexposed schools (5 km or more from gold mine dumps. It also examined exposure of asthmatic children to indoor respirable dust at exposed and unexposed schools. Methods The study was conducted between 1 and 31 October 2012 in five schools from exposed and five from unexposed communities. Outdoor PM10 and SO2 levels were measured for 8-h at each school. Ten asthmatic learners were randomly selected from each school for 8-h personal respirable dust sampling during school hours. Results The level of outdoor PM10 for exposed was 16.42 vs. 11.47 mg.m−3 for the unexposed communities (p < 0.001. The outdoor SO2 for exposed was 0.02 ppb vs. 0.01 ppb for unexposed communities (p < 0.001. Indoor respirable dust in the classroom differed significantly between exposed (0.17 mg.m−3 vs. unexposed (0.01 mg.m−3 children with asthma at each school (p < 0.001. Conclusion The significant differences between exposed and unexposed schools could reveal a serious potential health hazard for school children, although they were within the South African Air Quality Standards’ set by the Department of Environmental Affairs. The indoor respirable dust levels in exposed schools could have an impact on children with asthma, as they were significantly higher than the unexposed schools, although there are no published standards for environmental exposure for children with asthma.

  3. Why language matters: insights and challenges in applying a social determination of health approach in a North-South collaborative research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Breilh, Jaime; Yassi, Annalee

    2015-02-27

    Focus on "social determinants of health" provides a welcome alternative to the bio-medical illness paradigm. However, the tendency to concentrate on the influence of "risk factors" related to living and working conditions of individuals, rather than to more broadly examine dynamics of the social processes that affect population health, has triggered critical reaction not only from the Global North but especially from voices the Global South where there is a long history of addressing questions of health equity. In this article, we elaborate on how focusing instead on the language of "social determination of health" has prompted us to attempt to apply a more equity-sensitive approaches to research and related policy and praxis. In this debate, we briefly explore the epistemological and historical roots of epidemiological approaches to health and health equity that have emerged in Latin America to consider its relevance to global discourse. In this region marked by pronounced inequity, context-sensitive concepts such as "collective health" and "critical epidemiology" have been prominent, albeit with limited acknowledgement by the Global North. We illustrate our attempts to apply a social determination approach (and the "4 S" elements of bio-Security, Sovereignty, Solidarity and Sustainability) in five projects within our research collaboration linking researchers and knowledge users in Ecuador and Canada, in diverse settings (health of healthcare workers; food systems; antibiotic resistance; vector borne disease [dengue]; and social circus with street youth). We argue that the language of social determinants lends itself to research that is more reductionist and beckons the development of different skills than would be applied when adopting the language of social determination. We conclude that this language leads to more direct analysis of the systemic factors that drive, promote and reinforce disparities, while at the same time directly considering the emancipatory

  4. Effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Quasi-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beselam Tadesse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma is chronic kerato conjunctivitis, which is caused by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium. It is hyper endemic in many rural areas of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on active trachoma in selected woredas of North and South Wollo zones of Amhara Region, Ethiopia.A community based quasi-experimental study was conducted from October 2014 to December 2015 among children aged 1-8 years at baseline and among one year older same children after intervention. A four-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed to select study participants. From each selected household, one child was clinically assessed for active trachoma. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic and behavioral data. MacNemar test was applied to compare the prevalence of active trachoma between baseline and after the intervention period at both intervention and non-intervention study areas.The prevalence of active trachoma was reduced from baseline prevalence of 26% to 18% after one-year intervention period in the intervention woredas (P≤0.001. MacNemar test result showed significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence after the intervention period in the intervention woredas compared to the non-intervention woredas (P≤0.001. Water, sanitation and hygiene related activities were significantly improved after the intervention period in the intervention woredas (P<0.05.There was a significant reduction of active trachoma prevalence between the baseline and after the intervention period in the intervention woredas, but not in the non-intervention ones. Improved water, sanitation and hygiene interventions contributed to the reduction of active trachoma. However, the magnitude of active trachoma prevalence observed after the intervention is still very high in the studied areas of North and South Wollo Zones communities. To achieve the global trachoma

  5. A synthesis of the environmental response of the North and South Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyres during two decades of AMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Jim; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Dufois, Francois; Polimene, Luca; Hardman-Mountford, Nick J.; Jackson, Thomas; Loveday, Ben; Hoya, Silvana Mallor; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Stephens, John; Hirata, Takafumi

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenically-induced global warming is expected to decrease primary productivity in the subtropical oceans by strengthening stratification of the water column and reducing the flux of nutrients from deep-waters to the sunlit surface layers. Identification of such changes is hindered by a paucity of long-term, spatially-resolved, biological time-series data at the basin scale. This paper exploits Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) data on physical and biogeochemical properties (1995-2014) in synergy with a wide range of remote-sensing (RS) observations from ocean colour, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and altimetry (surface currents), combined with different modelling approaches (both empirical and a coupled 1-D Ecosystem model), to produce a synthesis of the seasonal functioning of the North and South Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyres (STGs), and assess their response to longer-term changes in climate. We explore definitive characteristics of the STGs using data of physical (SST, SSS and peripheral current systems) and biogeochemical variables (chlorophyll and nitrate), with inherent criteria (permanent thermal stratification and oligotrophy), and define the gyre boundary from a sharp gradient in these physical and biogeochemical properties. From RS data, the seasonal cycles for the period 1998-2012 show significant relationships between physical properties (SST and PAR) and gyre area. In contrast to expectations, the surface layer chlorophyll concentration from RS data (CHL) shows an upward trend for the mean values in both subtropical gyres. Furthermore, trends in physical properties (SST, PAR, gyre area) differ between the North and South STGs, suggesting the processes responsible for an upward trend in CHL may vary between gyres. There are significant anomalies in CHL and SST that are associated with El Niño events. These conclusions are drawn cautiously considering the short length of the time-series (1998-2012), emphasising the need

  6. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  7. Chemical and biotic characteristics of prairie lakes and large wetlands in south-central North Dakota—Effects of a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; McLean, Kyle I.; Aparicio, Vanessa M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2015-09-28

    The climate of the prairie pothole region of North America is known for variability that results in significant interannual changes in water depths and volumes of prairie lakes and wetlands; however, beginning in July 1993, the climate of the region shifted to an extended period of increased precipitation that has likely been unequaled in the preceding 500 years. Associated changing water volumes also affect water chemical characteristics, with potential effects on fish and wildlife populations. To explore the effect of changing climate patterns, in 2012 and 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey revisited 167 of 178 prairie lakes and large wetlands of south-central North Dakota that were originally sampled in the mid-1960s to mid-1970s. During the earlier sampling period, these lakes and wetlands displayed a great range of chemical characteristics (for example, specific conductance ranged from 365 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius to 70,300 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius); however, increased water volumes have resulted in greatly reduced variation among lakes and wetlands and a more homogeneous set of chemical conditions defined by pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of major cations and anions. High concentrations of dissolved solids previously limited fish occurrence in many of the lakes and wetlands sampled; however, freshening of these lakes and large wetlands has allowed fish to populate and flourish where they were previously absent. Conversely, the freshening of previously saline lakes and wetlands has resulted in concurrent shifts away from invertebrate species adapted to live in these highly saline environments. A shift in the regional climate has changed a highly diverse landscape of wetlands (fresh to highly saline) to a markedly more homogeneous landscape that has reshaped the fish and wildlife communities of this ecologically and economically important region.

  8. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  9. Multiple pregnancies with complete mole and coexisting normal fetus in North and South America: A retrospective multicenter cohort and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lawrence H; Maestá, Izildinha; Braga, Antonio; Sun, Sue Y; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana P V; Elias, Kevin M; Horowitz, Neil; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S

    2017-04-01

    To determine the clinical characteristics of multiple gestation with complete mole and coexisting fetus (CHMCF) in North and South America. Retrospective non-concurrent cohorts compromised of CHMCF from New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) (1966-2015) and four Brazilian Trophoblastic Disease Centers (BTDC) (1990-2015). From a total of 12,455 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease seen, 72 CHMCF were identified. Clinical characteristics were similar between BTDC (n=46) and NETDC (n=13) from 1990 to 2015, apart from a much higher frequency of potentially life-threatening conditions in Brazil (p=0.046). There were no significant changes in the clinical presentation or outcomes over the past 5 decades in NETDC (13 cases in 1966-1989 vs 13 cases in 1990-2015). Ten pregnancies were electively terminated and 35 cases resulted in viable live births (60% of 60 continued pregnancies). The overall rate of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) was 46%; the cases which progressed to GTN presented with higher chorionic gonadotropin levels (p=0.026) and higher frequency of termination of pregnancy due to medical complications (p=0.006) when compared to those with spontaneous remission. The main regional difference in CHMCF presentation is related to a higher rate of potentially life-threatening conditions in South America. Sixty percent of the expectantly managed CHMCF delivered a viable infant, and the overall rate of GTN in this study was 46%. Elective termination of pregnancy did not influence the risk for GTN; however the need for termination due to complications and higher hCG levels were associated with development of GTN in CHMCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  11. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  12. Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas

  13. A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mtshali

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386 was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for Anaplasma and Babesia for the same group of cattle indicates that this area is endemic for these diseases but with a stable disease situation. All the animals were sero-negative for B. bovis and this is probably because the tick vector (Boophilus microplus which transmits the disease is not present in the Free State Province. Two tick species belonging to the family Ixodidae were found on cattle, namely Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. In the present study significant differences in seasonal burdens of B. decoloratus occurred, with the highest infestations recorded from February to June. The presence of R. evertsi evertsi throughout the year without any or with small fluctuations in winter months was observed, with a peak from February to May

  14. Levels of potentially toxic metals in water, sediment and peat from Wonderfonteinspruit, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsaka, Ntumba C; McCrindle, Robert I; Ambushe, Abayneh A

    2018-04-30

    Environmental monitoring of the levels of potentially toxic metals is of importance because of possible adverse effects on living species. This study was conducted to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, U and V in water, sediment and peat samples collected from the region of Wonderfonteinspruit. Water samples were simply filtered and acidified with HNO 3 prior to analysis. Sediment and peat were oven-dried, ground, sieved and mineralised using a microwave digestion system. Concentrations of the selected elements in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A Zeeman mercury analyser was also used for quantification of Hg in the same sediment and peat samples. The method validation was carried out using SRM 1643e water and BCR 320R sediment certified reference materials. The results showed no significant difference at 95% level of confidence between the certified and measured values after using the Student's t-test. The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U found in rivers and dams were lower than the tentative South African water quality range guideline for domestic and irrigation purposes. However, water from dams and certain rivers was unsuitable for irrigation and domestic use.

  15. Knowledge and practice of condom use among first year students at University of the North, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD=3.4, with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2% of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answers for condom use were found for the items of ‘condoms as protection against STD and AIDS’, ‘expiry date of condoms’, and ‘re-using condoms’. More than 15% were not aware that a condom should be put on before any contact with the vagina. The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about the correct moment to put on a condom (56%, and when to take off a condom (55%. Male sex and especially increasing recent sexual encounters was associated with correct condom knowledge. The most common reasons for not using a condom were ‘I do not have the AIDS virus’ and ‘I thought I was safe’ seems to indicate a low perceived susceptibility. Findings are discussed in view of condom promotion programmes.

  16. Knowledge and practice of condom use among first year students at University of the North, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD = 3.4), with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2%) of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answers for condom use were found for the items of 'condoms as protection against STD and AIDS', 'expiry date of condoms', and 're-using condoms'. More than 15% were not aware that a condom should be put on before any contact with the vagina. The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about the correct moment to put on a condom (56%), and when to take off a condom (55%). Male sex and especially increasing recent sexual encounters was associated with correct condom knowledge. The most common reasons for not using a condom were 'I do not have the AIDS virus' and 'I thought I was safe' seems to indicate a low perceived susceptibility. Findings are discussed in view of condom promotion programmes.

  17. A study of north-south asymmetry of interplanetary magnetic field plasma and some solar indices throughout four solar cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M A; Bishara, A A; Abdel-halim, A A; El-Monier, S Y

    2017-01-01

    We provide a long epoch study of a set of solar and plasma parameters (sunspot number Rz, total solar irradiance TSI, solar radio flux SF, solar wind speed V , ion density n, dynamic pressure n V 2 , and ion temperature T) covering a temporal range of several decades corresponding to almost four solar cycles. Such data have been organized accordingly with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity, i.e. away (A) if the azimuthal component of the IMF points away from the Sun and T if it points towards, to examine the N-S asymmetries between the northern and southern hemispheres. Our results displayed the sign of the N-S asymmetry in solar activity depends on the solar magnetic polarity state (qA>0 or qA<0). The solar flux component of toward field vector was larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the negative polarity epochs (1986-88 and 2001-08). In addition, the solar wind speeds (SWS) are faster by about 22.11±4.5 km/s for away polarity days than for toward polarity days during the qA<0 epoch (2001-08), where the IMF points away from the Sun. Moreover, during solar cycles 21 st and 24 th the solar plasma is more dense, hotter, and faster south of the HCS. (paper)

  18. Regional variation in the levels of macular xanthophylls and carotenoids in dietary components: comparing North and South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Arora, Beauty; Senthilkumari, Srinivasan; Ravi, Alok Kumar; Gayathri, Chandrasekar; Azad, Rajvardhan; Ghose, Supriyo

    2010-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have emphasized the intake of dark green leafy vegetables rich in xanthophylls in reducing the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Therefore, the present study was undertaken to quantify the levels of major carotenoids in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables of Indian origin and of xanthophylls in the macula of Indian human donor eyes. Fresh fruits (n=20) and vegetables (n=51) collected from two zones of India were tested for the estimation of xanthophyll, lycopene and β-carotene by using HPLC with Photodiode Array Detection. Lutein and zeaxanthin were quantified from macula and in selected vegetables collected from both southern (SI) and northern (NI) regions of India. Xanthophylls, β-carotene and lycopene were found in many affordable vegetables commonly available for consumption in India. Higher content of lutein and zeaxanthin was confirmed in many economical leafy vegetables and fruits. Surprisingly, the mean macular levels of lutein and zeaxanthin of SI donor eyes (n=13) were found to be significantly (pxanthophylls in many of the commonly consumed fruit and vegetable sources in both parts of India. However, SI donor eyes showed lower levels as compared to NI donors and this warrants further investigation about the bioavailability of xanthophylls in their blood and food intake. The relevance of these findings with prevalence of AMD in South India needs to be explored.

  19. Thomas Gold's Intense Solar Wind; It's evidence in prehistoric petroglyphs recorded along rivers in North and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peratt, A. L.

    2008-11-01

    A past intense solar outburst and its effect on Earth circa 8,000 BCE was proposed by Gold who based his hypotheses on astronomical and geophysical evidence [1]. The discovery of high-current Z-pinch patterns in Neolithic petroglyphs provides evidence for this occurrence and insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by mankind. These correspond to mankind's visual observations of ancient aurora if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude millennia ago [2]. Our data show identical MHD patterns from surveys along 300 km of the Orinoco River (Venezuela), the Chuluut River (Mongolia), the Columbia River (USA), Red Gorge (South Australia) and the Urubamba River (Peru). Three-dimensional, high-fidelity PIC simulations of intense Z-pinches replicate the carved data [3]. 1. T. Gold, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarvm Scripta Varia, 25, 159, 1962. 2. A. L. Peratt. Trans. Plasma Sci. 35. 778. 2007. 3. A. L. Peratt and W. F. Yao, Physica Scripta, T130, August 2008.

  20. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  1. Incentives to invest in liberalised electricity industries in the North and South. Differences in the need for suitable institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    The issue of investment is all too often underplayed in deregulation reforms focused on market rules and de-integration measures. This presentation criticises first the optimistic approach of the theory of investment incentives through market signals when it is applied to deregulated electricity industries. The greater part of the investment in base-load and peak equipment should be made profitable by income from very high prices during peak and extreme peak periods, that raises a problem of political acceptability. The problem is then addressed in the context of the mature electricity industries in the North. Given the maturity of markets there, a number of modifications to the pure market model could be envisaged to strengthen incentives to invest, but none of them is perfect. The main way is to focus on adaptation of market rules on the supply of power at peaks and extreme peaks by considering 'capacity adequacy' as a public good (with three solutions: capacity payment, reserve obligations, centralised procurement by auctioning for peak capacity). Observation of reforms suggests also the validity of some other solutions based on a limitation of the competition by allowing long-term contracts and vertical integration between production and supply. Finally the question is extended to the specific problem of developing countries characterised by irregular growth. It is argued that reforms must be designed in view of the importance of the need for investment through long-term coordination and reduction of investment risks. Indeed experiences of Latin American liberalised industries show that they have to include a number of competition-based imperfections and to allow ongoing exercise of market power in order to allow prices to rise above competition prices. The single buyer model or some variants of it appear to be good alternatives if one wishes to avoid the twists and turns of the competition paradigm. The difficulty with this model arises from the institutional

  2. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  3. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations. Strategien globaler Umweltpolitik. ''Umwelt und Entwicklung'' in den Nord-Sued-Beziehungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckmeier, K

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA)

  4. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Bowman, D D; Horton, K M; Venturini, C; Venturini, L

    2000-06-01

    Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum Didelphis albiventris was successfully transmitted to the North American opossum Didelphis virginiana. Sporocysts from a naturally infected D. albiventris from Argentina were fed to 2 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. The mice were killed 64 and 71 days after sporocyst feeding (DAF). Muscles containing sarcocysts from the KO mouse killed 71 DAF were fed to a captive D. virginiana; this opossum shed sporocysts 11 days after ingesting sarcocysts. Sporocysts from D. virginiana were fed to 9 KO mice and 4 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Schizonts, sarcocysts, or both of S. speeri were found in tissues of all 7 KO mice killed 29-85 DAF; 2 mice died 39 and 48 DAF were not necropsied. Sarcocystis stages were not found in tissues of the 4 budgerigars fed S. speeri sporocysts and killed 35 DAE These results indicate that S. speeri is distinct from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona, and that S. speeri is present in both D. albiventris and D. virginiana.

  5. Evolution and trends of the dietetics profession in the United States of America and in Argentina: north and south united by similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defranchi, Romina L Barritta de; Nelson, Jennifer K

    2009-06-01

    Since the early stages the profession of dietetics has been characterized as a multifaceted discipline and influenced by scientific and social changes. Today, health and nutrition-related diseases are becoming more global--as is the dietetics profession. The aim of this article is to review the history, education, work and challenges for dietetic practitioners in North and South America, specifically in the United States and in the Argentinean Republic. It was in Argentina where the first Latin American dietetics school was established. Both countries have since shaped the profession creating standards for education and practice in response to advances in the biopsychosocial sciences and economic and environmental changes. Reviewing both the past and current diversities in both Americas contributes to a better understanding of professional strengths and weaknesses, and can prepare dietetics specialists to meet today's needs. Regardless of local disparities, it is interesting that current and future challenges for the dietetics profession are similar between the two countries, such as growing rates of obesity, limited access to and choice of healthy diets among various income groups, busy lifestyles and decline of family meals. These common issues and the availability of Internet tools offer a unique opportunity for partnership and research that can lead to successful creative nutrition interventions and programs. In turn, such joint initiatives will confirm the essential role for the profession--not only in the western hemisphere--but also globally.

  6. Integrating spatial support tools into strategic planning-SEA of the GMS North-South Economic Corridor Strategy and Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Pavit; Linde, Lothar

    2011-01-01

    The GMS countries, supported by the Asian Development Bank, have adopted a holistic, multidimensional approach to strengthen infrastructural linkages and facilitate cross border trade through (i) the establishment of a trans-boundary road connecting two economic nodes across marginalised areas, followed by 2) facilitation of environmentally and socially sound investments in these newly connected areas as a means to develop livelihoods. The North-South Economic Corridor is currently in its second phase of development, with investment opportunities to be laid out in the NSEC Strategy and Action Plan (SAP). It targets the ecologically and culturally sensitive border area between PR China's Yunnan Province, Northern Lao PDR, and Thailand. A trans-boundary, cross-sectoral Strategic Environmental Assessment was conducted to support the respective governments in assessing potential environmental and social impacts, developing alternatives and mitigation options, and feeding the findings back into the SAP writing process. Given the spatial dimension of corridor development-both with regard to opportunities and risks-particular emphasis was put in the application of spatial modelling tools to help geographically locate and quantify impacts as a means to guide interventions and set priorities.

  7. Magnetic resonance sounding survey data collected in the North Platte, Twin Platte, and South Platte Natural Resource Districts, Western Nebraska, Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mason A.; Bloss, Benjamin R.; Irons, Trevor P.; Cannia, James C.; Abraham, Jared D.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data and associated survey descriptions from a series of magnetic resonance soundings (MRS, also known as surface nuclear magnetic resonance) that was conducted during October and November of 2012 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a cooperative hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, Twin Platte NRD, the Nebraska Environmental Trust, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of the study was to delineate the base-of-aquifer and refine the understanding of the hydrologic properties in the aquifer system. The MRS technique non-invasively measures water content in the subsurface, which makes it a useful tool for hydrologic investigations in the near surface (up to depths of approximately 150 meters). In total, 14 MRS production-level soundings were acquired by the USGS over an area of approximately 10,600 square kilometers. The data are presented here in digital format, along with acquisition information, survey and site descriptions, and metadata.

  8. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART A: TUTORIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Curto, J-J.; Le Huy, M.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern Solar Terrestrial Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Space Weather. In this part A, we introduce knowledge on the Sun-Earth system. We consider the physical process of the dynamo which is present in the Sun, in the core of the Earth and also in the regions between the Sun and the Earth, the solar wind-magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Equations of plasma physics and Maxwell's equations will be recalled. In the Sun-Earth system there are permanent dynamos (Sun, Earth's core, solar wind - magnetosphere, neutral wind - ionosphere) and non-permanent dynamos that are activated during magnetic storms in the magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. All these dynamos have associated electric currents that affect the variations of the Earth's magnetic field which are easily measurable. That is why a part of the tutorial is also devoted to the magnetic indices which are indicators of the electric currents in the Sun-Earth system. In order to understand some results of the part B, we present some characteristics of the Equatorial region and of the electrodynamics coupling the Auroral and Equatorial regions.

  9. Investigation of Contaminated Ground Water at Solid Waste Management Unit 12, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Harrelson, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated natural and engineered remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) ground-water contamination at Solid Waste Management Unit 12 at the Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, beginning in 2000. The primary contaminants of interest in the study are tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1-dichloroethene. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) along the main axis of the contaminant plume appears to be actively removing contamination. In contrast to the central area of the PRB, the data from the southern end of the PRB indicate that contaminants are moving around the PRB. Concentrations in wells 12MW-10S and 12MW-03S, upgradient from the PRB, showed a general decrease in VOC concentrations. VOC concentrations in some wells in the forest showed a sharp increase, followed by a decrease. In 2007, the VOC concentrations began to increase in well 12MW-12S, downgradient from the PRB and thought to be unaffected by the PRB. The VOC-concentration changes in the forest, such as at well 12MW-12S, may represent lateral shifting of the plume in response to changes in ground-water-flow direction or may represent movement of a contamination pulse through the forest.

  10. Penalty model for delay of bidding section construction period in South-to-North Water Diversion Eastern Route Project from perspective of programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-chun Feng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the multi-project and program management theory, this paper analyzes the program generation principle and establishes a program based on progress goals. On the basis of the present situation of calculation of penalty for delay of the bidding section construction period with the critical path method, we studied the effects of contractor-induced delay of the bidding section construction period in detail, including the effects on the construction period of the bidding section itself, the earliest start times of the next bidding section and other subsequent bidding sections, and the construction period of the program, and then constructed a penalty model for delay of the bidding section construction period from the perspective of programs. Using the penalty model, we conducted a practical analysis of penalty for delay of the construction period of the Baoying station program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The model can help determine the amount of penalty for delay of the construction period in bidding sections scientifically and reasonably.

  11. Developing electricity production with natural gas in the southern mediterranean countries. An example of north-south cooperation in the electricity and natural gas sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.; Nogaret, E.

    1996-01-01

    The countries of the Southern Mediterranean region are facing an important increase of electricity demand due to their socio-economic development. In order to increase the production capacity at a minimum cost while preserving the environment, most countries of the region are planning gas fired power stations due to the important natural gas resources in the area. Overall investments in new power plants could reach the total of 100 billion dollars, up to the horizon 2010. The development of both the power plants and the infrastructure to produce and transport the natural gas needed is more and more performed through cooperation between companies of the two shores of the Mediterranean and represent an example of North- South cooperation in the energy field. This cooperation is taking place through technical assistance programs and also joint financing and management of the infrastructure required. A special importance is given to the development of highly efficient combined cycle power plants in the Southern Mediterranean countries and to the increase of the activities related to the exploration and production of natural gas. (author)

  12. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  13. Trends of influenza B during the 2010-2016 seasons in 2 regions of north and south Italy: The impact of the vaccine mismatch on influenza immunisation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Andrea; Colomba, Giuseppina Maria Elena; Pojero, Fanny; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Alicino, Cristiano; Trucchi, Cecilia; Canepa, Paola; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vitale, Francesco; Tramuto, Fabio

    2018-03-04

    Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The 2 viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in 2 large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings. Influenza B viruses were detected in 5 of 6 seasonal outbreaks, exceeding influenza A during the season 2012-2013. Most of influenza B infections were found in children aged ≤ 14 y and significant differences were observed in the age-groups infected by the different lineages. B/Victoria strains prevailed in younger population than B/Yamagata, but also were more frequently found in the community setting. Conversely, B/Yamagata viruses were prevalent among hospitalized cases suggesting their potential role in the development of more severe disease. The relative proportions of viral lineages varied from year to year, resulting in different lineage-level mismatch for the B component of trivalent influenza vaccine. Our findings confirmed the need for continuous virological surveillance of seasonal epidemics and bring attention to the adoption of universal influenza immunization program in the childhood. The use of tetravalent vaccine formulations may be useful to improve the prevention and control of the influenza burden in general population.

  14. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  16. Correlation Between Existence of Reef Sharks with Abundance of Reef Fishes in South Waters of Morotai Island (North Moluccas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharror, Darmawan Ahmad; Tiara Baiti, Isnaini; Ichsan, Muhammad; Pridina, Niomi; Triutami, Sanny

    2017-10-01

    Despite increasing academic research citation on biology, abundance, and the behavior of the blacktip reef sharks, the influence of reef fish population on the density of reef sharks: Carcharhinus melanopterus and Triaenodon obesus population in its habitat were largely unassessed. This present study examined the correlation between abundance of reef fishes family/species with the population of reef sharks in Southern Waters of Morotai Island. The existence of reef sharks was measured with the Audible Stationary Count (ASC) methods and the abundance of reef fishes was surveyed using Underwater Visual Census (UVC) combined with Diver Operated Video (DOV) census. The coefficient of Determination (R2) was used to investigate the degree of relationships between sharks and the specific reef fishes species. The research from 8th April to 4th June 2015 showed the strong positive correlations between the existence of reef sharks with abundance of reef fishes. The correlation values between Carcharhinus melanopterus/Triaenodon obesus with Chaetodon auriga was 0.9405, blacktip/whitetip reef sharks versus Ctenochaetus striatus was 0.9146, and Carcharhinus melanopterus/Triaenodon obesus to Chaetodon kleinii was 0.8440. As the shark can be worth more alive for shark diving tourism than dead in a fish market, the abundance of these reef fishes was important as an early indication parameter of shark existence in South Water of Morotai Island. In the long term, this highlights the importance of reef fishes abundance management in Morotai Island’s Waters to enable the establishment of appropriate and effective reef sharks conservation.

  17. Chelonians trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo); Monitoramento de encalhe de quelonios marinhos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the marine chelonians stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 159 chelonians stranded were registered. The species Chelonia mydas was prevailing in number and distribution. This species make use of this beach area to food. Lepidochelys olivacea was the second species in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Caretta caretta and Eretmochelys imbricata. There was only one reproductive register, of Caretta caretta species. (author)

  18. Cetaceans trading monitoring during seismic survey in North Fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) and South Capixaba (Espirito Santo) coasts; Monitoramento de encalhe de cetaceos durante levantamento de dados sismicos na costa norte fluminense (Rio de Janeiro) e sul capixaba (Espirito Santo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Thays P.C.; Carloni, Giuliano G.; Erber, Claudia; Sabino, Carla M. [Ecologus Engenharia Consultiva, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Uller, George A. [CGGVeritas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research is to present the results of the cetaceans stranding monitoring developed during and after the seismic survey in the north area of Rio de Janeiro and south of Espirito Santo. The monitoring lasted six months, reaching 200 km of beaches, from the Rio de Janeiro North up to the Espirito Santo South coasts. It was conducted by 34 monitors, who covered predefined beach sections daily, registering the stranded animals. At the end of the project, 15 cetaceans stranded were registered. The species Sotalia guianensis was prevailing in number and distribution. Megaptera novaeangliae was the second specie in geographic distribution and number of registers. The other species identified were Tursiops truncatus and Peponocephala electra. (author)

  19. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the magnitude and frequency of floods are essential for the design of transportation and water-conveyance structures, flood-insurance studies, and flood-plain management. Such estimates are particularly important in densely populated urban areas. In order to increase the number of streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) available for analysis, expand the geographical coverage that would allow for application of regional regression equations across State boundaries, and build on a previous flood-frequency investigation of rural U.S Geological Survey streamgages in the Southeast United States, a multistate approach was used to update methods for determining the magnitude and frequency of floods in urban and small, rural streams that are not substantially affected by regulation or tidal fluctuations in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The at-site flood-frequency analysis of annual peak-flow data for urban and small, rural streams (through September 30, 2011) included 116 urban streamgages and 32 small, rural streamgages, defined in this report as basins draining less than 1 square mile. The regional regression analysis included annual peak-flow data from an additional 338 rural streamgages previously included in U.S. Geological Survey flood-frequency reports and 2 additional rural streamgages in North Carolina that were not included in the previous Southeast rural flood-frequency investigation for a total of 488 streamgages included in the urban and small, rural regression analysis. The at-site flood-frequency analyses for the urban and small, rural streamgages included the expected moments algorithm, which is a modification of the Bulletin 17B log-Pearson type III method for fitting the statistical distribution to the logarithms of the annual peak flows. Where applicable, the flood-frequency analysis also included low-outlier and historic information. Additionally, the application of a generalized Grubbs-Becks test allowed for the

  20. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  1. Una arteria norte-sur y el Santiago de Chile „non plus ultra’: la historia de un largo trayecto. / A north-south artery and Santiago de Chile 'non plus ultra

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Pavez Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Este escrito resume la prehistoria e historia del Complejo Vial Norte-Sur, de Santiago de Chile, como parte de las acciones del Estado de Chile, en la época del urbanismo realizado por el sector público. /This paper summarizes the prehistory and history of North-South Road Complex, Santiago de Chile, as part of the actions of the State of Chile, at the time of planning by the public sector.

  2. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  3. Strandings of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Alboran Sea and Strait of Gibraltar: a long–time glimpse of the north coast (Spain and the south coast (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo–Nieto, E.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 species of cetaceans and three species of marine turtles were found in this study. Data were collected by eight independent and self-regulated stranding networks, providing information about 1,198 marine mammal (10 odontocetii, three mysticetii and one phocidae and 574 sea turtle stranding events between 1991 and 2008. Trends in the strandings were analysed in relation to species composition and abundance, and their geographic and seasonal distribution. The most abundant species recorded were the striped dolphin and the loggerhead turtle. Some of the strandings, such as the humpback whale, harbour porpoise, hooded seal and olive ridley turtle, were considered ‘rare’ because their distribution did not match the pattern of the study. When the north and south coasts in the study area were compared, pilot whales stranded more frequently in the north, while delphinid species stranded more in the south coast, and loggerhead turtles stranded more frequently in the north while leatherback turtles stranded more in south coast.

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-09-09 to 1995-10-11 (NODC Accession 0115686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115686 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from LE NOROIT in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-07-28 to 2013-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0157362)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157362 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea and South Atlantic Ocean...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2005-09-04 to 2005-09-26 (NODC Accession 0108087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108087 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-06-06 to 2007-07-03 (NODC Accession 0108090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108090 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  8. Vegetation Index, Lake Vegetation Index Regions.This layer describes the spatial extent of the North and South Lake Vegetation Index (LVI) biological regions, as described in Fore et al. 2007, Assessing the Biological Condition of Florida Lakes: Development of the Lake Veg, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Vegetation Index dataset current as of 2008. Lake Vegetation Index Regions.This layer describes the spatial extent of the North and South Lake Vegetation Index (LVI)...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from CONTSHIP WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-09-22 to 2007-11-10 (NODC Accession 0080968)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080968 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CONTSHIP WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  10. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2001-03-05 to 2001-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108096 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to 2010-05-16 (NODC Accession 0109927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109927 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-04-05 to...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-01-13 to 1995-04-02 (NODC Accession 0115764)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115764 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  14. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2000-11-28 to 2000-12-27 (NODC Accession 0115599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115599 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SONNE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-29 to 1997-12-25 (NODC Accession 0112363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  16. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS LOYALTY in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-02-25 to 1966-03-03 (NODC Accession 6600527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS LOYALTY in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected in the North and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to 2009-11-23 (NODC Accession 0109918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109918 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2009-10-26 to...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-10-13 to 2002-11-16 (NODC Accession 0113890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113890 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-06-07 to 2002-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115586 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and Calcium collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-04-01 to 1982-06-30 (NODC Accession 0000180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000180 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1981-03-28 to 1981-04-23 (NODC Accession 0116646)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116646 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1988-07-23 to 1988-09-01 (NODC Accession 0117675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117675 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEANUS in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-30 (NCEI Accession 0157463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157463 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1996-04-15 to 1996-05-16 (NODC Accession 0113539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113539 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from EDWIN LINK in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-10-01 to 2002-11-27 (NODC Accession 0115283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115283 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-04 to 2003-08-11 (NODC Accession 0108061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108061 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-10-04 to 1990-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116643 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Thin film type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1995-11-09 to 1995-12-01 (NODC Accession 0112941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112941 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from POLARSTERN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  11. Temperature profiles from mechanical bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the USS CONFLICT in the North and South Pacific Oceans in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project from 1966-07-12 to 1966-07-19 (NODC Accession 6600091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MBT data were collected from the USS CONFLICT in support of the Fleet Observations of Oceanographic Data (FLOOD) project. Data were collected North and South Pacific...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-08-07 to 1993-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112229 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-12-17 to 2003-02-14 (NODC Accession 0113608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-04-13 to 1993-06-11 (NODC Accession 0112228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112228 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1990-02-22 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 0000183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0000193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000193 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2010-03-08 to 2010-04-17 (NODC Accession 0108156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-31 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 0115174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115174 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-01-23 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0115014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115014 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MELVILLE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-08-03 to 2013-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0157363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2008-02-23 to 2008-03-15 (NODC Accession 0117496)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117496 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-11-17 to 2004-12-09 (NODC Accession 0112263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112263 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-01-07 to 2002-02-16 (NODC Accession 0112354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112354 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-12-27 to 2001-02-08 (NODC Accession 0112353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112353 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-11-05 to 1994-11-29 (NCEI Accession 0157470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157470 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1993-02-13 to 1993-03-19 (NODC Accession 0115158)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115158 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-01-26 to 1994-04-27 (NODC Accession 0115152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-08-08 to 1994-10-06 (NODC Accession 0112339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112339 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  9. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2002-03-04 to 2002-04-09 (NODC Accession 0108097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108097 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-13 to 1991-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115591 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-11-21 to 1999-12-27 (NODC Accession 0112351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0112351 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-11-01 to 2006-11-30 (NODC Accession 0108089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108089 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2007-09-03 to 2007-09-24 (NODC Accession 0108091)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108091 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ANTEA in the Gulf of Guinea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2006-06-06 to 2006-07-09 (NODC Accession 0108078)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108078 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-04-13 to 1994-06-11 (NODC Accession 0112230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112230 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1987-11-24 to 1989-04-12 (NODC Accession 0117501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117501 includes chemical, discrete sample, meteorological, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 1982-12-01 to 1983-02-18 (NODC Accession 0116706)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116706 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South...

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-19 (NODC Accession 0117503)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117503 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and...

  19. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-10-06 to 1993-04-13 (NODC Accession 0115156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2002-01-18 to 2003-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0157376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157376 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the North Pacific Ocean, South...