Sample records for north rhine-westphalia germany

  1. Anthropogenic changes of summer precipitation in North Rhine - Westphalia, Germany

    Brücher, T.; Ulbrich, U.


    A transient low resolution (T42) greenhouse gas run of the ECHAM4/OPYC3 GCM, and a nested run of the regional climate model HIRLAM/RCA1 (40 km resolution) are considered with respect to summer rainfall. The area of investigation is the flat part (< 200 m above sea level) of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and the model grid points close to / within this area, respectively. For the time period representing present day climate, the precipitation amounts simulated by the GCM are in good agreement with oberserved values, whereas the nested regional model produces too large rainfall sums (+25%). With respect to intensity classes on a daily basis, both models underestimate the observed frequency of intense events and overestimate the number of days with a low precipitation amount. For the GCM, we take account of these systematic errors by defining a non-linear transfer function. This function is subsequently applied to the model's output from the scenario period. For future climate, both models show a significant reduction of the total summer precipitation. This reduction is caused by an increased number of dry days, which eventually dominates over a simultaneous increase in the number of days with intense precipitation. Average rainfalls are computed for periods between 5 to 30 days. For all averaging periods considered. The frequency of periods with less than 2 mm precipitation per day is found to rise (by up to 200%) compared to present day climate. There are less periods with more than 3 mm of rain. The decline amounts up to 50%. Thus, the models give no evidence for a grouping of heavy rainfall events.

  2. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Helmer Stefanie M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  3. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

    Helmer, Stefanie M; Krämer, Alexander; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T


    Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306). The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external) and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition) were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance) were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one's own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  4. Cross Border Comparison of MRSA Bacteraemia between The Netherlands and North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany): A Cross-Sectional Study

    van Cleef, Brigitte A. G. L.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Haenen, Anja; Monen, Jos; Daniels-Haardt, Inka; Jurke, Annette; Friedrich, Alexander W.


    Background We describe the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in two neighbouring regions in Europe with a comparable population size, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) in Germany and the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the occurrence of MRSA in blood cultures from surveillance systems. In the Netherlands in 2009, 14 of 1,510 (0.9%) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia episodes under surveillance were MRSA. Extrapolation using the number of clinical admissions results in a total of 29 MRSA bacteraemia episodes in the Netherlands or 1.8 episodes per 1,000,000 inhabitants. In 2010 in NRW, 1,029 MRSA bacteraemias were reported, resulting in 57.6 episodes of MRSA bacteraemia per 1,000,000 inhabitants: a 32-fold higher incidence than in the Netherlands. Conclusion/Significance Based on an estimated attributable mortality of 15%, the Dutch approach would save approximately 150 lives per year by the prevention of bacteraemia only. PMID:22880109

  5. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K.


    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  6. Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Linke, K


    During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha).

  7. Transparency systems: do businesses in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany regret the cancellation of the Smiley scheme?

    Anica Veronika Fietz


    Full Text Available Abstract Our paper explores how participants of voluntary transparency systems react to the cancellation of such programmes. We concern ourselves with participants of the voluntary transparency scheme known as the “North Rhine-Westphalia Smiley”. The Smiley system, which awarded the compliant behavior of businesses that joined it, was established in 2007 but cancelled in 2013 due to lack of participants. In our survey, the vast majority of the respondents express regret at the cancellation of the scheme. The goals of this paper are to (i econometrically explain how socio-demographic, monetary, and non-monetary determinants influence participants’ willingness to continue with the voluntary transparency system and (ii find reasons for the inconsistency between the lack of participants and the expression of regret within our survey. We find evidence that the non-monetary variables “revenue” and “award” and the monetary variable “revenue” influence participants’ regret. We speculate that status quo bias and loss aversion are the reasons why businesses favour maintaining the Smiley scheme once they have experienced it.

  8. Comparison of Farm Structures, Success Factors, Obstacles, Clients’ Expectations and Policy Wishes of Urban Farming’s Main Business Models in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

    Bernd Pölling


    Full Text Available Low-cost specialization, differentiation, and diversification are common business models of urban farms in developed countries. Similarities and differences between them as well as detailed insights into specific farm characteristics are widely absent in scientific discourses. This paper compares farm structures, success factors, obstacles, clients’ expectations, and policy wishes between specialized, differentiated, and diversified farms as well as diversifiers into agriculture. A standardized questionnaire was used for 21 personal in-depth farm interviews located in metropolitan areas of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Being located in a metropolitan area is the most often named Unique Selling Proposition (USP. This is also mentioned as most important success factor followed by sociability and personal contact to clients, which both underpin the importance of direct producer-consumer linkages in urban settings. Additionally, it is assumed that a single food criterion is not sufficient to be successful, but several have to be merged to meet clients’ expectations. In terms of marketing, differentiated and diversified farmers prefer a multi-channel approach, while specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture focus mainly on one specific channel. While both specialized farmers and diversifiers into agriculture cultivate smaller areas of farmland, the latter one offers the greatest number of jobs including those outside agricultural production. The findings obtained are expected to support farms and agricultural advisory services in individual decision making of future business development strategies and increase knowledge of urban farming’s main business models.

  9. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike


    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality.

  10. A nonparametric random coefficient approach for life expectancy growth using a hierarchical mixture likelihood model with application to regional data from North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Böhning, Dankmar; Karasek, Sarah; Terschüren, Claudia; Annuß, Rolf; Fehr, Rainer


    Life expectancy is of increasing prime interest for a variety of reasons. In many countries, life expectancy is growing linearly, without any indication of reaching a limit. The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) in Germany with its 54 districts is considered here where the above mentioned growth in life expectancy is occurring as well. However, there is also empirical evidence that life expectancy is not growing linearly at the same level for different regions. To explore this situation further a likelihood-based cluster analysis is suggested and performed. The modelling uses a nonparametric mixture approach for the latent random effect. Maximum likelihood estimates are determined by means of the EM algorithm and the number of components in the mixture model are found on the basis of the Bayesian Information Criterion. Regions are classified into the mixture components (clusters) using the maximum posterior allocation rule. For the data analyzed here, 7 components are found with a spatial concentration of lower life expectancy levels in a centre of NRW, formerly an enormous conglomerate of heavy industry, still the most densely populated area with Gelsenkirchen having the lowest level of life expectancy growth for both genders. The paper offers some explanations for this fact including demographic and socio-economic sources. This case study shows that life expectancy growth is widely linear, but it might occur on different levels.

  11. Towards health impact assessment of drinking-water privatization--the example of waterborne carcinogens in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany).

    Fehr, Rainer; Mekel, Odile; Lacombe, Martin; Wolf, Ulrike


    Worldwide there is a tendency towards deregulation in many policy sectors - this, for example, includes liberalization and privatization of drinking-water management. However, concerns about the negative impacts this might have on human health call for prospective health impact assessment (HIA) on the management of drinking-water. On the basis of an established generic 10-step HIA procedure and on risk assessment methodology, this paper aims to produce quantitative estimates concerning health effects from increased exposure to carcinogens in drinking-water. Using data from North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, probabilistic estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk, as well as estimates of additional cases of cancer from increased carcinogen exposure levels are presented. The results show how exposure to contaminants that are strictly within current limits could increase cancer risks and case-loads substantially. On the basis of the current analysis, we suggest that with uniform increases in pollutant levels, a single chemical (arsenic) is responsible for a large fraction of expected additional risk. The study also illustrates the uncertainty involved in predicting the health impacts of changes in water quality. Future analysis should include additional carcinogens, non-cancer risks including those due to microbial contamination, and the impacts of system failures and of illegal action, which may be increasingly likely to occur under changed management arrangements. If, in spite of concerns, water is privatized, it is particularly important to provide adequate surveillance of water quality. PMID:12894324

  12. Promotion strategies shown for the example of North-Rhine Westphalia

    Borchers, S.


    As one of Germany's technology and energy centres the Land of North-Rhine Westphalia sees it as a great challenge to implement a proactive policy for the protection of the Earth's atmosphere and in particular to bring about the urgently needed reduction in climatically active emissions. The current degree of efficient energy utilisation, in particular from renewable sources, still lags behind what is economically possible. Active political and governmental support is needed to promote the cause of efficient energy utilisation and the use of renewable energy sources and accord them the status they deserve. This insight led the Government of North-Rhine Westphalia in 1987 to frame a programme for ''Efficient energy utilisation and use of renewable renewable energy sources''. The present paper describes the aims and promotion strategies of the programme, examines the results it has produced, and sketches out perspectives for the near future [de

  13. [Assistive Services in the Workplace of People with Hearing Impairment in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Weber, A; Menzel, F; Weber, U; Niehaus, M; Kaul, T; Schlenker-Schulte, C


    Assistive services in the workplace are an important aspect of the participation of people with hearing impairment in working life. This article presents the results of the GINKO study and an survey conducted by the University of Cologne on behalf of the MAIS in order to provide a comprehensive examination of the employment situation of hearing impaired people in North Rhine-Westphalia. The GINKO study examines the impact of laws on the integration of hard-of-hearing and deaf people as well as people who have become deaf as adults, focusing on communication and organizations; this project was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs (BMAS). In the GINKO study, conducted in cooperation with the German Association of the Hard of Hearing and the German Association of the Deaf, a standardised questionnaire with questions about the workplace was administered to employed people with hearing impairments. The questionnaire was administered on paper and was also available online accompanied by sign language videos. The University of Cologne study in North Rhine-Westphalia examined the service situation of hard-of-hearing, deaf and deaf-blind people through face-to-face interviews and government statistics. The results of the nationwide GINKO study show that hearing-impaired people in North Rhine-Westphalia draw on assistive services in employment more often than hearing-impaired people in the rest of Germany. The study found statistically significant differences in the categories of "maintenance and development of professional knowledge and skills" and "psychosocial support in conflict situations resulting from disability". One reason for the more positive evaluations of the participants in North Rhine-Westphalia as compared to other regions in Germany could be the particular network of support services in that state. However, the overall positive results from North Rhine-Westphalia should not obscure the fact that a majority of participants in

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Anne Lallemand


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  15. Interprofessionality in the model courses of study for healthcare and nursing professions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany / Interprofessionalität in den Modellstudiengängen der Pflege- und Gesundheitsberufe in Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Hallwaß Anke


    Full Text Available Interprofessional cooperation is attributed a special significance in overcoming new challenges in the health system. For the educational system, this means the development of innovative teaching and learning formats that encourages interaction between students from different professions within healthcare. In Germany in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, eleven model courses of study for healthcare and nursing professions have been developed and evaluated. Evaluation reports do not tell whether social interaction between students of different professions is promoted. The following study investigates to what extent interprofessionality is incorporated into the model courses of study for healthcare and nursing professions in NRW and to what extent the courses of study include social interaction between students of different professions. In addition, an analysis is made as to what extent structural and organisational conditions and the course management influence the (further development of the courses with a view to interprofessionality. Structured expert interviews have been carried out with those responsible for the courses of study, for a total of seven model courses. These have then been evaluated using qualitative content analysis. The promotion of interprofessional expertise is incorporated into all model study courses that were considered and is generally governed by international standards. Six of the seven courses of study offer social interaction between students of different professions. Valuable hints for interprofessional education at colleges for health could be achieved.

  16. Vision Development towards a Sustainable North Rhine-Westphalia 2030 in a Science-Practice-Dialogue

    Miriam Müller


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a participatory vision development process in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW in Germany. The vision development was part of a scientific research project that accompanied the development of a sustainability strategy for NRW at state level. The Sustainability Strategy NRW was adopted in July 2016 and contains parts of the vision developed in the research project: Sentences from the narrative text vision and proposed targets and indicators that back-up the vision for a sustainable NRW in 2030 were used by the state of NRW. The vision was developed in iterative steps in three consecutive dialogue rounds with different stakeholders from science and practice. The paper presents the methodological approach and the results of the vision formulation process. The paper discusses the lessons learned from the vision development—from both practical and theoretical perspectives of transition management. The paper explores the relevance of setting ambitious targets for sustainable development as part of a state strategy by taking the proposed target of a “4 × 25% modal split” by 2030 as an example. The project demonstrated that a participatory approach for vision development is time and resource consuming, but worth the effort as it improves the quality and acceptance of a vision. Furthermore, the project demonstrated that transformative science contributes valuable inputs for sustainability transitions and for facilitating participatory vision development.

  17. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.


    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  18. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part 1

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Reinecke, T.; Zaehringer, M.; Smekal, U. v.; Winnekendonk, G.; Lackner, K.; Coburger, S.; Lehmacher, W.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.


    Purpose: In the state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part I of this study aims to collect characteristic epidemiological data and to assess structural quality. Materials and methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. Two university radiologists documented the pertinent test data from the submitted images and written records. Independently of each other, five university radiologists anonymously reviewed the image quality of each examination using structured questionnaires. Results: A total of 920 patients gave their informed consent and participated. Questionnaires from 787 patients, 852 GPs and 611 radiologists or other interpreting physicians as well as the complete survey data from 530 examinations were available. Of 1503 examinations, conventional radiography made up 52%, sonography 17%, computed tomography (CT) 13% and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 5%. Most indications involved the musculoskeletal (37%) and respiratory systems (24%). Physicians without board certification in radiology interpreted 1% of the CT examinations, 26% of the radiographic examinations and 71% of the sonographic examinations. Of the 174 self-referrals, 1% involved CT, 33% conventional radiography and 66% sonography. Written reports were available for 95% of all 469 examinations performed by radiologists and 74% of all 127 examinations conducted by non-radiologists. Only 44% of the 23 sonographic studies were self-referrals by the patient's GP. On average, the radiographic techniques were acceptable in terms of diagnostic information and radiation hygiene. Conventional radiographs were better exposed

  19. Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin

    Mennekes, A.; Bekemeier, K.


    The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

  20. Public information regarding radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants in North-Rhine Westphalia. Radiation protection report for April, May and June 1986. Unterrichtung der Oeffentlichkeit ueber radioaktive Emissionen aus kerntechnischen Anlagen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Strahlenschutzbericht fuer die Monate April, Mai und Juni 1986


    A short survey of the consequences of the reactor accident at Chernobyl with regard to the Land North-Rhine Westphalia is followed by information about radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants in North-Rhine Westphalia.

  1. [Waste management in hospitals. Current situation in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Popp, W; Hansen, D; Hilgenhöner, M; Grandek, M; Heinemann, A; Blättler, T


    In 20 hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia in-plant handling wastes and the delivery of the waste to the disposer were examined. Deficits were seen regarding risk assessment and operating instructions, support by company doctors, personal protection equipment, and break areas for the waste collecting personnel. Also the qualification of the waste management officer and his/her time contingent, correct declaration of the wastes, the training of the waste collecting personnel, the cleaning of multi-use containers and transportation vehicles, storage of the wastes at the collecting points, and the use of sharp collecting boxes were to be partly criticized. Consequences and recommendations are given, concerning the company's obligations (e.g., provide risk assessment, operating instructions), waste management officer (e.g., qualification, enough time contingent, regular inspections), waste collecting personnel (e.g., training courses), industrial safety (e.g., protection equipment, break area wash places), company doctors, transportation vehicles in the house (e.g., regular cleaning), one-way collectors (e.g., labelling at the site of the collection), multi-use collectors (e.g., cleaning), and compressing containers (e.g., larger maintenance openings).

  2. Measures to maintain the forests in the regions of North Rhine Westphalia suffering from pollution

    Rost, F


    Air pollution in the steadily expanding industrial and residential areas on the Rhine and Ruhr presents great problems for forestry. According to the data at present available, the polluted area in the Rhine-Ruhr region alone amounts to about 5200 sq km, i.e. about 15% of the total area of North Rhine/Westphalia. The Ruhr region proper is already extremely short of forests, but on the northern and southern sides the forest still covers comparatively large areas with differing site conditions. Different growth regions adjoin here. This is shown by the fact that on the northern edge of the Ruhr the Scots pine, and on the southern edge the spruce, have been the important species for forestry before the natural broadleaved species (oak and beech). These conifers can no longer be managed on normal rotations, without accepting considerable losses in increment. In order to maintain the forest, the regional government has therefore developed a program to promote non-state forestry, which will put the private and communal forest owners into a position to collaborate in the task of maintaining the forest by conversion, afforestation and tending. The focal point of this program is the recommendation to plant only three species relatively resistant to fumes. In the field of forestry research, special attention has been paid to provenance research, breeding for resistance, and differentiated demarcation of damaged stands by interpretation of false-color aerial photographs.

  3. Simulation of air pollution with nested models in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Kessler, Ch.; Bruecher, W.; Memmesheimer, M.; Kerschgens, M.; Ebel, A.


    High resolution modeling of air pollution events requires nested models. CARLOS is a combination of two comprehensive air quality simulation models that calculate chemistry and transport on regional and local scales. Both models apply nesting techniques to describe the influx of tracers into the inner highly resolved modeling domain. High resolution emission inventories are available for the innermost nest on the large scale, which allow the separate treatment of traffic and point sources. Results of a simulation for North Rhine-Westphalia in August 1997 are presented for two nesting levels, increasing the resolution from 27km in Central Europe to 3km in the domain of the second nest. One result is also presented for the local scale employing two nesting levels with a resolution of 1km and 333m, respectively. Statistical indices are used to indicate the quality of the predictions of ozone. Comparison of observations at the stations Koeln-Chorweiler and Wuppertal with modeled concentrations shows good agreement of ozone and reasonable reproduction of NO 2 concentrations. (Author)

  4. American foulbrood of the honey bee: occurrence and distribution of different genotypes of Paenibacillus larvae in the administrative district of Arnsberg (North Rhine-Westphalia).

    Peters, M; Kilwinski, J; Beringhoff, A; Reckling, D; Genersch, E


    Between March 2003 and October 2004, Paenibacillus larvae, the aetiological agent of American foulbrood disease of the honey bee, was isolated from broodcombs and honey samples of 54 apiaries in the administrative district of Arnsberg (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). Genotyping of 176 P. larvae isolates with repetitive element polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting (rep-PCR) using BOX A1R and MBO REP1 primers revealed five different genotypes (AB, Ab, ab, ass, Acapital BE, Cyrillic). In samples of three apiaries, more than one genotype was detected. A combination of two genotypes was isolated from honey samples of the same hive two times (ab/ass and Ab/ab). The five genotypes were not randomly distributed in the district, but revealed a certain geographical clustering. Possible factors with impact on the genotype diversity and the distribution pattern are discussed.

  5. Scope and perspectives of industrial hydrogen production and infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Pastowski, Andreas; Grube, Thomas


    A promising candidate that may follow conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines combines hydrogen from regenerative sources of energy, fuel cells and an electric drive train. For early fleets introduced the refuelling infrastructure needs to be in place at least to the extent of the vehicles operational reach. The question arises which strategies may help to keep initial hydrogen and infrastructure cost low? Industrial production, distribution and use of hydrogen is well-established and the volumes handled are substantial. Even though today's industrial hydrogen is not in tune with the long-term sustainable vision, hydrogen production and infrastructure already in place might serve as a nucleus for putting that vision into practice. This contribution takes stock of industrial production and use of hydrogen in North Rhine-Westphalia based on a recently finalized project. It demonstrates to which extent industrial hydrogen could be used for a growing number of vehicles and at which time additional capacity might need to be installed.

  6. The Office of Hydropower North-Rhine Westphalia; Das Buero fuer Wasserkraft NRW. Moderator zwischen Klimaschutz und Gewaesserschutz

    Prott, Stefan [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Bad Sassendorf (Germany). Buero fuer Wasserkraft


    The energy state of North-Rhine Westphalia (NRW) is one of the most modern and important energy regions in the world and the use of hydroelectric power has a long tradition. It contributes both to the supply of electrical energy and to climate protection. The technically usable potential of hydroelectric power is currently estimated in NRW at 800 GWh/a electricity, of which approx. 200 GWh/a has not been exploited to date. The Office for Hydroelectric Power was created within the framework of the EnergyAgency.NRW in 2001. Its functions include the networking of information and available facilities, as well as the establishment of short lines of communication between specialists from water authorities, environmental and nature conservation associations, fisheries and angling clubs and the operators of hydroelectric power plants. It is often faced with the task of moderation to transparency and acceptance of a sustainable use of hydropower to contribute. Against the backdrop of the EC Water Resources Framework Directive, NRW is engaged in expanding hydropower in a way that is harmless to the ecology of waterways, and to do this by reactivating and optimizing active hydropower plants and by using hydropower technology at existing dams and infrastructural facilities. (orig.)

  7. The environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia. Annual report 1995; Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen. Jahresbericht `95



    The annual reports of the environmental agency of North-Rhine-Westphalia periodically inform on topics, developments and events. In its choice of technical topics, the agency was guided by the following aspects: topicality, significance for workers in this technical field and, especially, general technical interest. Consequently, this volume is not a report of activities but provides insight into the work of the agency, stimulates cooperation and helps to establish and intensify connections. The short papers fall into the subject categories water, soil, atmosphere, technical systems and information systems, permitting rapid survey. The subjects of the longer contributions were chosen right across the entire range of activities of the environmental agency. Aspects relating to several media of course had an influence on this choice. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Jahresberichte des Landesumweltamtes NRW geben periodisch eine Uebersicht ueber Themen, Entwicklungen und Ereignisse. Bei der Auswahl der Fachthemen laesst sich das Landesumweltamt von der Aktualitaet, der Bedeutung fuer die Fachwelt und auch von dem allgemeinen Fachinteresse leiten. Dieser Jahresbericht `95 ist somit kein Rechenschaftsbericht, sondern gibt Einblick in die Arbeit, soll zur Zusammenarbeit anregen, vielfaeltige fachliche Verbindungen knuepfen und festigen. Zur besseren Uebersichtlichkeit sind die Kurzbeitraege gegliedert in: Wasser, Boden, Luft, Technik und Informationssysteme. Die Hauptbeitraege setzen Schwerpunkte `quer durch das Landesumweltamt`, bei denen natuerlich medienuebergreifende Gesichtspunkte eine Rolle gespielt haben. (orig./SR)

  8. [High-Flow Nasal Cannulae (HFNC) in Neonates: A Survey of Current Practice in Level 1 Perinatal Centres in the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Hepping, N; Garbe, W; Schneider, K


    High-flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) is a kind of non-invasive respiratory support. In recent years, its application has gained increasing popularity for treating neonates with respiratory failure. Within this study, neonatologists employed at high level perinatal centres within the region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany were interviewed. We evaluated their personal experience as well as the underlying indication for using HFNC. We undertook an online survey. 93% of the interviewed participants use HFNC systems in their NICU. The most prominent indications were CPAP-weaning, nasal trauma, and apnoea of prematurity. Both initial flow and maximum and minimum flow rates varied widely. The primary benefit of HFNC vs. conventional CPAP was the improved neonate tolerance, less nasal traumata and ease of application and care. A common disadvantage was the inability to conduct PEEP measurements. The application of the HFNC system is increasing for specific neonatal indications, thereby increasing the data for the evaluation of effectivity and safety. Nevertheless, detailed investigations of the appropriate flow rate settings are still lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Carboxyhemoglobin levels of selected population segments in variously structured and polluted areas of North Rhine-Westphalia

    Roscovanu, A.; Kraemer, U.B.; Baginski, B.; Dolgner, R.


    Measurements of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)-content from about 13,000 inhabitants of various sites in western North Rhine-Westphalia are presented. Analyses were part of surveys on the effects of air pollution conducted between 1975 and 1980 in five designated, polluted areas. Determinations were executed in the Medical Institute for Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf, on behalf of the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Administration. Analysis of blood samples for CO-content was performed by gas chromatography. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were calculated by reference to the individual hemoglobin levels. These surveys have been conducted during several years and included different seasons. Before 1977, fifty years old men were investigated. Until 1978, sixty years old men were studied. In 1979 and 1980, sixty years old women and ten years old children were additionally incorporated into the survey. Statistical analysis of data included variables which influence personal CO-burden such as smoking, and in the case of non-smokers indoor air exposure through passive smoking, use of gas facilities and heating in the flat, as well as occupational exposure. Besides, the influence of age, sex and location was considered. The average COHb-level of the populations under study was expressed as the median of the distribution. The distribution-free Mann-Whitney U-test served for assessment of differences between groups. As a further parameter, the percentage of the measurements greater than 2,5% COHb was chosen, because it was thought to be more relevant to risk populations, i.e. people suffering from Angina pectoris. As expected, tobacco smoking exerted the greatest influence on COHb-level. In non-smokers a trend, indicating a relationship between indoor air pollution and COHb-content could be observed.

  10. Forum 'North Rhine-Westphalia fit for the future'.- Energy sources seminar - the local governments' contribution to establishing a future-oriented energy policy 'from below'. Proceedings

    Naegel, W.


    On October 9, 1997, a seminar on energy sources was held in Duesseldorf within the framework of the programme of the academy for nature conservation and environmental protection (NUA) of North Rhine-Westphalia. The topic of the meeting, 'local governments' contributions to establishing a future-oriented energy policy from below' gathered representatives and lecturers from local authorities, electric utilities, planning and consultancy firms, political bodies and environmental associations. Papers presented to the seminar have been indexed and analysed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Analysis of GIS data to investigate natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines in the examples in Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia

    Thinh, Nguyen Xuan; Sander, Leon; Kopec, Jakob; Muehlnickel, Kai


    In this paper we describe shortly Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia as study areas and the legal framework, both in the context of natural resource impacts of high-voltage overhead lines. We then conduct the buffer analysis of a GIS dataset in order to investigate natural resource impacts of existing high-voltage overhead lines in the two mentioned study areas. The paper is based upon the first results of the interdisciplinary research and development project ''Power Network Planning'' funded as part of the 6th Energy research program ''Research for an environmentally friendly, reliable and affordable energy supply'' by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi). (orig.)

  12. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions

    Holzapfel, Dominik; Schneider, Sabine


    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  13. [The conflict between work and private life and its relationship with burnout - results of a physician survey in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    Nitzsche, A; Driller, E; Kowalski, C; Ansmann, L; Pfaff, H


    This study investigates the conflict between work and private life (work-life conflict and life-work conflict) and its relationship with burnout among physicians in breast cancer centers in North Rhine-Westphalia (n=378). With regard to the construct burnout, we differentiated between the 3 subscales emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment of the Maslach burnout inventory. In a structural equation model it was seen that above all the work-life conflict is positively associated with emotional exhaustion whereas the life-work conflict has a stronger positive correlation with depersonalisation and a negative relationship with personal accomplishment. Altogether, the results emphasise the importance of a successful interaction between professional work and private life ("work-life balance") for the health of medical personnel. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. State-wide surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns and spa types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from blood cultures in North Rhine-Westphalia, 2011-2013.

    Cuny, C; Layer, F; Werner, G; Harmsen, D; Daniels-Haardt, I; Jurke, A; Mellmann, A; Witte, W; Köck, R


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of bacteraemia. We aimed to obtain a complete picture of severe MRSA infections by characterizing all MRSA isolates from bloodstream infections in the largest German federal state (North Rhine-Westphalia, 18 million inhabitants) using S. aureus protein A (spa) sequence-typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates (n = 1952) were collected prospectively (2011-2013) and spa-typed. Among 181 different spa types, t003 (n = 746 isolates; 38.2%) and t032 (n = 594; 30.4%) were predominant. Analysis of the geographical occurrence of spa clonal complexes (spa-CCs) and spa types revealed divergent distribution between federal state districts for spa-CCs 003 (p resistant to fluoroquinolones, 78% to erythromycin, 70% to clindamycin, 4% to gentamicin, 2% to rifampicin, 0.4% to daptomycin, 0.1% to linezolid and 0% to vancomycin, respectively. Vancomycin MICs of 2 mg/L involved 0.5% of the isolates. In conclusion, the detection of regional molecular clusters added valuable information for epidemiological case tracing and allowed conclusions to be reached on the importance of newly emerging MRSA reservoirs, such as livestock (spa-CC011), for MRSA bacteraemia in some parts of the federal state. Susceptibility testing revealed broad resistance to substances used for oral treatment, but demonstrated that those antibiotics that are mostly applied for treatment of MRSA bacteraemia and important combination partners were highly susceptible. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    Puteanus, U


    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  16. The IPM Wheat Model--results of a three-year study in North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.

    Verreet, J A; Heger, M; Oerke, E; Dehne, H W; Finger, I; Busse, C; Klink, H


    Under the primary utilisation of phytosanitary production factors such as selection of variety, crop rotation and N fertilisation according to plant requirements, the IPM Wheat Model comprises the elements diagnosis (qualitative = type of pathogen, quantitative = disease severity), scientifically grounded treatment thresholds which, as critical values in pathogen development, can be applied to define the optimum time of fungicide application, and pathogen-specific effective fungicides and application amounts. This leads to the location and year-specific optimised control of the pathogen and of the associated yield performance. After several years of development in Bavaria (from 1985 on) and Schleswig-Holstein (1993-1999), the model was tested as part of a project involving the Universities of Bonn and Kiel and the plant protection services of the German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein in a three-year study (1999-2001) in interregional locations (usually nine per state) with the winter wheat variety Ritmo (interregional indicator variety) and a further variety of regional importance in different variations (untreated control, three to four times growth stage-oriented variants for the determination of the absolute damage potential, IPM-variant). In exact records (approx. 12 dates per vegetation period), the disease epidemics were recorded weekly. With the genetically uniform indicator variety Ritmo, the results documented substantially differing year- and location-specific disease and yield patterns. Interregionally, a broad wheat pathogen spectrum (Puccinia striiformis, P. recondita, Septoria tritici, Stagonospora (syn. Septoria) nodorum, Blumeria (syn. Erysiphe) graminis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Drechslera tritici-repentis) in differing composition, disease severity and damage effect was demonstrated. The heterogeneity of the infection and damage patterns was increased in the case of the second variety, in

  17. 28 January 2011 - German State Secretary Ministry for Innovation, Science and Research of North Rhine-Westphalia H. Dockter in the ATLAS experimental cavern at LHC Point 1 with Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with Adviser R. Voss.

    Maximilien Brice


    28 January 2011 - German State Secretary Ministry for Innovation, Science and Research of North Rhine-Westphalia H. Dockter in the ATLAS experimental cavern at LHC Point 1 with Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; signing the guest book with Adviser R. Voss.

  18. 19 August 2013 - German Member of the Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia M.-S. Abel MdL visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Senior physicist C. Rembser and German members of the collaboration B. Heinemann with G. Gaycken and D. Hirschbuehl.

    Anna Pantelia


    19 August 2013 - German Member of the Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia M.-S. Abel MdL visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Senior physicist C. Rembser and German members of the collaboration B. Heinemann with G. Gaycken and D. Hirschbuehl.

  19. Report of North-Rhine Westphalia's Land Government about the decision of the diet of July 10, 1986, concerning the transition to an energy supply system without nuclear electricity generation


    In response to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the diet of the Land North-Rhine Westphalia has taken the governmental declaration of the Land's prime minister as a basis for its discussions on June 4th and July 10th, 1986, about the hazards of nuclear power and the feasibility of energy supply without nuclear power. The decision taken by the diet on July 10th, 1986 calls upon the Land Government to 'inform the diet by mid-1987 about the means and methods and the time schedule envisaged for backing out of nuclear energy utilisation'. The report in hand deals with the technical feasibility and the effects of a nuclear power plant shut-off on the energy supply situation in the Land, with the legal framework, supervisory competences in the Land, the energy policy to be pursued by the Land government, and with the necessity to reach a new national consensus on energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Re-Industrialisation and Low-Carbon Economy—Can They Go Together? Results from Stakeholder-Based Scenarios for Energy-Intensive Industries in the German State of North Rhine Westphalia

    Stefan Lechtenböhmer


    Full Text Available The German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW is home to one of the most important industrial regions in Europe, and is the first German state to have adopted its own Climate Protection Law (CPL. This paper describes the long-term (up to 2050 mitigation scenarios for NRW’s main energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors which served to support the implementation of the CPL. It also describes the process of scenario development, as these scenarios were developed through stakeholder participation. The scenarios considered three different pathways (best-available technologies, break-through technologies, and CO2 capture and storage. All pathways had optimistic assumptions on the rate of industrial growth and availability of low-carbon electricity. We find that a policy of “re-industrialisation” for NRW based on the current industrial structures (assumed here to represent an average growth of NRWs industrial gross value added (GVA of 1.6% per year until 2030 and 0.6% per year from 2030 to 2050, would pose a significant challenge for the achievement of overall energy demand and German greenhouse gas (GHG emission targets, in particular as remaining efficiency potentials in NRW are limited. In the best-available technology (BAT scenario CO2 emission reductions of only 16% are achieved, whereas the low carbon (LC and the carbon capture and storage (CCS scenario achieve 50% and 79% reduction respectively. Our results indicate the importance of successful development and implementation of a decarbonised electricity supply and breakthrough technologies in industry—such as electrification, hydrogen-based processes for steel, alternative cements or CCS—if significant growth is to be achieved in combination with climate mitigation. They, however, also show that technological solutions alone, together with unmitigated growth in consumption of material goods, could be insufficient to meet GHG reduction targets in industry.

  1. Winter School 2011 of the North Rhine Westphalia Research School "Fuel production based on renewable resources" associated with the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass"

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schröder, Wolfgang


    The book reports on the results of the BrenaRo Winterschool 2011, held on November 21-22 in Aachen, Germany. The different chapters cover a number of aspects of the topic of energy generation, with a particular focus on energy generation from biomass. They presents new findings concerning engine development, process engineering, and biological and chemical conversion of biomass to fuels, and highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, combining chemistry, biology and engineering research, to the use of renewable energy sources. All in all, this book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in renewable energy conversion, and gives an overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany.

  2. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions; KWK-Ausbaustrategie in NRW. Eine Blaupause fuer andere Regionen

    Holzapfel, Dominik [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Sabine [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)


    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  3. Library Consortia in Germany

    Werner Reinhardt


    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  4. Occurrence of horse nettle (Solanum carolinense L.) in North Rhine-Westphalia

    Klingenhagen, Günter; Wirth, Martin; Wiesmann, Bernd; Ahaus, Hermann


    In autumn 2008 during corn harvest (Zea mays L.), the driver of the combine harvester spotted an unfamiliar plant species in the field. It turned out that Solanum carolinense L. was the unknown weed species. The species had overgrown 40 % of the corn field which had a size of 10.2 ha. The farmer who usually effectively controls all weeds on his field had so far not noticed the dominance of the solanaceous herb species. From his point of view, the weed must have germinated after the corn had c...

  5. Groundwater monitoring systems and groundwater quality in the administrative district of Detmold (North Rhine-Westphalia)

    Grabau, J.


    Two groundwater monitoring systems for areas of different dimensions in the administrative district of Detmold are introduced. Firstly, the monitoring of groundwater and untreated water by the Water Conservation and Waste Disposal Authority (Amt fuer Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft) in Minden and secondly, the monitoring of groundwater and drinking water by the Water Resources Board (Wasserschutzamt) in Bielefeld. Different approaches and methods are required for the description of groundwater quality on a regional and a local basis, respectively, i.e. for the monitoring of a whole region and the monitoring of parts of such a region. The properties of groundwater in areas of different dimensions are analysed and described by means of an extensive database and with the help of (geo)statistical methods of analysis. Existing hydrochemical data have only limited value as evidence of groundwater properties in the dimensional units ''region'' and ''small investigation area''. They often do not meet the requirements of correct mathematical statistical methods. (orig.)

  6. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Terschüren Claudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  7. Radioactivity in the Rhine - the LWA controls North-Rhine-Westphalian surface waters

    Kloes, H.


    The State Authority for Water and Waste Management has been testing the Rhine and the most important surface waters of North-Rhine Westphalia for radioactivity ever since it was founded in 1969. Radiation exposure of human beings who use Rhine water is far below the permitted maximum values of the 'radiation protection ordinance'. Pollution of the Rhine and its tributaries in North-Rhine Westphalia with artificial radioactive substances has even slightly decreased over the past ten years; pollution of the River Emscher with natural radioactive material remained high, the Lippe River now contains less radium than before. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Higher Administrative Court of North-Rhine Westphalia. Decision of October 22, 1987 - 21 A 330/87



    The erection of an edifice to be used for private storage of transport containers with irradiated fuel elements from light-water-moderated reactors is a fit object for a construction permit. The construction permit has no binding effect regarding the procedure for the licensing of the unit under section 6 of the Atomic Energy Law; the two licenses are issued in parallel. In the case of 'dry' storage of irradiated fuel elements in transport containers, the construction supervising authority can restrict itself to verifying whether the demands on the site and execution of the building to be made in case of such uses have been met and can reserve to the nuclear licensing procedure the decision about demands to be made on the safety of containers according to section 6, subsection 2, numbers 2 and 4 of the Atomic Energy Law. The resulting restriction of the regulatory content of the law by the construction permit does not entail a gap in the verification on the part of the authorities. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Research in North-Rhine Westphalia. Environmental research in 1986 - a documentation. Forschung in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Umweltforschung 1986 - Dokumentation


    Environmental research within the meaning of this documentation is any research aiming predominantly at reducing, avoiding, or removing environmental pollution. The documentation includes especially projects of relevance to technology and economy, natural science, biology, planning, medicine, and pedagogy. For the period of report January 1984 to February 1986, nearly 500 research projects of environmental relevance were made out at the scientific institutions of the country. Some 230 research groups and institutions are intensively studying questions relating to cyclones for dust separation, from their analytics to their use. The 13 sectors covered are: Forest die-back; planning; open areas; noise in residential areas; clean air; conservancy of nature and species; soil; foodstuffs; waters; waste; medicine and toxicology; analytics; topics of a general nature. (HSCH).

  10. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Nephew, E.A.


    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of human Puumala virus (PUUV infections in Germany

    Sarah Cunze


    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, the number of recorded human hantavirus infections as well as the number of affected countries is on the rise. In Europe, most human hantavirus infections are caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV, with bank voles (Myodes glareolus as reservoir hosts. Generally, infection outbreaks have been related to environmental conditions, particularly climatic conditions, food supply for the reservoir species and land use. However, although attempts have been made, the insufficient availability of environmental data is often hampering accurate temporal and spatially explicit models of human hantavirus infections. Methods In the present study, dynamics of human PUUV infections between 2001 and 2015 were explored using ArcGIS in order to identify spatio-temporal patterns. Results Percentage cover of forest area was identified as an important factor for the spatial pattern, whereas beech mast was found explaining temporal patterns of human PUUV infections in Germany. High numbers of infections were recorded in 2007, 2010 and 2012 and areas with highest records were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg (southwest Germany and North Rhine-Westphalia (western Germany. Conclusion More reliable data on reservoir host distribution, pathogen verification as well as an increased awareness of physicians are some of the factors that should improve future human infection risk assessments in Germany.

  12. Spider fauna of semi-dry grasslands on a military training base in Northwest Germany (Münster

    Buchholz, Sascha


    Full Text Available The spider fauna of semi-dry grasslands on the military training area of Dorbaum near Münster (North Rhine-Westphalia was investigated. From 2002 to 2003 a total of 11,194 mature spiders from 141 species and 20 families was caught by pitfall trapping and hand sampling. Among them are 18 species listed in the Red Data Book of North Rhine-Westphalia, four species are rare or previously rarely recorded. Most of the spiders are habitat generalists that extend their occurrence into all types of habitats, while the number of species which are stenotopic to sand habitats is noticeably low (n = 13. The spider data were analysed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA. It is possible to distinguish spider communities of neighbouring forested habitats from species groups of open habitats, but there is no uniform spider community which is characteristic for semi-dry grassland.

  13. Radioactivity monitoring by the official monitoring stations in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre after the Chernobyl reactor accident


    This official report presents a governmental declaration of the prime minister of NRW, Mr. Rau, concerning the reactor accident at Chernobyl, and a joint declaration of ministers of NRW, concerning the impact of the accident on the Land NRW. These statements are completed by six official reports on radioactivity measurements carried out by the official monitoring stations of the Land and by the KFA Juelich. These reports inform about methods, scope, and results of the measuring campaigns accomplished by the Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik (ZFS), the public materials testing office (MPA), the Chemisches Untersuchungsamt, the Landesamt fuer Wasser und Abfall, and the KFA Juelich. (DG) [de

  14. Recommendations for the development of cost minimized combinations of renewable energies - elaborated for four types of model communities in North-Rhine Westphalia. 10. technical report

    Mohr, M.; Skiba, M.; Gernhardt, D.; Ziolek, A.; Unger, H.


    The Tenth Technical Report of the study 'Analysis of Possibilities of Solar Power Supply and its Development in Nordrhein-Westfalen' contains a catalogue of recommended steps for the introduction of renewable energy systems into the existing energy supply structure in NRW. First, strategies for least cost renewable energy supply systems are developed and applied to modelled municipalities in such a way, that a cost optimized mix of renewable energies, depending on the desired degree of 'renewable coverage', can be given for each model community. Analogous to that, a low cost CO 2 -reduction strategy by an aimed extension of renewable energy systems is calculated and represented. The legal skeleton conditions of the power supply, information and training deficits as well as transmitted behavior patterns, which counteract an integration of renewable energy systems, are discussed in view of 'non economical' obstacles also. A catalogue of measures is presented, which contains informational, organizational and especially administrative aspects, including possibilities for governmental support. These recommendations may be used by those responsible for political decisions, i.e. by municipal planners, local or regional power suppliers and - last but not least - private consumers. (orig.) [de

  15. Uses and examples of application of nuclear power in North Rhine-Westphalia with special regard to its contribution to a structural improvement

    Jehle, B.


    As examples of the implementation of nuclear energy, the alternative potentials for meeting electricity demand and for coal gasification in Nordrhein-Westfalen have been studied, with particular applications in the chemical and iron and steel industries of this state. The effects on competitiveness and choice of sites for these industries and on hard coal production have been quantified. The political significance of implementing nuclear energy for improving the economic structure depends not only on these individual economic effects but also on the contribution to growth and the effects which spread from these industries throughout the whole regional economy, which have also been quantified. The development of the chemical, iron and steel and coal industries can affect over 30% of the entire labour force of Nordrhein-Westfalen; thus for these industries energy-economic forces have appreciable structural effects. (orig.) [de

  16. Airborne heavy metals in two cities of North Rhine Westphalia - Performing inhalation cancer risk assessment in terms of atmospheric circulation.

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos


    The main objective of this study was to examine the levels of four heavy metals (As, Cd, Pb and Ni) in PM 10 samples collected in two urban background stations in Dortmund and Bielefeld, in relation to atmospheric circulation. Pollution roses, Conditional Probability Function (CPF) roses and backward air mass trajectory clusters were used to identify air currents associated with the importation of PM 10 and of the included metal constituents. In addition, PM 10 , NO 2 , SO 2 , O 3 , As, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations were analyzed by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reveal major local emission sources of PM 10 metal content. Traffic was the main emitter of PM 10 , As, Cd, and Pb in both cities, highlighting the existence of non-negligible lead quantities in unleaded gasoline, whilst nickel emissions were associated with heavy fuel oil combustion in industries and primarily for domestic heating. The created CPF roses and trajectory clusters were in good agreement, clearly revealing that eastern air currents enriched the locally produced PM 10 load with additional aerosols from Eastern Europe. The concentrations of arsenic and cadmium were also enhanced by the arrival of air parcels from the East, indicating the anthropogenic origin of the exogenous aerosols due to combustion. The induced cancer risk (CR inh ) for adults, due to inhalation of individual metal constituents, was also estimated in terms of atmospheric circulation, indicating higher risk in Dortmund than in Bielefeld. CR inh values for arsenic exceeded the limit of 1 × 10 -6 in both cities, primarily during the influence of eastern circulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical indications and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in departments of obstetrics in Germany: a questionnaire study.

    Münstedt, Karsten; Brenken, Anja; Kalder, Matthias


    Our earlier study on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods showed that acupuncture, homeopathy, and aromatherapy are available in most obstetrics departments in Germany but it did not evaluate the clinical indications for using CAM. The present study aimed to explore further the effectiveness of CAM use in obstetrics. We sent all departments of obstetrics in North Rhine-Westphalia a questionnaire designed to delineate their use of acupuncture, homeopathy, and aromatherapy during childbirth. It sought details on who provided the CAM therapy (midwife or physician). We asked respondents to indicate on a five-point scale how reasonable or otherwise they would consider the provision of CAM in each of six common problem situations and to estimate for each the proportion of patients given the CAM treatment. Respondents were also asked about the rationale for offering CAM, quality assurance and side effects. Spearman's bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi(2) test were used for statistical analysis. About 73.4% (138/187) of the departments responded. Acupuncture and homoeopathy were most widely used. Although obstetricians are responsible for patient care, decisions to provide CAM were largely taken by midwives, and the midwives' belief in the methods' effectiveness and patient demand were the principle motivating factors. Rates of CAM use in the six problem scenarios evaluated were directly related to practitioners' perceptions of the methods' therapeutic effectiveness. CAM methods were widely offered despite the lack of evidence of effectiveness or information on adverse consequences. In Germany, including CAM in the mandatory national quality assurance measures and perinatal surveys would provide valuable information; CAM use elsewhere merits further study.

  18. Increase in impaired motor coordination in six-year-old German children between 1990 and 2007

    Seelaender, J.; Fidler, V.; Hadders-Algra, M.

    Aim To evaluate changes in prevalence of impaired motor coordination among 6-year-olds of a geographically defined area in Germany between the years 1990 and 2007. Methods Data from the obligatory school entrance examinations in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia between the years 1990 and

  19. Feasibility study of veterinary antibiotic consumption in Germany--comparison of ADDs and UDDs by animal production type, antimicrobial class and indication.

    Merle, Roswitha; Robanus, Matthias; Hegger-Gravenhorst, Christine; Mollenhauer, Yvonne; Hajek, Peter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Honscha, Walther; Kreienbrock, Lothar


    Within a feasibility study the use of antibiotics in pigs and cattle was determined in 24 veterinary practices in Lower Saxony and on 66 farms in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. Focus was laid on the comparison of the Used Daily Doses (UDD) (dose per animal and day prescribed by the veterinarians) with the Defined Animal Daily Doses (ADD) (dose per animal and day calculated by means of recommended dosages and estimated live weights). For piglets and calves most of the UDD (50% and 46% of nUDD, respectively) were above the ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio above 1.25). Regarding sows, fattening pigs, dairy and beef cattle, most of the UDDs (49% to 65% of nUDD) were lower than the respective ADD (i.e. UDD/ADD-ratio below 0.8). In pigs, the UDDs of beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and in cattle, those of macrolides and beta-lactams were often below the ADDs. Tetracyclines were frequently used above the recommended dose.Enteric diseases were more often treated below the recommended dose than respiratory diseases, possibly due to overestimation of the live weight (diarrhea in young animals, respiratory diseases in elder animals) and consequently overestimation of the recommended dose. Comparisons between UDD and ADD can be used to observe differences between antimicrobials and trends in the usage of antibiotics. But individual treatment comparisons of UDD and ADD must be interpreted carefully, because they may be due to lower live weights than estimated. Correlating such data with data on the occurrence of resistant bacteria in future may help to improve resistance prevention and control.

  20. Concept for inland wind power plants and wind parks - an example from North-Rhine Westphalia; Rahmenkonzept fuer Windkraftanlagen und -parks im Binnenland - ein Beipiel aus Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Kleinschmidt, V. [UVP-Forschungsstelle, Fachgebiet Landschaftsoekologie und Landschaftsplanung, Fachbereich Raumplanung, Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Schauerte-Lueke, N. [UVP-Forschungsstelle, Fachgebiet Landschaftsoekologie und Landschaftsplanung, Fachbereich Raumplanung, Dortmund Univ. (Germany); Bergmann, R. [PRO TERRA TEAM Dienstleistungs- und Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Umwelttechnologien GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany)


    Because of the increasing number of wind energy plants, environmental protection gets into a conflict of aims. On the one hand the change of the `Stromeinspeisungsgesetz` (law arranging the insertion of privately produced electricity into the public system) and the improved support for wind energy plants is to appreciate for the reasons of a reduction of CO{sub 2} and other harmful substances. But on the other hand wind energy plants have negative environmental effects onto the sites they are built on, as for example disturbances of the birds their breeding nest and feeding habitat, injury or death following collision with a blade or tower or simply disturbances of the landscape view. To avoid possible conflicts and increase the acceptance of wind energy plants, for the district of Soest a concept on a strategic level was developed, in which sites were determined as optimal, restrictional or excluding the construction of wind energy plants. This concept may not only help to avoid conflicts but may also play an active part in the promotion of wind energy plants by defining the sites suitable for wind energy plants and making them public. All in all the procedure of approval was simplified and therefore accelerated with the invention of this concept. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch die zunehmende Anzahl von Windkraftanlagen geraet der Umweltschutz in einen Zielkonflikt. Einerseits ist die Aenderung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes und die verbesserte Foerderung fuer Windkraftanlagen aus Gruenden der CO{sub 2} und Schadstoffemissionseinsparungen sehr zu begruessen. Andererseits haben die Windkraftanlagen direkt an den Aufstellungsorten negative Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt, wie zum Beispiel Stoerung der Voegel in Nahrungs- und Bruthabitaten, Vogelschlag oder Beeintraechtigung des Landschaftsbildes. Um moegliche Konflikte weitgehend zu vermeiden und die Akzeptanz fuer Windkraftanlagen zu erhoehen, wurde fuer den Kreis Soest ein Rahmenkonzept erarbeitet, in dem Gunst-, Restriktions- und Ausschlussflaechen fuer Windkraftanlagen festgelegt wurden. Neben dem Ziel der Konfliktminderung kann das Konzept auch zur aktiven Foerderung von Windkraftanlagen beitragen, indem durch die Veroeffentlichung der Gunstkarte besonders geeignete Standorte fuer Windkraftanlagen bekannt gemacht werden. Insgesamt hat sich durch das Rahmenkonzept die Genehmigung vereinfacht und dadurch auch beschleunigt. (orig.)

  1. Migration pattern and mortality of ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union: a cohort study in Germany.

    Kaucher, Simone; Deckert, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker


    We aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality among ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union by different immigration periods to describe associations with migration pattern and mortality. We used pooled data from three retrospective cohort studies in Germany. Ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union (called resettlers), who immigrated to Germany since 1990 to the federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland and to the region of Augsburg (n=59 390). All-cause and cause-specific mortality among resettlers in comparison to the general German population, separated by immigration period. Immigration periods were defined following legislative changes in German immigration policy (1990-1992, 1993-1995, 1996+). Resettlers' characteristics were described accordingly. To investigate mortality differences by immigration period, we calculated age-standardised mortality rates (ASRs) and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of resettlers in comparison to the general German population. Additionally, we modelled sex-specific ASRs with Poisson regression, using age, year and immigration period as independent variables. The composition of resettlers differed by immigration period. Since 1993, the percentage of resettlers from the Russian Federation and non-German spouses increased. Higher all-cause mortality was found among resettlers who immigrated in 1996 and after (ASR 628.1, 95% CI 595.3 to 660.8), compared with resettlers who immigrated before 1993 (ASR 561.8, 95% CI 537.2 to 586.4). SMR analysis showed higher all-cause mortality among resettler men from the last immigration period compared with German men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19), whereas resettlers who immigrated earlier showed lower all-cause mortality. Results from Poisson regression, adjusted for age and year, corroborated those findings. Mortality differences by immigration period suggest different risk-factor patterns and possibly deteriorated integration

  2. Umweltgeochemische Charakterisierung der niedermolekularen organischen Fracht des Flußsystems Lippe

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa


    Rivers are a sensitive and complex ecosystem hosting a diverse spectrum of organisms. Human activities have resulted in increasing river pollution due to input of organic contaminants into the river systems (anthropogenic input). The main emphasis of the present study is a comprehensive examination of anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic low-molecular weight organic compounds in a selected river system. The Lippe River (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) was chosen for this approach because it i...

  3. Reappraisal of Europe’s most complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian: Brancasaurus brancai Wegner, 1914 from the “Wealden facies” of Germany

    Sven Sachs


    Full Text Available The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European “Wealden facies,” but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian. Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B. brancai has suffered damage both during, and after WWII. Sadly, these mishaps have resulted in the loss of substantial information, in particular many structures of the cranium and limb girdles, which are today only evidenced from published text and/or illustrations. This non-confirmable data has, however, proven crucial for determining the relationships of B. brancai within Plesiosauria: either as an early long-necked elasmosaurid, or a member of the controversial Early Cretaceous leptocleidid radiation. To evaluate these competing hypotheses and compile an updated osteological compendium, we undertook a comprehensive examination of the holotype as it is now preserved, and also assessed other Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian fossils to establish a morphological hypodigm. Phylogenetic simulations using the most species-rich datasets of Early Cretaceous plesiosaurians incorporating revised scores for B. brancai, together with a second recently named Bückeberg Group plesiosaurian Gronausaurus wegneri (Hampe, 2013, demonstrated that referral of these taxa to Leptocleididae was not unanimous, and that the topological stability of this clade is tenuous. In addition, the trait combinations manifested by B. brancai and G. wegneri were virtually identical. We therefore conclude that these monotypic individuals are ontogenetic morphs and G. wegneri is a junior synonym of B. brancai. Finally, anomalies detected in the diagnostic features

  4. Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Dachowski, M


    Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales, Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola (Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Höhn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii (Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L., Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L.

  5. Mapping carbon sequestration in forests at the regional scale - a climate biomonitoring approach by example of Germany

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, PO Box. 1553, Vechta (Germany)


    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognizes carbon (C) fixation in forests as an important contribution for the reduction of atmospheric pollution in terms of greenhouse gases. Spatial differentiation of C sequestration in forests either at the national or at the regional scale is therefore needed for forest planning purposes. Hence, within the framework of the Forest Focus regulation, the aim of this investigation was to statistically analyse factors influencing the C fixation and to use the corresponding associations in terms of a predictive mapping approach at the regional scale by example of the German federal state North Rhine-Westphalia. The results of the methodical scheme outlined in this article should be compared with an already-published approach applied to the same data which were used in the investigation at hand. Site-specific data on C sequestration in humus, forest trees/dead wood and soil from two forest monitoring networks were intersected with available surface information on topography, soil, climate and forestal growing areas and districts. Next, the association between the C sequestration and the influence factors were examined and modelled by linear regression analyses. The resulting regression equations were applied on the surface data to predicatively map the C sequestration for the entire study area. The computations yielded an estimation of 146.7 mio t C sequestered in the forests of North Rhine-Westphalia corresponding to 168.6 t/ha. The calculated values correspond well to according specifications given by the literature. Furthermore, the results are almost identical to those of another pilot study where a different statistical methodology was applied on the same database. Nevertheless, the underlying regression models contribute only a low degree of explanation to the overall variance of the C fixation. This might mainly be due to data quality aspects and missing influence factors in the analyses. In another

  6. Status of fast breeder development in Germany

    Heusener, G.


    The German Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT), Dr. Heinz Riesenhuber, announced on March 20, 1991 that SNR 300, the fast breeder power plant at Kalkar, shall be abandoned. This message followed a top level meeting between BMFT officials and senior managers of Siemens, RWE, PreuBenElektra und Bayernwerk. BMFT, vendor Siemens and the three utilities had carried the interim finance costs of DM 105 million yearly since 1989. The licensing procedure had been obstructed during a long time by the responsible authorities. For several years the licensing process for the last permits on nuclear operation of KKW Kalkar had been held up by the government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NWR). Licensing of nuclear power plants is the responsibility of the states, according to the German Atomic Act. The state of NRW turned against the SNR 300 project when the Social Democratic Party (SPD) started questioning nuclear power in 1985. Until then 17 partial licenses for SNR 300 had been granted, each time including an overall project approval. One of the consequences of the demise of SNR-300 was that Interatom GmbH, a subsidiary of Siemens AG, has been integrated into the division KWU of the Siemens AG on 1 October, 1991. For SNR 300 the turn-key contracts to the supplier company were cancelled by the operator on April 10, 1991 following the political termination of the SNR-300 Project. On August 23, 1991 after the termination of the SNR project, KfK decided to shutdown the KNK II reactor for final decommissioning

  7. Status of fast breeder development in Germany

    Heusener, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    The German Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT), Dr. Heinz Riesenhuber, announced on March 20, 1991 that SNR 300, the fast breeder power plant at Kalkar, shall be abandoned. This message followed a top level meeting between BMFT officials and senior managers of Siemens, RWE, PreuBenElektra und Bayernwerk. BMFT, vendor Siemens and the three utilities had carried the interim finance costs of DM 105 million yearly since 1989. The licensing procedure had been obstructed during a long time by the responsible authorities. For several years the licensing process for the last permits on nuclear operation of KKW Kalkar had been held up by the government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NWR). Licensing of nuclear power plants is the responsibility of the states, according to the German Atomic Act. The state of NRW turned against the SNR 300 project when the Social Democratic Party (SPD) started questioning nuclear power in 1985. Until then 17 partial licenses for SNR 300 had been granted, each time including an overall project approval. One of the consequences of the demise of SNR-300 was that Interatom GmbH, a subsidiary of Siemens AG, has been integrated into the division KWU of the Siemens AG on 1 October, 1991. For SNR 300 the turn-key contracts to the supplier company were cancelled by the operator on April 10, 1991 following the political termination of the SNR-300 Project. On August 23, 1991 after the termination of the SNR project, KfK decided to shutdown the KNK II reactor for final decommissioning.

  8. A lasting legacy for the Baltic and North Sea GLOBEC Germany program

    Peck, M.A.; Dutz, Jörg; Voss, R.


    This preface introduces four manuscripts that form a special theme section of the GLOBEC Germany program within Progress in Oceanography. The four manuscripts link changes in physical forcing to the trophodynamic structure and function of the Baltic and North Seas. The target species of GLOBEC Ge...... Germany included various species of calanoid copepods and a small pelagic fish (Sprattus sprattus)...

  9. German planning atlas. Vol. 1: North Rhine Westphalia. No. 11. Brown coal 2 - ownership of brown coal deposits, resettlement, surface balance, coal, rock, and energy economy, future developments. Deutscher Planungsatlas. Bd. 1: Nordrhein-Westfalen. Nr. 11. Braunkohle 2 - Feldesbesitz, Umsiedlung, Grundwasser, Flaechenbilanz, Kohle-, Abraum- und Energiewirtschaft, kuenftige Entwicklung


    In map No. III of the atlas on the develpment of Rhenish coal mining, the ownership in brown coal deposits and planning, resettlement, ground water and an area balance are presented. Map No. IV discusses coal economy, rock economy, energy economy, structure and development. Details are described in the text.

  10. The Consumption of New Psychoactive Substances and Methamphetamine.

    de Matos, Elena Gomes; Hannemann, Tessa-Virginia; Atzendorf, Josefine; Kraus, Ludwig; Piontek, Daniela


    The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and methamphetamine has severe adverse effects. Here we provide the first report of regional patterns in NPS and methamphetamine consumption in Germany, on the basis of epidemiologic data from six federal states (Bavaria, Hamburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony, and Thuringia). Data were derived from the 2015 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (Epidemiologischer Suchtsurvey) and supplemented with additional cases from the federal states that were studied. The numbers of persons included in the representative samples of persons aged 18 to 64 in each state were 1916 (Bavaria), 1125 (Hamburg), 1151 (Hesse), 2008 (North Rhine-Westphalia), 1897 (Saxony), and 1543 (Thuringia). Potential risk factors for the lifetime prevalence of consumption were studied by logistic regression. The lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine consumption in the individual states ranged from 0.3% (North Rhine-Westphalia) to 2.0% (Saxony). Thuringia and Saxony displayed values that were significantly higher than average. For NPS, the figures ranged from 2.2% (Bavaria) to 3.9% (Hamburg), but multivariate analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the states. Higher age and higher educational level were associated with lower consumption of NPS and methamphetamine, while smoking and cannabis use were each associated with higher consumption. NPS consumption is equally widespread in all of the federal states studied. Methamphetamine is rarely consumed; its consumption appears to be higher in Saxony and Thuringia. The risk factor analysis reported here should be interpreted cautiously in view of the low case numbers with respect to consumption.

  11. The rebound effect, gender and social justice: A case study in Germany

    Galvin, Ray


    Energy efficiency increases are essential in reducing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Policy is therefore rightly concerned about rebound effects, which cause energy and CO 2 emission reductions to be less than anticipated. A policy dilemma is emerging in that less economically privileged groups tend to show the highest rebound effects. Some studies suggest policymakers may therefore be reluctant to support energy efficiency upgrades among such groups. This paper argues this is based on a misunderstanding of the conceptual structure of the rebound effect. Firstly, a mathematical analysis confirms that the rebound effect is merely a comparison of proportions, not a measure of absolute levels of energy consumption, which are the real cause of increased CO 2 emissions. Secondly, an empirical study of commute distances in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany’s largest state, reveals that female commuters show considerably higher rebound effects than male commuters, both in time and cross-sectional analyses. However, male commuters consume the most energy and produce the most CO 2 emissions, by every measure. This resonates with recent studies showing the same disjunction between rebound effects and absolute consumption, in home heating among poorer and wealthier households. Policy needs to focus on absolute consumption levels and be cautious in interpreting rebound effects. - Highlights: • Economically disadvantaged groups often show the highest rebound effects. • But they usually have the lowest absolute levels of energy consumption. • A study of female vs male commuting distance rebound effects confirms this. • This is consistent with the mathematical structure the rebound effect concept. • Policymakers need to problematize high consumption, not high rebound effects.

  12. Report on the 1992 study trip on the Weser aboard the laboratory ship 'Max-Pruess' of the Land North-Rhine-Westfalia


    As agreed by the standing committee of the Weser task force ('Arge Weser'), regular trips on the river for taking measurements have been made since 1965. The ninth trip, from May 8th to 14th, 1992 aboard the ''Max Pruess'', a ship equipped with measuring instruments and a laboratory and owned by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia, was concerned with three areas of investigation: A) the Fulda and Werra estuaries, B) the upper and middle Weser (Hann.-Muenden (km 0.0) to Bremen (km 361.1)), C) the lower Weser (Bremen (km 0.0) to Kolumbuskai (km 67.8)). A uniform water quality longitudinal profile of the Weser was established during this trip by means of chemico-physical and biological tests. While investigations by measuring stations cover a longer period of time, the measurements taken during a voyage reflect a transient condition and complement long-term trend investigations. The voyage also permits to gain an overview of relative changes in the condition of the river at various points of its course. The evaluation of the results of this trip is facilitated by investigations of Arge Weser already carried through for the duration of several years and information obtained by previous trips. (orig./EF) [de

  13. [1980-1991 evaluation of naturopathy practitioners in the Detmold presidential administration--inventory and analysis].

    Lubbe, R


    In Germany two professional groups may apply medical science to human beings: physicians and "Heilpraktiker" (naturopaths). However, no regulations exist regarding training, examination and continuation of studies of "Heilpraktiker". They only have to be checked on the basis of the Heilpraktiker low intended to exclude a danger to health of the people. In North Rhine Westphalia each of the 54 public health offices effects this checking on its own responsibility. The present analysis shows that in the Detmold administration district the checking by the individual public health offices differs greatly from one another. There are offices where most applicants fail and others where nearly all of the applicants pass. In addition the passing rate shows considerable regional and temporal differences. It can also be taken from the data that public health offices with a high passing rate not only carry out many checking cases but that they receive applicants residing outside the area of responsibility of the checking public health office ("checking tourism"). Rapid implementation of the "Federal Guide on the Checking of Heilpraktiker Applicants" is recommended for the Land of North Rhine Westphalia as this procedure would be fairer for the applicant and less expensive for the citizens.

  14. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    Andreas Neef


    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralisation of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  15. Reconstructing late quaternary fluvial process controls in the upper aller valley (north Germany) by means of numerical modeling

    Veldkamp, A.; Berg, van den M.; Dijke, van J.J.; Berg van Saparoea, van den R.M.


    The morpho-genetic evolution of the upper Aller valley (Weser basin, North Germany) was reconstructed using geological and geomorphologic data integrated within a numerical process model framework (FLUVER-2). The current relief was shaped by Pre-Elsterian fluvial processes, Elsterian and Saalian ice

  16. Reconstructing Late Quaternary fluvial process controls in the upper Aller Valley (North Germany) by means of numerical modeling

    Veldkamp, A.; Berg, M.W. van den; Dijke, J.J. van; Berg van den; Saparoea, R.M. van


    The morpho-genetic evolution of the upper Aller valley (Weser basin, North Germany) was reconstructed using geological and geomorphologic data integrated within a numerical process model framework (FLUVER-2). The current relief was shaped by Pre-Elsterian fluvial processes, Elsterian and Saalian ice

  17. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H


    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  18. EWEA 2012: conference on the legal framework of wind energy

    Froeding, Veronique; Iuga, Dorina; Lintker, Stephanus; Edlich, Sophie


    At the occasion of 2012 Europe Wind energy event (EWEA), the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the legal framework of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the French and German respective regulations and administrative procedures for wind energy projects. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Synthesis note of the wind turbines French regulation (Veronique Froeding); 2 - Wind Barriers Presentation - Administrative and Grid access barriers (Dorina Iuga); 3 - Wind energy in France - Legal framework: what's new? (Veronique Froeding); 4 - North Rhine-Westphalia and the Wind energy Decree from July 2011: NRW Pioneer in Wind energy in Germany (Stephanus Lintker); 5 - Duration and development costs of wind energy projects in France and in Germany (Sophie Edlich)

  19. Quarterly Costs Of Transporting Brazilian Soybeans From The North And Northeastern Ports To Hamburg, Germany

    Department of Agriculture — Quarterly total landed costs (truck and ocean) of shipping Brazilian soybeans through the ports of Santarém and São Luís to Hamburg, Germany. This is table 6 of the...

  20. The Virtual Forest: Robotics And Simulation Technology As The Basis For New Approaches To The Biological And The Technical Production In The Forest

    J. Rossmann


    Full Text Available In order to support competitiveness on the worldwide market - but also to overcome efficiency problems related to the forest owner structure in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany - the "Virtual Forest" is being developed as an intelligent planning and decision support tool for forest growth as well as for wood mobilization. In practice, the heart of the Virtual Forest consists of a database of approx. 240 million single trees in NRW, its major wood resource. In order to identify the trees, latest aerial survey and satellite technology is used and combined with virtual reality and robotics know how in order to efficiently gather and visualize the data. Thus, the Virtual Forest will serve as a reliable and very up-to-date base and framework for new efficient forest planning, wood mobilization and machine logistics methods.

  1. [Work engagement of hospital physicians: do social capital and personal traits matter?].

    Susanne Lehner, Birgit; Kowalski, Christoph; Wirtz, Markus; Ansmann, Lena; Driller, Elke; Ommen, Oliver; Oksanen, Tuula; Pfaff, Holger


    Work engagement has been proven to be a viable indicator of physical and mental well-being at work. Research findings have shown a link between work engagement and both individual and organizational resources. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesized relationships between personal traits (Big-5), the quality of the social work environment (social capital) and work engagement among hospital (n=35) physicians (n=387) in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Structural equation modeling (SEM), combining confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and path analysis, was employed to conduct the statistical analyses. The results of the SEM indicated that social capital and neuroticism were significantly associated with work engagement. The relationship between agreeableness and work engagement was fully mediated by social capital. Findings suggest that social capital plays a key role in promoting work engagement of physicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Ozone and its projection in regard to climate change

    Melkonyan, Ani; Wagner, Patrick


    In this paper, the dependence of ozone-forming potential on temperature was analysed based on data from two stations (with an industrial and rural background, respectively) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, for the period of 1983-2007. After examining the interrelations between ozone, NOx and temperature, a projection of the days with ozone exceedance (over a limit value of a daily maximum 8-h average ≥ 120 μg m-3 for 25 days per year averaged for 3 years) in terms of global climate change was made using probability theory and an autoregression integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The results show that with a temperature increase of 3 K, the frequency of days when ozone exceeds its limit value will increase by 135% at the industrial station and by 87% at the rural background station.

  3. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes After Placement of Essure Microinserts in Patients With Hydrosalpinges Who Previously Failed In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: A Multicenter Study.

    Cohen, Shlomo B; Bouaziz, Jerome; Schiff, Eyal; Simon, Alexander; Nadjary, Michel; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Orvieto, Raoul; Revel, Ariel


    To investigate whether hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion with Essure microinserts (Conceptus Inc.; Bayer, AG, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) can improve pregnancy rates in patients with hydrosalpinges who had failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A prospective cohort study. University-affiliated tertiary centers. Twenty-four consecutive women with hydrosalpinges who had failed IVF treatment were included. Hysteroscopic placement of Essure microinserts for hydrosalpinx blockage followed by IVF treatment. Ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were recorded. Of the 24 patients undergoing a total of 42 IVF cycles after Essure insertion, 18 (75% of patients and 42.8% of IVF cycle attempts) conceived and 16 delivered live births (66.6% of patients and 38.1% of IVF cycle attempts). Hysteroscopic proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges with Essure microinserts is a valuable alternative to laparoscopic salpingectomy, resulting in reasonable pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term Evaluation of Landuse Changes On Landscape Water Balance - A Case Study From North-east Germany

    Wegehenkel, M.

    In this paper, long-term effects of different afforestation scenarios on landscape wa- ter balance will be analyzed taking into account the results of a regional case study. This analysis is based on using a GIS-coupled simulation model for the the spatially distributed calculation of water balance.For this purpose, the modelling system THE- SEUS with a simple GIS-interface will be used. To take into account the special case of change in forest cover proportion, THESEUS was enhanced with a simple for- est growth model. In the regional case study, model runs will be performed using a detailed spatial data set from North-East Germany. This data set covers a mesoscale catchment located at the moraine landscape of North-East Germany. Based on this data set, the influence of the actual landuse and of different landuse change scenarios on water balance dynamics will be investigated taking into account the spatial distributed modelling results from THESEUS. The model was tested using different experimen- tal data sets from field plots as well as obsverded catchment discharge. Additionally to such convential validation techniques, remote sensing data were used to check the simulated regional distribution of water balance components like evapotranspiration in the catchment.

  5. Oracle9i database gains traction among leading European customers


    The Oracle Corporation software group, today announced that more than 600 customers worldwide have purchased Oracle9i Real Application Clusters. Some of the European customers include Austrian Railways, BACS, Bavarian Police Force, CERN, e-Spatial, Navision a/s and the North Rhine-Westphalia Police Force.

  6. Towards regional differentiation of rural development policy in the EU

    Terluin, I.J.; Venema, G.S.


    In this study a comparative analysis of the Rural Development Plans (RDPs) in four intermediate rural regions (Northern Netherlands, Lower Saxony, Wales and Emilia Romagna) and four most urban regions (Southern Netherlands, North Rhine-Westphalia, Flanders and Lombardia) is made. Such plans are

  7. Contrasting the core beliefs regarding the effective implementation of wind power: an international study of stakeholder perspectives

    Wolsink, M.; Breukers, S.


    This paper analyses patterns in beliefs about the implementation of wind power as part of a geographical comparison of onshore wind power developments in the Netherlands, North-Rhine Westphalia and England. Q methodology is applied, in order to systematically compare the patterns in stakeholder

  8. Perception and acceptance of technological risks. Vol. 3

    Renn, O


    Vol. 3 discusses the problem of attitudes towards nuclear power. Data are compiled for five communities in North-Rhine Westphalia with nuclear facilities and the control community of Kerpen, which has no nuclear power plant. At the same time, the empirical and theoretical investigations are comprehensively evaluated.

  9. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Volume 2. Empirical analysis of risk perception and acceptance

    Renn, O


    Volume 2 presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive inquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two inquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia.

  10. Fast breeder reactor at Kalkar. Pt. 2

    Degen, G.


    After a brief description of the previous development of the case the legal decisions are documented and commented on. The concept of the then FDP-Minister of Economy of North Rhine Westphalia (Riemer, Pu-combustion plant) is presented and the prospects and risk for the fast breeder reactor after the 3. partial construction license are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.


    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic

  12. Hidden and Neglected: Food Poverty in the Global North - The Case of Germany.

    Pfeiffer, Sabine; Oestreicher, Elke; Ritter, Tobias


    Although still a powerful economy, Germany faces rising income inequality and food insecurity. Quantitative data show that nutritional poverty in Germany has become a fact, especially for social welfare recipients. This contribution gives an overview and discusses the limits of results from different data sources, such as German food surveys, and addresses how affected population groups are systematically underrepresented. To give a more thorough impression of food insecurity in Germany, the article compares nutritional consumption data from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions/Eurostat survey for Germany, the members of the European Union 27 (EU27), and Greece. The figures for Germans with incomes below 60% of the median equivalised income who cannot afford one proper meal every second day are worse than those in the remaining EU27 member nations, and the figures for their children are not so far from the figures for crisis-stricken Greece. As eating is not only about nutrition but also a means of social activity, we consider the ability to eat and drink with friends an issue of alimentary participation. The percentages of Germans who cannot afford a drink or meal with others at least once a month is very high compared to the rates of the remaining EU27 member nations and Greece. The provided quantitative figures prove that we see serious signs of food poverty in portions of Germany, despite its comparatively strong economy. Data from hundreds of qualitative interviews describing how people stricken by food insecurity try to cope with the situation complement these results. Such data are very important, as governments widely underestimate the problem and leave it to be dealt with by food banks as the only institutional solution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. North or East. Germany's crude oil and natural gas supply from Norway and Russia

    Spies, M.


    This work examines the crude oil and natural gas trade from Norway and Russia to Germany. There is a considerable need for energy import in Germany because only a small part of the national consumption can be met with domestic productions. This applies especially to crude oil and natural gas. Norway and Russia are among the leading crude oil and natural gas producers and exporters in the world. The geographical vicinity of these significant demand and supply potentials leads to extensive energy based relations between Germany and Norway respectively Russia. The focus of this work is on the perception of and attitudes towards Norway and Russia as crude oil and natural gas suppliers for the domestic markets in Germany. Reporting from two leading German newspapers, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Sueddeutsche Zeitung, are regarded to be a valid source for detecting these attitudes and perceptions. Relevant articles are analysed with content analysis and further multi- methodological approaches. For this reasons the work provides at the beginning full description of the Norwegian and Russian crude oil and natural gas sector as well as detailed information on the German energy markets and policy. It can be shown that differences in dealing with Norway and Russia in the articles exit. Accordingly, different perceptions and attitudes are detectable as well. This work shows where these differences can be found and examines their quality. It is argued that the reporting and the attitudes are not only based on economical facts but also on 'imagined space'. The need for impartial relations with both supplying countries is stressed. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air from 1986 to 1987 in North Germany and North Norway

    Kolb, W.


    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by γ-spectroscopy. The mean monthly acitvity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured in 1986 and 1987 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. The Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, resulted in 1986 in an annual mean Cs-137 activity concentration of 2.4 mBq/m 3 in Brunswick, 8.8 mBq/m 3 in Berlin and 0.3 mBq/m 3 at Skibotn. In 1987 the Cs-137 concentrations were just about 1% of these values. Occasionally fresh fission products from other sources were detected as e.g. I-131 in March 1987 (very likely released from a reactor site in Ukraine) and in August 1987 (released from an underground nuclear test on Novaja Zemlya together with other short-lived fission products). The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Constructing a paleo-DEM in an urban area by the example of the city of Aachen, Germany: Methods and previous results

    Pröschel, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank


    Reconstructing paleo-landscapes in urban areas is always a special challenge since the research area often witnessed constant human impact over long time periods. Dense building development is a major difficulty, particularly in regard to accessibility to in-situ soils and archaeological findings. It is therefore necessary to use data from various sources and combine methods from different fields to gain a detailed picture of the former topography. The area, which is occupied by the city of Aachen today, looks back on a long history of human influence. Traces of human activity can be dated back to Neolithic time. The first architectural structures and the first road network were built by the Romans about 2000 years ago. From then on, the area of Aachen was more or less continuously inhabited forming today's city. This long history is represented by archaeological findings throughout the city. Several meters of settlement deposits, covering different eras, are present in many locations. Therefore, it can be assumed that the modern topography significantly differs from the pre-roman topography. The main objective of this project is a reconstruction of the paleo-topography of Aachen in order to gain new insights on the spatial preconditions that the first settlers found. Moreover, further attention is given to the question whether and to what extent a paleo-DEM can help to clarify specific open archaeological and historical questions. The main database for the reconstruction are the archaeological excavation reports of the past 150 years, provided by municipal and regional archives. After analyzing these written accounts, we linked this information to drill data, provided by the Geological Service of North Rhine-Westphalia. Together with additional sources like geological and hydrological maps, we generated a GIS-based terrain model. The result is a high-resolution terrain model, representing the undisturbed pre-roman topography of the inner city of Aachen without any

  16. Seroprevalence of tick-borne-encephalitis virus in wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (north-eastern Germany).

    Frimmel, Silvius; Leister, Matthias; Löbermann, Micha; Feldhusen, Frerk; Seelmann, Matthias; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian


    Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, a federal state in the north east of Germany, has never been a risk area for TBEV infection, but a few autochthonous cases, along with TBEV-RNA detection in ticks, have shown a low level of activity in natural foci of the virus in the past. As wild game and domestic animals have been shown to be useful sentinels for TBEV we examined sera from wild game shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania for the prevalence of TBEV antibodies. A total of 359 sera from wild game were investigated. All animals were shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2012. Thirteen of 359 sera tested positive or borderline for anti-TBEV-IgG with ELISA and four samples tested positive using NT. The four TBEV-positive sera confirmed by NT constitute the first detection of TBEV-antibodies in sera of wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1986-1989. This underlines that the serological examination of wild game can be a useful tool in defining areas of possible TBEV infection, especially in areas of low TBEV-endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate of migration? How climate triggered migration from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century

    Glaser, Rüdiger; Himmelsbach, Iso; Bösmeier, Annette


    This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the extent to which climate and climatic change can have a negative impact on societies by triggering migration, or even contribute to conflict. It summarizes results from the transdisciplinary project Climate of migration (funded 2010-2014), whose innovative title was created by Franz Mauelshagen and Uwe Lübken. The overall goal of this project was to analyze the relation between climatic and socioeconomic parameters and major migration waves from southwest Germany to North America during the 19th century. The article assesses the extent to which climatic conditions triggered these migration waves. The century investigated was in general characterized by the Little Ice Age with three distinct cooling periods, causing major glacier advances in the alpine regions and numerous climatic extremes such as major floods, droughts and severe winter. Societal changes were tremendous, marked by the warfare during the Napoleonic era (until 1815), the abolition of serfdom (1817), the bourgeois revolution (1847/48), economic freedom (1862), the beginning of industrialization accompanied by large-scale rural-urban migration resulting in urban poverty, and finally by the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.The presented study is based on quantitative data and a qualitative, information-based discourse analysis. It considers climatic conditions as well as socioeconomic and political issues, leading to the hypothesis of a chain of effects ranging from unfavorable climatic conditions to a decrease in crop yields to rising cereal prices and finally to emigration. These circumstances were investigated extensively for the peak emigration years identified with each migration wave. Furthermore, the long-term relations between emigration and the prevailing climatic conditions, crop yields and cereal prices were statistically evaluated with a sequence of linear models which were significant with explanatory power between 22 and 38 %.

  18. The RAG AG. The company in the course of energy supply; Die RAG AG. Konzern im Wandel der Energieversorgung

    Fischer, Peter; Dyga, Ricarda [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)


    The RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) as a company in the energy supply sector unifies the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), The RAG Anthrazit Ibbenbueren (Ibbenbueren, Federal Republic of Germany), the RAG Montan Immobilien GmbH (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) and the RAG Mining Solutions GmbH (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) under the same. The group of companies with the headquarters in Herne (Federal Republic of Germany) consists of branch offices in North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland. Until the end of the year 2012, only three mines in the Ruhr district and one mine in the county Steinfurt were in operation. Still it is said that the withdrawal of the mining industry is beginning. With the political decision to cancel the revision clause in the Hard Coal Mining Financing Law, it was determined to cease the subsidised hard coal mining in Germany up to the end of the year 2018. This implies for the concern, that RAG AG will discontinue the promotion of coal as its core business. Following the year 2018, RAG AG will apply oneself to their technical staffs: Old shafts / near-surface mining, eternity tasks, mining damages, permissions / water rights / geodata management and real estates. Moreover, RAG AG already today uses mining establishments in order to implement projects and ideas for renewable energies.

  19. Mine water management. Modification of the mine water management in the Ruhr district within the decommissioning of the hard coal mining; Grubenwasserhaltung. Aenderung der Grubenwasserhaltung im Ruhrrevier im Zuge der Stilllegung des Steinkohlenbergbaues

    Terwelp, Tassilo [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Dezernat 63 - Zentrale Grubenwasserhaltung, Grubenwassernstieg, Schachtverfuellung


    Within the so-called Legacy Agreement regarding the overcoming of the burdens in perpetuity of the coal mining of the RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), the Federal States North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany) and Saarland (Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Foundation (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) have regulated the mine water drainage in the decommissioning of the mines. Under this aspect, the department 'Mining and energy in NRW' of the district government Arnsberg (Federal Republic of Germany) as the mining authority increasingly is concerned with the topic mine water in the Ruhr district. In this context, the district government Arnsberg is responsible for an organized mine water control after the withdrawal of the hard coal mining. The main aims of this are the protection of the surface area being mined and mine safety aspects. As part of the withdrawal from the deposit, the rise of the mine water level has to be planned and controlled carefully in order to avoid adverse impacts at the surface of the area to be mined.

  20. Twenty-fifth anniversary of the Juelich Nuclear Research Center

    Haefele, W.


    On December 10, 1981, KFA Juelich celebrated its 25th year of existence; on December 11, 1956, the land parliament of North Rhine Westphalia had decided in favour of the erection of a joint nuclear research facility of the land of North Rhine Westphalia. In contrast to other nuclear research centers, the Juelich centre was to develop and operate large-scale research equipment and infrastructure for joint use by the universities of the land. This cooperation has remained an important characteristic in spite of the independent scientific work of KFA institutes, Federal government majorities, and changes in research fields and tasks. KFA does fundamental research in nuclear and plasma physics, solid state research, medicine, life sciences, and environmental research; other activities are R + D tasks for the HTR reactor and its specific applications as well as energy research in general. (orig.) [de

  1. Major activities of the association ''Arbeitsgemeinschaft Solar NRW''. Decentralized energy systems development, trial and qualification

    Meliss, M.


    In North-Rhine Westphalia, the Ministry for Science and Research and the Ministry for Economic Affairs, Medium-Sized Companies and Technology (MWF) in 1991 decided to jointly establish a research and technology association called AG Solar NRW, intended to function as a central body for promotion and coordination of existing but dispersed projects and activities in North-Rhine Westphalia for research into and development of solar technology and energy systems, and for promotion of demonstration projects and training programmes supporting enhanced use of solar energy. The total budget made available for activities of the AG Solar in phase 1 (1991 - 1995) was approx. DM 60 million. The article in hand summarizes the main activities and results achieved in this first phase which was committed to decentralized energy systems, performance testing and qualification. (orig.) [de

  2. [Level of Development of Clinical Ethics Consultation in Psychiatry - Results of a Survey Among Psychiatric Acute Clinics and Forensic Psychiatric Hospitals].

    Gather, Jakov; Kaufmann, Sarah; Otte, Ina; Juckel, Georg; Schildmann, Jan; Vollmann, Jochen


    The aim of this article is to assess the level of development of clinical ethics consultation in psychiatric institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia. Survey among medical directors, directors of nursing and administrative directors of all psychiatric acute clinics and forensic psychiatric hospitals in North Rhine-Westphalia. 113 persons working in psychiatric acute clinics responded (reponse rate: 48 %) and 13 persons working in forensic psychiatric hospitals (response rate 54 %). We received at least one response from 89 % of all psychiatric acute clinics and from 100 % of all forensic psychiatric hospitals. 90 % of the responding psychiatric acute clinics and 29 % of the responding forensic psychiatric hospitals have already implemented clinical ethics consultation. Clinical ethics consultation is more widespread in psychiatric institutions than was hitherto assumed. Future medical ethics research should therefore give greater attention to the methodology and the quality of clinical ethics consultation in psychiatric practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. 40 years Becker Mining Systems - from small business to internationally successful mining supplier; 40 Jahre Becker Mining Systems - vom Kleinbetrieb zum international erfolgreichen Bergwerksausruester



    Becker Mining Systems was founded in 1964 by Walter Becker, a mining engineer at Maybach coal mine in Friedrichsthal. On the 40th birthday party his son, Dr Franz Becker, reviewed the company history. Other felicitators were Dr. Georgi, Minister for Economic Affairs in Saarland, Dr. Walter-Borjahns, State Secretary in the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Labor in North Rhine-Westphalia, and Dr. Eikhoff, member of board of directors of DSK. (uke)

  4. Kooperationsvorhaben "Nachhaltiges Biogas am Niederrhein": Biogaseinspeisung als dezentrales, partnerschaftliches und nachhaltiges System

    Pflaum, H.; Klocke, B.


    In the model project "Sustainable Biogas", GELSENWASSER AG, PlanEt GmbH, the Münster University of Applied Sciences and Fraunhofer UMSICHT have jointly elaborated a baseline study to investigate the decentralized production and injection of biogas in a novel biogas injection system. Special consideration was given to implementation and sustainability requirements. The project was supported by the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the European Commission. Crude biogas, locally fed in...

  5. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Vol. 2

    Renn, O.


    Volume II presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive enquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two enquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Analysis of the purchase and consumer behaviour towards direct purchase of food

    Zenner, Silvia; Wirthgen, Bernd; Altmann, M.


    The paper presented the methodic as well as selected results of own empiric research (face-to-face questionings in seven different questioning regions, n = 1488) to the analysis of the shopping behaviour and the attitudes towards direct purchase. To the analysis of the buying patterns a Kaufverhaltensindex (KVI) was introduced. In the regional comparison will be clear that the questioning regions of Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia show KVI by far highest, while the eastern questi...

  7. International Tax Evasion, State Purchases of Confidential Bank Data and Voluntary Disclosures

    Bethmann, Dirk; Kvasnicka, Michael


    State purchases of bank data on suspected tax evaders from international tax havens constitute a potential tool to combat international tax evasion. Using self-compiled data for North-Rhine Westphalia on the timing and content of such data acquisitions from whistleblowers and on monthly voluntary disclosures of international tax evasion involving Swiss banks, we show that purchases of data by tax authorities on potential tax evaders have a positive and sizeable effect on voluntary disclosures.

  8. Colonial Fantasies, Narrative Borders, and the Canadian North in the Works of Germany's Colin Ross(1885-1945

    Nicole Pissowotzki


    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Canadian North is a discursive construction, within which German colonial fantasies emerge. In particular, I argue that it is through bordering that colonial fantasies of German Lebensraum ("living space" in the Canadian North are brought into being. I further argue that the German biologist and geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904, with his view of the "organic state," provides the ideological framework for colonial fantasies in the travel writings of Colin Ross. I focus on the writer's colonial imagination and his perception of borders, and on how both relate to the Canadian North. I show that seemingly bare geographical information and demographical data, provided in Ross' travelogues, carry colonial fantasies of German spaces in the Canadian North. Those spaces are bordered by "shared histories" and "narrative boundaries," thus constructing a collective German colonial identity (cf. Eder 2006, 255-257.

  9. The effect of an exceptionally wet summer on methane effluxes from a 15-year re-wetted fen in north-east Germany

    V. Huth


    Full Text Available Re-wetting minerotrophic fens has become an important strategy to mitigate climate change in Germany. However, recent studies report raised methane (CH4 effluxes during the first years after flooding. A minerotrophic fen in north-east Germany that was re-wetted 15 years ago was exposed to exceptionally heavy rainfall and freshwater flooding in August 2011. We measured CH4 effluxes from wetland vegetation stands dominated by Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Typha latifolia L. and Carex acutiformis Ehrh., using the closed-chamber method, fortnightly from March 2011 to March 2012 with extra sampling during the flooding. The respective annual effluxes of CH4 (mean ± 1 standard error from the three vegetation types were 18.5 ± 1.3, 21.1 ± 1.2 and 47.5 ± 5.0 g m-2 a-1, with the August effluxes contributing 40 %, 50 % and 10 % of the annual effluxes. Despite the freshwater flooding in August, annual CH4 effluxes from the 15-year re-wetted fen are similar to those reported from pristine fens. These results are promising because they indicate that, although CH4 effluxes are elevated after re-wetting, they may return to values typical for pristine fens after 15 years. Hence, re-wetting can achieve the purpose of reducing greenhouse gas effluxes from drained minerotrophic fens.

  10. 18{sup th} world hydrogen energy conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Proceedings. Speeches and plenary talks

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd [eds.


    A comprehensive and renowned conference offers the opportunity to extend the scope beyond mere technical issues. It allows for having strategic presentations and discussing aspects of market introduction, industrial and Governmental target setting as well as approaches to and actions for implementation. The 18th World Hydrogen Conference 2010, WHEC2010, succeeded in exploiting this opportunity and satisfied the expectations. Strong political support in Germany and in the State of North Rhine Westphalia in particular made it possible to have high profile decision makers at the conference presenting their strategies first hand. Hence, a full day was dedicated to plenary speeches and overview talks. The WHEC2010 came handy at a time when fuel cells are developed to suit the requirements for vehicles, except for cost and durability. At a time when the competition with batteries and whether or how a hydrogen infrastructure can be established and afforded were hot topics in the public debate, which needed answers on a well informed basis. Considering fuel cells and hydrogen at a time at one conference and supplementing it with the current knowledge on batteries and hybridization clarity on the future role of these technologies was gained. Very likely fuel cells and batteries will coexist in a future of electrified vehicular transport. Their different technical characteristics will open the doors to different market segments. Implementing hydrogen infrastructure, being a requirement for fuel cells in transport, is considered doable and affordable. This book presents the speeches and overview papers from the plenary session of the WHEC2010 on May 17, 2010. Six further books of this issue contain the papers of the oral and poster presentations, except for the introductory talks of the sessions. The latter are published separately by Wiley in a book named Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In total the 18th WHEC is documented on over 3800 pages in a structured way in order to reach

  11. Measuring Completeness of Building Footprints in OpenStreetMap over Space and Time

    Carola Kunze


    Full Text Available Due to financial or administrative constraints, access to official spatial base data is currently limited to a small subset of all potential users in the field of spatial planning and research. This increases the usefulness of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, in particular OpenStreetMap (OSM, as supplementary datasets or, in some cases, alternative sources of primary data. In contrast to the OSM street network, which has already been thoroughly investigated and found to be practically complete in many areas, the degree of completeness of OSM data on buildings is still unclear. In this paper we describe methods to analyze building completeness and apply these to various test areas in Germany. Official data from national mapping and cadastral agencies is used as a basis for comparison. The results show that unit-based completeness measurements (e.g., total number or area of buildings are highly sensitive to disparities in modeling between official data and VGI. Therefore, we recommend object-based methods to study the completeness of OSM building footprint data. An analysis from November 2011 in Germany indicated a completeness of 25% in the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and 15% in Saxony. Although further analyses from 2012 confirm that data completeness in Saxony has risen to 23%, the rate of new data input was slowing in the year 2012.

  12. Radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air from 1984 to mid 1986 in North Germany and North Norway; influence of the Chernobyl accident

    Kolb, W.


    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in surface air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean monthly activity concentrations of up to 30 radionuclides measured from 1984 to mid 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn (North Norway) are tabulated. Early in 1984 the ground level air at all three stations still contained some fission and activation products resulting from the latest nuclear test carried out at a high altitude by the People's Republic of China. By the end of 1984 only Cs-137 was still detectable with activity concentrations of less than 1 μBq/m 3 . The occasional appearance of some activation products in 1984 and 1985 is commented on and compared with similar findings of several Scandinavian institutes. Fresh fission products from the Chernobyl accident arrived in late April 1986 in Brunswick, Berlin and Skibotn. The mean Cs-137 concentration in May estimated for Brunswick was 28 mBq/m 3 (i.e. 15 times higher than the hitherto recorded maximum in June 1964). It had decreased by July 1986 down to 0.13 mBq/m 3 . The effective dose equivalent due to inhalation of fission products is estimated for all three sites and compared with the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  13. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Andrea Matern


    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  14. Quality of record linkage in a highly automated cancer registry that relies on encrypted identity data

    Schmidtmann, Irene


    Full Text Available Objectives: In the absence of unique ID numbers, cancer and other registries in Germany and elsewhere rely on identity data to link records pertaining to the same patient. These data are often encrypted to ensure privacy. Some record linkage errors unavoidably occur. These errors were quantified for the cancer registry of North Rhine Westphalia which uses encrypted identity data. Methods: A sample of records was drawn from the registry, record linkage information was included. In parallel, plain text data for these records were retrieved to generate a gold standard. Record linkage error frequencies in the cancer registry were determined by comparison of the results of the routine linkage with the gold standard. Error rates were projected to larger registries.Results: In the sample studied, the homonym error rate was 0.015%; the synonym error rate was 0.2%. The F-measure was 0.9921. Projection to larger databases indicated that for a realistic development the homonym error rate will be around 1%, the synonym error rate around 2%.Conclusion: Observed error rates are low. This shows that effective methods to standardize and improve the quality of the input data have been implemented. This is crucial to keep error rates low when the registry’s database grows. The planned inclusion of unique health insurance numbers is likely to further improve record linkage quality. Cancer registration entirely based on electronic notification of records can process large amounts of data with high quality of record linkage.

  15. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T.; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P.; Rötter, Reimund P.; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank


    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations. PMID:27055028

  16. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef


    "Energiewende", which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  17. Suicide by burning: epidemiological and clinical profiles.

    Theodorou, Panagiotis; Phan, Vu T Q; Weinand, Christian; Maegele, Marc; Maurer, Christoph A; Perbix, Walter; Leitsch, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Spilker, Gerald


    Self-immolation constitutes a rare form of suicide in developed countries, though it accounts for unique injury characteristics in the burn intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to present the epidemiological and clinical features of patients burned during a suicidal attempt seen in a North Rhine-Westphalia burn intensive care unit (BICU). To address this aim, we undertook a 21-year retrospective study involving patients with thermal injuries admitted to the largest burn unit in Germany. A total of 125 suicide-related burn victims were identified in the study period (9.4%). Comparing the self-immolation group with the rest burn patient cohort, suicide victims were more likely to be single and to act under the influence of alcohol. The suicidal group had a larger extent of burns, higher incidence of inhalation injury, required more surgical procedures, catecholamines, blood transfusions, and a longer BICU stay. Their clinical course was complicated by prolonged intubation period, higher rate of multiple drug-resistant bacteria acquisition and sepsis, leading to a higher mortality rate. Although the proportion of self-immolation victims among all burned patients is not high, the markedly higher severity of their burns and their poorer quality of outcomes makes them an important clinical subgroup for further study.

  18. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Hoffmann, Holger; Zhao, Gang; Asseng, Senthold; Bindi, Marco; Biernath, Christian; Constantin, Julie; Coucheney, Elsa; Dechow, Rene; Doro, Luca; Eckersten, Henrik; Gaiser, Thomas; Grosz, Balázs; Heinlein, Florian; Kassie, Belay T; Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian; Klein, Christian; Kuhnert, Matthias; Lewan, Elisabet; Moriondo, Marco; Nendel, Claas; Priesack, Eckart; Raynal, Helene; Roggero, Pier P; Rötter, Reimund P; Siebert, Stefan; Specka, Xenia; Tao, Fulu; Teixeira, Edmar; Trombi, Giacomo; Wallach, Daniel; Weihermüller, Lutz; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Ewert, Frank


    We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE) of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  19. Impact of Spatial Soil and Climate Input Data Aggregation on Regional Yield Simulations.

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are often generated via averaging and sampling by area majority. This may bias simulated yields at large scales, varying largely across models. Thus, we evaluated the error associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate data for 14 crop models. Yields of winter wheat and silage maize were simulated under water-limited production conditions. We calculated this error from crop yields simulated at spatial resolutions from 1 to 100 km for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Most models showed yields biased by <15% when aggregating only soil data. The relative mean absolute error (rMAE of most models using aggregated soil data was in the range or larger than the inter-annual or inter-model variability in yields. This error increased further when both climate and soil data were aggregated. Distinct error patterns indicate that the rMAE may be estimated from few soil variables. Illustrating the range of these aggregation effects across models, this study is a first step towards an ex-ante assessment of aggregation errors in large-scale simulations.

  20. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  1. Smart Grid folder - When research is made in close collaboration: France and Germany multiply initiatives; Greenlys, a French breakthrough in smart grids; Integration of ENRs - Germany; it's working hard in the North

    Bongrain, Timothee; Piro, Patrick


    A first article proposes an overview of some of the numerous initiatives taken by France and Germany for the development of smart grids. In France, these are regional projects and are for example named Smile, You and Grid, Flexgrid, CityOps, Smart Electric Lyon, Nice Grid, Premio. On its side, Germany has launched the SINTEG programme of five demonstrators of energy intelligence and energy digitalisation at a regional scale. A second article presents the Greenlys project of experimentation of a smart grid in Lyon and in Grenoble by a consortium of energy and industrial companies, public bodies and academics. The third article addresses the New 4.0 German project of integration of renewable energies into the grid, based on the use of smart grids and consumption steering. This project concerns the Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg Lander where renewable energies are expected to reach 70 per cent in 2025 and 100 per cent in 2035 in their energy mix. Other similar projects undertaken on other German regions are also mentioned

  2. Icelandic volcanic ash from the Late-glacial open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D, North Germany

    Housley, R. A.; Lane, C. S.; Cullen, V. L.


    Cryptotephra of Icelandic origin from the open-air archaeological site of Ahrenshöft LA 58 D (Kr. Nordfriesland, Schleswig-Holstein), northern Germany overlies a Late-glacial Havelte lithic assemblage, hitherto dated by 14C and biostratigraphy to the earliest part of the Late-glacial interstadial...

  3. Weimar Germany

    Reckendrees, Alfred


    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  4. Nudging Germany

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  5. A comment on the bone of contention: The use of plutonium

    Baier, W.


    To support the legal action filed by the government of North-Rhine Westphalia with the Supreme Federal Court with respect to the prohibition of further use of plutonium, Professor Kuni, nuclear medicine at Marburg, made an expert's opinion which has not yet been published. It is to show the particular danger of this substance for man and environment, and to prove that the protection of the nonimpairment of life as laid down in the constitution cannot be guaranteed in case of further use of plutonium. The author comments on individual statements of the expert's opinion by classifying them as insubstantial, by correcting them and by pointing to contradictions. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Innovative Processes and Products for Mass Customization

    Blecker, Thorsten; Edwards, Kasper; Hvam, Lars

    solution. The first part of the paper describes the product configuration software and service platform KoViP, developed by the CAD software provider ISD, Dortmund, in cooperation with the ITM chair of the University of Bochum and funded by the EU and the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The main...... goal of KoViP was to create a modular, easy configurable, standard software platform and a suite of standard services for the knowledge acquisition and maintenance as well as for the implementation of product configurators in SMEs producing mass customized products. The second part of the contribution...

  7. Stop on construction of fast breeder at Kalkar refused



    The application of a plaintiff was refused by the verdict of the High Court for North Rhine-Westphalia of 16.6.1978, which would have restored the delaying effect of his application against the defendant Minister of the Land (his opponent) on the first part licence of the Kalkar nuclear power station. The plaintiff had to bear the costs of the proceedings, including extra legal costs of the co-defendant nuclear power company. The value of the object of the case was set at DM 10,000. This means that construction can continue. The most important reasons for turning down the application are given. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Ruhrkohle AG celebrates its 25th anniversary



    With the establishment of the 'Ruhrkohle AG', the contract partners had in mind to lay the foundation for a sound economic and social development of black coal mining on the Ruhr and its miners in the future. The federal government, the state of North-Rhine-Westphalia, the confederation of the Ruhr mining industry, and the trade union of miners and the energy industry, in a joint declaration issued on the occasion of the signing of the contract establishing the RAG, formulated the direction of their endeavours. (orig.) [de

  9. Das Höhlenlangbein Amilenus aurantiacus (Opiliones: Phalangiidae ist Höhlentier des Jahres 2016 in Deutschland

    Zaenker, Stefan


    Full Text Available With the nomination of the ‘Cave Animal of the Year’ the Society of German Cave and Karst Explorers calls public and authorities’ attention to the understudied biodiversity of subterranean ecosystems. Here the Cave Animal of the Year 2016, Amilenus aurantiacus (Simon, 1881, is presented. It is the first time that a harvestman has been chosen. Ist ecology, habitat and morphology are described. New records from Hesse, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia are listed and discussed.

  10. When weather forecasts control the heating. Operational optimisation of administrative buildings with weather forecast control; Wenn Wetterprognosen die Heizung steuern. Betriebsoptimierung von Verwaltungsgebaeuden mit Wettervorhersage-Steuerung

    Friedrich, Uwe


    With the aim of achieving an optimum indoor environment and lowering operating costs in the long term, the performance of a so-called ''operational optimisation with weather forecast control'' system has been tested in three administrative buildings in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia since 2007. The operation of the heating systems is optimised based on a thermodynamic computer model and local weather forecast data. The result: A tangible increase in comfort with simultaneous heat energy savings. (orig.)

  11. Cegelec Germany


    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  12. Restoration of the Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains, North Germany: evidence for the geometry of a thick-skinned thrust

    Tanner, David C.; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.


    Reverse movement on the Harz Northern Boundary Fault was responsible for the Late Cretaceous uplift of the Harz Mountains in northern Germany. Using the known geometry of the surface position and dip of the fault, and a published cross section of the Base Permian horizon, we show that it is possible to predict the probable shape of the fault at depth, down to a detachment level. We use the `inclined-shear' method with constant heave and argue that a shear angle of 30° was most likely. In this case, the detachment level is at a depth of ca. 25 km. Kinematic restoration of the Harz Mountains using this fault geometry does not produce a flat horizon, rather it results in a ca. 4 km depression. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic equilibrium adjustment of the Harz Mountains restores the Base Permian horizon to the horizontal, as well as raising the Moho to a depth of 32 km, a typical value for northern Germany. Restoration also causes a rotation of tectonic fabrics within the Harz Mountains of about 11° clockwise. We show that this model geometry is very good fit to the interpreted DEKORP BASIN 9601 deep seismic profile.

  13. Micropalaeontological revision and typing of localities in North West Germany. 'Die Foraminiferen des norddeutschen Hils und Gault' (A. E. Reuss, 1863)

    Meyn, H.; Vespermann, J.


    The first description of foraminifers in 1863 (A.E. Reuss) started a flood of scientific publications which are all based on the first analysis of the North West German Lower Cretaceous. The original samples and documents, however, have been lost. The authors of the article attempted to remedy this in a cooperative study. (orig./RB)

  14. Imbalances in the German public health system - numbers of state-certified occupational physicians and relation to socioeconomic data.

    Gyo, Christoph; Boll, Michael; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A


    State-certified occupational physicians who work as civil servants in the Federal Republic of Germany are key players in the German Public Health system. They control i.e. the legal compliance in occupational health and participate in the occupational disease procedures. Despite the role model function of the German Public health system for many developing countries, this area of Public health is debated to have been hampered in the past years by a disregard concerning structural developments. Different databases were screened for occupational health benchmarks. Obtained data were compared to socioeconomic data and indices were calculated. The overall numbers of State-certified occupational physicians decreased in Germany between 1992 and 2012 from 136 to 86 (63 %). On the single state level, the ratios of State-certified occupational physicians per 1 Mio. working population ranged from 8 for the state of Saarland to 0.8 for the state of North Rhine Westphalia. A general difference was found for old versus new German states. Also, large differences were present for the ratios of State-certified occupational physicians per 10 6 employees towards public debt per capita (€) and the ratios of State-certified occupational physicians per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the 16 German states in 2012. In striking contrast to the WHO document on the Occupational safety and health (OSH) system that states in its executive summary that the human and institutional capacities of the German occupational health system are very strong in both quantity and quality, we here show extreme imbalances present at the single state levels that developed over the past 20 years. With a regard to the increasing complexity of the economic system a reversal of this trend should be demanded.

  15. The thermal power of aluminum nitride at temperatures between 1350 and 1650 deg C in argon and nitrogen atmospheres. Ph.D. Thesis - Rhine-Westphalia High School at Aachen

    Fischer, W. A.; Schuh, B.


    The test apparatus for measuring the thermal voltage of aluminum nitride for temperature differences of up to + or - 60 C between 1350 and 1650 C is described. The thermal power and its homogeneous proportion are determined and the heat transfer of the migration ions resulting from the homogeneous thermal power is calculated. The conduction mechanism in aluminum nitride is discussed.

  16. Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae underscore the importance of human intervention.

    Dorothee E Zielke

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus, originally restricted to temperate East Asia, is now widespread in North America and more recently has become established in Europe. To ascertain the putative number of separate introductions to Europe and examine patterns of expansion we analyzed the genetic makeup of Ae. j. japonicus populations from five cemeteries in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, two western German federal states, as well as of specimens from populations in Belgium, Switzerland, and Austria/Slovenia. To do so, we genotyped individual specimens at seven pre-existing polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequenced part of the nad4 mitochondrial locus. We found evidence of two different genotypic signatures associated with different nad4 mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating at least two genetically differentiated populations of Ae. j. japonicus in Europe (i.e. two distinct genotypes. Belgian, Swiss, and Austrian/Slovenian populations all share the same genotypic signature although they have become differentiated since isolation. Contrary to expectations, the German Ae. j. japonicus are not closely related to those in Belgium which are geographically nearest but are also highly inbred. German populations have a unique genotype but also evidence of mixing between the two genotypes. Also unexpectedly, the populations closest to the center of the German infestation had the highest levels of admixture indicating that separate introductions did not expand and merge but instead their expansion was driven by punctuated human-mediated transport. Critically, the resulting admixed populations have higher genetic diversity and appear invasive as indicated by their increased abundance and recent spread across western Germany.

  17. The early eugenics movement and emerging professional psychiatry: conceptual transfers and personal relationships between Germany and North America, 1880s to 1930s.

    Stahnisch, Frank W


    French-Austrian psychiatrist Bénédict Augustin Morel's (1809-1873) Traits des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine (1857) was fully dedicated to the social problem of "degeneration" and it became very attractive to German-speaking psychiatrists during the latter half of the 19th century. Auguste Forel (1848-1931) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930) in Zurich integrated Morel's approach and searched for the somatic and morphological alterations in the human brain; a perspective of research that Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952) at Munich further prolonged into a thorough analysis of hereditary influences on mental health. This paper investigates the continuities and major differences within some early eugenic traditions of the emerging field of psychiatry in the German-speaking countries and North America.

  18. from Germany

    Shahriar Azizi


    Full Text Available The first and most important principle of marketing is focusing on the customer needs and wants, because regardless of that, companies will not be able to survive in today's competitive environment. These days, companies know that providing products and services according to customer needs and demands, is an important competitive advantage to gain more sales and benefit, so identifying customer needs and demands, and adopting appropriate strategies for supplying customers' desires are the most important activities in competitive markets. Considering the competitive environment in e-commerce and importance of focus on customer expectations in electronic markets, this study has been aimed to identify and prioritize the factors affecting customer satisfaction in electronic commerce. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model, questionnaire was designed and distributed between 221 people in Germany. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. The research model had found out that from six main factors and 25 sub factors, six factors and 17 sub factors affect satisfaction in online shopping. Also in this study, the type of goods, prices of purchased goods and age range of online buyers are investigated.

  19. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Sebastian Auburger


    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  20. Responsibility to Customers in the Context of Public Value Management – a German Case Study

    Markus Bodemann


    Full Text Available This paper provides results obtained within a questionnaire-based survey conducted in small to medium public administrations in Germany. The survey was carried out on the occasion of working out indicators of risks and application of risk management for public sector. The results of the questionnaire enlighten reasons for undesired deviations from plans and strategy; in addition self-estimation of internal or external factors of decisions under not-certainty and their ramifications to the sustainable execution of obligatory and voluntary tasks. Hence the results are helpful to enlighten customer responsibility. This field research was carried out in the period 2009-2012 with data evaluated from 23 filled in questionnaires with 45 questions. Targets were small to middle local municipalities up to 100.000 inhabitants and county administrations up to 400.000 inhabitants in North Rhine Westphalia of prime importance. The public administrations are forced by law to introduce the accrual accounting system, similar to private sector. Financial statements lead to a similar interpretation. Addressed were mayors and treasurers. The research is replenished by borrowings by Van der Wal, et al., 2008 and Bogumil, et al., 2007. Virtual safety of existence and financing of public administrations have influence to the quality and quantity of public provided services and goods. The results of handling uncertainty, isolated projects and political decisions confirmed a peculiar dealing with accountability, responsibility and finances. Recognizing the steady convergence of operations and strategy of public and private sector organization considering leadership, processes or budgets, a peculiar kind of responsibility to the customers is confirmed, but also an endeavor to use the system for personal interests and protection instead to regard themselves as service provider for individual and collective utility, enhancing public value as objective to be legal pursuit

  1. [Advance Directives in Family Practices: Results of a Survey of GP Patients on their Care Situation].

    Schnakenberg, Rieke; Just, Johannes; Thiessen, Vitali; Puth, Marie-Therese; Bleckwenn, Markus; Weckbecker, Klaus


    Background Advance directives (AD) are an important tool for documentation of patients' wishes and are therefore recommended to the elderly as well as patients with chronic diseases. However, there is no standardized procedure in Germany and no guideline for counseling patients who wish to write an AD with or without health care proxy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the care situation concerning the ADs and the role of the primary care physician in drafting the document Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with patients in primary care in North Rhine-Westphalia using a cross-sectional study design. Result Most of the 154 patients who were interviewed (average age: 58 years; 52% female) suffered from chronic diseases (79%), and about one-third (32%) already had an AD. Fear of "loss of autonomy" was the main reason for preparing an AD. Patients without AD were generally not opposed to the concept and named procrastination (43%) as the main reason for not having prepared one. The chance for preparing an AD increased by the factor 1.08 per life-year (Odds ratio (OR): 1.08; CI: 1.04-1.11). Patients with AD mostly got advice via the internet (22%), their primary care physicians (12%) and relatives (12%). Most patients were satisfied with their AD. Conclusion The majority of primary care patients do not make use of ADs. The primary care physicians play an important role in counseling and should motivate patients to complete ADs. Here, the establishment of quality standards would be desirable in the future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Partitioning evapotranspiration fluxes with water stable isotopic measurements: from the lab to the field

    Quade, M. E.; Brueggemann, N.; Graf, A.; Rothfuss, Y.


    Water stable isotopes are powerful tools for partitioning net into raw water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET) into soil evaporation (E) and plant transpiration (T). The isotopic methodology for ET partitioning is based on the fact that E and T have distinct water stable isotopic compositions, which in turn relies on the fact that each flux is differently affected by isotopic kinetic effects. An important work to be performed in parallel to field measurements is to better characterize these kinetic effects in the laboratory under controlled conditions. A soil evaporation laboratory experiment was conducted to retrieve characteristic values of the kinetic fractionation factor (αK) under varying soil and atmospheric water conditions. For this we used a combined soil and atmosphere column to monitor the soil and atmospheric water isotopic composition profiles at a high temporal and vertical resolution in a nondestructive manner by combining micro-porous membranes and laser spectroscopy. αK was calculated by using a well-known isotopic evaporation model in an inverse mode with the isotopic composition of E as one input variable, which was determined using a micro-Keeling regression plot. Knowledge on αK was further used in the field (Selhausen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) to partition ET of catch crops and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) during one growing season. Soil and atmospheric water isotopic profiles were measured automatically across depths and heights following a similar modus operandi as in the laboratory experiment. Additionally, a newly developed continuously moving elevator was used to obtain water vapor isotopic composition profiles with a high vertical resolution between soil surface, plant canopy and atmosphere. Finally, soil and plant samples were collected destructively to provide a comparison with the traditional isotopic methods. Our results illustrate the changing proportions of T and E along the growing season and demonstrate the

  3. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela


    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  4. Reduction of matrix effects and improvement of sensitivity during determination of two chloridazon degradation products in aqueous matrices by using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Kowal, Sebastian; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C


    The development and validation of a sensitive and reliable detection method for the determination of two polar degradation products, desphenyl-chloridazon (DPC) and methyl-desphenyl-chloridazon (MDPC) in surface water, ground water and drinking water is presented. The method is based on direct large volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. This simple but powerful analytical method for polar substances in the aquatic environment is usually hampered by varying matrix effects, depending on the nature of different water bodies. For the two examined degradation products, the matrix effects are particularly strong compared with other polar degradation products of pesticides. Therefore, matrix effects were studied thoroughly with the aim of minimising them and improving sensitivity during determination by postcolumn addition of ammonia solution as a modifier. An internal standard was used in order to compensate for remaining matrix effects. The calibration curve shows very good coefficients of correlation (0.9994 for DPC and 0.9999 for MDPC). Intraday precision values were lower than 5 % for DPC, 3 % for MDPC and the limits of detection were 10 ng/L for both substances. The method was successfully used in a national round robin test with a deviation between 3 and 8 % from target values. Finally, about 1,000 samples from different water bodies have been examined with this method in the Rhine and Ruhr region of North-Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) and in the European Union. Approximately 76 % of analysed samples contained measurable amounts of DPC at concentrations up to 8 μg/L while 53 % of the samples showed MDPC concentrations up to 2.3 μg/L.


    Dieter Anhuf


    Full Text Available Regional development within the Ruhr district – from the formally centre of the coal and steel industry to a centre of tertiary services. The Ruhrgebiet (Ruhr district is an urban agglomeration in the western part of Germany with a population of approximately 5.3 Million, covering an area of 4.435 km². It’s part of the metropolitan area of Rhine-Ruhr with more than 10 Million inhabitants living in an area of about 10.000 km².The black coal resources, deposited during the carboniferous area form the natural backbone for the development of the largest region of coal, iron, and steel industry in Europe. The economy of the Ruhrgebiet was unidirectional dominated for more than 150 years by four heavy industry sectors, black coal, steel, chemical industry and energy production. But later, when petroleum and natural gas and cheaper imported black coal conquered the German market and, as well, steel could be produced at a reduced rate elsewhere in the world the booming producing industry quasi collapsed. Thus, the Region is characterized by an above average unemployment since the mid 70ies. More than 50% of the 1 Million jobs in the region were lost, while only 300.000 new jobs could be added within the service sector between 1980 and 2002. The economic and social structural change within the Ruhr district is primarily based on the expansion of services like advertisement, science, development, transport logistics, consulting, and design. But also the cultural and tourist branches are characterized by growing figures. The BIP, produced within the Ruhrgebiet, is about 26% of the BIP of North-Rhine-Westphalia or 6% of Germany’s BIP. In comparison, the metropolitan area of São Paulo produces 17% of the national BIP of Brazil.

  6. Determinants of Web-based CSR Disclosure in the Food Industry

    Florian Sommer


    Full Text Available Purpose –Web-based CSR disclosure provides a variety of advantages for firms. Determining factors for web-based CSR disclosure have been analyzed in several papers. However, only limited research has been conducted on both, the food industry and small and midsized enterprises. This paper is one contribution to fill this gap as we investigate web-based CSR communication of food processors including SME.Design/methodology/approach – We analyzed corporate communication on the websites of 71 food producers from North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany using dictionary-based content analysis. Based on an ordered logit model the relationship between CSR communication and size, profitability, indebtedness and closeness to market was estimated. Economic data were obtained from the commercial database DAFNE.Findings – Our results reveal that larger firms provide relatively more CSR information than smaller firms. There was no significant relationship between CSR disclosure and profitability or indebtedness of a company and an ambiguous relationship with regard to the determinant ‘closeness to market’. Regarding the different areas of communication we found that social compared to environmental aspects were underrepresented.Practical implications – Social aspects of CSR could be used for differentiation in the market. Furthermore, as smaller firms provide relatively less information on CSR it might be worthwhile to analyze the central impediments for CSR communication for those companies.Originality/Value – This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion about firms’ CSR communication. From a convenience sample of 71 food processing firms, including SME, it provides insight regarding the determinants for CSR disclosure on firms’ websites. With the focus on the food industry and the inclusion of SME we contribute with our study to two under-researched areas.


    U. Lussem


    Full Text Available Timely availability of crop acreage estimation is crucial for maintaining economic and ecological sustainability or modelling purposes. Remote sensing data has proven to be a reliable source for crop mapping and acreage estimation on parcel-level. However, when relying on a single source of remote sensing data, e.g. multispectral sensors like RapidEye or Landsat, several obstacles can hamper the desired outcome, for example cloud cover or haze. Another limitation may be a similarity in optical reflectance patterns of crops, especially in an early season approach by the end of March, early April. Usually, a reliable crop type map for winter-crops (winter wheat/rye, winter barley and rapeseed in Central Europe can be obtained by using optical remote sensing data from late April to early May, given a full coverage of the study area and cloudless conditions. These prerequisites can often not be met. By integrating dual-polarimetric SAR-sensors with high temporal and spatial resolution, these limitations can be overcome. SAR-sensors are not influenced by clouds or haze and provide an additional source of information due to the signal-interaction with plant-architecture. The overall goal of this study is to investigate the contribution of Sentinel-1 SAR-data to regional crop type mapping for an early season map of disaggregated winter-crops for a subset of the Rur-Catchment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany. For this reason, RapidEye data and Sentinel-1 data are combined and the performance of Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifiers are compared. Our results show that a combination of Sentinel-1 and RapidEye is a promising approach for most crops, but consideration of phenology for data selection can improve results. Thus the combination of optical and radar remote sensing data indicates advances for crop-type classification, especially when optical data availability is limited.

  8. Combined Analysis of SENTINEL-1 and Rapideye Data for Improved Crop Type Classification: AN Early Season Approach for Rapeseed and Cereals

    Lussem, U.; Hütt, C.; Waldhoff, G.


    Timely availability of crop acreage estimation is crucial for maintaining economic and ecological sustainability or modelling purposes. Remote sensing data has proven to be a reliable source for crop mapping and acreage estimation on parcel-level. However, when relying on a single source of remote sensing data, e.g. multispectral sensors like RapidEye or Landsat, several obstacles can hamper the desired outcome, for example cloud cover or haze. Another limitation may be a similarity in optical reflectance patterns of crops, especially in an early season approach by the end of March, early April. Usually, a reliable crop type map for winter-crops (winter wheat/rye, winter barley and rapeseed) in Central Europe can be obtained by using optical remote sensing data from late April to early May, given a full coverage of the study area and cloudless conditions. These prerequisites can often not be met. By integrating dual-polarimetric SAR-sensors with high temporal and spatial resolution, these limitations can be overcome. SAR-sensors are not influenced by clouds or haze and provide an additional source of information due to the signal-interaction with plant-architecture. The overall goal of this study is to investigate the contribution of Sentinel-1 SAR-data to regional crop type mapping for an early season map of disaggregated winter-crops for a subset of the Rur-Catchment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). For this reason, RapidEye data and Sentinel-1 data are combined and the performance of Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifiers are compared. Our results show that a combination of Sentinel-1 and RapidEye is a promising approach for most crops, but consideration of phenology for data selection can improve results. Thus the combination of optical and radar remote sensing data indicates advances for crop-type classification, especially when optical data availability is limited.

  9. Effect of straw mulch residues of previous crop oats on the weed population in direct seeded faba bean in Organic Farming

    Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone


    Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.

  10. Pharmaceutical concentration variability at sewage treatment plant outlets dominated by hydrology and other factors.

    Brunsch, Andrea F; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Rijnaarts, Huub; Christoffels, Ekkehard


    A study was conducted in which the effluent at four small to medium sized sewage treatment plants (STP) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was monitored for three pharmaceutical compounds (carbamazepine, diclofenac, metoprolol) over a period of four years. Grab sampling and auto sampling campaigns were accomplished with respect to various weather conditions in the catchment area. Flow volumes and hydraulic retention times (HRT) from various sampling dates which provide information on processes causing emission changes were additionally taken into account. Monitoring results showed that concentration scattering in the effluent is related to HRT in the sewage treatment plants. Dilution effects following rain events in the catchment area were analysed for the three investigated substances. Short-term emission changes explained by dilution only could be well determined by the mathematical relation between discharge and concentration, and for carbamazepine to be solely determined by the dilution effects at all HRTs. For metoprolol, a clear decrease in concentrations was observed at HRTs above 80 h, and a significant contribution of biodegradation was supported by independent biodegradation tests. For three out of the four STPs, a decrease in concentrations of diclofenac was observed at hydraulic retention times above 80 h, indicating removal, whereas the relationship between concentration and HRT of the other STP could be explained by dilution only. The study shows that emissions can vary with weather conditions, hampering the assessment of emissions and estimation of concentrations in surface waters from generic removal rates only. Furthermore, it illustrates the importance of HRT of rather stable substances in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Informed Choice in the German Mammography Screening Program by Education and Migrant Status: Survey among First-Time Invitees.

    Eva-Maria Berens

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among women and mammography screening programs are seen as a key strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality. In Germany, women are invited to the population-based mammography screening program between ages 50 to 69. It is still discussed whether the benefits of mammography screening outweigh its harms. Therefore, the concept of informed choice comprising knowledge, attitude and intention has gained importance. The objective of this observational study was to assess the proportion of informed choices among women invited to the German mammography screening program for the first time. A representative sample of 17,349 women aged 50 years from a sub-region of North Rhine Westphalia was invited to participate in a postal survey. Turkish immigrant women were oversampled. The effects of education level and migration status on informed choice and its components were assessed. 5,847 (33.7% women responded to the postal questionnaire of which 4,113 were used for analyses. 31.5% of the women had sufficient knowledge. The proportion of sufficient knowledge was lower among immigrants and among women with low education levels. The proportion of women making informed choices was low (27.1%, with similar associations with education level and migration status. Women of low (OR 2.75; 95% CI 2.18-3.46 and medium education level (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.27-1.75 were more likely to make an uninformed choice than women of high education level. Turkish immigrant women had the greatest odds for making an uninformed choice (OR 5.30, 95% CI 1.92-14.66 compared to non-immigrant women. Other immigrant women only had slightly greater odds for making an uninformed choice than non-immigrant women. As immigrant populations and women with low education level have been shown to have poor knowledge, they need special attention in measures to increase knowledge and thus informed choices.

  12. The Federal Government's supervisory authority, Land jurisdiction, and the Atomic Energy Act

    Steinberg, R.


    The instructions given in spring 1988 by the Federal German Minister of the Environment to the Minister of Economics of the Land North-Rhine Westphalia, in matters concerning the Kalkar nuclear reactor, form the background of the expert opinion presented as an analysis of significant problems arising in connection with the execution of Federal laws. The development of legal criteria for issuing instructions is analysed as a point of main interest in the process. The author discusses an important requirement given by the Constitution, namely that the principle of federation-agreeable conduct involves the duty to minimize interference with the responsibilities and jurisdiction of a Land. The Land North-Rhine Westphalia presented this expert opinion in April 1989 in legal proceedings before the Federal Constitutional Court in a dispute between the Federal Government and the Lands over Art. 93, paragraph 1, no. 3 of the Constitution. The decision given by the Federal Constitutional Court on 22 May 1990 confirmed the legality of the Federal Government's conduct in this matter. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radioactivity in surface waters and its effects

    Stoeber, I.


    In consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl, the State Office for Water and Waste Disposal of North-Rhine Westphalia implemented immediate programmes for monitoring radioactivity in surface waters, including their sediments and organisms. Of the initially-measured radionuclides, only cesium-137, with its long half-life of 30 years, is of interest. Only trace amounts of the almost equally long-lived strontium 90 (half-life 28 years) were present in rainfall. Cs-137 is a non-natural-radionuclide, occurring solely as a by-product of nuclear installations and atomic bomb tests. Following the ban on surface testing of nuclear weapons, the Cs-137 content of surface waters had fallen significantly up to April 1986. The load due to the reactor disaster is of the same order of magnitude as that produced by atomic testing at the end of the nineteen-sixties. The paper surveys radioactive pollution of surface waters in North-Rhine Westphalia and its effects on water use, especially in regard to potable water supplies and the fish population. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. [Surveillance of drinking water supply with a geographic information system: a pilot project of the of the Iogd NRM and the Hoxter district].

    Hellmeier, W; Queste, A; Woltering, R


    Drinking water surveillance includes the use of spatial data. A geographic information system (GIS) is a practicable tool for work with spatial data in the health sector as well. Co-operation between the Institute of Public Health for North Rhine Westphalia, the local health authority of the Hoexter district and the Institute for Geoinformatics of the University of Muenster started a project testing the use of GIS for drinking water surveillance. A special application was programmed. It includes functions of retrieval and classification of the measured values of drinking water wells, in order to show time trends in a diagram and to visualise the location of the wells and the analysis data in a map. The members of the Public Health Office accepted the method and started using it regularly. In addition, the collaboration between the health authority and other local authorities was strengthened. Several data sets were included in the GIS, such as wells and results of water analysis, water protection areas, land use data, and topographical maps. Basing on to the experiences with this project, the development of a standard application is planned that is supposed to be communicated to all local health authorities in North Rhine Westphalia.

  15. Suitability of untreated wood ash for recycling; Qualitaet und Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Holzaschen aus naturbelassenen Hoelzern

    Stahl, E. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik, UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany); Doetsch, P. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Abfallwirtschaft


    Background, aim and scope: The increasing use of wood for generating heat and electricity requires that more and more fuels be obtained directly or indirectly from the forest. Sound, sustainable recycling management calls for the return of any generated wood ash back to the forest to make use of the nutrients it contains. Similarly, recycling this ash in other locations such as agricultural land or private gardens can serve equally well as fertilizer. At the same time, it is critical that no accumulated pollutants be introduced into the nutrient loop. Wood ash that is heavily laden with such pollutants must not be considered for recycling. As part of this research project, commissioned by the Ministry for the Environment and Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany (MUNLV), ash samples of 209 woodfired appliances generating between 10 and 4000 kW of heat performance were taken from throughout the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Untreated wood, either forested or scrap, was used as the sole fuel for these appliances. Materials and methods: All course ash and fly ash samples were analyzed to determine their composition of main nutrients, heavy metals, and the elements Fe, Cl, Si, Al and Na. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the suitability of this wood ash for reintroduction to forest soils or as fertilizer in other types of soil. Results: The majority of the wood ash samples in this study contained sufficiently high amounts of nutrients to match the requirement for stand-alone fertilizers (PK-fertilizer, potash fertilizer). However, the heavy metal content was highly variable, with a mean content high enough to prohibit them from being classified per se as PK- or potash fertilizer for agricultural land. Due to the high quantities of cadmium, application of this ash to garden soils would likewise be ill-advised. Discussion: On forest soils German law permits application of a mixture of

  16. Biomass in Germany

    Chapron, Thibaut


    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  17. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert


    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  18. Biofuels as an opportunity of development for the rural area. Regional-economic analysis with the example of Northrhine-Westphalia; Biokraftstoffe als Entwicklungschance fuer den laendlchen Raum. Regionaloekonomische Analyse am Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalens

    Breuer, Thomas


    The energetic use of biomass experiences new attention in politics and public particularly due to high prices for fossil energy and climate protection. The German bioenergy boom is determined by political decisions. In this sense, the bioenergy markets can be characterized as 'political' markets. This is often ignored given the current euphoria over bioenergy. In the policy debate bioenergy is supported by several arguments including aspects of resources, environment, labour market, economy, technology develop, agriculture, regional and structural policy. While studies of energetic and ecological Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the biofuels are already present, the other political aspects are quite little investigated. Particularly against the background of an introduction of the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and an examination of the efficiency of the promotion of biofuels, still, substantial research is needed. The goal of the work is to estimate whether biofuels allow new income possibilities and which rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia could profit from these new prospects. A possible promotion policy for rural area is outlined which increases the income chances, and at the same time reduced negative environmental effects for the future. The work starts analysing the relevant policy framework of biofuel production in North-Rhine-Westphalia. Key question is which energy crop allows a positive income effect in which regions of North-Rhine-Westphalia. For this the procedure ''energy maize for biogas'' (rape seeds and wheat were already implemented) was integrated into the regionalised agricultural sector model RAUMIS. By the assumption of a completely elastic demand for biomass thereby the ''economic supply potential'' of the energy crops of the North-Rhine/Westphalian agriculture is illustrated under given agricultural and energy-political framework. Beside the quantitative analysis of

  19. Drugs in East Germany.

    Dressler, J; Müller, E


    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  20. Characteristics and Impacts of the severe Hailstorm on 28 July 2013

    Kunz, Michael; Jürgen Punge, Heinz; Fluck, Elody; Schmidberger, Manuel; Blahak, Ulrich; Handwerker, Jan; Mohr, Susanna; Mühr, Bernhard


    On 27/28 July, two severe supercell thunderstorms in Germany caused unexpected extreme losses of 3.1 bn EUR(insured) and 4.0 bn EUR(economic), respectively. According to the recently published damage statistics of Munich Re for the year 2013, these hail events were the costliest natural catastrophe in worldwide for that year ranked by insured losses. This example exemplifies the large damage potential related to hail events, which is still underestimated both by the public and the insurance industry. On 27 July, the first supercell moved over the federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. Large hail with diameters of up to 7.5 cm according to observations archived in the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) caused severe damage especially over the Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg. One day later, on 28 July, another supercell formed upstream of the Black Forest Mountains and moved almost parallel over the Swabian Jura and Bavaria. Hail with diameters of up to 8 cm fell over a heavily populated region between the cities of Reutlingen and Tübingen. In this area, exposed assets are extremely high, which partly explain the high total loss. Approximately 100,000 buildings and 50,000 automobiles (not considered are the damaged automobiles at the parking lot in Wolfsburg) were severely damaged by these two events. Considering the single event definition over a 72-hr period, which is usually applied in the insurance industry, these hailstorms were one of the most expensive loss events in Germany. In this paper, we investigate the severe hailstorm on 28 July from different views. By using and combining available observational data sets, the objective is to reconstruct the whole events at a very high resolution and to examine the conditions that are most relevant for convective initiation and the further development of the organized convective cell. Using a series of photos of damaged objects the aim is to relate different object classes and hail stone

  1. Germany, Russia, and energy

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre


    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  2. Depression Disturbs Germany


    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  3. EMI in Germany

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen


    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  4. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  5. Germany - an immigration country

    Siebert, Horst


    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  6. Germany at CERN


    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  7. Companies closely concerned with the mining industry have a training requirement

    Grossekemper, H.J.; Schmidt, B.; Schulenberg, F.


    In view of the serious economic situation the future decisions are extremely difficult for some companies closely concerned with the mining industry. The required orientation of the company towards new markets and new products requires not less, but more training and rethinking in all company divisions: from business management via personnel management to plant organisation and from marketing via development to quality assurance. This is proved by practical examples. An analysis by the ''Training'' working group has produced valuable information on the actual training requirement in the North Rhine-Westphalian engineering industry. It has worked out the concrete situation of the companies closely concerned with the mining industry in North Rhine-Westphalia from the point of view of their own training requirements. It is now the task of each individual company to analyse and reflect its concrete situation against the mirror of the results and to base the specific training requirement on the company aim. (orig.)

  8. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  9. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.


    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  10. Nuclear energy in Germany


    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  11. Elucidating source processes of N2O fluxes following grassland-to-field-conversion using isotopologue signatures of soil-emitted N2O

    Roth, G.; Giesemann, A.; Well, R.; Flessa, H.


    Conversion of grassland to arable land often causes enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. This is due to the tillage of the sward and subsequent decomposition of organic matter. Prediction of such effects is uncertain so far because emissions may differ depending on site and soil conditions. The processes of N2O turnover (nitrification, production by bacterial or fungal denitrifiers, bacterial reduction to N2) are difficult to identify, however. Isotopologue signatures of N2O such as δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) can be used to characterize N2O turnover processes using the known ranges of isotope effects of the various N2O pathways. We aim to evaluate the impact of grassland-to-field-conversion on N2O fluxes and the governing processes using isotopic signatures of emitted N2O. At two sites, in Kleve (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, conventional farming) and Trenthorst (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, organic farming), a four times replicated plot experiment with (i) mechanical conversion (ploughing, maize), (ii) chemical conversion (broadband herbicide, maize per direct seed) and (iii) continuous grassland as reference was started in April 2010. In Trenthorst we additionally established a (iv) field with continuous maize cultivation as further reference. Over a period of two years, mineral nitrogen (Nmin) content was measured weekly on soil samples taken from 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. Soil water content and N2O emissions were measured weekly as well. Gas samples were collected using a closed chamber system. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry was carried out on gas samples from selected high flux events to determine δ18O, δ15Nbulk and SP of N2O. δ18O and SP of N2O exhibited a relatively large range (32 to 72 ‰ and 6 to 34 ‰, respectively) indicating highly variable process dynamics. The data-set is grouped

  12. Geomechanical characterization of the Upper Carboniferous under thermal stress for the evaluation of a High Temperature - Mine Thermal Energy Storage (HT-MTES)

    Hahn, Florian; Brüggemann, Nina; Bracke, Rolf; Alber, Michael


    The goal of this R&D project is to create a technically and economically feasible conceptual model for a High Temperature - Mine Thermal Energy Storage (HT-MTES) for the energetic reuse of a mine on the example of the Prosper-Haniel coal mine in Bottrop, Germany. This project is funded by the "Initiative Energy Storage" program of the German Federal Ministries BMWi, BMU and BMBF. At the end of 2018, the last operative coal mine in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (Prosper-Haniel), is going to be closed down, plugged and abandoned. Large amounts of subsurface infrastructures, resembled mainly by open parts of former galleries and mining faces are going to be flooded, after the mine is closed down and therefore have the potential to become an enormous geothermal reservoir for a seasonal heat storage. During the summer non-used (waste) heat from solar thermal power plants, garbage incineration, combined heat and power plants (CHP) or industrial production processes can be stored within dedicated drifts of the mine. During the winter season, this surplus heat can be extracted and directly utilized in commercial and/or residential areas. For the evaluation of such a HT-MTES within a former coal mine, the corresponding geomechanical parameters of the Upper Carboniferous under thermal stress needs to be evaluated. Therefore the main rock types of the Upper Carboniferous (claystone, siltstone and sandstone) are subject to a geomechanical characterization before and after thermal cyclic loadings of temperatures up to 200 °C. The samples have been collected directly from the coal mine Prosper-Haniel within a depth range of 1000 - 1200 m. Unconfined compressive and tensile strengths, as well as triaxial tests were performed at room temperature. Furthermore, a range of petrophysical properties like density, thin-section analysis and P-wave velocities were determined. First results show an indication that the overall strength properties of the samples are not effected by

  13. Germany after Federal elections

    Niedzballa, G.


    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  14. Counter-measures to reduce the effects of spoil tips on the quality of ground water-standard-setting boundary conditions and implementation; Gegenmassnahmen zur Verminderung der Auswirkungen von Abraumkippen auf die Grundwasserbeschaffenheit. Normative Rahmenbedingungen und Umsetzung

    Cremer, Nils [Erfverband, Bergheim (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser; Bolle, Christian [Ministerium fuer Wirtschaft, Energie, Bauen, Wohnen und Verkehr des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)


    The lignite mining industry in North Rhine-Westphalia gives rise to large spoil tips because of the mining methods. In the Rhenish lignite districts spoil quantities of over 30 bn m{sup 3} will accumulate in tips covering a total area of 300 km{sup 2} by the end of open-cast mining in the 2040s. It is important to counteract by suitable measures the effects of these waste tips, which are characterised essentially by pyrite oxidation, on the future quality of ground water after its renewed rise. This contribution describes the counter-measures already used for some time to reduce the effects on the ground water quality both from standard-setting, chemical and technical points of view. Furthermore the effectiveness of the measures described and thus the contribution to ground water protection and also to safeguard of the water supply can be specified. (orig.)

  15. Safety verdict about the 300-MW prototype nuclear power station with fast sodium cooled reactor in Kalkar


    The safety verdict had been elaborated on the order of the Ministry of Economy, Middle Classes and Technology of the state North Rhine-Westphalia. It covers the behaviour of the so-called target core of the Mark-Ia core as a whole as well as its individual subassemblies, i.e. fuel, diluent, absorber, blanket and reflector subassemblies. The report considers the aspects of the neutron physics, thermal hydraulics and mechanical design together with the quality assurance, the treatment of radiological questions and the determination of the decay heat. The safety authorities come to the conclusion the sufficient provision against damages has been taken in the design of the core subassemblies

  16. Wuergassen nuclear power plant



    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  17. Zweigbibliothek Medizin der Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster – vor Ort, online und mobil / Medical Branch Library of the University & Regional Library Münster – local, online, and mobile

    Obst, Oliver


    Full Text Available The Medical Branch Library is a subject library of the University and Regional Library Münster, and was founded in 1993 as the central medical library in the grounds of the University Hospital. Second only to the German National Library in Cologne, it is the largest medical library in North Rhine-Westphalia. The budget of the library derives mainly from the Medical Faculty. The funding from the university and from tuition fees is used to acquire textbooks. The physical library is used almost exclusively as a place of learning (by students, while the online presence mainly by researchers and physicians. The library offers since 1997 e-journals, since 2003 e-books and media for Smart Computers/Phones. It is using innovative ways for supplying journal articles, such as a virtual library budget and serving Subito for free.

  18. Costs of radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis

    Prahl, M.


    The study described investigates into the costs arising from physical protection measures against radiation, in particular from dosimetric determinations carried out in humans according to section 40 of the X-Ray Ordinance, from special structural requirements of examination rooms and higher purchase prices for X-ray units offering built-in protective devices (hardware-related radiation protection). The conventional fluoroscope is chosen as an example of how this is achieved today. At first, a survey is given of X-ray installations in North Rhine-Westphalia, the technical details of which are described. This provides approximative information on the extent of dosimetric calculations in humans, the necessary expenditure on shieldings and the costs involved in additional hardware-related measures. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Measurement of batter movements in brown coal open cuts - results of a research project

    Nehring, H


    In the course of a research project sponsored by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia the mine surveying methods used when measuring deformation on open cut batters were further developed, by taking into account the special conditions prevailing in open cuts, to such an extent that the essential monitoring of soil movements can be carried out reliably and promptly. As an integral part of an optimised, accurate geodetic measurement of points, the direct measurement of longitude across the open cut was introduced as a rapid measuring method. The aerophotogrammetric measurement of points is practically as accurate as terrestrial surveying. The author describes the prototype of an automatically operated instrument system for the monitoring of points. In conclusion he also stresses that the first promising advance has already been made as regards the sufficiently accurate monitoring of rock movements in boreholes.

  20. Farm management information systems: A case study on a German multifunctional farm

    Husemann Christoph


    Full Text Available Accurate and easy to use Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS are of fundamental importance for a successful operational farm management. However, still today many farmers do not use FMISs for various reasons, like lack of knowledge and the complexity of many available FMISs. In particular for small to medium-sized farms and for multifunctional farms appropriate FMISs hardly exist. This paper aims on the deduction of a concrete FMIS from a general FMIS. The concrete FMIS has to focus on the needs of medium-sized and multifunctional farms. This means that the farmer has to be empowered to allocate the scarce resources of the farm. Therefore, we picked a German farm from the state North Rhine Westphalia as a case-study to apply a system analysis. The case study farm helps to identify and to analyze relevant material and information flows, production processes, and their interconnections and synergies.

  1. Legal claims against Belgian reactors?; Rechtsmittel gegen belgische Reaktoren?

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR Consulting on Nuclear Law and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)


    The Belgian reactors Tihange 2 and Doel 3 have been restarted in November 2015 after the problem of hydrogen flakes in the reactor pressure vessels had been investigated. The permission to restart has been the object both of critical statements by the German Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMUB) and of lawsuits filed with Belgian law courts by a group of German municipalities led by the city of Aachen and by the Land North-Rhine-Westphalia. According to a general principle of the law of nations, a state is not permitted to operate installations near its border, which cause significant environmental damage in a neighbouring state. However, it is not quite clear how this principle applies to the issue of potential accidents of nuclear power plants. According to the author, a tangible threat of an accident is required; mere doubts and concerns about the extent of safety margins are not sufficient.

  2. Site provision planning for nuclear power plants and other large-scale projects with environmental relevance in the FRG

    Blumel, W.


    As regards conflicts in interest in connection with site planning and site decisions, the author evolves the following theses: 1) Site provision planning by the Federal Government as in Baden-Wuerttemberg and North Rhine-Westphalia; 2) clarification of the Federal Government's competences; 3) prompt and adequate participation of those concerned; 4) increased influence of the Federal Government, e.g. basic site planning by the Federal government and authority of the Federal government to issue directives (section 85 Basic Law) to the Laender regarding site provision planning; 5) solutions to the problems of citizen participation and the question of legal protection; 6) standardization of a design and hearing procedure at an early date within the area planning laws of the Federal government, the area planning laws to be open to further development. (HP) [de

  3. Has the Federal Government the power to instruct State authorities in procedures under the Atomic Energy Act

    Ost, W.; Pelzer, N.


    The differences in opinion which have emerged between the Federal Government and ministers of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia about further permits to be issued for construction of the SNR 300 fast breeder reactor at Kalkar have raised the question of whether the Federal Government has the right to issue directives to a state authority to grant a permit. Close examination of the legal aspects indicates that hardly any literature and no court decisions are as yet available on this problem, because it has never played a role so far. However, it is undisputed that there is such a right to give instructions. Under the Constitution and the Atomic Energy Act the state authorities are responsible for granting permits, but only as agents acting on behalf of the federal authority. Such instructions must be in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act and the objective sought must be lawful for the instructions to be effective. (orig.) [de

  4. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Gaertner, E


    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  5. Climate and Energy Roadmaps towards 2050 in north-western Europe. A concise overview of long-term climate and energy policies in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Notenboom, J.; Boot, P.; Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.


    Many European countries are developing plans for a transition towards a low-carbon economy in 2050. These plans are often named climate and energy roadmaps. Although roadmaps are also developed and discussed at EU level, this paper expressly follows a bottom-up approach by looking at developments in six north-western European countries. These countries' roadmaps are in various stages of development and cannot be compared in detail. Main differences, common approaches and possible needs for closer cooperation are therefore explored in a stylised way.

  6. [On the risk of spread of E. coli/EHEC O104:H4 stx 2 positive bacteria via sewerage treatment plants during the 2011 EHEC outbreak in north Germany].

    Heinemeyer, E-A; Luden, K; Monazahian, M


    During an EHEC outbreak with E. coli O104:H4 stx2-pos in northern Germany 2 sewage treatment plants (Cuxhaven and Stade) of highly affected areas were monitored for the presence of the outbreak strain. 7 efflux water samples were collected at 1 h and 6 h intervals. The overall E. coli content of the treated sewage water was approximately 35 000 CFU/100 mL in both treatment plants. Among these about 500 were ESBL-E. coli (1.4%). ESBL-Agar was used as selective medium as the outbreak strain is highly resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporins. From the ESBL-isolates 208 strains have been typed by molecular methods for markers specific to the outbreak strain (O104rfb -351 base pairs (bp), flic H4-201 bp, stx2-584 bp, Tellur D - 434 bp). No outbreak strain was detected. The number of E. coli O104:H4 stx2-pos was calculated to be less than 3 per 100 mL in the treated sewage at the time of the study. Therefore it can be concluded that there was no threat for bathers to fall sick with this highly pathogenic strain from possibly sewage-contaminated bathing waters during the outbreak. The national limit value of 1 800 E. coli in 100 mL offers a high safety margin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G


    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Germany at CERN


    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  9. Germany bars nuclear energy

    Gaullier, V.


    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  10. Use of large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements to characterize heterogeneous subsurface structures and their impact on crop productivity

    Brogi, Cosimo; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Kaufmann, Manuela Sarah; von Hebel, Christian; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry


    Soil subsurface structures can play a key role in crop performance, especially during water stress periods. Geophysical techniques like electromagnetic induction EMI have been shown to be able of providing information about dominant shallow subsurface features. However, previous work with EMI has typically not reached beyond the field scale. The objective of this study is to use large-scale multi-configuration EMI to characterize patterns of soil structural organization (layering and texture) and the associated impact on crop vegetation at the km2 scale. For this, we carried out an intensive measurement campaign and collected high spatial resolution multi-configuration EMI data on an agricultural area of approx. 1 km2 (102 ha) near Selhausen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) with a maximum depth of investigation of around 2.5 m. We measured using two EMI instruments simultaneously with a total of nine coil configurations. The instruments were placed inside polyethylene sleds that were pulled by an all-terrain-vehicle along parallel lines with a spacing of 2 to 2.5 m. The driving speed was between 5 and 7 km h-1 and we used a 0.2 Hz sampling frequency to obtain an in-line resolution of approximately 0.3 m. The survey area consists of almost 50 different fields managed in different way. The EMI measurements were collected between April and December 2016 within a few days after the harvest of each field. After data acquisition, EMI data were automatically filtered, temperature corrected, and interpolated onto a common grid. The resulting EMI maps allowed us to identify three main areas with different subsurface heterogeneities. The differences between these areas are likely related to the late quaternary geological history (Pleistocene and Holocene) of the area that resulted in spatially variable soil texture and layering, which has a strong impact on spatio-temporal soil water content variability. The high resolution surveys also allowed us to identify small scale

  11. Sociodemographic and health-(care-)related characteristics of online health information seekers: a cross-sectional German study.

    Nölke, Laura; Mensing, Monika; Krämer, Alexander; Hornberg, Claudia


    Although the increasing dissemination and use of health-related information on the Internet has the potential to empower citizens and patients, several studies have detected disparities in the use of online health information. This is due to several factors. So far, only a few studies have examined the impact of socio-economic status (SES) on health information seeking on the Internet. This study was designed to identify sociodemographic and health-(care-)related differences between users and non-users of health information gleaned from the Internet with the aim of detecting hard-to-reach target groups. This study analyzed data from the NRW Health Survey LZG.NRW 2011 (n = 2,000; conducted in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, via telephone interviews). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the determinants of online health information seeking behavior. 68% of Internet users refer to the Internet for health-related purposes. Of the independent variables tested, SES proved to exert the strongest influence on searching the Internet for health information. The final multivariate regression model shows that people from the middle (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6-3.2) and upper (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.7-6.2) social classes are more likely to seek health information on the Internet than those from the lower class. Also, women are more likely to look for health information on the Internet than men (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1). Individuals with a migration background are less likely to conduct health searches on the Internet (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Married people or individuals in a stable relationship search the Internet more often for health information than do singles (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Also, heavy use of health-care services compared to non-use is associated with a higher likelihood of using the Internet for health-related matters (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.5). In order to achieve equity in health, health-related Internet use by the socially deprived should be

  12. Digital breast tomosynthesis plus synthesised images versus standard full-field digital mammography in population-based screening (TOSYMA): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Weigel, Stefanie; Gerss, Joachim; Hense, Hans-Werner; Krischke, Miriam; Sommer, Alexander; Czwoydzinski, Jörg; Lenzen, Horst; Kerschke, Laura; Spieker, Karin; Dickmaenken, Stefanie; Baier, Sonja; Urban, Marc; Hecht, Gerold; Heidinger, Oliver; Kieschke, Joachim; Heindel, Walter


    Development of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) provides a technology that generates three-dimensional data sets, thus reducing the pitfalls of overlapping breast tissue. Observational studies suggest that the combination of two-dimensional (2D) digital mammography and DBT increases diagnostic accuracy. However, because of duplicate exposure, this comes at the cost of an augmented radiation dose. This undesired adverse impact can be avoided by using synthesised 2D images reconstructed from the DBT data (s2D).We designed a diagnostic superiority trial on a high level of evidence with the aim of providing a comparison of screening efficacy parameters resulting from DBT+s2D versus the current screening standard 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a multicentre and multivendor setting on the basis of the quality-controlled, population-based, biennial mammography screening programme in Germany. 80 000 women in the eligible age 50-69 years attending the routine mammography screening programme and willing to participate in the TOSYMA trial will be assigned by 1:1 randomisation to either the intervention arm (DBT+s2D) or the control arm (FFDM) during a 12-month recruitment period in screening units of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. State cancer registries will provide the follow-up of interval cancers.Primary endpoints are the detection rate of invasive breast cancers at screening examination and the cumulative incidence of interval cancers in the 2 years after a negative examination. Secondary endpoints are the detection rate of ductal carcinoma in situ and of tumour size T1, the recall rate for assessment, the positive predictive value of recall and the cumulative 12-month incidence of interval cancers. An adaptive statistical design with one interim analysis provides the option to modify the design. This protocol has been approved by the local medical ethical committee (2016-132-f-S). Results will be submitted to international peer

  13. A reactor/receiver-concept for liquid-phase high-temperature processes

    Schmidt-Traub, H.; Hahm, T. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Besides the conversion of solar light to electricity solar energy can be used directly in photo- and thermochemistry. In the temperature range from 1000 to 2000 K there is a high demand for industrial process heat offering a variety of possibilities for solar thermal applications. Especially in the field of liquid-phase high-temperature processes there are hardly no solar thermal applications which exceed the stage of laboratory experiments. It was therefore the aim of two projects financed by the AG Solar of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, to develop concepts for commercial scale solar thermal plants and to judge them economically and ecologically. Some general problems have to be overcome to realize a commercial scale solar thermal plant for liquid-phase processes. The concept developed consists of a heliostat field, a tower reflector and an open receiver with a closed reaction chamber. The feasibility of a solar thermal plant for high-temperature liquid-phase processes has been shown in principle. The projected plant consists of a 4400 m{sup 2} heliostat field, a tower plus reflecting mirrors with a total area of 220 m{sup 2} and an open receiver with a closed annular reaction zone. For temperatures below 1700 K the overall efficiency is high enough to yield energetic amortization times of less than 1 year. For a further improvement and a verification of the calculation a closer look at the reactor/receiver and its heat transfer processes is necessary. This is done by using a mixed strategy of experiments and simulation. First experiments were carried out with a semitransparent salt and an opaque metal. The first stage of the experiments will end during the next weeks and their results have to be compared with the simulation. The simulation will then be extended to transparent melts. The second stage of the experiments which include the reaction chamber will start in 1997. An improvement of the reactor might be achieved using nonimaging concentrators to further

  14. Polarimetric signatures indicative of severe storm development - the Pentecost event 2014

    Troemel, Silke; Diederich, Malte; Evaristo, Raquel; Ryzhkov, Alexander; Simmer, Clemens


    The 2014 Pentecost weekend storms in Europe were a series of severe supercell storms which followed a heatwave in early June 2014, resulting from a Spanish plume synoptic weather pattern. Outbreaks of severe weather were reported from these storm developments with the worst damages occurring over the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia on 9 June, where the storm was described as one of the most violent in decades by the German weather service (DWD). During this event six fatalities, wind gusts up to 150km/h, hail and a flash flood in Düsseldorf has been reported. Monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather using weather radars of shorter wavelength (X- and C-bands) requires special methods, i.e. anomalous high attenuation and differential attenuation due to very large raindrops originating from melting large hail has to be investigated and corrected. During the Pentecost event a record breaking ZDR bias of up to -25dB has been observed. Different strategies for reliable attenuation correction and rainfall estimation for this extreme event are explored and will be presented. A national 3D composite of polarimetric moments covering Germany with 1km horizontal, 250m vertical, and 5 minutes temporal resolution has been generated. 10 C-band radars from the DWD radar network, recently upgraded to polarimetry, have been included. Meanie3D, a 3D scale space tracking algorithm, is applied to the composite to investigate the magnitudes and temporal development of the 3 fundamental steps of a storms lifecycle: 1) high values of differential reflectivity ZDR aloft first indicate a developing cell, 2) ZDR-columns (these are vertical columns of high differential reflectivity) then indicate the updraft zone of a cell in the mature state. The vertical extent of the ZDR-column is thus a measure of the strength of the updraft and for the ensuing rainfall enhancement. 3) The very first big drops reach the surface before the most intense rain begins. This is reflected by the

  15. Predicting long-term average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants using GIS-based information

    Hochadel, Matthias; Heinrich, Joachim; Gehring, Ulrike; Morgenstern, Verena; Kuhlbusch, Thomas; Link, Elke; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Krämer, Ursula

    Global regression models were developed to estimate individual levels of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants. The models are based on data of a one-year measurement programme including geographic data on traffic and population densities. This investigation is part of a cohort study on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on respiratory health, conducted at the westerly end of the Ruhr-area in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Concentrations of NO 2, fine particle mass (PM 2.5) and filter absorbance of PM 2.5 as a marker for soot were measured at 40 sites spread throughout the study region. Fourteen-day samples were taken between March 2002 and March 2003 for each season and site. Annual average concentrations for the sites were determined after adjustment for temporal variation. Information on traffic counts in major roads, building densities and community population figures were collected in a geographical information system (GIS). This information was used to calculate different potential traffic-based predictors: (a) daily traffic flow and maximum traffic intensity of buffers with radii from 50 to 10 000 m and (b) distances to main roads and highways. NO 2 concentration and PM 2.5 absorbance were strongly correlated with the traffic-based variables. Linear regression prediction models, which involved predictors with radii of 50 to 1000 m, were developed for the Wesel region where most of the cohort members lived. They reached a model fit ( R2) of 0.81 and 0.65 for NO 2 and PM 2.5 absorbance, respectively. Regression models for the whole area required larger spatial scales and reached R2=0.90 and 0.82. Comparison of predicted values with NO 2 measurements at independent public monitoring stations showed a satisfactory association ( r=0.66). PM 2.5 concentration, however, was only slightly correlated and thus poorly predictable by traffic-based variables ( rGIS-based regression models offer a promising approach to assess individual levels of

  16. Evaluating the influence of plant-specific physiological parameterizations on the partitioning of land surface energy fluxes

    Sulis, Mauro; Langensiepen, Matthias; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Schickling, Anke; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan


    Vegetation has a significant influence on the partitioning of radiative forcing, the spatial and temporal variability of soil water and soil temperature. Therefore plant physiological properties play a key role in mediating and amplifying interactions and feedback mechanisms in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Because of the direct impact on latent heat fluxes, these properties may also influence weather generating processes, such as the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In land surface models, plant physiological properties are usually obtained from literature synthesis by unifying several plant/crop species in predefined vegetation classes. In this work, crop-specific physiological characteristics, retrieved from detailed field measurements, are included in the bio-physical parameterization of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is a component of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). The measured set of parameters for two typical European mid-latitudinal crops (sugar beet and winter wheat) is validated using eddy covariance measurements (sensible heat and latent heat) over multiple years from three measurement sites located in the North Rhine-Westphalia region, Germany. We found clear improvements of CLM simulations, when using the crop-specific physiological characteristics of the plants instead of the generic crop type when compared to the measurements. In particular, the increase of latent heat fluxes in conjunction with decreased sensible heat fluxes as simulated by the two new crop-specific parameter sets leads to an improved quantification of the diurnal energy partitioning. These findings are cross-validated using estimates of gross primary production extracted from net ecosystem exchange measurements. This independent analysis reveals that the better agreement between observed and simulated latent heat using the plant-specific physiological properties largely stems from an improved simulation of the

  17. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David


    (relief, soil properties, weather conditions and crop coverage) are represented. Water balance parameters are modeled in daily steps, taking into account relief determined discharge pathways, runoff velocity and number of field boundaries passed until receiving streams are reached. Model development is based on a comprehensive monitoring campaign at 3 smaller catchments in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), equipped with two gauges each, upstream and downstream, an optical Trios probe and four Isco-Samplers. The temporal high resolution monitoring of discharge, ppp, orthophosphate and nitrate-nitrogen enables an evaluation of runoff simulations in relation with rain events. First model results suggest that the simulation of surface runoff pathways enables a spatial-explicit identification of fields contributing to pollutant inputs. We assume that targeted actions on few fields will help solving the problem of diffuse inputs of ppp in our surface water to a considerable extent.

  18. Nuclear power in Germany

    Schaefer, A.


    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  19. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    Roser, T.


    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  20. Country report for Germany

    Heusener, Gerhard


    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  1. Environmental policy in Germany

    Wey, K.G.


    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  2. ECFA SURVEY: Germany



    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  3. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  4. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie


    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  5. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Pott, E


    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  6. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    Sauer, H.D.


    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  7. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  8. Germany at CERN

    C. Laignel / FI-DI


    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  9. Germany AT CERN

    C. Laignel / FI-DI


    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  10. Germany AT CERN


    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  11. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    Dangelmayer, D.


    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Thomas Krikser


    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  13. Nuclear power in Germany

    Beckurts, K.H.


    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de



    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  15. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Jörg Nagler


    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  16. Wind energy in Germany

    Molly, J.P.


    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  17. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Hagen, Anja


    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  18. 13. Expert congress on future power supply. Proceedings; 13. Fachkongress Zukunftsenergien. Kongressbeitraege



    Within the 13th convention of EnergieAgentur.NRW (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 10th February, 2009, in Essen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Future energies from North Rhine Westphalia (C. Thoben); (2) Climate change USA? American energy policy under president Barack Obama (A. Best); (3) Regenerative energy industry NRW Environment - Economy - Research (N. Allnoch); (4) Actual trends in the power plant technology (M. Neubronner); (5) Innovations and requirements at future electrical grids (C. Rehtanz); (6) Utilization of biomass in NRW (E. Uhlenberg); (7) CCS - Review of the state of the art (D. Goldschmidt); (8) CCS - EU boundary conditions (H. Bergmann); (9) CCS - Public acceptance in Germany (M. Donnermeyer); (10) CCS in Norway (A.M. Blaker); (11) Climatic protection by means of CCS - The point of view of a NRO in Norway (E. Hoff); (12) The NRW geotechnical research unit - A central laboratory for geothermal collaborative research for science and economy (R. Bracke); (13) Analysis of the value chain geothermal power in the metropolis Ruhr (B. Bruckhoff); (14) The geothermal drillings of SGG in the Bavarian Molasse basin (R. Baur); (15) Actual projects in the area of geothermal power at Stadwerke Bochum GmbH (F. Peper); (16) Geothermal projects of Evonik New Energies GmbH (A. Kany); (17) Geothermal projects of Daldrup and Soehne AG (A. Toenies); (18) Bio energy as a perspective for municipalities: Profitability, supply security and self supply of municipal real estates (U. Kreienmeier); (19) Public utilities as a partner in times of energetic change (F. Broesse); (20) Best practice bio energy: Technical transfer and financing (H. Jordan); (21) Bio energy registers for a sustainable development in European regions: Significance of regional bio energy grids as an active business development (G. Fritsch); (22) Industrial wastelands as an area perspective for cultivation of biomass: Perspectives for North Rhine

  19. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the Early to Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in eastern Bavaria (Germany)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; Böhme, M.; Rocholl, A.; Zwing, A.; Prieto, J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Heissig, K.; Bachtadse, V.


    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study was carried out on middle Miocene fluvial successions of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) from the North Alpine Foreland Basin, in eastern Bavaria, Germany. The biostratigraphic investigations yielded six new localities thereby refining the OSM

  20. The changing consumer in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang


    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  1. The changing consumer in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang


    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  2. Physician assistant education in Germany

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews


    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  3. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany



    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  4. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Ulrich, V


    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  5. 4th international renewable energy storage conference (IRES 2009)



    Within the 4th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference of The European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) and The World Council for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 24th and 25 November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The World Wind Energy Association (A. Kane); (2) The contribution of wind power to the energy supply of tomorrow (H. Albers); (3) Intelligent energy systems for the integration of renewable energies (A.-C. Agricola); (4) 100% Renewable energies: From fossil baseload plants to renewable plants for basic supply (M. Willenbacher); (5) High-performance Li-ion technology for stationary and mobile applications (A. Gutsch); (6) Energy storage in geological underground - Competition of use at storage formations (L. Dietrich); (7) E-mobility concepts for model region ''Rhein-Ruhr'' in North Rhine Westphalia (G.-U. Funk); (8) Photovoltaic energy storage for a better energy management in residential buildings (S. Pincemin); (9) Self-consuming photovoltaic energy in Germany - Impact on energy flows, business cases, and the distribution grid (M. Braun); (10) Local energy systems -optimized for local consumption of self-produced electricity (B. Wille-Haussmann); (11) Assessing the economics of distributed storage systems at the end consumer level (K.-H. Ahlert); (12) A new transportation system for heat on a wide temperature range (S. Gschwander); (13) Latent heat storage media for cooling applications (C. Doetsch); (14) Numerical and experimental analysis of latent heat storage systems for mobile application (F. Roesler); (15) CO{sub 2}-free heat supply from waste heat (H.-W. Etzkorn); (16) Stationary Li-Ion-technology applications for dispatchable power (C. Kolligs); (17) Redox-flow batteries - Electric storage systems for renewable energy (T. Smolinka); (18) Energy storage by means of flywheels (H. Kielsein); (19

  6. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany



    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.) [de

  7. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    Berg, H. P.


    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  8. Energy supply in East Germany

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu


    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  9. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    Boulanger, V.


    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  10. International Student Migration to Germany

    Donata Bessey


    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  11. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.


    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Chenot, Jean-François


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  13. Wind power report Germany 2014

    Rohrig, Kurt


    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  14. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    Knebel, J.


    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  15. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    Lauer, Hartmut


    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  16. Germany after March 11th

    Wolski, A.


    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  17. North Frisian: The North Frisian Language in Education in Germany, 3rd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    Walker, Alastair G. H., Comp.


    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  18. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen


    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  19. [North] Korea.


    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  20. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.


    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  1. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.


    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  2. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)


    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  3. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian


    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p  = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p  = 0.015). Conclusion  Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Integrated solid waste management in Germany



    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  5. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  6. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Wirth, Harry


    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  7. Employee share ownership in Germany

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon


    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  8. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    Jens Lowitzsch


    Full Text Available The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill. European states have set an ambitious target to reach 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Germany as Europe’s green energy leader could become a pioneer in CSOP implementation. Small communities in Europe would benefit from the increased share of renewable energy resources.

  9. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.


    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  10. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.


    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  11. North Korea’s 7.1 Policy


    Brazil, Qatar, Myanmar, France , Germany, and Nigeria as shown in Figure 8. On the other hand, North Korean received imports from Thailand, Russia...In 1992, the regime got rid of the last remnants of Marxism in the Juche idea and evolved it into a religious/ethical system. This also

  12. Upper Middle Pleistocene climate and landscape development of Northern Germany

    Urban, B.


    and the margin of a 286 m deep channel, subglacially eroded during the Elsterian, have recently been investigated by 9 counter flash or cored drillings (Stephan et al., in press). Studies focussed on the uppermost 50 m, made up of a series of approximately 9 m thick fluviatile sediments ("Leck-Folge") with intercalations of organic sand layers and a gyttja band, up to 1.5 m thick. This sequence is overlain by several metres of mainly decalcified groundmoraine, that, itself, is overlain by glaciofluvial and periglacial sediments. The palynological investigations of the gyttja reveal a floral development of interglacial character ("Leck-Thermomer"). Compared to other Middle Pleistocene warm periods in North Germany, correlations of the Leck-Thermomer with the Holsteinian and with the warm periods of the Reinsdorf and Wacken (Dömnitz) interglacials are precluded or appear rather implausible. The Leck-Thermomer is most likely a correlative of the marine oxigen isotope stage 7 c (MIS 7). Stephan, H.-J., Urban, B., Lüttig, G., Menke, B. und M. Sierralta: Palynologische, petrographische und geochronologische Untersuchungen der Leck-Warmzeit (spätes Mittelpleistozän) und ihrer begleitenden Sedimente.- [Palynological, petrographical, and geochronological investigations of deposits of the "Leck-Thermomer" and accompanying sediments].- Geologisches Jahrbuch, in press. Thieme, H., 1997. Lower Paleolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385, 807-810. Urban, B. 1995. Palynological evidence of younger Middle Pleistocene Interglacials (Holsteinian, Reinsdorf, Schöningen) in the Schöningen open cast lignite mine (eastern Lower Saxony/Germany). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 52, 175-186. Urban, B. 2006. Interglacial pollen records from Schöningen, north Germany.- In: THE CLIMATE OF PAST INTERGLACIALS. Sirocko, F., Litt, T., Claussen, M., Sanchez-Goni, M.F. (eds.), Springer Verlag; in press.

  13. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Bie Yanan


    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  14. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber


    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  15. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; van Elsen, Thomas


    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  16. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.


    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  17. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    Wolff, J.


    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  18. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    Weller, T.


    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  19. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    Drew, H.


    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  20. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    Kuebler, Knut


    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner


    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Overweight in Germany

    Sophie-Charlotte Meyer


    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...

  3. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany


    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.


    Bestenigar KARA


    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  5. Basic concepts and estimated maximum possible employment effects of a consistent development of renewable energy systems in Nordrhein-Westfalen. 1st technical report; Konzeptionelle Grundlagen und Abschaetzung zukuenftig maximal moeglicher Bruttobeschaeftigungseffekte beim Ausbau erneuerbarer Energiesysteme in Nordrhein-Westfalen. 1. Technischer Fachbericht

    Mohr, M.; Ziegelmann, A.; Unger, H.


    In the First Technical Report the fundamental ideas for the realization of this project are presented and the future possible maximum gross employment effects of an expansion of renewable energy systems in North-Rhine-Westphalia with consideration of the present-day cost structure are quantified in an initial stage. In this connection gross employment effects are defined as exclusive positive job effects without consideration of possible negative employment effects on the basis of less investments in other sectors of the economy. Based on a subdivided presentation of the intended course of the project and a formulation of its main objectives, a detailed description of the theoretical background of the applied methods of input-output analysis is provided. After the presentation of some different methods and the necessary assumptions, the analysis takes the so-called `Keynesian income multiplier` into account to accommodate the effects of an increase in national income. To use a known investment distribution, grouped in 21 sub-divisions according to categories of applications, within the scope of an input-output-analysis, the investments are converted. After the determination of the matrices, necessary to quantify employment effects, the maximum possible gross effects concerning the future job market of the Federal Republic of Germany will be assessed with consideration of the fluctuations in productivity on sector level. A total of 700.000 new jobs can be expected, of which about 27% are due to the increase of personal disposable income and the resulting rise in consumer spending respectively. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Im vorliegenden 1. Technischen Fachbericht werden konzeptionelle Grundlagen zur Realisierung des Vorhabens eroertert und es wird eine erste Abschaetzung der potentiellen Bruttobeschaeftigungswirkungen eines Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energiesysteme in Nordrhein-Westfalen durchgefuehrt. Unter Bruttobeschaeftigungswirkungen werden dabei ausschliesslich positive

  6. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  7. Germany, high-tech country



    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  8. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y


    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  9. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie


    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  10. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    Lukes, R.H.P.


    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  11. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    Brammer, K.J.


    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  12. Combined geophysical, geochemical and geological investigations of geothermal reservoir characteristics in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Hahne, B.; Thomas, R.


    The North German basin provides a significant geothermal potential, although temperature gradients are moderate. However, deep drilling up to several thousand meters is required to reach temperatures high enough for efficient generation of geothermal heat and electric power. In these depths we have not much information yet about relevant physical properties like porosity or permeability of the rock formations. Therefore the costs of developing a geothermal reservoir and the risk of missing the optimum drilling location are high. The collaborative research association "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling" (gebo) unites several universities and research institutes in Lower Saxony, Germany. It aims at a significant increase of economic efficiency by introducing innovative technology and high tech materials resisting temperatures up to 200 °C in the drilling process. Furthermore, a better understanding of the geothermal reservoir is essential. gebo is structured into four main fields: Drilling Technology, Materials, Technical Systems and Geosystem. Here, we show the combined work of the Geosystem group, which focuses on the exploration of geological fault zones as a potential geothermal reservoir as well as on modeling the stress field, heat transport, coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes, geochemical interactions and prediction of the long-term behavior of the reservoir. First results include combined seismic and geoelectric images of the Leinetalgraben fault system, a comparison of seismic images from P- and S-wave measurements, mechanical properties of North German rocks from field and laboratory measurements as well as from drill cores, seismological characterization of stimulated reservoirs, a thermodynamic "gebo" database for modeling hydrogeochemical processes in North German formation waters with high salinity and at high temperatures, stress models for specific sites in northern Germany, and modeling results of permeability and heat transport

  13. Wind power implementation in changing institutional landscapes: An international comparison

    Breukers, Sylvia; Wolsink, Maarten


    In order to understand diverging achievements in wind power implementation, the Netherlands, England, and the German state of North Rhine Westphalia are compared in a multiple cases study. The comparison addresses the extent to which wind power, as a new energy technology, has become embedded in existing routines and practices of society. The concept of institutional capacity building is adopted to qualify the trajectories followed, taking into account the interdependent and changing political, economic, environmental and planning conditions. Moreover, attention is focused on the conditions that affect the local planning contexts, because that is the level at which conflicts are eventually played out and where a lack of social acceptance becomes manifest. This comparison partly clarifies diverging achievements in terms of implementation. Local social acceptance is problematic-to various degrees-in all three cases. Policymakers and wind project developers do not sufficiently recognise the nature of tensions at the local level. Facilitating local ownership and institutionalising participation in project planning can help to arrive at a better recognition and involvement of the multiple interests (environmental, economic and landscape) that are relevant at the local level of implementation

  14. Analyzing the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn.

    Manner, Hans; Wünsch-Ziegler, Laura


    We study the severity of accidents on the German Autobahn in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia using data for the years 2009 until 2011. We use a multinomial logit model to identify statistically relevant factors explaining the severity of the most severe injury, which is classified into the four classes fatal, severe injury, light injury and property damage. Furthermore, to account for unobserved heterogeneity we use a random parameter model. We study the effect of a number of factors including traffic information, road conditions, type of accidents, speed limits, presence of intelligent traffic control systems, age and gender of the driver and location of the accident. Our findings are in line with studies in different settings and indicate that accidents during daylight and at interchanges or construction sites are less severe in general. Accidents caused by the collision with roadside objects, involving pedestrians and motorcycles, or caused by bad sight conditions tend to be more severe. We discuss the measures of the 2011 German traffic safety programm in the light of our results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contributions for the third international carbon conference CARBON '80

    Delle, W.


    This report is a compilation of 8 papers prepared by KFA Juelich GmbH for the International Carbon Conference carbon 80 in Baden-Baden. The contributions deal mainly with materials problems which arise from the application of graphite and silicon carbide in High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, HTR. Most of the results described were obtained in the framework of the HTR Projects ''Hochtemperaturreaktor-Brennstoffkreislauf'' (High Temperature Reactor Fuel Cycle), HBK, that includes the partners Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperaturreaktor-Brennelement GmbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, NUKEM GmbH and Sigri Elektrographit GmbH/Ringsdorff-Werke GmbH and ''Prototyp Nukleare Prozesswaerme'' (Prototype Nuclear Heat), PNP, for the development of procedures for the conversion of solid fossil raw materials by means of heat from High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors, that includes the partners Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Gesellschaft fuer Hochtemperaturreaktor-Technik mbH, Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau GmbH, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH and Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG. Both projects are financed by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. (orig./IHOE) [de

  16. Cost-Effective Mobile-Based Healthcare System for Managing Total Joint Arthroplasty Follow-Up.

    Bitsaki, Marina; Koutras, George; Heep, Hansjoerg; Koutras, Christos


    Long-term follow-up care after total joint arthroplasty is essential to evaluate hip and knee arthroplasty outcomes, to provide information to physicians and improve arthroplasty performance, and to improve patients' health condition. In this paper, we aim to improve the communication between arthroplasty patients and physicians and to reduce the cost of follow-up controls based on mobile application technologies and cloud computing. We propose a mobile-based healthcare system that provides cost-effective follow-up controls for primary arthroplasty patients through questions about symptoms in the replaced joint, questionnaires (WOMAC and SF-36v2) and the radiological examination of knee or hip joint. We also perform a cost analysis for a set of 423 patients that were treated in the University Clinic for Orthopedics in Essen-Werden. The estimation of healthcare costs shows significant cost savings (a reduction of 63.67% for readmission rate 5%) in both the University Clinic for Orthopedics in Essen-Werden and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia when the mobile-based healthcare system is applied. We propose a mHealth system to reduce the cost of follow-up assessments of arthroplasty patients through evaluation of diagnosis, self-monitoring, and regular review of their health status.

  17. Investigations into the influence of airborne pollutants on the metabolism of secondary phenolic substances and amino acids. Untersuchungen ueber den Einfluss von Luftschadstoffen auf den Stoffwechsel von phenolischen Sekundaerstoffen und Aminosaeuren

    Strack, D.


    Quantitative analyses of secondary phenols, free amino acids, and of the enzyme activities arginase and asparaginase were carried out on spruce needles from six different forest sites in North-Rhine Westphalia. In addition, the effects of ozone on spruce aged seven to eight years were investigated. The aim of this was to find out whether there is a correlation between the phenol and amino acid metabolism and the damage rate in older spruce (31 to 60 years) and in younger spruce exposed to ozone. No correlation could be established with a single exception: In one site, the free amino acid pattern showed a 10-fold increase of arginine and an accumulation of ornithine and lysine. This indicates a disturbed nitrogen metabolism, in particular a stimulation of the urea cycle, which may be caused by anthropogenic over fertilizing with nitrogen. The findings for the spruce exposed to ozone indicate a more complex effect on the needle metabolism, which affects both the phenol metabolism (strong decrease of the catechine concentration) and the amino acid metabolism (increase of the alanine concentration). This may be caused by damaged membranes (i.e. higher permeability accompanied by sensitive changes in the metabolic compartmenting) or by a potential increase of transaminase activities. (orig./MG).

  18. [Software as medical devices/medical apps : Tasks, requirements, and experiences from the point of view of a competent authority].

    Terhechte, Arno


    Software can be classified as a medical device according to the Medical Device Directive 93/42/EEC. The number of software products and medical apps is continuously increasing and so too is the use in health institutions (e. g., in hospitals and doctors' surgeries) for diagnosis and therapy.Different aspects of standalone software and medical apps from the perspective of the authority responsible are presented. The quality system implemented to establish a risk-based systematic inspection and supervision of manufacturers is discussed. The legal framework, as well as additional standards that are the basis for inspection, are outlined. The article highlights special aspects that occur during inspection like verification of software and interfaces, and the clinical evaluation of software. The Bezirksregierung, as the local government authority responsible in North Rhine-Westphalia, is also in charge of inspection of health institutions. Therefore this article is not limited to the manufacturers placing the software on the market, but in addition it describes the management and use of software as a medical device in hospitals.The future legal framework, the Medical Device Regulation, will strengthen the requirements and engage notified bodies more than today in the conformity assessment of software as a medical device.Manufacturers, health institutions, notified bodies and the authorities responsible are in charge of intensifying their efforts towards software as a medical device. Mutual information, improvement of skills, and inspections will lead to compliance with regulatory requirements.

  19. Exploring sustainability transitions in households: insights from real-life experiments

    Baedeker, Carolin; Buhl, Johannes; Greiff, Kathrin; Hasselkuß, Marco; Liedtke, Christa; Lukas, Melanie


    Societal transformation towards sustainable consumption and production, especially in urban areas, is a key challenge. The design and implementation of sustainable product service systems (PSS) might be the initial point, in which private households play a major role. The Sustainable LivingLab research infrastructure was developed as an experimental setting for investigating consumption and production patterns in private households, especially to explore socio-technical innovations which are helpful to guide sustainability transitions. The suggested presentation describes results of several real-life experiments conducted in German households, e.g. the project SusLabNRW (North-Rhine Westphalia as part of the European SusLabNWE-Project), the EnerTransRuhr project as well as the PATHWAYS project that explore patterns of action, time use, social practices and the related resource use in private households. The presentation gives an overview of the employed methods and analysed data (qualitative interviews, social network analysis, survey on household activities and inventories and a sustainability assessment (resource profiles - MIPS household analysis). Households' resource consumption was calculated in all fields of activity to analyse social practices' impact. The presentation illustrates how aggregated data can inform scenario analysis and concludes with an outlook onto transition pathways at household level and socio-technical innovations in the fields of housing, nutrition and mobility.

  20. The life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a Digital Humanities resource

    Ulrike Henny


    Full Text Available This contribution tracks and analyzes the life cycle of the Book of the Dead as a digital project and a rather complex research resource. It gives an account of how the digital archive “Das altägyptische Totenbuch – Ein digitales Textzeugenarchiv” was constructed in the context of the digitization efforts of the Academy for Science of North Rhine-Westphalia. From the beginning, the design of the archive has factored in a life of the digital archive beyond its funding period and has sighted to create a sustainable information resource. The main issues to be discussed here are what experiences have been made with sustainability, use and reuse of the Book of the Dead archive since the official end of the project in December 2012, with a focus on conceptual, technical and organizational aspects. The lessons learned can be of interest for future undertakings in the creation of XML and web-based digital platforms in Digital Classics and beyond. In a nutshell, they are: (a the importance of wary technological choices in an initial phase cannot be underestimated, (b the application and presentation layers of a digital resource, if present, are an essential part of it, (c a certain degree of commitment from the research community and funding bodies alike is indispensable for maintaining a web-based complex Digital Humanities resource.

  1. Coping with multimorbidity in old age – a qualitative study

    Löffler Christin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively few studies address the problems related to multimorbidity. This is surprising, since multimorbidity is a particular challenge for both general practitioners and patients. This study focuses on the latter, analyzing the way patients aged 65–85 cope with multimorbidity. Methods 19 narrative in-depth interviews with multimorbid patients were conducted. The data was analysed using grounded theory. Of the 19 interviewed patients 13 were female and 6 male. Mean age was 75 years. Participating patients showed a relatively homogeneous socio-economic status. Patients were recruited from the German city of Hamburg and the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Results Despite suffering from multimorbidity, interviewees held positive attitudes towards life: At the social level, patients tried to preserve their autonomy to the most possible extent. At the emotional level, interviewees oscillated between anxiety and strength - having, however, a positive approach to life. At the practical level, patients aimed at keeping their diseases under control. The patients tended to be critical in regards to medication. Conclusions These findings might have implications for the treatment of multimorbid patients in primary care and further research: The generally presumed passivity of older individuals towards medical treatment, which can be found in literature, is not evident among our sample of older patients. In future, treatment of these patients might take their potential for pro-active cooperation more strongly into account than it is currently the case.

  2. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Knauf, Marcus


    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO 2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO 2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.

  3. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    Michaelowa, A.


    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  4. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Wilhelm, J.G.


    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Emission reduction program in the unified Germany

    Kehr, M.; Emsperger, W.; Termuehlen, H.


    High population density and intense industrialization in both parts of Germany resulted in high specific power demands. The domestic availability of hard coal and lignite made coal-fired power plants the backbone of power generation in all of Germany. The unification of Germany has brought together two power generation systems with similar basic needs and concepts. However, forty years existence within different economic systems has resulted in a quite different status in regard to installed generating capacity, availability of various fuels and environmental standards. To bridge the existing gap in a relatively short time is a huge challenge for the utilities, the power generation and distribution industry as well as for the federal and state authorities

  6. AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology

    Graeber, Ulrich


    AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

  7. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Wilhelm, J.G.


    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Ralf Goebel


    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  9. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu


    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  10. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas


    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  11. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G


    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  12. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.


    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  13. Food-related life style in Germany

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren


    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  14. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Toogood, Alex


    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  15. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten


    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany


    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  17. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.


    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  18. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard


    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  19. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Forst, Michael


    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  20. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Gruhn, Wilfried


    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  1. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany


    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  2. Towards a national ecosystem assessment in Germany

    Albert, Christian; Neßhöver, Carsten; Schröter, Matthias


    We present options for a National Ecosystem Assessment in Germany (NEA-DE) that could inform decision-makers on the state and trends of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Characterizing a NEA-DE, we argue that its cross-sectoral, integrative approach would have the advantages of increased...

  3. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas


    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  4. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value


    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  5. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    Turkish, F.


    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  6. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov


    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  7. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan


    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  8. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    Feder, Toni


    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  9. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    Persem, Melanie


    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  10. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    Schiermeier, Q


    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  11. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  12. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.


    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  13. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S


    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  14. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin


    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  15. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    Bergmann, B.


    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  16. The ins and outs of poverty in advanced economies: poverty dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States

    Robert G. Valletta


    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics—incidence, transitions, and persistence—can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high i...

  17. Sunnyboy of the North; Sunnyboy im hohen Norden



    Parking tickets, handball, North Sea, Baltic Sea: This is what most Germans know about Flensburg. Hardly anyone will associate solar energy in conjunction with this small town on the Danish border. This is an error, as the insolation values of the German coastal regions are quite near those of Freiburg, Germany's number one solar city in the Black Forest. Kai Lippert, director and founder of the EWS company, was aware of this quite early and constructed his PV business in the extreme North. (orig.)

  18. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S


    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  19. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Michael Dauderstädt


    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  20. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.


    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  1. Second births in western Germany and France

    Katja Köppen


    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  2. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    Holzer, J.


    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  3. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Milch, Wolfgang


    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  4. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas


    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Glebe, G


    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  6. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.


    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  7. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    Cruciani, Michel


    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  8. The JIIM Domain: Examination of U.S. Military Sustainment Assistance Following North Korean Regime Collapse


    real and substantiated by partnership and open communication. After the time of the Sino-Soviet conflict in 1972, Juche replaced 28 Marxism ...Juche. After the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union, North Korea’s greatest economic partner, Marxism - Leninist ties with Juche was dropped in role in resolving the conflict, finally ending it in 1995.21 Other than the U.S., Britain, France , Germany, or effectively, key European NATO


    Dietrich Soyez


    Full Text Available Industrial tourism, i.e. visiting both active and historic industrial plants (or their historical remains, has been a growing sector in tourism for years, but is nevertheless unlikely to lose its “niche” character... Today it is generally offered under the general heading of cultural tourism, and in this context is often also marketed as active or adventurous tourism (and associated with educational aims, both in marked contrast to the traditional relaxing holiday. The forms of supply and demand that have developed in industrial tourism are of growing significance both for historic and active industrial regions, as suchtourism can provide very positive stimuli for structural policy, regional economies and reputations. Recently, remarkable industrial tourism destinations (industrial Brand Worlds have emerged both in the old industrialised countries of Europe and North America andin Newly Industrialising Countries/NICs, e.g. in Asia. Many of these destinations need notfear comparison with the attractiveness of classical destinations for national or eveninternational tourism, and a few leading industrial sites already have impressive visitor numbers.After a brief overview of the current state of supply and demand in industrial tourism inGermany, the following points will form the focus of the analysis:–– Suppression of controversial and darkaspects of industrialisation (especially intimes of war, annexation and occupation–– Innovations (particularly in the formof so-called Brand Worlds, e.g. in theautomobile industry.

  10. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas


    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  11. Energy transition in France and Germany

    Persem, Melanie


    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  12. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    Roesner, Sven


    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  13. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    Fertig, Michael


    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  14. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany


    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  15. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Jarosław Poteraj


    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  16. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier


    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  17. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    Persem, Melanie


    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  18. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    Roesner, Sven


    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  19. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Jochem Reichert


    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  20. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Friedemann, Miriam


    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  1. Final storage in Germany. Who is interested?

    Kuehn, K.


    The final storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany - who, in Germany, has any interest in this subject, especially now that the new Atomic Energy Act has been adopted, and who is going to read this article? The author, Professor Klaus Kuehn, examines this question, analyzing in his contribution the current situation and the points of view of those who may be interested in this topic. In Prof. Kuehn's opinion, the addresses in particular are these: - the federal government, - the opposition in the federal parliament, - the federal states, - the Federal Ministry for the Environment, - the Federal Ministry for Research, - the Federal Ministry of Economics, - the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, - the operators of nuclear power plants, - the Working Group Elaborating Procedures for Selecting Repository Sites (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn concludes that there is little interest at the present time in the subject of Final Storage in Germany, for reasons explained in detail which result both from the political constellation and from existing constraints. (orig.) [de

  2. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Marion Dathe


    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  3. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Thorsten Agemar


    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  4. Energy R and D in Germany; TOPICAL

    PJ Runci


    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy

  5. Energy R and D in Germany

    Runci, PJ


    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  6. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    Raetzke, Christian


    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  7. Governing the energy challenge : Canada and Germany in a multi-level regional and global context

    Eberlein, B.; Doern, G.B.; Exeter Univ.,


    This book features essays by leading energy and public policy specialists from Canada and Germany. It originated in the Transatlantic Energy Conference which was hosted by the Canadian Centre for German and European Studies at Toronto's York University in September 2005. The conference was attended by leading energy scholars and experts from Canadian and European universities, research institutes and governmental and non-governmental organizations. The purpose of this book was to compare the dynamics of multi-level energy regulatory governance in Germany and Canada, notably the energy policy challenges that include energy security, environmental sustainability and a competitive resource economy. Many strategies to produce more efficient and sustainable energy are presented in the book. Part 1 of the book focuses on the energy industry, with particular emphasise on electricity, nuclear energy and natural gas. Part 2 of the book focuses on domestic patterns of multi-level energy governance and regulation in the two countries. As a member of the European Union, Germany is more advanced in dealing with multi-level governmental and sustainability constraints than Canada is as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The book focuses on the influence that the energy sector and multi-level institutional arrangements have on energy governance, with particular attention to the link between environmental study, climate change issues and economic market reforms. The growing differences between NAFTA and European Union member countries were highlighted. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)


    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  9. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H


    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  10. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez


    The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost ...... is resulting in a prediction of a yearly production of 23TWh; the latter is estimating a yearly production of 77TWh. This equals to 6% of the electricity demand around the North Sea, where the annual electricity consumption is about 1,300TWh.......The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost...... as in the Atlantic and the distance to shore relatively long compared to sites with good wave climate like Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the west coast of UK. The increasing activities within offshore wind in the North Sea and the attempt to build a super grid connecting the wind sites with the major consumers around...

  11. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  12. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Alison M. Lewis


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  13. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Alison M. Lewis


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  14. The energy supply situation in Germany

    Lederer, P.


    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  15. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.


    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  16. A Less Ambitious Energy Transition for Germany

    Beeker, Etienne; Yahiel, Michel; Lenglart, Fabrice; Broca, Olivier de; Senne, Valerie


    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO_2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)

  17. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin


    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  18. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany



    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear energy in France and Germany


    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  20. Detection of radioactivity in scrap in Germany

    Kugeler, E.; Thierfeldt, S.; Sefzig, R.; Weimer, G.


    Although Germany's scrap export exceeds the import, the imports of scrap amount to more than one million Mg per year. Radioactivity has been found mainly in imported scrap in Germany. This radioactivity can consist of surface contamination in scrap e.g. from the oil and gas industry, nuclear and other technical applications or of radiation sources, e.g. from medical or technical irradiation devices where the source has not been removed prior to scrapping. Fortunately really large sources have been involved in only very few occasions. More serious incidents have, however, been reported from other countries. Today, measurement facilities have been installed at the entrances to virtually all German foundries and larger scrap yards. These measurement facilities allow the swift measurement of whole lorry or freight car loads. The lower limit of detection is for some devices as low as ca. 5 nSv/h (dose rate increase above background at the detector) which is achieved by very advanced hardware and software. Additionally, simplified dose rate measurements are performed by German customs officials at the eastern borders for scrap loads to be imported into Germany. When activity is detected in a load, several options exist, like e.g.: (i) sending the scrap back to the sender; (ii) allowing the whole load to be melted down; (iii) careful unloading and separating the load with the aim of localizing and removing the contamination. This paper analyses these various options after detection, discusses the role of the competent authorities and evaluates the possible radiological consequences. Realistic dose calculations show that it is possible that a person may receive doses of several mSv or even 10 mSv if precautionary measures are neglected or if a larger source is not detected at all. This paper further addresses which types and amounts of radioactivity may be detected and which conclusions can be drawn from the dose rate at the detector. The continuous increase in the number

  1. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.


    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  2. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    Miska, H.


    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  3. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    Lempert, J.P.


    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  4. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    Coy, K.


    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  5. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany


    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  6. Management of nuclear liabilities in Germany

    Roser, T.


    The management of nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany is explored in this article. The intermediate storage and final disposal of spent fuels from the country's twenty nuclear power stations is discussed. Flexible solutions to the changing problems of nuclear fuel cycle economics are needed. Financing the back end of the nuclear power station lifetimes is currently underfunded. Monies should be accumulated during the plant's active life. The political, technical, legal and economic aspects of the nuclear industry must also be included. (UK)

  7. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Hans-Henning Kappel


    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  8. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.


    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  9. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.


    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  10. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense


    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  11. Deposition of acidifying components and base cations in Germany in the period 1987-1995

    Bleeker, A.; Draaijers, G.P.J; Klap, J.M.; Van Jaarsveld, J.A.


    The title project was carried out on behalf of and for account of the 'Umweltbundesamt' (UBA) Germany in co-operation with TNO-MEP and SC-DLO. The main products arising from this project are, for Germany, estimates of dry deposition with a high spatial resolution, which, in combination with wet deposition data, will be used for the calculation of critical load exceedances. The basic model used in this study was EDACS. This model calculates dry deposition fluxes on the basis of meteorological data and atmospheric concentrations of relevant species. As such, the project reported here further elaborates the work carried out in a previous project in 1996, with the following additions and/or improvements worked out: (a) The distribution of NH3 concentrations in Germany has now been calculated on a 5x5 km grid using the EUTREND model, while in the previous study these data were taken from the standard EMEP model; (b) Possible concepts for introducing cloud deposition into the inferential approach have been investigated, with results for a small study area in southern Germany shown; (c) Canopy exchange estimates for forest sites in Germany were related to parameters, also measured at these sites to gain better insight into the parameters controlling canopy uptake and leaching. SOx dry deposition fluxes were highest in central-east Germany, NOy fluxes in central-west Germany and NHx fluxes in north-west Germany. The highest dry deposition of potential acid (up to 15,000 eq. ha -1 y -1 in 1987) was calculated for 'Bundesland' Sachsen and the highest dry deposition load of nitrogen was calculated for Bremen (up to 2100 eq ha -1 y -1 in 1989). Dry deposition of SOx, NOy, NHx and potential acid in the 1993-1995 period decreased by 36%, 13%, 21% and 31%, respectively, compared to the 1987-1989 period The decrease in potential acid was highest in Sachsen (43%) and lowest in Baden-Wittemberg (12%). Dry deposition of non-sea salt Ca 2+ , K + , Mg 2+ and base cations decreased

  12. Report on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Germany

    Bastl, W.


    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in Germany. The general technology underlying most aspects of NPP C and I in Germany has not altered since the last progress report although there has been many improvements in detail. Since the beginning of 1990 the GRS carried out the safety investigations of NPPs in East Germany. The USSR as the vendor of the plants and France were also involved in the project. The following fields are briefly described: Status of nuclear power in Germany; training simulators; backfitting of computers and information systems; operator support/new control rooms. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  13. West-East migration in Germany since 1990

    Beck, Grit


    Not only did 2.5 million people migrate from East Germany to West Germany between 1991 and 2006, 1.5 million people also moved from West to East Germany. This counter-current movement took placed largely unnoticed by the public and researchers alike. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to first of all examine how the population structure in the New Länder has changed as a result of interregional migration between Länder in East and West Germany. It goes on to study the moti...

  14. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte


    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Germany, Austria and dissolution of Yugoslavia

    Vuković Slobodan V.


    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the causes of dissolution/breakdown of Yugoslavia. The author first analyses writing of German and Austrian press which has, at the very beginning of the crisis, taken a strong anti-Serb standing, as in 1914 and 1941. Author then analyses the reasons that led Austrian and German diplomacy and governments to actively forging the crisis and then breaking down a sovereign country. Those reasons could be summarized as follows: German and Austrian revenge for two wars lost in these territories; improvement of conditions for fulfillment of old German dream to advance toward Middle East; in order to become a world power Germany 'had to' to annul some of the consequences of the First and Second World War on the symbolic level and acquire a possibility to test its powers, and breaking down Yugoslavia, with help of its internal allies Germany broke down its army without military engagement and removed an obstacle for advancement towards East.

  17. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    Alperowicz, N.


    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  18. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    Pumpe, K


    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  19. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2009


    Research and development (R and D) in the fields of nuclear reactor safety and safety of nuclear waste and spent fuel management in Germany are carried out at research centers and, in addition, some 32 universities. In addition, industrial research is conducted by plant vendors, and research in plant and operational safety of power plants in operation is organized by operators and by organizations of technical and scientific research and expert consultant organizations. This summary report presents nuclear energy research conducted at research centers and universities in Germany in 2009, including examples of research projects and descriptions of the situation of research and teaching. These are the organizations covered: - Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, responsibility of the former Karlsruhe Research Center), - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Nuclear Technology Competence Center East, - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Rossendorf Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis Association (VKTA), - Dresden Technical University, - Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Science, - Institute of Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart. (orig.)

  20. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver


    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  1. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    Oliver Gerke

    Full Text Available Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A and Abelisauridae (morphotype K. This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  2. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Gerlach Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  3. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf


    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  4. Where is North?

    Macmillan, Susan; Shanahan, Tom


    To find your way using a magnetic compass with a map, you need to know the difference between magnetic north and map north. This difference is called ‘grid magnetic angle’, and in the UK it is derived from a model of the Earth’s magnetic field, which is updated every year. The variation To go north, you just follow your compass towards magnetic north, right? Not quite. Geophysicists have to work hard so we can continue to navigate with map and compass. Susan Macm...

  5. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan


    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  6. A New Spanish Generation in Germany. Analysis of the Motivations to Leave under the Veil of the Crisis

    Antía Pérez-Caramés


    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of the new South-North European migration process within a context characterized by the economic crisis and an unprecedented rise in unemployment. More specifically, it addresses the phenomenon of Spaniards emigrating to Hamburg, Germany, since 2008. The main objective is to analyse the motivations to leave, contextualizing them within larger socio-structural processes, altogether with a study of the perceptions this community has on the profile and characteristics of this migratory wave. The methodological approach for this research is of a qualitative nature, based on semi-structured interviews to recent Spanish emigrants in Hamburg (Germany, follow-up of virtual communities and participant observation.

  7. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Bae, Hwa-ok


    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  9. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.


    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  10. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden



    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  11. Renewable energies and energy transition in Germany

    Persem, Melanie


    This document presents some key figures about the German national energy plan: the 2013 coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, the security of energy supplies and the reflections about an evolution of the existing mechanism, the legal aspects of the renewable energies support mechanism (EEG law and its amendments, 2014 law reform, goals, direct selling, bids solicitation, self-consumer EEG contribution, exemptions redesigning), the energy-mix comparison between Germany and France, the 2003-2013 evolution of the renewable power generation, the German photovoltaic and wind power parks (installed power, geographical distribution, capacity), and the evolution of electricity prices for the industry and for households between 1998 and 2013

  12. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)


    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  13. Organisation of scientific research in Germany

    Berezhnaya Galina


    Full Text Available This article considers the structure of research system in Germany. It describes the federal and state levels of research management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF bears primary responsibility for science and technology policy at the federal level. At the state level, this responsible is shared by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Economy. The author emphasizes the role of the National Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina”, whose principal objective is to provide advisory services to German policymakers and present German science at the international level. Special attention is paid to the wide spectrum of German research agents: public and private research organizations, higher education institutions, R&D departments of industrial companies. The article stresses the research potential of universities that receive funding under the Excellence Initiative and describes the contribution of production in research and development activities, focusing on the top ten German companies in terms of R&D expenditure.

  14. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    Wilhelm, J.


    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  15. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    Boulanger, Vincent


    In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  16. Radionuclide concentration in ground-level air in 1991 in North Germany

    Kolb, W.; Wershofen, H.


    The activity concentration of various fission products and some other radionuclides (e.g. Be-7, Na-22, K-40 and Pb-210) contained in ground-level air were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Weekly and mean monthly activity concentrations measured in Brunswick and Berlin are tabulated. From 1990 to 1991 the Cs-137 concentration in Brunswick decreased only slightly. It was less than 0.1% of that in 1986 but due to resuspended soil dust still three times higher than in 1985. Occasionally, traces of activation products were detected such as Cr-51, Mn-54 or Co-60 in Januray and February in Brunswick and Berlin. The effective equivalent dose due to the inhalation of fission products is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the Pb-210 inhalation dose. (orig.) [de

  17. CO2 storage in saline aquifers: In the Southern North Sea and Northern Germany

    Weijer, V. van de; Meer, B. van der; Kramers, L.; Neele, F.; Maurand, N.; Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codré, D.; Schäfer, F.; Evans, D.; Kirk, K.; Bernstone, C.; Stiff, S.; Hull, W.


    CO2 storage in depleted gas fields is attractive but gas fields are unequally distributed geographically and can be utilized only within a restricted window of opportunity. Therefore, CO2 storage in saline aquifers can be expected to become an important element of CO2 capture and storage (CCS)

  18. Perceived barriers to prostate cancer screenings among middle-aged men in north-eastern Germany.

    Hannöver, Wolfgang; Köpke, David; Hannich, Hans-Joachim


    Prostate cancer ranks high in mortality. Only 18% of men entitled for screenings take advantage of this. Social-cognitive models of health psychology describe and predict health behavior. This study investigates what barriers men perceive that impede the utilization of cancer screenings. Semistructured interviews were conducted in 2 general practices and 3 hospital wards. One hundred and seventy-eight men over 45 years were addressed; 64 utilized cancer screenings regularly, 3 had a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and 18 declined participation. Content analyses were conducted with 83 interviews. The interview tapped into the following domains: barriers, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and intentions. 57 men regarded their health as very important, while 47 had never utilized cancer screenings. Barriers were divided into emotional/cognitive versus organizational/structural. Sixty-four men did not utilize cancer screenings because of lack of symptoms, 22 feared a positive result, 20 had more pertinent health issues, and 18 assumed that their physicians would screen for cancer "automatically." Mainly emotional/cognitive barriers were seen as important for nonutilization, especially the absence of symptoms. Following the reasoning of social-cognitive models, a first step to enhance utilization rates would be to enhance risk perception. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. North Korean Relationships


    partner, holding 18 percent of all trade. North Korea’s leading export items to Japan were men’s suits, mushrooms , and coal. Japan’s main export items...credited with providing resources to North Korea in efforts to help establish and cultivate a much stronger military force as well as begin to

  20. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Zito, Dima


    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  1. Neuer Atheismus: New Atheism in Germany

    Thomas Zenk


    Full Text Available Matthias Knutzen (born 1646 – died after 1674 was the first author we know of who self-identified as an atheist (Schröder 2010: 8. Before this, the term had solely been used pejoratively to label others. While Knutzen is almost completely forgotten now, authors such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, or Sigmund Freud are better remembered and might even be considered classic writers in the history of the atheist criticism of religion. Whatever may be said about the influence of any one of these authors, there is no doubt that Germany looks back on a notable history in this field. About a decade ago, Germany’s capital Berlin was even dubbed ‘the world capital of atheism’ by the American sociologist Peter L. Berger (2001: 195.Given this situation, I am bewildered by the expression ‘New Atheism’. Yet, undoubtedly, the term has become a catchphrase that is commonly used in the public discourse of several countries. The most prominent authors to be labelled ‘New Atheists’ are Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion, 2006, Daniel Dennett (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, 2006, Sam Harris (The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, 2004, and Letter to a Christian Nation, 2006, and Christopher Hitchens (God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Every­thing, 2007. These authors and their books – all of them international bestsellers – have been intensely discussed around the world, including in Germany. In this paper, I intend to illuminate some of the characteristics and remarkable traits of the German discourse on the ‘New Atheism’. Here we can distinguish between two phases. The German media initially characterised ‘New Atheism’ as a rather peculiarly American phenomenon. However, it soon came to be understood to be a part of German culture as well.

  2. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander


    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  3. Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma

    Gössling, Stefan; Metzler, Daniel


    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80–95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO_2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002–2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector. - Highlights: • Emissions from German road transport have remained constant between 1990 and 2015. • Non-progress on transport decarbonisation is barrier to national mitigation goals. • Analysis shows that wide range of complexities are overlooked by government. • Policies need to consider car fleet segmentation and driving patterns. • Command-and-control as well as market-based measures needed.

  4. Strategy for decommissioning of NPP's in Germany

    Rittscher, D.; Sterner, H.


    According to German Atomic Law, two different strategies are possible, i.e. direct dismantling and safe enclosure before dismantling. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Taking into account the site and plant specific conditions the optimal strategy can be evaluated. Both approaches have been applied in Germany in the past. The German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (June 2002) were adapted recently (July 2002). Additionally, the life operation time of the German NPP's was fixed in a new law (April 2002): Orderly Termination of the Commercial Production of Nuclear Electricity. These issues have made it necessary for the power utilities to review the strategies applied. As long as the final disposal in Germany is still an open issue, the construction of local Interim Stores is necessary to be able to dismantle a NPP. The basic strategies are not excluding each other and it seems clear today, that the optimal approach is a combination of these strategies, e.g. dismantling of all auxiliary systems and leaving activated parts for a longer SE period. Within this approach the advantages of both basic strategies have been integrated in one. The EWN GmbH has developed such integrated but still different approaches for the decommissioning projects of the Kernkraftwerke Greifswald (KGR) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. It can be stated that the decommissioning of a NPP does not present technical issues of concern, but is more a project management issue, although surrounded by sometime intricate political and juridical boundary conditions. A major strategy change is to be expected only when final disposal capacities are available in the future. (authors)

  5. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Evelyn Gustedt


    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  6. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Andrea Ziefle


    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  7. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  8. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F


    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  9. Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide with Enhanced Gas Recovery-CaseStudy Altmark, North German Basin

    Rebscher, Dorothee; Oldenburg, Curtis M.


    Geologic carbon dioxide storage is one strategy for reducingCO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Depleted natural gas reservoirs are anobvious target for CO2 storage due to their proven record of gascontainment. Germany has both large industrial sources of CO2 anddepleting gas reservoirs. The purpose of this report is to describe theanalysis and modeling performed to investigate the feasibility ofinjecting CO2 into nearly depleted gas reservoirs in the Altmark area inNorth Germany for geologic CO2 storage with enhanced gasrecovery.

  10. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker


    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures.

  11. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Kim, Jai Bok


    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  12. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Kim, Jai Bok


    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  13. The mossy north

    Mateo, Ruben G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe


    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...... and turnover in the north and in the south, respectively, indicating species exclusion towards the north and increased opportunities for speciation in the south. Liverworts exhibit the highest levels of nestedness, suggesting that they represent the most sensitive group to the impact of past climate change...

  14. North Korea Conundrum

    Samore, G


    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  15. North Korea Conundrum

    Samore, G.


    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)


    Dobre Cornelia


    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  17. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    Knoef, H.A.M.


    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  18. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany

    Alt Katja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Results Overall, 152 of 290 (52% fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%. t011 (66% and t034 (23% were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%. In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes phenotypes. Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p Conclusions MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  19. Factors associated with the occurrence of MRSA CC398 in herds of fattening pigs in Germany.

    Alt, Katja; Fetsch, Alexandra; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Hammerl, Jens A; Hertwig, Stefan; Senkov, Natalja; Geinets, Anna; Mueller-Graf, Christine; Braeunig, Juliane; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Appel, Bernd; Hensel, Andreas; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA in herds of fattening pigs in different regions of Germany, and to determine factors associated with the occurrence of this pathogen. For this purpose pooled dust samples were collected, and a questionnaire covered information regarding herd characteristics and management practices. Samples were pre-enriched in high-salt medium followed by selective enrichment containing cefoxitin/aztreonam, and culturing. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by multiplex-PCR targeting nuc-, mecA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Isolates were spa- and SCCmec-, and in selected cases, multilocus sequence-typed. Susceptibilities to 13 antimicrobials were determined by broth microdilution. Statistical analysis was carried out using backward stepwise logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with the MRSA test result as the outcome and herd characteristics as categorical covariates. Overall, 152 of 290 (52%) fattening pig farms tested positive for MRSA. The prevalence in the east, north- and south-west of Germany ranged from 39 to 59%.t011 (66%) and t034 (23%) were the most commonly identified spa-types, and 85% of isolates carried SCCmec Type V. Identified spa-types were all associated with clonal complex CC398. Susceptibility testing revealed that all isolates were resistant to tetracycline. High resistance rates were also found for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (40%), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (32%). In addition, 83% of strains displayed multidrug resistant (> 3 substance classes) phenotypes.Logistic regression revealed herd size (large farms OR: 5.4; CI: 2.7-11.2; p pig operations. MRSA CC398 is widely distributed among herds of fattening pigs in Germany. Farm management plays a crucial role in the dissemination of MRSA with herd size, and production type representing potential major indicators.

  20. [Epidemiology of psoriasis in Germany--analysis of secondary health insurance data].

    Schäfer, I; Rustenbach, S J; Radtke, M; Augustin, J; Glaeske, G; Augustin, M


    In Germany, population-based data on the epidemiology of psoriasis are still rare. This study aims to assess the prevalence of psoriasis in the total population as well as for subgroups relevant to health care. As further epidemiological parameters the severity and regional distribution of psoriasis were analysed. A secondary analysis of data collected routinely for the members of a nationwide statutory health insurance company was conducted. Prevalences were calculated for a closed cohort of continuously insured persons in 2005. Defined criteria for the existence of psoriasis were at least one diagnoses of psoriasis (ICD-10) relating to ambulatory or hospital treatment or disability. 33,981 of the 1,344,071 continuously insured persons in 2005 were diagnosed with psoriasis, thus the one-year-prevalence in this cohort was 2.53%. Up to the age of 80 years the prevalence rate was increasing with increasing age and highest for the age groups from 50 to 79 years (range: 3.99-4.18%). Insured persons up to 20 years had a prevalence of 0.73%. Regional differences showed up after stratification for broad categories (1 digit) of ZIP codes: Lowest prevalence rates were seen in the south (2.17%) and highest (2.78%) in the north and western regions of Germany. If the prevalence rate of 2.5% assessed in this study is applied to the total resident population, 2 million people are treated because of psoriasis in Germany. Routine data from health insurance companies are a relevant and suitable data source to assess the prevalence of chronic diseases (under medical treatment) in the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Market value-oriented gas pricing in Germany

    Eimermacher, T.


    In Germany, natural gas faces stiff competition from other types of energy. In many applications, natural gas is capable of replacing other fuels. In addition there is a growing gas-to-gas competition in some European countries, either through pipeline construction by a competitor as in Germany or by mandatory third-party access as in UK. Competition leads to market value-oriented energy pricing, which is particularly evident in Germany. For the consumer, this competitive situation ensures that natural gas can be obtained (and remains available in the long term) at competitive prices

  2. I-15 North Project


    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  3. Poet North Manchester Approval

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-North Manchester, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable

  4. Census in North Vietnam


    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  5. What's happening in 'renewable energy developed country: Germany'. Next step our country should learn

    Kitamura, Kazuya


    What's the next step our country should take? Japan could learn a lot of things such as success or failure examples from renewable energy developed country: Germany. This article reviewed present state of Feed-In Tariffs and renewable energy power in Germany. Share of renewable energy power amounted to 20% including 7.6% of wind power and 6.1% of biomass in 2011. Such trend caused increase of power cost, restructure of power system such as new installation of power transmission against north coast offshore wind power plant, and development of power storage system such as hydrogen production or pumped storage power plant. Efficient introduction of renewable energy should be planned in Japan based on appropriate share target of renewable energy share. As for nuclear power phaseout, Japan should learn German's experiences on decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear power plants, and policies of intermediate storage and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, which needed a long time and a great cost. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Upper-mantle velocity structure beneath Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany

    Hejrani, Babak; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    Several temporary seismological arrays have probed the crust and lithosphere in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia (Tor, CALAS, MAGNUS and TopoScandiaDeep, see e.g. Medhus et al., 2012). In 2011-12 we measured the Jutland-Lower Saxony (JULS) profile as collaboration between Aarhus Universi....... It correlates very well with the location of a similar body located by the Tor project (e.g. Gregersen et al, 2002, 2009). The northern part of the JULS model links well with the previous results from the CALAS and TopoScandiaDeep projects (Medhus et al., 2012).......Several temporary seismological arrays have probed the crust and lithosphere in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia (Tor, CALAS, MAGNUS and TopoScandiaDeep, see e.g. Medhus et al., 2012). In 2011-12 we measured the Jutland-Lower Saxony (JULS) profile as collaboration between Aarhus University...... and GFZ Potsdam. This profile crosses the southern part of the Tor array in the North German Basin and goes all the way to the northern part of Jutland (mainland Denmark). First results are presented from this new study. P-traveltime residuals were modeled with a new flexible 3D tomographic method which...

  7. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena


    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  8. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C


    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  9. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003


    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  10. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder


    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  11. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Klüter Helmut


    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  12. Country policy profile - Germany. December 2015


    The German Government has initiated a long-term transformation of the entire energy system termed Energiewende. Besides the gradual phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022, one substantial element is the complete overhaul of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). On 1 August 2014 the EEG 2014 entered into force, representing a fundamental revision of the existing support scheme for renewable electricity, primarily for PV, wind and biomass. Beyond, Germany decided to phase out nuclear power from its generation mix by 2022 and to increase its share of renewable energy to 40-45% by 2025 and 55-60% by 2035. Renewable electricity is still supported through feed-in tariffs laid down in the EEG 2014 and low interest loans but from now on complemented by tendering procedures over the coming years. Renewable heating and cooling is supported by the regulations in the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG), the Market Incentive Programme (MAP) governed by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) and low-interest loans offered via the KfW. Numerous support schemes are available for renewable heat on state (Laender) level. Renewable transport fuels are mainly supported by a quota system (bio-fuels Quota Act = Biokraftstoffquotengesetz - BiokraftQuG), and through fiscal regulation

  13. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje


    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R


    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  15. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    Boulanger, Vincent


    This book is an updated edition of the previous version from 2015. In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  16. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)


    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    Syllus, C.


    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Chee-Heong Quah


    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  19. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane


    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  20. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Ana Gabrilo


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  1. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    Simon, M.


    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  2. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Kussmaul, K.


    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  3. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  4. Germany, Japan and the De-Baathification of Iraq

    Porch, Douglas


    ... since the occupations of Japan and Germany at the end of World War II." These plans include trials for Saddam's "key" senior officials, backed by a "truth and reconciliation" process to "publicly shame but not necessarily punish, human rights violators...

  5. The School-HE Interface in West Germany.

    Schmithals, F.


    Discusses the concerns and problems associated with the secondary school-higher education interface in West Germany. Reviews reform efforts and attempts at problem resolution with specific emphasis on physics instruction. (ML)

  6. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Zimbal, A.; Busch, F.; Jordan, M.; Eichelberger, A.; Engelhardt, J.; Martini, E.; Figel, M.; Haninger, T.; Frasch, G.; Guenther, K.; Seifert, R.; Rimpler, A.


    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. (authors)

  7. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich


    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  8. What is the pollution status of North Sea sediments?

    Chapman, P.M.; Heip, C.; Cofino, W.


    A March 1990 international sea-going workshop in Bremerhaven, Germany provided the opportunity to conduct detailed sediment toxicity testing in concert with studies of fish histopathology, bioaccumulation, benthic community structure, and sediment chemical contamination in the North Sea. Two gradients of sediment chemical contamination were tested, one from an abandoned oil platform and the other from the mouth of the Elbe River northward to the Dogger Bank. Using a preponderance of evidence approach, it was determined that sediments nearest the Elbe are moderately polluted (pollution is defined as contamination, toxicity, and community alteration) and that sediments offshore and at the Dogger Bank are unpolluted. Sediments nearest the oil platform showed evidence for a low level of pollution, but there was no evidence of pollution 125 m from the platform. The results suggest the testable hypothesis that North Sea sediments away from point sources of pollution such as coastal areas and drilling platforms are presently not polluted. 46 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik


    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  10. Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany

    Selezneva, Ekaterina; Van Kerm, Philippe


    This paper exploits data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to re-examine the gender wage gap in Germany on the basis of inequality-adjusted measures of wage differentials which fully account for gender differences in pay distributions. The inequality-adjusted gender pay gap measures are significantly larger than suggested by standard indicators, especially in East Germany. Women appear penalized twice, with both lower mean wages and greater wage inequality. A hypothetical risky inve...

  11. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H


    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  12. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Kühne, H H


    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  13. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.


    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  14. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Olena L. Hilchenko


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  15. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Johannes Riedel


    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  16. Transport of radioactive waste in Germany - a survey

    Alter, U.


    The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)

  17. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Albrecht, Henning


    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [Quality of surgical continuing education in Germany].

    Ansorg, J; Hassan, I; Fendrich, V; Polonius, M J; Rothmund, M; Langer, P


    One of the reasons for young doctors to leave the clinical work to go abroad or into non-clinical fields is insufficient quality of training under bad circumstances. Aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical training in Germany from the viewpoint of the residents. A questionnaire was prepared by residents and consultants and approved by the German surgical societies (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie und Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen). It was sent to surgical residents between June 2003 and June 2004, published in "Der Chirurg BDC" and distributed among residents taking part in courses conducted by the BDC. It could be answered anonymously by email, mail or online. The questionnaire was sent back by 584 surgical residents (about 30 % of all). 58 % of the residents declared that they finished the training in the intended time (6 years). Rotation-systems as part of a structured residency program existed for 43 %. Standard surgical procedures were discussed or explained before the procedure in only 46 %. 61 % of the residents were not satisfied with the teaching assistance by their clinical teachers in the OR. Only 33 % had regular talks with the Chief about their progress in surgical training. 18 % of residents felt, that the hospital is interested in their progress in training. Indication-conferences took place in 52 % and mortality-conferences in only 20 % of programs. Regular seminars on recent issues took place in 62 %, and 61 % of residents did not get financial support to attend congresses. 36 % of residents had to use their holidays to attend congresses. Surgical training structures are not well established in about 50 % of the training hospitals from where we got answers to our survey. The training potential of daily surgical work is not used appropriately. It is therefore imperative to develop guidelines for surgical training, the use of log-books and rotation-programs.

  19. The use of IMRT in Germany

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas


    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  20. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    Wartenberg, L. v.


    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  1. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.


    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  2. The Citizen Science Project 'Mueckenatlas' Helps Monitor the Distribution and Spread of Invasive Mosquito Species in Germany.

    Walther, Doreen; Kampen, Helge


    The citizen science project 'Mueckenatlas' (mosquito atlas) was implemented in early 2012 to improve mosquito surveillance in Germany. Citizens are asked to support the spatiotemporal mapping of culicids by submitting mosquito specimens collected in their private surroundings. The Mueckenatlas has developed into an efficient tool for data collection with close to 30,000 mosquitoes submitted by the end of 2015. While the vast majority of submissions included native mosquito species, a small percentage represented invasive species. The discovery of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes koreicus (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) specimens via the Mueckenatlas project prompted targeted monitoring activities in the field which produced additional information on the distribution of these species in Germany. Among others, Mueckenatlas submissions led to the detection of three populations of Ae. j. japonicus in West, North and Southeast Germany in 2012, 2013, and 2015, respectively. As demonstrated by on-site monitoring, the origins of Ae. j. japonicus specimens submitted to the Mueckenatlas mirror the distribution areas of the four presently known German populations as found by active field sampling (the fourth population already reported prior to the launch of the Mueckenatlas). The data suggest that a citizen science project such as the Mueckenatlas may aid in detecting changes in the mosquito fauna and can therefore be used to guide the design of more targeted field surveillance activities. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. North-south interdependence

    Norse, D


    The sound eco-development of agriculture can help to establish a cooperative and harmonious north-south interdependence. The interdependence pattern is seen when the major agricultural suppliers (energy, fertilizers, and pesticides) are examined in the context of commodity transfers of grain and rubber. The consumers of either the north or south would be unable to find alternative sources without major production or social disruption. The Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) INTERFUTURES study examines the chain of dependencies between raw materials and markets and the implications for economic development, employment, and environmental hazards. If interdependence is to benefit both the north and the south, technological fixes will not be adequate or appropriate to deal with the potential hazards. (DCK)

  4. [Type of school, social capital and subjective health in adolescence].

    Bohn, V; Richter, M


    Social capital is increasingly acknowledged as a central determinant of health. While several studies among adults have shown the importance of social capital for the explanation of social inequalities in health, few comparable studies exist which focus on adolescents. The study examines the role of social capital in different social contexts for the explanation of health inequalities in adolescence. Data were obtained from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2006. The sample includes data of 4323 11-15-year-old students. To analyse the role of social capital in the contexts family, school, friends and neighbourhood for inequalities in self-rated health and psychosomatic complaints, logistic regression models were calculated. The socioeconomic position of the adolescents was measured by type of school. Adolescents from general schools reported higher prevalences of fair/poor self-rated health and repeated psychosomatic complaints than pupils from grammar schools. Social capital in all 4 contexts (family, school, friends, and neighbourhood) was associated with both health indicators, independent of gender. In the separate analysis the variables for social capital showed a comparable explanatory contribution and reduced the odds ratios of self-rated health by 6-9%. The contribution for psychosomatic complaints was slightly higher with 10-15%. The only exception was social capital among friends which showed no effect for both health indicators. In the joint analysis the variables for social capital explained about 15% to 30% of health inequalities by school type. The results show that, already in adolescence, inequalities in subjective health can be partly explained through socioeconomic differences in the availability of social capital. The settings family, neighbourhood and school provide ideal contexts for preventive actions and give the opportunity to directly address the high-risk group of students from

  5. [Boys' health survey-between gender gap and information backlog].

    Grundl, S; Kranz, J; Rosellen, J; Steffens, C; Steffens, J


    Early detection examinations take place from birth to the age of 6 years. The youth screening is a continuation of the screening of the "U-series" and should be carried out between the age of 12-15 and 16-17, respectively. Afterwards adolescent girls have good contact with a gynecologist, but adolescent boys usually do not have a medical contact person who they can trust in. To evaluate the state of knowledge on boys' health, a 15-item comprehensive knowledge survey was conducted among ninth grade students at 7 secondary schools (Gymnasien) in North Rhine-Westphalia. The knowledge survey took place at three specified times (before, immediately after and approximately 3 months after adolescent sexual education classes). Only completed questionnaires were analyzed and evaluated in a gender-specific manner. Overall, 459 students participated from March-September 2017. Before sexual education instruction, about half of all questions were answered correctly by the students. Immediately after class, the proportion increased by a factor of 1.5 to a total of 79.24%. Then 2-3 months after the class, the percentage was 69.67%. Considering gender separately, this resulted in an increase of 15.32% for the female students and 16.99% for the male students. The knowledge survey reveals a need to catch up on facts on the subject of boys' health. Despite evidence of an increase in knowledge of both sexes after sexual education instruction, there is a gender gap. Hence, a preventive check-up especially for boys should be established and offered. Issues such as the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, options for vaccination against human papillomavirus, etc. should be actively addressed.

  6. Sustainable land-use by regional energy and material flow management using "Terra-Preta-Technology

    Friede, K.; Rößler, K.; Terytze, K.; Vogel, I.; Worzyk, F.; Schatten, R.; Wagner, R.; Haubold-Rosar, M.; Rademacher, A.; Weiß, U.; Weinfurtner, K.; Drabkin, D.; Zundel, S.; Trabelsi, S.


    The interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary joint research project seeks innovative system solutions for resource efficiency, climate protection and area revaluation by means of an integrative approach. The project's fundament is set by implementing the zero-emission-strategy, launching a regional resource efficient material flow management as well as utilising "Terra-Preta-Technology" as an innovative system component. As the centrepiece of optimised regional biogenic material flows Terra Preta Substrate (TPS) contains biochar shall be utilised exemplarily in model regions. In regional project 1 (state of Brandenburg, county Teltow-Fläming) TPS shall be used on military conversion areas, which are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mineral oil hydrocarbons. It will be examined, whether the use of TPS causes accelerated pollutant reduction and whether this area is available for renewable raw material production. In regional project 2 (Western Lusatia, county Oberspreewald-Lusatia) reclamation and renaturation of post-mining-landscapes is first priority. In this case, the project seeks for an upgrade of devastated soils for plant production as well as for restoration of soil functions and setup of organic soil substances. In regional project 3 (state of North Rhine-Westphalia, city of Schmallenberg) reforestations of large scale windbreakage areas shall be supported by using TPS. Soil stabilisation, increased growth and survival of young trees and decreased nutrient losses are desired achievements. The crop production effectiveness and environmental compatibility of TPS will be determined by tests in laboratories, by lysimeter and open land taking into account chemical and physical as well as biological parameters. Currently diverse chemical, physical and biological examinations are performed. First results will be presented. The focus will be set on the use of TPS on military conversion areas to reduce specific organic contaminations.

  7. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins and furans

    Broeker, G.; Bruckmann, P.; Gliwa, H.


    Already now the estimated daily average input of about 2 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight for an adult exceeds the preventive value of 1 pg I-TEQ/(kg x d) proposed by the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) and the Federal Health Office (BGA), although the intervention value of 10 pg/(kg x d) also proposed by UBA and BGA has not been reached yet. To be able to take well-aimed measures to reduce dioxin emissions into the environment, it is necessary to collect sufficient information about the sources, the history of origins and the efficiency of control measures. The high number of investigations conducted into waste incineration plants, which can be explained by increasing public awareness of the disposal problem, gave the impression that waste incineration is one of the major causes of dioxin emissions into the environment. Analyses of the ambient air situation revealed that there is a considerable lack of information about the sources of dioxin emissions. For example, systematic investigations in North Rhine-Westphalia, which have not been finished yet, identified sintering plants as the main dioxin emittors. It can be concluded already now that control measures are indispensable for these plants to improve the ambient air situation; a few waste gas cleaning methods were tested. The realisation of the 17th Order Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (17th BImSchV) (emission control of dioxins from waste incineration plants), the 19th BImSchV (prohibition of Cl and Br additions to fuels) and the further spread of the controlled catalytic coverter for passenger cars will make industrial dioxin sources even more relevant. This underlines the necessity for control measures in this field. (orig.) [de

  8. A Qualitative, Comparative Study of the Use of Electronic Information and Other Services at Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Münster

    John C. Crawford


    Full Text Available The Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, (ULB Münster, has a substantial background of research and publication in performance measurement and evaluation of library and information services (Poll and te Boekhorst and has conducted and published internal studies of various aspects of its services.(Obst 1995; Buch 1996. My contact with the Library goes back to late 1996 when I spent two weeks at ULB on a British Council exchange scheme with North Rhine Westphalia which gave me some understanding of how the Library operates and some knowledge of the technical vocabulary of German academic librarianship. In 1998 I directed a qualitative study of the use being made of Glasgow Caledonian University Library’s recently opened Electronic Information Floor (Crawford 1999. A literature review undertaken prior to the study showed that surprisingly little research had been done in this area and that one of the earliest studies was that undertaken by Dr Oliver Obst at Münster (1995. Coincidentally ULB is a partner in the EQUINOX Project, led by CERLIM, which aims to develop a set of standardised performance measures for the electronic library and was interested in collecting some qualitative data as a background to the Project. After email discussions with ULB it was decided that I should visit the Library again to undertake a qualitative study of the use of electronic information services there which would act both as a comparative study with Glasgow Caledonian University and a background study to the much larger, CERLIM led, EQUINOX Project.

  9. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Karl H. Stingeder


    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  10. North American refining

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan


    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  11. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    Weisskopf, Varda


    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  12. Loess-paleosol sequences at the northern European loess belt in Germany: Distribution, geomorphology and stratigraphy

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Schulte, Philipp; Kels, Holger


    Pleistocene loess and loess derivates are distributed along the mountain front of the Central European Mountain Belt in northern and central Germany. Examples from two regions, the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE) and the Northern foreland of the Harz Mountains (FHM) show that the distribution of loess and the development of loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are controlled by relief, climate, tectonics, the distance to large river systems, the distance to the Scandinavian ice sheet and the distance to the shelf of the North Sea. In the oceanic LRE higher humidity enhanced the periglacial processes which increased erosion, but also led to preservation in accumulative positions. In contrast, in the more continental FHM the sediments were affected by less intensive periglacial processes and no solifluction can be detected. New loess distribution maps are presented for both key areas, and key sections, especially for the last glacial cycle, are compared and summarized. Both study regions are located in the west - east trending loess belt north of the Central European Mountain belt (in front of the Rhenish Shield = Ardennes-Eifel and Harz Mountains). Finally, a synthesis of typical sediment sequences for both regions is given as an example of paleoenvironmental (landscape) development in northern Central Europe.

  13. Germany: Exposure of Transport Workers During the Transport of Most Frequently Transported NORM in Germany


    The German national report to this CRP was focused on the following services according to the research agreement: (1) Status review, analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment and expected exposure of the shipment staff of the most relevant NORM in Germany; (2) Development of evaluation criteria and safety requirements to provide adequate safety standards for the transportation of NORM; (3) Development and application of procedures to determine the limits for exempt materials/consignments for transportation according to German Transport Regulations for all NORM. For the analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment of NORM for the following materials, a couple of transport scenarios were defined and the dose to transport workers was calculated. - Tantalum raw materials; - Raw phosphate; - Pipe scales and sludge from oil and gas exploitation; - Coal ash; - Waste rock material from uranium mining; - Zircon raw materials; - Titanium dioxide raw materials; - Filter gravel from waterworks

  14. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    Laponche, Bernard


    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  15. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Paul Kussmaul


    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  16. North Dakota's forests 2005

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot


    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  17. Apollo in the North

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene


    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue wit...

  18. Moving farther north

    Boswell, R.


    According to predictions by the National Petroleum Council, North American demand for natural gas is likely to increase from 20 Tcf currently to 29 Tcf by the year 2010 and could increase to beyond 31 Tcf by 2015. In view of this and other similar predictions it is prudent to examine the potential sources of supply and to assess their capacity to meet this ever increasing demand. This paper provides an overview of North America's gas potential, proved reserves and current production. One of the sources much depended upon to meet future demand is the deepwater Gulf of Mexico which, however, would have to grow at the compounded rate of 21 per cent annually to meet expectations of 4.5 Tcf per year by 2010, a staggering rate of growth that would require 250 to 300 completions per year (current rate is about 100 per year) and two to three times the number of rigs currently working in the Gulf. If the deepwater Gulf of Mexico cannot meet this target, the incremental supply will most likely come from the North, namely the Fort Liard, Norman Wells, and the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea regions of Canada and Alaska's Cook Inlet, Copper River, North Slope and Susitna Basin. The economics of developing each of these regions is examined, using field size, reserves per well, exploration and development costs and cycle time as the bases for comparison. Obstacles to development such as access to pipelines, government regulations, and opposition by environmental groups are also discussed

  19. ITS Platform North Denmark

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens


    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  20. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    Vohrer, Philipp; Poize, Noemie; Hanus, Dominik; Hallmann, Dieter; Jourdain, Pierre; Ruehl, Martin; Bessiere, Patrick; Guyonnet-Duperat, Philippe; Foerster, Maelle; Partetzke, Matthias; Rumolino, Claudio


    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update



    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  2. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    Rauscher, K.


    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  3. Evaluating the atmospheric drivers leading to the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

    Schade, Nils H.


    Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels) and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs) directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API) is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d), to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1) the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2) strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise) derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation measures to floods

  4. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia


    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  5. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  6. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    Bertsch, F.


    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  7. HTGR type reactors in West Germany. Realizations and prospects

    Dauenert, U.


    The framework within which the research studies on high temperature reactors have been pursued in West Germany since 1960 is recalled. The principles guiding the present policy of the country in this domain are given: choice of a single technical conception that be applied both to reactors generating electricity and reactors producing high temperature heat for industrial processes such as coal gasification; to group the technical and industrial potentials of West Germany in this domain; financial and technical participation of electricity producers in the expected realizations; international cooperation. In this technique, West Germany is at present among the most advanced nations with the realization of a prototype 300 MWe reactor, financed by the electricity producers and a contribution of government [fr

  8. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid


    in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears......, newsletters, newspapers, lectures and publications in German nursing journals. AIM: The aim of the study was to update our knowledge of the extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014. DESIGN: The study had a prospective mixed methods multicenter design. METHOD: All 152 ICUs in the two German...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...

  9. The photovoltaic sector in Germany, where does it go?



    Opinion polls show that photovoltaic power is very popular in Germany. This sector employs about 130.000 people and although a lot of solar modules are imported from China, other components like current inverters are fabricated in Germany and as a whole the trade balance is positive and the export rate nears 50%. In 2011 Germany invested 25 billion euros in the photovoltaic sector and now about 5% of the consumed electricity is photovoltaic power. Photovoltaic power reached grid parity in february 2012 for some consumers and the German government decided to reduce the purchase tariff drastically which may jeopardize the aim of having a photovoltaic park of 51 GWc by 2020. (A.C.)

  10. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Larisa Nikitina


    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  11. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Lauterbach, Karl W.


    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.


    М С Ладыгин


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of strengthening neoconservative sentiments, i.e. neocon actors, in Germany. The paper analyzes the aims of three neoconservative actors in Germany: the party Alternative for Germany, the social movement PEGIDA and the “Identitarian movement”. It is found that all three parties have similar aims and their cooperation could lead to a serious strengthening of neocon positions both in society and on the political landscape. One of the conclusions of the article at hand is that it is too early to judge the party's ability to work as an established party. This conclusion is accompanied with the fact that the majority of those who voted for AfG were so called “protest voters”, hence they may prevent the return of the party in the next elections to the Bundestag.

  13. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  14. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael


    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  15. Traffic Mortality in Germany Before, During, and After Reunification

    Winston, Flaura K.; Menon, Rajiv; Moll, Elisa K.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Baker, Susan P.


    Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the combination of sudden wealth, sudden access to cars, and a flood of new young drivers had disastrous effects on East Germans. While motor vehicle occupant death rates decreased in West Germany, motor vehicle occupant death rates in East Germany surged upward. Between 1989 and 1991, the death rate increased for all age groups but was greatest for 18–20 year olds (from 5 to 54 deaths/100,000) and 21–24 year olds (from 5 to 44). Fatality ra...

  16. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Mezhibor, A. M.


    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  17. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport


    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  18. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker


    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  19. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Arendt, W.


    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  20. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977


    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de