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Sample records for north korea conundrum

  1. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  2. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  3. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niksch, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    .... North Korea's actions follow the reported disclosure in October 2002 that North Korea is operating a secret nuclear program based on uranium enrichment and the decision by the Korean Peninsula Energy...

  4. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  5. Language policies in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    KUMATANI, Akiyasu

    2009-01-01

    The examination of Korean language problems under the two different political systems (Republic of Korea or South Korea,and Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea) shows a pattern of divergence of national language by political system. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of current language policies in North Korea as they have evolved since the division of the Korean Peninsula.

  6. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  7. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  8. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  9. Meanwhile, North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    The progress regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes in North Korea and the instability on the Korean Peninsula have taken a back seat in the international community's analysis and perhaps its concerns for more than a year. The last event to provoke a wave of protest and tangible renewed interest occurred on 12 February 2013 when Pyongyang carried out its third nuclear test with an estimated yield of 6 to 8 kilo-tonnes. The United Nations Security Council condemned the test on 7 March (Resolution 2094). With the exception of several recent Security Council declarations, it is clear that activity on the part of the international community has been sparse. The same can be said with regard to the European Union and the United States. This state of affairs is not surprising. The analysis takes note of it by ceasing, there or thereabouts, to produce new material. Firstly, the North Korean crisis is a long-term one and the diplomatic process that is meant to lead to its resolution has been interrupted; the Six-Party Talks have been at a standstill since the end of 2008. A agreement between the United States and North Korea, concluded on 29 February 2012 under which the North Korean regime accepted the principle of a moratorium on long-range missile tests, nuclear tests, and all activity at the Yongbyon nuclear complex lastly barely a few days. Many actors involved in the management of this crisis are suffering from a weariness whose acknowledgement is politically incorrect: with regard to Pyongyang's launch of missiles and rockets last spring, the U.S. admiral Samuel Locklear told the Associated Press in July 'you become somewhat numb, you start to say, well, it's not so much of a big deal'. Moreover, since 2013, the focus of international security with regard to WMD and beyond has also largely shifted from North-East Asia to the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Pell-mell, the worsening and broadening of the war in Syria, the

  10. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    .... The Six-Party Talks include the United States, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and North Korea, and were begun in August 2003 to attempt to resolve the current crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons...

  11. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  12. International University Will Open in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  13. A Comprehensive Approach to North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armitage, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Since the Agreed Framework (AF) was signed by the United States and North Korea on October 21, 1994, the security situation on the Korean peninsula and in Northeast Asia has changed qualitatively for the worse...

  14. Another Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Marta J

    2003-01-01

    At the conclusion of the six-nation talks in Beijing last August, North Korea announced there was no reason for further negotiations and their only option was to continue their nuclear weapons development program...

  15. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  16. The lived travel experience to North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wassler, P.; Schuckert, M.

    2017-01-01

    Tourism in North Korea is limited by entry bans, visa restrictions, and stringently controlled itineraries. As a consequence, the experience of visiting the country is still poorly understood by academics and practitioners alike. In order to fill this research void, this study aims to describe the essence of the lived experience of travelling to North Korea, following an approach embedded in the philosophical underpinnings of transcendental phenomenology. Based on eight narratives by tourists...

  17. South Korea's aid to North Korea's transformation process: Social market perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Tae-seok

    2007-01-01

    South Korea's aid to North Korea is deviated from the international trend in development aid. As a stylized fact, we find that South Korea's policy keeping economic relationship with North Korea was inconsistent and ineffective during the last decade. Since South Korea played a major role in promoting economic transformation process in North Korea, perspectives from social market economy, open economy, stabilization, and investment in infrastructure provide insights in dealing with developmen...

  18. Impact Analysis of Economic Linkages of South Korea with North Korea Using a CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Euijune; Shin, Hyewon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate impacts of core infrastructure investments in North Korea on South and North Koreas. The investment expenditures of core infrastructure projects in North Korea are calibrated as 9.35 billion US$ including highway, railroad and industrial complex. Since South and North Koreas are based on market and planned economies respectively, the Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to the economic analysis of South Korea and an Input-Output Model for th...

  19. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank... otherwise alter or affect property or interests in property blocked pursuant to Sec. 510.201 is prohibited... Part 510 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Blocking of assets, Credit, North Korea...

  20. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entertainment software and equipment; recreational sports equipment; tobacco; wine and other alcoholic beverages... goods as described in this section to North Korea. (4) TSU for operation technology and software for lawfully exported commodities as set forth in § 740.13(a) and sales technology as set forth in § 740.13 (b...

  1. Translations on North Korea No. 539

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-15

    Arlington, Virginia 22201. II JPRS-69 429 15 July 19 77 TRANSLATIONS ON NORTH KOREA No. 539 .- BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET 1. Report No. JPRS...their power and gave the aggressors and the traitors a special lesson. [Interspersed with martial music ] When the cease-fire was realized on this land...the stage curtain be made more elaborate. Then, noticing that there was 25 no piano in the list of required fixtures, the Party Center added a

  2. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Rape of Nanking,” Japanese soldiers butchered hundreds of thousands of unarmed Chinese men, women, and children . Often the ingrained hatred and...prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The

  3. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the United Nations' World Food Program published an urgent plea for nations to donate food and medicines to relieve a complex food emergency in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea...

  4. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions are grappling for power and wealth. Beside the powerful Kim clan there exist other families in North Korea whose loyalty must be secured with bribes. If the loyalty of the influential families is eroded, the power base of Kim Jong Un is likely to soon diminish. As a result, the North Korean government is searching for sources of money. Illicit drugs may be one solution the ruling regime find attractive to this problem, but there appears to be a twist: struggling ordinary citizens are showing signs that they too are taking part in this illegal enterprise. This is manifested by their willingness to become involved in crime in the same way as the corrupt regime.

  5. Height and weight differences between North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates height and weight differences between the two Koreas by comparing national anthropometric data published by the South Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science with United Nations survey data collected inside North Korea in 2002. For socioeconomic reasons, pre-school children raised in the developing country of North Korea are up to 13 cm shorter and up to 7 kg lighter than children who were brought up in South Korea--an OECD member. North Korean women were also found to weigh up to 9 kg less than their Southern counterparts.

  6. An Economic Perspective of Kaesong Industrial Complex in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Constructing of Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea is led by private enterprises such as Hyundai group, under the agreement of two Korean governments. So far the constructing of Kaesong industrial complex operates well with the agreement of Inter-Korean Economic Cooperation Promotion Committee. There are some grounds that should be preceded for Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea to get the political safety and economic prosperity as follow; First, South Korea should improve a sy...

  7. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  8. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin

    2013-01-01

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime

  9. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    markets, which serves as a proxy for market activity, and investigates the correlation of this market activity with the number of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea. The hypothesis is that increased market activity, including cross border trade with China, will result in more North...... Koreans crossing the border into China, and eventually more North Koreans reaching South Korea. Findings - The findings of this paper are that there is a statistical significant correlation of the number of women that arrive in South Korea and the night-time lights emitted by a black market in Sinuiju......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...

  10. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  11. North Korea and Support to Terrorism: An Evolving History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.

  12. Dealing with North Korea: Maintenance of Diplomacy and Military Credibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    North Korea presents a unique problem for America in a number of ways. The regime is extremely hostile to the Untied States and has ignored the obligations signed onto in a number of international treaties...

  13. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  14. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    suffering from several major ailments since 2000, including heart, liver, and kidney problems , and possibly diabetes .38 South Korean and Japanese media...Development and Diplomacy Congressional Research Service 5 North Korea. They emphasized to Chinese, Malaysian , and Russian officials the need to restrict...2008. 24 “North Korea tells China 30.8 kg of plutonium extracted,” Agence France Presse, October 24, 2008. 25 Glenn Kessler, “U.S. increases

  15. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 31 CFR 500.563 - Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and within North Korea. 500.563 Section 500.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea. (a) All transactions of persons subject to U.S... Korea and to maintenance within North Korea are authorized. This authorization extends to transactions...

  17. Imaging North Korea : Exploring its Visual Representation in International Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Nabers, Dirk

    North Korea puzzles many observers. Mostly, it is referred to as the most isolated country in the world, being a timeless mystery, enigma, or terra incognita. While these characterizations reveal the presupposition of a genuine void of knowledge concerning the assessment of North Korean state

  18. An Analysis of Infectious Disease Research Trends in Medical Journals From North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do-Hyeon Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to investigate the current status of infectious disease research in North Korea by analyzing recent trends in medical journals from North Korea in comparison with research from South Korea. Methods Three medical journals (Preventive Medicine, Basic Medicine, and Chosun Medicine were analyzed from 2012 to 2016. Articles on tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and parasitic diseases were selected and classified by their subtopics and study areas. Two medical journals published in the South Korea were selected for a comparative analysis of research trends. Results Of the 2792 articles that were reviewed, 93 were extracted from North Korea journals. TB research in North Korea was largely focused on multi-drug resistant TB and extrapulmonary TB, whereas research in South Korea more frequently investigated non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Research on parasitic diseases in North Korea was focused on protozoan and intestinal nematodes, while the corresponding South Korea research investigated various species of parasites. Additionally, the studies conducted in North Korea were more likely to investigate the application of traditional medicine to diagnosis and treatment than those conducted in South Korea. Conclusions This study presents an analysis of research trends in preventive medicine in North Korea focusing on infectious diseases, in which clear differences were observed between South and North Korea. Trends in research topics suggest a high prevalence of certain parasitic diseases in North Korea that are no longer widespread in South Korea. The large proportion of studies examining traditional medicine implies a lack of affordable medicine in North Korea.

  19. Attempts to utilize and integrate traditional medicine in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungmook; Park, Jongbae; Han, Changyon

    2009-03-01

    To summarize the way North Korea attempted to modernize its system of traditional medicine and integrate it with Western biomedicine. We reviewed clinical textbooks and periodicals of traditional Korean medicine published in North Korea, research reports on North Korean health and medicine published elsewhere, and conducted interviews of defectors from North Korea who were students or clinicians of traditional medicine. Key findings of this study are: (1) North Korea has attempted several ways of integrating traditional medicine into education and clinical practices; (2) North Korea's communist government provided the main driving force for an integration policy; (3) school curricula of both Western and traditional Korean medicine incorporated knowledge of both disciplines, yet more weight was placed on traditional Korean medicine; (4) a combination of Western diagnosis and Korean therapeutics was the most frequent example of integration, while the dual system approach with reciprocal practice was also explored; (5) several forms of integrative therapeutic mixture were practiced including concurrent medication, injection on acupuncture points, and intramuscular or intravenous injection of extracts from medicinal plants; and (6) limited resources for research and the underdeveloped level of clinical research failed to secure rigorous scientific advancement. Despite the government-driven attempt to create an ideal integrative system of medicine, according to our findings, the actual introduction of an integrative system into practice was far from the North Korean government's anticipated outcome in regards to clinical practice. We hypothesize this was due to famine, economic crisis, and political isolation from the international realm. Traditional Korean medicine seems to have served the population, which is in desperate need of treatment amid difficulties in health, while North Korea's Western biomedicine-based health delivery system has been badly affected.

  20. [Adaptation experiences in South Korea of men defecting from North Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Miyoung

    2013-06-01

    The study was done to explore meanings and essence of the experience in South Korea of men defectors from North Korea. Data were collected from March, 2011 to May, 2012, through in-depth interviews with ten men defectors. Data analysis was conducted using the process of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection. Eight essential themes were extracted; 'buoyant expectation for a new life', 'feeling guilty about family left behind in North Korea', 'inability to become acclimatized due to communication difficulties', 'inability to socialize with South Koreans due to different lifestyles', 'finding strength through trustworthy acquaintances', 'continuing reconciliation with oneself while trying to assimilate into South Korean culture', 'self-realization of one's original self', and 'continuing to feel out the possibility of a future in South Korea'. The findings indicate that North Korean men who defect to South Korea shape their identity through three phases: forming self-image during escape from North Korea, trying to become accustomed to South Korean society, and finding their own identity by self-realization of their original self. Eventually, the whole process enables them to recover their identity, to feel a sense of belonging, and to discover possibilities for a better future.

  1. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung Tae

    2007-06-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea.

  2. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  3. Comparison on using nuclear energy between South Korea and North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Geon; Kim, Nam Ha; Byeon, Jong Dal

    1988-01-01

    This book is useful to compare glossary of science and technique in nuclear energy between South Korea and North Korea. The term on this book are in alphabetical order. This book arranges the term involving nuclear energy which are using in university, research institute and industry. The technical term are in the textbook and magazine and real life. This book features comparison of term and combination between two nations.

  4. Military Alliances and Reality of Regional Integration: Japan, South Korea, the US vs. China, North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Goo, Young-Wan; Lee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    East Asian military security is of overarching importance in the economic integration and prosperity in this region. This study analyzes how South Korea and Japan consider the U.S. as a military ally in the context of the China–North Korea alliance by using the iterative Seemingly Unrelated Regression(SUR) method in estimating defense goods demand functions. The findings are that Japan considered the U.S. to be a closer ally than the U.S. did during 2000~2005 and South Korea may regard the U....

  5. Overview of the burden of diseases in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo Han; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Young Ae; Yeom, Ji Won; Oh, In-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.

  6. ElBaradei welcomes North Korea's commitment on nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has welcomed the commitment by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, North Korea) to abandon nuclear weapons, and rejoin the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Speaking to members of the international press corps in Vienna this morning, Dr. ElBaradei said he looked forward to IAEA inspectors returning to North Korea. He said the Agency would conduct 'the necessary inspections to assure ourselves that the nuclear weapons programme in the DPRK has been abandoned and that all nuclear activity in the DPRK is subjected to safeguards and dedicated for peaceful purposes'. Dr. ElBaradei comments follow a joint statement released today by six nations at talks in Beijing on North Korea's nuclear programme. The statement gives a commitment to denuclearise the Korean peninsula, for which negotiations began in August 2003, between China, Japan, Russia, the United States and the two Koreas. 'This is all very encouraging news', Dr. ElBaradei said. 'It constitutes a balanced package in my view that addresses both the security needs of North Korea as well as the concerns of the international community about North Korea's nuclear activities. It has been a long and complex process. The negotiation has been going on for more than two years but at the end negotiation pays', the IAEA Director General said. When asked by reporters when IAEA inspectors would return, Dr. ElBaradei said a precise date was still to be fixed. However, the commitment was for North Korea to go back to inspections and the NPT at an early date. 'I certainly will be consulting with the DPRK, with the concerned parties and clearly the earlier we go back, the better. This is going to be a complex inspection process. We need again to reconstruct activities that have taken place since 2002, in fact even before 2002 because since 1993 we haven't been able to perform comprehensive verification inspection in North Korea'. Dr. ElBaradei's comments came

  7. Translations on North Korea No. 622

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-13

    of golden embroidery : "Central Commit- tee of the Workers’ Party of Korea," "Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea." On its...students dates back to March 2, 1059, when the cabinet passed Decree 18. Under this decree, primary school pupils art - subject to five weeks of...of South Yemen President Ali Nasser Muhammad arrives in Pyongyang for a five-day visit. 8 A Burmese art troupe arrives in Pyongyang for a 12-day

  8. Projecting Pyongyang: The Future of North Korea's Kim Jong IL Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scobell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    .... It does not consider the future of North Korea as a geographic or territorial entity. Some analysts and observers discuss the future without clarifying whether they are discussing the country of North Korea or the Pyongyang regime...

  9. Incorrect Assumptions: A Critical Review of U.S. Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vander Vennet, Elise M

    2002-01-01

    .... relationship with North Korea. Upon taking office, the Bush administration called a temporary halt to Clinton's policy of intensive engagement with North Korea in favor of taking time to reassess the situation, U.S. goals and U.S...

  10. 76 FR 22289 - Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 76... 13570 of April 18, 2011 Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea By the authority...

  11. [Formation of medical education in North Korea: 1945-1948].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience

  12. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. 31 CFR 500.580 - Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving North Korea. 500.580 Section 500.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea. Banking institutions organized under... North Korea or a national thereof has an interest. Persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction who are...

  14. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water reactor...

  15. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  16. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... case-by-case basis. Applications to export or reexport humanitarian items intended for the benefit of...) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all items...

  17. A Study on Dismantling and Verifying North Korea's Nuclear Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jae; Cheon, Seong Whun

    2007-10-01

    North Korea's nuclear weapon development is a serious threat to South Korea's national security and can become a trigger to change the status quo in the Korean peninsula. Having prevailed security dynamics in Northeast Asia last 20 years, the North Korea's nuclear problem faced a key turning point when Pyongyang tested its first nuclear weapon on October 9, 2006. Despite this test, however, diplomatic efforts to resolve the nuclear issue were never given up, resulting in a so-called, initial agreement signed at the Six-Party Talks in February 2007. With the Six-Party Talks being held more than four years, the six countries have had sufficient time to discuss principal and political matters regarding the dismantlement of North Korea's nuclear weapons. Under the circumstances, this report is going to study practical and detail issues related with dismantling the North's nuclear weapons. Specifically, in light of historical experiences, the report will investigate possible problems to be faced in the course of dismantlement and propose policy measures to overcome these problems

  18. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    delegation to honor former South Korean President Kim Dae- jung ; a resumption of activity at the Kaesong Industrial Complex; bilateral talks between U.S...task is more urgent or more important than solving the people’s food problem and eating problem.”21 Pyongyang currently faces the archetypical ...1, 2007. Jung Sung-ki. Kim Jong-il Interested in Vietnamese-style Reform Policy, Korea Times. October 28, 2007. 65 Hong, Ihk-pyo. A Shift Toward

  19. Characteristics of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis in Sanatoria of North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jihee; Jegal, Yangjin; Ki, Moran; Shin, Young Jeon; Kim, Cheon Tae; Shim, Tae Sun; Sung, Nackmoon

    2017-07-01

    Although several reports about drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in North Korea have been published, a nationwide surveillance on this disease remains to be performed. This study aims to analyze the drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among the patients in the sanatoria of North Korea, especially during the period when second-line drugs (SLDs) had not yet been officially supplied to this country. The Eugene Bell Foundation (EBF) transferred 947 sputum specimens obtained from 667 patients from 2007 to 2009 to the Clinical Research Center, Masan National Tuberculosis Hospital (MNTH), South Korea. Four hundred ninety-two patients were culture positive for TB (73.8%). Drug susceptibility test (DST) was performed for the bacilli isolated from 489 patients. Over 3 quarters of the cases (76.9%) were multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. Additionally, 2 patients had extremely drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. Very high resistance to first-line drugs and low resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and injectable drugs (IDs) except for streptomycin (S) were detected. A small but significant regional variation in resistance pattern was observed. Big city regions had higher rate of MDR-TB, higher resistance to FQs and IDs than relatively isolated regions. In conclusion, significant number of drug-resistant TB was detected in North Korean sanatoria, and small but significant regional variations in resistance pattern were noticeable. However, the data in this study do not represent the nationwide drug resistance pattern in North Korea. Further large-scale evaluations are necessary to estimate the resistance pattern of TB in North Korea. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. The North Wind: North Korea’s Response and Policy Towards the 2002 Presidential Election in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NSPA agent and entrepreneur, and Mr. Hahn Seong-ki, advisor to the Chairman of the Jinro chaebol . These three men affiliated with the New Korea Party...strategy.” In this vein, North Korean propagandists describe the Mt. Kumgang Tourism Development venture of the Hyundai chaebol as a personal

  1. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates and assesses current developments...

  2. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    play basketball and reportedly was a fan of the NBA and Michael Jordan. He returned to Pyongyang in his late teens. Goals and Means These...semiconductor mold components), JCCOM ( communication components), and Yongin Electronics (transformers, coils).92... communication , a method of defusing tensions, and a way to expose North Koreans to outside ideas and ways of doing business. Economically, the KIC

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  4. The Energy Cooperative Scheme between South and North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-08-01

    The leaders of South and North announced the South-North Joint Declaration, which stood for the basic principle of the South-North Cooperation, in June 2000, after 55 years since the division of the country. The joint declaration was to suggest the basic principles on the relation of South-North. Two leaders declared as follows: The first was that the South and North have agreed to resolve the question of reunification independently; The second was that South and North agreed to promote reunification as the formulae of a confederation; The third was that South and North have agreed to promptly resolve humanitarian issues such as exchange visits by separated family members and relatives and the questions of unswerving long-term prisoners and the war prisoners; The forth was that the South and North have agreed to consolidate mutual trust by promoting balanced development of the national economy through economic cooperation and by stimulating cooperation and exchanges in civic, cultural, sports, public health, environmental and all other fields. As adopted in the Joint Declaration, the consolidation of the economic cooperation between South and North is not an important factor only for improving the economic power of the both Korea but also for peacefully unifying the both political systems. The union of South's capital and technology and North's labor will consolidate the mutual benefit and contribute to the balanced development of the national economy. Through the cooperation of South and North, the companies of the South can enhance their competitiveness in the world market, and the North can promote the transfer of the technology in industry. Even more, if the downstream - a railroad, a high way, a harbor, a communication, and electricity -of the North is improved through expanding the cooperation of South and North, the effect from the scale of economy will be expanded as growing the economy of Korean peninsular. 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  5. LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

  6. North Korea’s Choice of the Types of Provocation Against South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    commercial airliner on domestic flight from Busan to Seoul with 34 passengers aboard hijacked by North Korean agent (only 26 sent back to South on...sunk while trying to infiltrate beach in Dadaepo, Busan (two crew members caught) ⃝ September 14, 1986 Arrival area of Gimpo Airport...ailing economy by promoting exchanges with capitalist countries. In addition, South Korea, which successfully hosted the 1986 Busan Asian Games and

  7. {open_quotes}Lure{close_quotes} North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.Y.M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the frustrations of the international community in dealing with North Korea after negotiation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty. In the past, the international community has not been well prepared to deal with the North Korean obstinacy. It has repeatedly misjudged North Korean goals, South Korean Interests, and Japanese reactions. A new approach is proposed for the long run, that avoids coercion or appeasement. Economic incentives are suggested as the means to bring about changes in North Korean attitudes that will ultimately foster the desire for maintaining economic stability and well being rather than warlike independence. China and the former Soviet Union are not considered supportive of a warlike posture in North Korean but are making economic overtures to South Korea themselves. If the economic approach proves successful, it will enhance the chances of Korean unification by peaceful means and under democratic rule because time is on the side of democracy. In the long run nonproliferation will be achieved through unification.

  8. 75 FR 34317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of June 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea... President also found that it was necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that... exercise of authorities under the Trading With the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1-44) with respect to North...

  9. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-01-16

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body.

  10. A Realist Study of the North Korea-China Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Hedengran, Rasmus Duus; Kondrup, Alexander Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate the nature of the China-North Korea alliance in light of recent developments on the Korean Peninsula. The project found this issue relevant to examine, as this relationship is often identified as being a key factor in shaping the current conflict. The research was centered around the foundations of the alliance and how it has changed to this day. This framework was made possible through the use of Stephen Walt’s balance of threat and alliance formati...

  11. Engaging North Korea: Put on a Happy Face, But Keep One Hand on the Big Stick

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutphin, Paul R

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines strategic considerations regarding U.S. policy with respect to North Korea, and concludes that the current policy being pursued by the Bush Administration is, rightly, wary of North Korean trustworthiness and intentions...

  12. Contents or Ideology? A Case Study of Mathematical Teaching in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Alexander; Lee, JungHang

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses mathematics education in one of the most closed countries in the world, North Korea. It is known that ideology permeates all aspects of life in North Korea, but how exactly do the ideological and substantive mathematical components interact in mathematics education there? What concrete form does this interaction take in…

  13. 76 FR 37235 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... With Respect to North Korea Notice of June 23, 2011--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... ] Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 24, 2009 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... proliferation of weapons-usable fissile material on the Korean Peninsula. The President also found that it was...

  15. Teaching with the News: North Korea and Nuclear Weapons. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

    In October 2002 North Korea admitted that it had been operating a secret nuclear weapons program in violation of international treaties and the 1994 Agreed Framework with the United States. North Korea also appeared to be taking steps to begin production of nuclear weapons and, according to U.S. officials, may have a missile that can hit…

  16. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  17. Effects of Military Development on Economic Growth in North and South Korea, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    South Korea. North Korea had instigated incidents along the DMZ, and in South Korea. Increased attacks on U.S. forces (the Pueblo incident, and the...Seventh, domestically del *gned systems using no imported components are produced.3i Using this model, a comparison can be made between North and South Korea...Sidewinder AAM 1077-79 Arming F-4 (480 ea) Fighters 1 " Casa -Grande" Class 1976 Arms; AA Guns Oock Landing Ship 2 "Gearing" Cl Destroyers 1977 In add

  18. Six New Records of Springtails (Collembola from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyi, Laszlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Six species of springtails (Collembola are reported for the first time from North Korea: Pachyotoma takeshitai (Kinoshita, 1916, Folsomia bisetosa Gisin, 1953 and Agrenia agilis Fjellberg, 1986 of Isotomidae, Entomobrya sibirica Stach, 1963 and Willowsia buski (Lubbock, 1870 of Entomobryidae, and Ptenothrix setosa (Krausbauer, 1898 of Dicyrtomidae. The genus Pachyotoma Bagnall, 1949 is mentioned for the first time from the Korean Peninsula. In order to facilitate the identification of these species, illustrations and short diagnoses are provided and the poorly known P. takeshitai is described in detail. Ptenothrix setosa and E. sibirica link the Korean peninsular fauna with Central Asia, P. takeshitai shows the zoogeographical connection of the Korean Peninsula with the Japanese Islands and A. agilis has a trans-pacific distribution. Folsomia bisetosa is an interesting circumpolar element in the Korean fauna while W. buski is a subcosmopolitan species.

  19. The EU foreign policy toward the North Korea: its effects and limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Seong Jung

    2012-01-01

    Jang, Seong Jung EU has been engaged in North Korean affairs since it started humanitarian aid in 1990s. EU has developed institutional grounds for the diplomatic relation and it has implemented foreign policy towards North Korea in the context of Asia strategy. Its approach to North Korea is connected with Neo-liberal thinking. It stressed the international cooperation to resolve the nuclear problem, and utilized political dialogues and international institution to improve the poor human rig...

  20. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  1. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime.

  2. Discrepancies in general surgery medical terminology between South and North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Keunyoung; Park, Do-Eon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Yang, Hyun Hui; Ko, Dayoung; Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize surgery-related medical terminologies used in South and North Korea and to compare and analyze discrepancies observed in the terms. This study collected medical terminology used in the North Korean medical book "Surgery" and compared it to medical terminology found in the medical glossary of South Korea. The order of the subtitle was described according to the Instruction to Authors. In total, there were 2,168 individual medical terms, of which only 1,004 words (46.3%) were identical to South Korean medical terms. There were 581 similar terms (26.8%), 265 different terms (12.2%), and 318 terms that are nonexistent in South Korea (14.7%). Less than half of the medical terms used in North Korea match those used in South Korea. It is expected that the prolongation of the current division of South and North Korea will only worsen this discrepancy. Further efforts to bridge the gap through academic exchange between South Korea and North Korea are required in preparation for an era of reunification.

  3. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    ... maintains friendly relations with both Koreas, currently the only country to do so. Nearly fifteen years after this normalization, South Korea and China still enjoy a strong relationship that generally continues to improve...

  4. A new Cleotomiris species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Fedor; Simov, Nikolay

    2014-04-08

    Cleotomiris josifovi is described from the vicinity of Pyong Kang, North Korea. The description of this new species is provided with scanning micrographs of selected structures, and digital microscopic images of habitus and genitalia.

  5. U.S. Policy Options Toward Stopping North Korea's Illicit Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Meridee J

    2007-01-01

    North Korea began its involvement in illicit activities in the 1970s, but it took the United States until the new millennium to develop a series of major law enforcement approaches to counter these activities...

  6. Why the US Must Shift Its North Korea Policy From Disarmament to Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton-Jones, Lynne T

    2003-01-01

    ....1 The Bush administration viewed North Korea's suspected nuclear weapons program with increased scrutiny and began to question whether or not Pyongyang could be deterred from taking unwanted actions...

  7. Engaging North Korea: An Element of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheeseman, Jr, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    .... With North Korea becoming a confirmed nuclear power, the potential for radical instability in the Northeast Asian region exists to a greater degree than ever seen before in the post-Cold War era...

  8. U.S. Policy Options Toward Stopping North Korea's Illicit Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Meridee J

    2007-01-01

    .... currency, cigarettes and pharmaceuticals, missile sales and human trafficking. The United States has aggressively addressed the nuclear threat that North Korea poses, but has been slow to address the inputs that fund the outputs...

  9. Korea - 1950: The Decision to Invade the North...(What Would Carl Have Thought?)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moseley, T. M

    1989-01-01

    Sunday, 0400 hours, 25 June 1950...the assault came without warning. Eight North Korean infantry divisions exploded across the 38th Parallel into South Korea through gaps torn by armor and artillery...

  10. North Korea and Iran's Nuclear Programs as Instability Factors in the New System of International Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romashkina, Natalia P

    2007-01-01

    ...: North Korea and Iran. Her detailed and carefully documented study goes well beyond the current rhetoric of politics and looks closely at historical developments, geopolitical factors, the scientific parameters...

  11. Economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea: New goals and new approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Zakharova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years the Soviet Union was the key economic partner of North Korea. After the USSR broke up, Russia has not played such an important role in the DPRK's economic development. In 2013, its share in the foreign trade of North Korea accounted for a mere 1%. However, in the second decade of the 21st century bilateral, contacts have intensified significantly. Judging by the recent developments, the Russian leadership has made a political decision to expand economic cooperation with North Korea and stimulate Russia's business interests with the DPRK. Russia has set a goal of growing the volume of its trade with North Korea by a factor of ten by 2020. Moreover, Moscow is currently developing a number of investment projects in the DPRK and Russian companies are also looking at developing more of them. Another important aim for Russia is the implementation of big infrastructure projects with both Koreas. The article examines the current position and future prospects for economic cooperation between Russia and North Korea and analyses main forms and potential opportunities for developing bilateral economic relations. Particular attention is paid to the expanding cooperation mechanisms and joint economic projects between Russia and the DPRK and also the potential participation of the Republic of Korea.

  12. Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

  13. A Preliminary Study of Seismic Risk in the Pyongyang Area, North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Small and large earthquakes have occurred according to the historical and instrumental records in the Korean Peninsula. Results of the GIS spatial analyst using historical and instrumental records indicate high point (earthquake) density in Pyongyang metropolitan area in North Korea, and southern areas in South Korea. Apparently, Pyongyang metropolitan area, the capital of North Korea, is exposed to large risks due to natural hazards including earthquakes. Assuming a magnitude 6.7 scenario earthquake, which was experienced in A.D. 502 in the area, 51.1% of the Pyongyang area will experience 0.24g or higher shaking. Approximately 14.8 % of the population in North Korea has been evacuated due to disasters between 1999 and 2008. This is significantly higher than that of South Korea (62 times higher) in the same period. It demonstrates that North Korea is in poorer environment and may have lesser competencies to handle the crisis of hazard than that of South Korea. Results of the study provide a significant information in laying out the earthquake disaster assessment system.

  14. Stigma of mental illnesses as perceived by north korean defectors living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Choi, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Jin-Yong; Song, In-Gyu; Bae, Jae-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide the information of the stigmas of mental illness such as psychosis, alcoholism, attempt suicide, and depression among North Korean defectors. We examined stigma for the mental illnesses of 639 North Korean defectors aged 19 to 65 years who live in the Settlement Support Center for North Korean Refugees. The stigmas of mental illnesses were assessed using the Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination Scale We directly compared the stigma level between North Korean defectors and the general population of South Korea. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Perceived stigma associated with attempted suicide was similar for North Korean defectors and South Koreans. Only marital status in sociodemographic variables had associations with higher perceived stigma of psychosis, alcoholism, and depression in the North Korean defectors. North Korean defectors, who spent more than one year in transit country, had associations with lower perceived stigma of psychosis and alcoholism. North Korean defectors, who had the experience of compulsory repatriation to North Korea or North Korean family in South Korea, had an association with higher perceived stigma of depression. North Korean defectors had higher perceived stigmas of psychosis and alcoholism and lower perceived stigmas of depression than South Koreans. Further studies are needed to document serial changes in stigmas for mental illnesses associated with the receipt of education at the Settlement Support Center for North Korean defectors.

  15. A Policy study on cooperation for the development of underground resources in North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Nam [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    For the smooth promotion of joint development program of underground resources in North Korea, it requires a domestic legal authority applicable when a private company begins the development program of underground resources in North Korea. It is recommended that the supply of initial fund of resources development program in North Korea will utilize the supply method of existing resources development subsidizing fund instead of establishing new fund. In the case of enlarging its program by minerals, it is desirable to support it by creating the South-North resources development cooperation fund for a certain period to attract voluntary participation of the private sector. In this study, minerals able to develop among natural minerals in North Korea were classified and presented by grouping according to the higher order. Also, a plan for institutionalizing this was sought by connecting a development program by types of minerals for the smooth operation of South-North resources development cooperation program. Considering types of minerals, area, and the size and cost of development, it should be operated step by step, but for programs realizable at once, it should be started in its early stage. It is recommended to review a step by step plan for mineral resources development in North Korea continuously in connection with other economic cooperation sector such as the manufacturing industry. (author). 30 refs., 40 tabs.

  16. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  17. The growing relationship between South Korea and China consequences for North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    After approximately forty years as enemies, South Korea and China normalized relations in 1992. This change has accelerated the growth of both of their already booming economies. Beyond that, it has helped propel Beijing into a pivotal role of influence since it now maintains friendly relations with both Koreas, currently the only country to do so. Nearly fifteen years after this normalization, South Korea and China still enjoy a strong relationship that generally continues to improve. Surpri...

  18. 31 CFR 500.602 - Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... utilized for any currency translation or interest calculation). (ii) Describe the circumstances of the loss... damage which is the subject of the claim. (g) Definition of United States national. For purposes of this...) Definition of the Government of North Korea; North Korean government entity. For purposes of this section: (1...

  19. An assessment of forest cover trends in South and North Korea, from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments--based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea--suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  20. The life expectancy gap between North and South Korea from 1993 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Ezzati, Majid; Khang, Young-Ho

    2018-03-12

    Comparative research on health outcomes in North and South Korea offers a unique opportunity to explore political and social determinants of health. We examined the age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy (LE) gap between the two Koreas. We calculated the LE at birth in 1993 and 2008 among North and South Koreans, and cause-specific contributions to the LE discrepancy between the two Koreas in 2008. The cause-specific mortality data from South Korea were used as proxies for the cause-specific mortality data in North Korea in 2008. The LE gap between the two Koreas was approximately 1 year in 1993, but grew to approximately 10 years in 2008. This discrepancy was attributable to increased gaps in mortality among children younger than 1 year and adults 55 years of age or older. The major causes of the increased LE gap were circulatory diseases, digestive diseases, infant mortality, external causes, cancers and infectious diseases. This study underscores the urgency of South Korean and international humanitarian aid programs to reduce the mortality rate of the North Korean people.

  1. A study on the status of nuclear development and utilization in North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Ham, Cheol Hoon; Lee, Byeong Uk; Lee, Jae Seong; Choi, Yeong Rok; Ko, Han Seong

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to propose strategies and tactics for nuclear cooperation between the South and the North in the perspective of the unification of the Korean Peninsula, based on proper and objective understanding of the status of nuclear development and utilization activities in North Korea, especially those for peaceful purposes. This study analyzes the nuclear development and utilization status of North Korea in terms of nuclear development history and policies, nuclear research and development, nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, production and uses of radiation and isotopes, manufacturing of equipment and components of nuclear power plants, and international nuclear cooperation. Based on the analysis, this study proposes basic directions for nuclear cooperation between South and North Korea. (Author)

  2. The demographic transition in the Korean peninsula, 1910-1990: South and North Korea compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S

    1994-12-01

    North and South Korea have both experienced demographic transition and fertility and mortality declines. The fertility declines came later in North Korea. In 1990, the population was 43.4 million in South Korea and 21.4 million in North Korea and the age and sex compositions were similar. This evolution of population structure occurred despite differences in political systems and fertility determinants. Differences were in the fertility rate and the rate of natural increase. The total fertility rate was 2.5 children in North Korea and 1.6 in South Korea. The rate of natural increase was 18.5 per 1000 in North Korea and 9.8 in South Korea. Until 1910, the Korean peninsula was in the traditional stage characterized by high fertility and mortality. The early transitional stage came during 1910-45 under the Japanese annexation. Health and medical facilities improved and the crude birth rate rose and then declined. With the exception of the war years, population expanded as a function of births, deaths, and international migration. Poor economic conditions in rural areas acted as a push factor for south-directed migration, migration to Japan, and urban migration. Next came the chaotic stage, during 1945-60. South Korean population expanded during this period of political unrest. Repatriation and refugee migration constituted a large proportion of the population increase. Although the war brought high mortality, new medicine and disease treatment reduced the mortality rate after the war. By 1955-60, the crude death rate was 16.1 per 1000 in South Korea. The crude birth rate remained high at 42 per 1000 between 1950-55. The postwar period was characterized by the baby boom and higher fertility than the pre-war period of 1925-45. Total fertility was 6.3 by 1955-60. The late transitional stage occurred during 1960-85 with reduced fertility and continued mortality decline. By 1980-85, total fertility was 2.3 in the closed population. The restabilization stage occurred during

  3. Borders of Belonging: Nationalism, North Korean Defectors and the Spiritual Project for a Unified Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Sarah Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation examines the conflicts and contradictions of national identity that emerge out of the interactions between North Korean defectors and Protestant South Korean Protestants who give them aid. Since the mid 1990s, a significant number of North Koreans have migrated to South Korea in search of food and opportunities as a result of a devastating famine. Instead of the warm welcome they expect, defectors are treated with suspicion by South Koreans who have been taught that North Kore...

  4. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Suzy Kim

    2015-01-01

    While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran) during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. T...

  5. An Assessment of Forest Cover Trends in South and North Korea, From 1980 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments—based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea—suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  6. A study on the decommissioning methods of nuclear facilities of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Lee, G. W.

    2012-02-01

    For Korea, it is essential to participate in the decommissioning of North Korean nuclear facilities for Pu-based weapon program and to lead the project for the protection of the environments from the possible spread of nuclear contamination. Before, the studies for the verification of the North Korea nuclear facilities and for the technical preparation of the decommissioning of north Korea were conducted but the depth of the studies was not reached to the evaluation of the decommissioning project by the documentation of a decommissioning plan to the provision of the technical information to the policy decision makers. It is very helpful for understanding the characteristics of the decommissioning projects to formulate a possible dismantling scenario and to make a decommissioning plan. The cost and the periods estimated on the base of this scenario is more exact and the analysis for the selection of different policies will be possible

  7. Economics and militarization in North Korea: is the sanctions policy counterproductive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Theo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes the efficiency of the international economic sanctions against North Korea. An historical review shows that sanctions against North Korea have never succeeded in impeding this country to pursue its industrial defense policy, at the expense of its economic development. As a result, North Korea is now able (and wishes) to propose, to any clients in the world, efficient technologies in the nuclear or ballistic domain in order to gain the foreign currencies that are essential for the economic development of its people. According to the author (and other experts), such economic sanctions should be replaced by cooperation and development proposals, with the objective to show that if a nuclear program will never be accepted, reforms will be

  8. The Denuclearization of North Korea: The 1994 Agreed Framework--From Penning to Present and Alternative Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-31

    partnership with the US Defense Nuclear Agency and the Korea Society. Seoul, Korea: the Ritz - Carlton Hotel. Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. U.S. Code...passed since the signing of the Agreed Framework. Though the agreement and the events leading up to it could be categorized as recent history , this...1995, Bridled Ambition; (2) Don Oberdorfer, 1997, The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History ; (3) Thomas H. Henriksen and Mo Jongryn, 1997, North Korea

  9. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens.

  10. North Korea's nuclear-armed missiles: options for the US and its allies in the Asia-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Michael; Suh, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    During his presidential campaign, Donald Trump unsettled the governments of Japan and South Korea by suggesting they should develop their own nuclear weapons to defend against the missile threat from North Korea. When Pyongyang announced the launch of four missiles towards the island of Guam, a US territory in the West Pacific, President Trump demanded North Korea stop issuing threats against the US or "they will be met with fire and fury". Instead of bellicose rhetoric, however, diplomacy is...

  11. A Study of China’s Possible Military Intervention in the Event of a Sudden Change in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    war within the PLA. In return, during the Korean War, Mao Zedong decided to participate in the war despite internal objections and 360,000 PLA...in North Korea.‖ Council Special Report no. 42 (January 2009). Wu , Anne. ―What China Whispers to North Korea.‖ The Washington Quarterly 28, no. 2

  12. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.585 Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. Payments...

  13. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  14. Globalisation and Education: The Case of North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gay Garland

    1997-01-01

    Looks at North Korean education in terms of the tension that exists between globalization and educational sovereignty. Offers a brief historical background to North Korean education and provides a baseline for developing three possible scenarios for its future. Illustrates the impact of domestic and international forces on North Korean education.…

  15. The psychological problems of north korean adolescent refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mun; Shin, Ok Ja; Lim, Myung Ho

    2012-09-01

    As the number of North Korean adolescent refugees drastically increased in South Korea, there is a growing interest in them. Our study was conducted to evaluate the mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. The subjects of this study were 102 North Korean adolescent refugees in Hangyeore middle and high School, the public educational institution for the North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea, and 766 general adolescents in the same region. The Korean version of Child Behavior Check List (K-CBCL) standardized in South Korea was employed as the mental health evaluation tool. The adolescent refugees group showed a significantly different score with that of the normal control group in the K-CBCL subscales for sociality (t=29.67, p=0.000), academic performance (t=17.79, p=0.000), total social function (t=35.52, p=0.000), social withdrawal (t=18.01, p=0.000), somatic symptoms (t=28.85, p=0.000), depression/anxiety (t=13.08, p=0.000), thought problems (t=6.24, p=0.013), attention problems (t=4.14, p=0.042), internalized problems (t=26.54, p=0.000) and total problems (t=5.23, p=0.022). The mental health of the North Korean adolescent refugees was severe particularly in internalized problems when compared with that of the general adolescents in South Korea. This result indicates the need for interest in not only the behavior of the North Korean adolescent refugees but also their emotional problem.

  16. North Korea’s Provocation and Escalation Calculus: Dealing with the Kim Jong-un Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Select a caveat Unlimited distribution North Korea’s Provocation and Escalation Calculus: Dealing with the Kim Jong-un Regime Ken E...with bold strokes that included closing down the Kaesong Industrial Complex , a joint venture of North and South Korea, and threatening to launch...took ampules of cyanide hidden in cigarettes. The male agent died, but the female agent, Kim Hyon- hui, survived and later confessed to the bombing

  17. China and the splitting of alliances: historic cases and implications for North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Pruce, Joseph L., V

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. What causes alliances to split between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and its allies and how can this information be used to predict Beijing's relationship with North Korea? Since its founding in 1949, the PRC has become engaged in several alliances, formal and informal; however, the majority of these friendships fell to the wayside. The Soviet Union, Mongolia, and North Vietnam all gained and lost China as an ally. This thesis ...

  18. Leadership Lessons from North Korea: An Analogy to the ISLLC Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    This module draws parallels between conditions in North Korea and the work of school leaders, as defined in the 2008 ISLLC Standards. It is intended to demonstrate to educational leadership preparation programs how seemingly unrelated contexts may be utilized to capture students' attention, hopefully with the result of enhancing their…

  19. Dose prediction in Japan for nuclear test explosions in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The impact on Japan of the underground test conducted in North Korea on October 9, 2006 is examined. By the use of the results of modelling assessment and environmental monitoring, it is concluded that there was no radiation impact on Japan. This suggests a safely conducted underground nuclear test or an explosion with a very low output.

  20. Energy Profile and Perspectives on Northeast Asian Energy Co-operation of North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy of North Korea is basically based on the 'Principle of Self-reliance'. Throughout the active development of domestic energy sources, North Korea try to maximize the energy self-reliance as well as to minimize the outflow of currency for the import of energy. But, the 'Principle of Self-reliance' of energy sector brought about the excess dependency on coal and hydro, and eventually causes the contraction of oil and natural gas consumption. This kind of adverse reaction of the 'Principle of Self-reliance' is the major reason of overall weakness of national-wide economic system. It is not known actually what kinds of perspectives North Korea has on the Northeast Asian energy cooperation. But, it can be said that Northeast Asian energy cooperation can be the best chance for North Korea to solve current energy crisis and to transfer the economic system to capitalism for the recovery of national economy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. North Korea's Nuclear Test: Motivations, Implications, and U.S. Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma; Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    ... on the regime would be regarded as an act of war. China and South Korea, the top aid providers to and trade partners with the North, supported the resolution, but uncertainty remains as to whether the two countries will strictly enforce...

  2. North Korea’s 7.1 Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Dobbins, The Beginner’s Guide to Nation-Building (Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Security Research Division, 2007). 23 Daron Acemoglu and James A...government founded the Sinuiju Special Administrative Region (SAR), the Mount (Mt.) Kumgang Tourism Zone, and the Kaesong Industrial Park.52 The Sinuiju SAR...Korea,” 25. 88 Ibid., 17–25. 89 K. Y. Wong, “Chinas Special Economic Zone Experiment - an Appraisal,” Geografiska Annaler Series B-Human Geography

  3. [The influence of the devotion movement on the health care in North Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-In; Kim, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Sang-Ik

    2006-06-01

    Since the early 1960s, North Korea has conducted 'devotion movement' under the directorship of Kim Il Sung across the nation. As a matter of fact, the movement was not a novel invention at all. When North Korean Temporary People's Polity was established in 1946, North Korea emphasized the importance of the devoted care of health personnel. It meant to reform the people's thought and mind along with complementing the lack of human and material resources. Thought reform was not a peculiar phenomenon observed in North Korea only. It was particularly stressed out among communist countries, including the Soviet Union. However any other communist country stresses the importance of thought reform. Devotion movement should be viewed as part of this process. As shown in many cases, the extent and degree of devotion movement and care are beyond our imagination, which does not intend to mean that North Korean health personnel's attitude towards patients is superior to the counterparts in South Korea. Indeed human being's behavior cannot be understood without taking account of society in general. The question can be raised as to whether or not North Korean health personnel's devoted care is really voluntary. To put aside the testimony that the most powerless group in a society can fall prey to victims, if social environment, whether directly or indirectly, is action on the people's thought and mind even in a subtle way and thus influence one's decision power, it is hard to highly evaluate the devoted care in North Korea. Moreover it seems like that the internal conflict exists surrounding devotion. In conclusion, I think that North Korean devotion movement has enforced health personnel to reform their thought and mind to adapt to North Korean regime and has played an important role to accomplish the purpose of North Korean Labor Party to realize essential constituents of its health system, in such a situation in which essential medical supplies are severely lacking. But it

  4. Deforestation change detection in North Korea between 1999 and 2008 using multi temporal satellite image

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    After the mid-1990s, North Korea has gone through a hard time of shortage of food and fuel due to the large scale flood and landslide. This became a vicious circle, which has kept accelerating the deforestation in North Korea. This study aims to analyze the change of deforestation in North Korea using two different seasonal satellite images of Landsat 5-TM and SPOT-5 between 1999 and 2008. The Land cover was classified into 6 categories: forest, cropland, grassland, bare land, built area and water body. And the deforested and degraded forest area was extracted considering forest land boundary and classified into 3 categories: the cultivated, the unstocked forest land and the bare mountain. For the all classification process, unsupervised classification method was used since North Korea is inaccessible area. The results of the study showed that the stocked forest area has decreased 1,379,000 ha compared with those in 1999, whereas the deforested and degraded forest area has increased 1,207,000 ha in 2008. The increase of 880,000 ha in the unstocked forest land was the biggest expansion among 3 categories of the deforested and degraded forest area during 9 yrs. It is resulted from an increase of firewood usage, which is presumably owing to the severe shortage of fuel and food. I look forward for the outcome of this study to being used as baseline data for inter-Korean forest cooperation. Especially, it is expected to serve as important input data for the potential REDD project site selection with results of the 3rd forest monitoring(2018) of North Korea.

  5. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Uber Alles: Hitting the Jackpot through Sino-Korean Partnership," Comparative Connections: An E-Journal on East Asian Bilateral Relations 3, no. 2...Hitting the Jackpot through Sino-Korean Partnership.“ 18 7. Growth in the New Millennium China and South Korea continued to improve this economic...Security," 73-99. Snyder, "Consummating ‘Full-Scale Cooperative Partnership.” And Snyder, "Economic Interests Uber Alles: Hitting the Jackpot through

  6. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  7. A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. The North Korean refugees' mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees' mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  8. Gender Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Related Factors among North Korean Refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Hyunchun; Kwon, Young Dae; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Yo Han; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-11-01

    According to previous social survey, a high number of North Korean refugees (NKRs) in South Korea had suicidal ideation. The purpose of this study is to examine the related factors for suicidal ideation among NKRs by gender in South Korea. We examined the sample of NKRs, 701 subjects (men=160, women=-541) residing in South Korea, the participants were enrolled from October 2008 to May 2014. The related factors with suicidal ideation in NKRs were analyzed via a logistic regression analysis. Refugee women were more likely to have suicidal ideation than men were. Although thoughts of suicide do not necessarily mean that they will follow through, however, there is an association that the higher rate of suicide also results in a higher rate of attempted suicide. In both genders, they tended to think more frequently about suicide who had stayed in South Korea for more than 5 years. In addition, higher frequencies of suicidal ideation also associated with higher level of perceived stress in both genders. The gender difference should be addressed when designing suicide prevention interventions among the North Korean population in South Korea.

  9. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  10. Specters of War in Pyongyang: The Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While North Korea accused South Korea of starting a “civil war” (naeran during the Korean War, it has now moved away from such depictions to paint the war as an American war of imperialist aggression against Korea that was victoriously thwarted under the leadership of Kim Il Sung. In this regard, it may be more than a coincidence that the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum in Pyongyang was built in the early 1970s, just as the Vietnam War drew to a close with a Vietnamese victory. This article examines the memorialization of the Korean War in North Korea at two pivotal historical points—the end of the Vietnam War in the 1970s and the end of the Cold War in the 1990s—with a particular focus on contemporary exhibitions at the war museum in Pyongyang. Rather than offering a simple comparison of divergent narratives about the war, the article seeks to illustrate that North Korea’s conception of history and its account of the war are staunchly modernist, with tragic consequences.

  11. Remote Sensing based multi-temporal observation of North Korea mining activities : A case study of Rakyeon mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. H.; Yu, J.; Koh, S. M.; Lee, G.

    2017-12-01

    Mining is a major industrial business of North Korea accounting for significant portion of an export for North Korean economy. However, due to its veiled political system, details of mining activities of North Korea is rarely known. This study investigated mining activities of Rakyeon Au-Ag mine, North Korea based on remote sensing based multi-temporal observation. To monitor the mining activities, CORONA data acquired in 1960s and 1970s, SPOT and Landsat data acquired in 1980s and 1990s and KOMPSAT-2 data acquired in 2010s are utilized. The results show that mining activities of Rakyeon mine continuously carried out for the observation period expanding tailing areas of the mine. However, its expanding rate varies between the period related to North Korea's economic and political situations.

  12. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures, and as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  13. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the North Korean government, which controls food distribution, has denied the World Food Program full access to the food distribution chain and has not provided required reports on food use...

  14. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  15. Trends of the electricity output, power conversion efficiency, and the grid emission factor in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, M. J.; Kim, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, concerns about the atmospheric environmental problems in North Korea (NK) have been growing. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2017), NK was the first ranked country in mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012. Reliable energy-related data in NK were needed to understand the characteristics of air quality in NK. However, data from the North Korean government were limited. Nevertheless, we could find specific energy-related data produced by NK in the Project Design Documents (PDDs) of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). There were the 6 registered CDM projects hosted by North Korea, developed as small hydropower plants. Several data of each power plant, such as the electricity output, connected to the Eastern Power Grid (EPG) or the Western Power Grid (WPG) in North Korea were provided in the CDM PDDs. We (1) figured out the trends of the electricity output, the `power conversion efficiency' which we defined the amount of generated electricity to the supplied input primary energy for power generation, and fuel mix as grid emission factor in NK as using the data produced by NK between 2005 and 2009, (2) discussed the operating status of the thermal power plants in NK, and (3) discussed the energy/environmental-related policies and the priority issues in NK in this study.

  16. Economic Opening of the Hermit Kingdom: Current Status and Future Tasks of the New SEZs in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing new SEZs, along with improving foreign relationships, is treated as the most important policy measure for opening the North Korean economy. Recently, North Korea has shown its interest in promoting two new SEZs, the Gaeseong industrial park and the Shinuiju special administrative region. Thanks to their locational merits, Gaeseong and Shinuiju have the potential to develop into thriving SEZs through subregional economic cooperation with bordering areas. Although the path toward success for North Korea's new SEZs is full of hurdles, it would result in a major boost to the country's economic rehabilitation and create a spillover effect for the rest of North Korea. In this context, this article examines the issues regarding North Korea's new special economic zones. It presents the recent progress and institutional arrangements of the Shinuiju SEZ and Gaeseong industrial park, while also exploring their potential to facilitate North Korea's economic rehabilitation and inter-Korean cooperation. This article also endeavors to address major problems that North Korea needs to resolve in order to activate its new SEZs.

  17. [Becoming medical doctors in colonial Korea: focusing on the faculty of medical colleges in early north Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun Bae

    2014-12-01

    This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A

  18. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients.

  19. The Denuclearization of North Korea: The 1994 Agreed Framework--From Penning to Present and Alternative Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minnich, James

    2002-01-01

    The denuclearization of North Korea, a formalized policy objective of the United States since the signing of the 1994 Agreed Framework, is the singularly most important objective of Washington regarding Pyongyang...

  20. Can North Korean Airborne Special Purpose Forces Successfully Conduct Military Operations Against the United States and South Korea?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allmond, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    ...; and secondly by producing the world's largest SPF. North Korea (NK) has built the world's largest SPF in the world with more than 100,000 men to support surprise attacks to disrupt CFC combat buildup and operations...

  1. Traumatic experiences and mental health of north korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Woo-Teak; Yu, Shi-Eun; Cho, Young-A; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted at Hanawon-a government sponsored educational facility for the settlement of North Korean refugees during their initial phase in South Korea-in 2004 to explore their mental health status and traumatic experiences in North Korea and during their escape period. A survey was conducted in November 2004 with 62 North Korean refugees at Hanawon, and the Trauma Checklist was used to measure their traumatic experiences. To measure their psychological-mental health status, the Personality Assessment Inventory was administered. In comparison with the traumatic experiences of the North Korean refugees found in the study conducted in 2001 at Hanawon using the same methods, the current study showed a relatively lower frequency of traumatic experiences among the participants. The Personality Assessment Inventory results revealed that the study participants scored higher than average South Koreans in all clinical scales. Particularly, their mania (62.51) and schizophrenia (61.75) scores were above 60, a clinically meaningful score. In the gender comparison, the males exhibited meaningfully higher levels of alcohol problem, non-support, and warmth scale scores. Compared to the 2001 study, the overall traumatic experiences among North Korean refugees participated in this study. But continous support is necessary for their successful adaptation to South Korean Society have declined. The North Korean refugees at Hanawon experienced difficulties maintaining their mental health and the men in particular requested more intensive care and support for this purpose.

  2. Characteristics of North Korea nuclear test and KMA magnitude scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Lee, D.; Min, K.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, J.; Park, E.; Jo, E.; Lee, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea(DPRK) carried out 6th nuclear test on 3 Sep. 2017 at 03:30 UTC. Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) announced to the public that the event took place in the DPRK's test site, Punggye-ri with the magnitude 5.7. This event is larger than previous one in terms of magnitude and showed that measured magnitude strongly depends on the frequency band of data. After we applied several magnitude scales such as Everdon(1967), Nuttli(1967), and Hong & Lee(2012) to this event, we found that magnitude ranges from 5.3 to 6.7 which depends on frequency band and epicentral distance of signal. 6th DPRK test experiment indicated that spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 2.37 Hz shows similar amplification compatible to relative spectral magnitude 5.7, while spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th near 1.0 Hz marks relative spectral magnitude about 6.1. Relative spectral magnitude varies with frequencies and decreases as frequency increase. We found that systematic non-linearity exists for spectral amplitude ratio of 6th/5th from 1.0 to 10.0 Hz, while it's characteristic is not found at 5th/4th and 4th/3th. A methodology is presented for determining mb(Pn) magnitude of underground nuclear explosions from local Pn phase. 582 waveforms from vertical component of broadband and acceleration seismographs at 120 stations in the epicenter distance from 340 to 800 km are used to calibrate mb(Pn) magnitude scaling for DPRK's nuclear tests. The mb(Pn) estimates of regional events for Korean Peninsula are determined to be mb(Pn) ? = log10(A) + 2.1164×log10(d) - 0.2721, where A is the peak-to-peak Pn amplitude in μm and d is the epicentral distance in km. Systematic non-linearity does not observed at frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. The magnitude of 6th event is mb(Pn) 6.08 and mb(Pn) 4.52, 4.92, 4.84 and 5.03 for 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th respectively. Further research of applicable mb(Pn) magnitude scaling is required for all frequency band and

  3. The Current Status and Prospects of the Economic Relationship between North Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoungchul Cho

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available After the socialist market collapse after 1990s, the economic relationship of North Korea and China is becoming closer. It can be proven by the fact that economic relationship between this two countries are transferring from the national trade model to various models such as border trade, agency trade, the illicit trade and investment aid. In this progress, North Korea rely China more than in 1990. But after 1992, the economic relationship is falling from the political priority as before, blind support and assistance based on the nature of the economic benefits to the rapid changes in relationship. This thesis reviewed economic relations in the world environment which has changed. First it analyzed the national economy and trade policies adopted in the current situation of two countries, and on this basis, it looked forward to the economic relationship between the two countries, and point out the measures regarding the relationship between two countries.

  4. Football in North and South Korea c.1910-2002: Diffusion and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Politics has been an integral part of Korean football since the Japanese colonial era when the game became a vehicle for the Korean independence movement. The split between North and South Korea following the Korean War further accentuated the intrusion of politics into the domain of Korean football. As Koreans residing on either side of the border followed the game with intense interest and often regarded performance in international competition as a signifier of national prestige, the gover...

  5. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions: The Cases of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    program. D. OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFICACY OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AT PRODUCING THE DESIRED STATE BEHAVIOR Comparative analysis of the Iran and...sanction regimes, incorporating unilateral and multilateral approaches and both trade and financial sanctions, were applied to change their behavior ...SANCTIONS AT PRODUCING THE DESIRE STATE BEHAVIOR The comparative analysis of the Iran and North Korea cases in Chapter II found other factors

  6. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the

  7. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Won Jin; Kim, Yun Jeong; Cho, Myong Jin; Kim, Joo Hyung; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon; Robinson, Courtland

    2012-03-08

    Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same

  8. North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS study: study design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs, and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1 demographic and migration information 2 disease history, 3 mental health, 4 health-related lifestyle, 5 female reproductive health, and 6 sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an

  9. The Improbable State: The Prospects for a Developmental Turn in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    conflict in Korea there. North Korean rhetoric as to the bullying by the United States is merely a bargaining chip that is used when an infusion of capital...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE IMPROBABLE...FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John D. B. Fine 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943–5000 8

  10. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Korea to drug trafficking . Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and...trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies in combating international drug trafficking . The challenge to policy makers...country’s chronic food shortages. Another issue of rising concern is the degree to which profits from any North Korean drug trafficking , counterfeiting

  11. China’s Foreign Policy Toward North Korea: The Nuclear Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Dealing with the North Korean Nuclear Issue,” Korea Observer 36, no. 3 (Autumn 2005): 469. 40 Jianwei Wang and Zhimin Lin , “Chinese Perceptions in the...influence in the region through cooperation with neighboring countries. 53 Fei- Ling Wang...139 Wu, China Turns to Multilateralism, 106. 140 Yun -ju Do, “China`s Strategic Interest toward the SCO,” The Journal of Modern China

  12. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Myanmar (Burma), or criminally financed insurgent groups like the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), or the Taliban in Afghanistan. These... pharmaceutical plants in the Nanam area of Chongjin in Hamkyong Bukto Province where it is processed into heroin.17 International aid workers assisting North...are the State Security Department and the Ministry of People’s Security. 71. See Philippa Fogarty, “ Profile : Chang Song-taek,” BBC News, April 21

  13. The factors affecting the development of national identity as South korean in north korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup; Jeon, Woo-Taek

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean.

  14. North Korea's satellite launch: provocation and ballistic progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    North Korea's putting into orbit of a small meteorological satellite using an Unha-3 launcher on the 13 December 2013, a year on from Kim Jong-il's passing, smacks of provocation. The launch of an SLV that is closely related to the Taepodong-2 and that has numerous characteristics in common with a long-range ballistic missile contravened Security Council Resolutions 1695 (2006), 1718 (2006), and 1874 (2009), adopted in response to nuclear and ballistic tests carried out by Pyongyang. These resolutions implemented a progressively more strenuous regime of sanctions, which cannot fail to have marked the North Korean dictatorship, at least in economic and financial terms. The provisional successes and failures of the Six-party talks, mediated by China, which have been at a dead-end since 2009 bear witness to the unpredictability of the North's reactions. Pyongyang's double-agenda is, nonetheless, relatively easily to discern. Firstly, with this successful launch, North Korea has redeemed the failure of the first Unha-3 launch on the 13 April 2012, at the same time as Kim Jong-un took power and the country was celebrating the centenary of the birth of its founder, Kim Il-sung. This success evidently helps to bolster both the young leader's prestige on the domestic front and his sway over the army. Simultaneously, and beyond any symbolic value, North Korea's development of long-range ballistic capabilities constitutes veritable progress, on the back of a series of failures since 2006. Naturally, the reliability of the Unha-3 launcher (or of an improved Taepodong-2) is by no means guaranteed. Moreover, its payload is limited, since it can presently only launch small satellites, and thus well below the capacity needed to carry a nuclear weapon. If this is indeed North Korea's objective in years to come, it will need to make considerable technological progress, including the development of sufficiently small nuclear devices, which would

  15. Participatory Selection of Tree Species for Agroforestry on Sloping Land in North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The action research project reported in this article used a participatory approach to select trees for sloping-land agroforestry as a key strategy for forest ecosystem restoration and local livelihood development. It was the first such project in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea to use a participatory approach, empowering local user groups to develop their preferences for agroforestry species. Local knowledge of the multiple functions of agroforestry species ensured that the tree selection criteria included the value of timber, fruit, fodder, oil, medicines, fuelwood, and erosion control. Involving 67 farmers from 3 counties, this participatory selection process resulted in Prunus armeniaca, Castanea crenata, and Ziziphus jujuba being selected as the top 3 species for the development of sloping-land agroforestry in North Hwanghae Province. These trees embody what the region’s farmers value most: erosion control, production of fruit, and economic value. The participatory approach in agroforestry could help to meet both local needs for food security and the national objective of environmental conservation and has great potential for wide adaptation in North Korea and beyond.

  16. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) along the Korean Demilitarised Zone: A feasible pathway towards an accessible North Korea?

    OpenAIRE

    Köppen, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The Demilitarised Zone (DMZ) between the Republic of Korea (RoK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is judged to be the last border of the Cold War. Although no peace treaty has been signed after the Korean War, astounding changes in the South-North relations could be observed between the late 1990s and 2010. Although severe provocations of the North finally led to a new stop of a further rapprochement, the unexpected reconciliation process started in 2000 by South Korea not...

  17. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his...... control over whether these extreme events actually happen, he will moderate his nuclear threats and behave more like other experienced nuclear powers. But if he experiences fear and believes that he has no control, he will likely pursue policies that could cause nuclear war. I use this insight...... to prescribe and proscribe policies for Washington, Seoul and the regional community....

  18. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  19. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2016-01-06

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea

  20. Health Behavior and Factors Associated with Depression in North Korean Adolescent Defectors in South Korea: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Joung; Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Sunyoung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Byung Sung

    2017-09-01

    The number of North Korean adolescent defectors entering South Korea has been increasing. The health behavior, including mental health-related behavior, and factors associated with depression in North Korean adolescent defectors residing in South Korea were investigated. Data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2011-2014) dataset were utilized. In total, 206 North Korean adolescent defectors were selected, and for the control group, 618 matched South Korean adolescents were selected. Frequency analysis was used to determine the place of birth and nationality of the parents, chi-square tests were used to compare the general characteristics of the North and South Korean subjects, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to compare the health behavior of the two sets of subjects. To determine the factors associated with depression in the North Korean subjects, a logistic regression was performed. The North Korean adolescents reported higher current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 4.35), current drinking (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.99), and drug use rates (aOR, 10.99; 95% CI, 4.04 to 29.88) than did the South Korean adolescents. The factors associated with depression in the North Korean adolescents were current smoking (aOR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30.06), lifetime drinking experience (aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 18.75), and perceived stress (aOR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.74 to 12.90). There were differences in health behavior between the North and South Korean adolescents. A specialized approach for North Korean adolescent defectors is required to promote proper health behavior and adaptation to South Korean society.

  1. The effect of the seasons of the year on malnutrition in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, D

    2009-01-01

    North Korea's economic isolation as a consequence of its recent nuclear testing could lead to another famine. In this context, the article investigates health determinants of the last famine. Birth season is a reliable proxy for nutritional and epidemiological circumstances in early life, which in turn can systematically influence later-life health outcomes such as stature. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of birth seasons on the development of heights. Height-for-age z-scores for up to 9934 pre-school children measured in 1997 during the North Korean food crisis in the decade of the 1990 s and measured in 2002, are used for the analysis. Using these data, we have verified a number of earlier studies showing that cohorts born in winter are smaller. We have also found that cohorts born in autumn are taller. Additionally, when we control for sex, birthplace, and birth year, these calendar effects remain robust. Ignoring the humanitarian dilemma of any sort, it may be concluded that in totalitarian North Korea, Pyongyang can easily influence the biological welfare of its people by interfering with the birth calendar, in order to reduce the magnitude of a potentially upcoming famine.

  2. Quality indicators for initial licensure and discipline in nursing laws in South Korea and North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K K; Kjervik, D K; Foster, B

    2014-03-01

    The Korean regulatory framework of nursing licensure reflects that of the USA, but its content differs in some of the powers related to quality assurance. This article compares regulatory quality indicators and describes core standards in nursing regulations that are related to both initial licensure and discipline for three groups: the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, the North Carolina and the South of Korea. A descriptive, comparative law design is used to examine the differences and similarities in the quality indicators and core standards found in three documents: the National Council of State Boards of Nursing Model Act, the North Carolina Nursing Practice Act and the Korean Medical Service Act for registered nurses. The findings indicate that ten quality indicators and two standards appear in study objects. Although most of the quality indicators are common to all documents, some differences are found in terms of the scope of criminal background checks and the range of grounds for disciplinary action. These findings cannot be generalized in the USA because although the North Carolina nursing act was selected as an example of US nursing laws, nursing laws differ somewhat across states. This comparative study shows a clear opportunity to develop indicators that acknowledge the important areas of competence and good moral character and how they can improve patient safety in Korea. This study provides recommendations for Korean nursing legislative redesign and pointers for other jurisdictions to consider. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  3. Determinants of well-being in North Korea: evidence from the post-famine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    North Korea has survived the breakdown of the communist bloc and has been immune to the democratization process of the 1990s. In spite of national famines and economic collapse, the totalitarian regime in Pyongyang maintains a firm grip on its power. Reliable information on the population's biosocial welfare is scarce. Using height and weight data of 5991 North Korean pre-school children measured in 2002, we investigate determinants of height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) as an indicator for child health. We find a statistically significant impact of the age of the child and of the mother, as well as the sex of the child on HAZ and WAZ. In contrast, social status and wealth proxies at the individual and household level are not statistically significant possibly because of errors in these variables. We do not find a consistent effect for geographic regions or for rural-urban residents either. Yet, urban provinces seem to be better-off. Most importantly, we find that children living in families who benefit from food aid of the United Nations are healthier in terms of HAZ, WAZ and WHZ than those depending on the government. Hence, further delivery of United Nations food aid is likely to mitigate the effects of the ongoing food crisis in North Korea.

  4. Rogue proliferator? North Korea's nuclear fuel cycle and its relationship to regime perpetuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is unlikely to relinquish its nuclear program because of its importance to the perpetuation of the Kim regime. This conclusion arises from the observation that the nuclear program has been a long-term project spanning several decades, culminating in denuclearisation negotiations, which have followed a cyclical pattern in which the North has provoked crises to extract concessions and gain leverage vis-a-vis regional states. It is clear that the nuclear program has great intrinsic value to Pyongyang. First, this paper argues that the sunk costs of previous investment in the nuclear program, as evidenced by the infrastructure for the country's nuclear fuel cycle, create forward momentum favouring continuation of the nuclear program. Second, it argues that the nuclear program solidifies Kim regime rule as an institutional buttress, as a prop for the domestic economy, and as a vehicle for ideological legitimation. The paper is a unique contribution, which explicitly links the Kim regime's proliferation calculus to the economic and bureaucratic imperatives of regime perpetuation, as well as the sunk cost of previous investment in the nuclear program. It provides a coherent explanation for North Korea's consistent unreliability in negotiations, and offers insights into future prospects of the denuclearisation process.

  5. Health-seeking experience of North Korean women defectors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chong-Hee; Kang, Hee-Young; Lake, Pamela K

    2018-03-30

    The objective of the study was to explore and describe the health-seeking experience of North Korean women defectors settled in South Korea. A qualitative study was conducted using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Participants were 10 North Korean women defectors. Data were collected through in-depth, unstructured interviews with individual participants. A total of 24 themes, eight theme clusters, and four categories emerged. The structure of the health-seeking experience for them was identified as 'having new opportunities to better understand my own body and protecting my own health while adapting to the health care system of the South'. The four categories were: finding out about my own body, confusion regarding the medical treatment, enjoying the health care benefits, and protecting my own health. The findings of this study will help improve the understanding of the health-seeking experience of North Korean women defectors and provide valuable resources to assist in caring for their health needs. This will contribute to preparing the groundwork to enhance the quality of their remaining life in South Korea. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact of Deforestation on Agro-Environmental Variables in Cropland, North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Hee Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation in North Korea is becoming the epitome of the environmental change occurring in the Korean Peninsula. This study estimates the agro-environmental variables of North Korea’s croplands and analyzes the impact of deforestation using the GEPIC (GIS-based EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model and time-series land cover maps. To identify the changes in agricultural quality under deforestation, wind erosion, water erosion, organic carbon loss, and runoff were selected as the agro-environmental variables having an impact on cropland stability and productivity. Land cover maps spanning the past three decades showed that 75% of the forests were converted to croplands and that 69% of all converted croplands were originally forests, confirming the significant correlation between deforestation and cropland expansion in North Korea. Despite limitations in the verification data, we conducted qualitative and quantitative validation of the estimated variables and confirmed that our results were reasonable. Over the past 30 years, agro-environmental variables showed no clear time-series changes resulting from climate change, but changes due to spatial differences were seen. Negative changes in organic carbon loss, water erosion, and runoff were observed, regardless of the crop type. On newly-converted agricultural lands, runoff is 1.5 times higher and water-driven erosion and soil organic loss are more than twice as high compared to older croplands. The results showed that the agro-environment affected by deforestation had an impact on cropland stability and productivity.

  7. Seismological investigation of September 09 2016, North Korea underground nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, H.; Elkholy, S.; Abdelazim, M.; Hamama, I. H.; Othman, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    On Sep. 9, 2016, a seismic event of mb 5.3 took place in North Korea. This event was reported as a nuclear test. In this study, we applied a number of discriminant techniques that facilitate the ability to distinguish between explosions and earthquakes on the Korean Peninsula. The differences between explosions and earthquakes are due to variation in source dimension, epicenter depth and source mechanism, or a collection of them. There are many seismological differences between nuclear explosions and earthquakes, but not all of them are detectable at large distances or are appropriate to each earthquake and explosion. The discrimination methods used in the current study include the seismic source location, source depth, the differences in the frequency contents, complexity versus spectral ratio and Ms-mb differences for both earthquakes and explosions. Sep. 9, 2016, event is located in the region of North Korea nuclear test site at a zero depth, which is likely to be a nuclear explosion. Comparison between the P wave spectra of the nuclear test and the Sep. 8, 2000, North Korea earthquake, mb 4.9 shows that the spectrum of both events is nearly the same. The results of applying the theoretical model of Brune to P wave spectra of both explosion and earthquake show that the explosion manifests larger corner frequency than the earthquake, reflecting the nature of the different sources. The complexity and spectral ratio were also calculated from the waveform data recorded at a number of stations in order to investigate the relation between them. The observed classification percentage of this method is about 81%. Finally, the mb:Ms method is also investigated. We calculate mb and Ms for the Sep. 9, 2016, explosion and compare the result with the mb: Ms chart obtained from the previous studies. This method is working well with the explosion.

  8. Seismological investigation of September 09 2016, North Korea underground nuclear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gaber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On Sep. 9, 2016, a seismic event of mb 5.3 took place in North Korea. This event was reported as a nuclear test. In this study, we applied a number of discriminant techniques that facilitate the ability to distinguish between explosions and earthquakes on the Korean Peninsula. The differences between explosions and earthquakes are due to variation in source dimension, epicenter depth and source mechanism, or a collection of them. There are many seismological differences between nuclear explosions and earthquakes, but not all of them are detectable at large distances or are appropriate to each earthquake and explosion. The discrimination methods used in the current study include the seismic source location, source depth, the differences in the frequency contents, complexity versus spectral ratio and Ms-mb differences for both earthquakes and explosions. Sep. 9, 2016, event is located in the region of North Korea nuclear test site at a zero depth, which is likely to be a nuclear explosion. Comparison between the P wave spectra of the nuclear test and the Sep. 8, 2000, North Korea earthquake, mb 4.9 shows that the spectrum of both events is nearly the same. The results of applying the theoretical model of Brune to P wave spectra of both explosion and earthquake show that the explosion manifests larger corner frequency than the earthquake, reflecting the nature of the different sources. The complexity and spectral ratio were also calculated from the waveform data recorded at a number of stations in order to investigate the relation between them. The observed classification percentage of this method is about 81%. Finally, the mb:Ms method is also investigated. We calculate mb and Ms for the Sep. 9, 2016, explosion and compare the result with the mb: Ms chart obtained from the previous studies. This method is working well with the explosion. Keywords: Discrimination, Seismic source location, Brune model, Spectral parameters, Complexity method, Mb: Ms

  9. Commemorating and burying dead comrades: Revolutionary martyrs’ cemeteries in China and North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Leick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the state sponsored, often vast cemeteries built to bury or commemorate the fallen ‘martyrs’ during revolutionary or civil wars in two Communist countries, China and North Korea. The legitimization of governments has always been an important issue with such burial sites and recent renovations of existing, as well as new constructions, in both countries show the continuing relevance of the policy. Of interest is also the way in which architectural, sculptural and landscape symbolization were employed to construct imagery that sometimes defies intended ideological messages.

  10. Preparatory Work for a Scenario-Based Electricity Expansion Plan for North Korea after Hypothetical Reunification using WASP-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Joo; Chang, Choong Koo

    2014-01-01

    It is noteworthy that North Korean government itself has demanded other parties' cooperation in the field of power sector as the top priority to deal with North Korean own economic issues. In this light, the researcher consider that how to build power capacity in North Korean area after reunification needs to be studied with priority. A scenario-based approach is being adopted, and three scenarios are proposed: Scenario increasing capacity at 2.4% annual rate, Imitating South Korean electricity expansion history, and reaching 80% of South Korean Annual Peak Load in 35 years. In order to carry out the research, WASP-IV (Wien Automation System Planning-IV) code developed by IAEA is, with reasonable assumptions, being executed. Annual Peak Load prediction for each scenario, load duration curve, and existing power generating facilities in North Korea are presented herein. This research is being conducted as a preparatory work for the further study. IAEA's WASP-IV is adopted for a scenario-based electricity expansion plan for North Korea after hypothetical reunification between Koreas. Input data including Annual Peak Load, load duration curve, and existing facilities are built and presented. Additional future research includes inputting candidate plants data, cost data such as construction period, operation and maintenance costs, and fuel costs, as well as decommissioning of aged power plants in North Korea to complete WASP-IV execution. Assuming reunification, electricity expansion plan would need to integrate North and South Koreas demands and facilities. However, this research narrows down its scope to North Korean demand and facilities only. Such integrated simulation could be the topic for the later research. This work was supported by the 2014 Research Fund of the KINGS

  11. Changes in nutritional status among displaced North Korean children living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, So-Young; Hoffman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As many nations experience the nutrition transition, changes in the nutritional status of children moving from food insecure to food affluent societies has become an important, but infrequently studied, public health issue. To determine changes in the nutritional status of North Korean children after relocating to food-affluent South Korea (SK) from food-deficient North Korea (NK) and relationships of current nutritional status with food environment at birth and exposure to food affluent environments. Socioeconomic status, relocation history and anthropometric information were obtained from 70 NK children (6-15 years) living in SK, through questionnaires, interviews and direct measurements. Following the first 2 years in SK, the height and weight of NK children significantly (p = 0.000) improved, yet they were still shorter (p = 0.000) than SK peers, while the prevalence of obesity was similar to those of SK children. The likelihood of remaining stunted was significantly associated with older age and shorter residency in SK (p < 0.05), but there was no significant association with food security situation at birth. Even a short exposure to food affluent environments improved the nutritional status among children, but linear growth deficits are slow to recover as overall nutritional status remains poor compared to peers without exposures to food insecurity.

  12. Do the scale and scope of the event matter?:The Asian Games and the relations between North and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the political dimension of the Asian Games. More specifically, it focuses on the implications that hosting the Asian Games in South Korea had for its relationship with North Korea. The four editions of the Asian Games that this study looks at show that the fluctuated relations between North and South Korea tends to be mirrored through the sporting events. In that sense, it can be argued that the international sporting competitions function as a barometer to measure the rel...

  13. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  14. Phased Restoration Plan for Degraded Land in North Korea by the Clustered Distribution Pattern of Suitable Afforestation Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Choi, H. A.; Yoo, H.; Song, C.; Son, Y.; Cha, S.; Bae, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Degraded forest of North Korea (DPRK; The Democratic People's Republic of Koprea) is not only confined itself, it could cause serious problem in Korean Peninsula. The importance of restoration for degraded land has increased to improve an healthy ecosystem and solve a shortage of food in North Korea lately. On the other hand, although effort of North Korea government, degraded problem have consistently got worse. There are two main reasons it does not show effectively. The most critical one is absence of technique and information to restore, they concentrate urgent problem which is related to a poor food supply. The other problem is that they demand an efficiency plan in a short period. In these aspect, this study aims selecting suitable tree by spatial characteristics and establishing phased restoration plan to support policy decision about a degraded land in North Korea. The suitable tree for restoration is taken from references which involve natural plant distribution of North and South Korea (ROK; Republic of Korea). Optimal environmental predicted map is deducted from accumulated data of plant physiology whose endemic environmental optimal range individually. It is integrated a map by order of priorities that first is suitable tree species according to the region, and second is clustering distribution rate in a same species. The two types of priority is applied to weighting method. The research result shows that 23 afforestation species fit to restore, and lager distributed plants agree with the major species in Korean Peninsula. The integrated map considers weight of priorities, and it appears that Picea jezoensis is matched the widest. The integrated map shows a view of suitable restoration according to the space, but this is finespun to utilize in a policy. Therefore It provides 3 step plan to support policy decision by Block Statistics, as 12.5km (long-term general plan), 5km (medium-term detailed plan), 1km (short-term implementation plan).

  15. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-08-01

    Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77-1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern ( P security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK.

  16. Changes in body weight and food security of adult North Korean refugees living in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, HaYoung; Kim, Sin-Gon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Relocation to new environments can have a negative impact on health by altering body weight and dietary patterns. This study attempted to elucidate changes in body weight, food security, and their current food and nutrient consumption in adult North Korean refugees (NKR) living in South Korea (SK). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study analyzed data on 149 adult NKR from a North Korean refugee health in SK cohort at four time points (leaving North Korea, entering SK, first examination, and second examination). Body weight was self-reported at the two earlier time points and directly measured at the two later time points. Food security, diet-related behaviors (dietary habits and food consumption), and sociodemographic information were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intake information was obtained by one-day 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS ver 23.0. RESULTS Body weight increased during relocation by an average of 4 kg, although diversified patterns were observed during the settlement period in SK. Approximately 39.6% of subjects maintained their body weight between the first and second examinations, whereas 38.6% gained and 22.1% lost at least 3% of their body weight at the first examination by the second examination. Food security status improved from 12.1% food secure proportion to 61.7%. NKR showed generally good food and nutrient consumption (index of nutrient quality: 0.77–1.93). The body weight loss group showed the most irregular meal consumption pattern (P security consistently improved. More detailed understanding of this process is needed to assist healthy settlement for NKR in SK. PMID:28765777

  17. The Health Care in North Korea during the Period(1945-1948 between Liberation from Japanese Occupation and Establishment of North Korean Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HWANG Sang-Ik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, mainly based on literature and documents from North Korea and Russia, described how health care system had been formulated during the period of between liberation from Japanese Occupation and formation of its own government in North Korea, which is so-called 'the Period of People's Democracy'.North Korea authorities, by themselves, address that their health care system is characterized by state medicine, universal free medical care, emphasis on preventive medicine, community(ho doctors in charge, provisions of modern medical services in parallel with traditional ones, imposed high value on ideologies of medical personnel, and mass participation of health programs so on, taken rise since this period.Under North Korea's socialistic regime, authorities started to restructure health care system through national health care organizations and institutes, which partially provided medical service free. Also, they emphasized preventive medicine against 'capitalistic' treatment-oriented medicine, and community(ho doctor in-charge was derived from this period.It showed that the mass participation on health program was equal hereafter and they had under bias toward more emphasis on ideology of medical personnel rather than their professionalism. The attempt to develop traditional medicine had been made during this period, however, much funding and support was not observed.In this period, it showed that a series of action to restructure health care system had been gradually carried out.

  18. Maintaining health sector collaborations between United States non-governmental organizations and North Korea through innovation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene S; Choi, Ricky Y; VanRooyen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Humanitarian agencies in North Korea operate within a complex sociopolitical environment historically characterized by a baseline of mistrust. As a result of operating within such a heated environment, health sector collaborations between such agencies and the North Korean government have followed unpredictable courses. The factors that have contributed to successful programmatic collaborations, as perceived by United States non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and North Korean officials were investigated. A qualitative, multi-case, comparative, research design using semistructured interviews was used. Expert North Korean informants were interviewed to generate a list of factors contributing to programmatic success, defined as fulfilling mutually established objectives through collaboration. The North Korean informants were asked to identify US NGOs that fulfill these criteria ("mission-compatible NGOs"). Representatives from all of the mission compatible NGOs were interviewed. All informants provided their perspectives on the factors that contributed to successful programmatic collaborations. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. North Korean informants identified six mission-compatible US NGOs. The North Korean and US NGO informants provided a number of factors that contributed to successful programs. These factors were grouped into the following themes: (1) responsiveness to North Korean requests; (2) resident status; (3) program monitoring; (4) sincerity (apolitical objectives); (5) information gathering; and (6) interagency collaboration. Some US NGOs have devised innovative measures to work within a unique set of parameters in North Korea. Both US NGOs and North Korean authorities have made significant concessions to maintain their programmatic partnerships. In this manner, seasoned collaborators have employed creative strategies and a form of health diplomacy to facilitate programmatic success in North Korea by

  19. Social inclusion and length of stay as determinants of health among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kunhee; Cho, Youngtae; Yoon, In-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Although the number of North Koreans seeking asylum in South Korea has increased notably in recent years, studies on the health of North Koreans residing in South Korea are rare. This study examined the roles of social inclusion and the length of stay on refugees' self-rated health. Employing a data set (n = 1,111) created by the South Korean government, we conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses. We found that degree of familiarity with South Koreans, employed as an indicator of social inclusion, was significantly associated with North Korean refugees' self-rated health status. Further, self-rated health seemed to be poorest when the duration of stay in South Korea reached about 2-4 years. Self-rated health outcomes improved after this time period. Social inclusion through close contacts with South Koreans and overcoming an arduous adaptation period, as well as addressing economic deprivation, are important in promoting the health of North Korean refugees in South Korea. These findings should be considered in crafting better resettlement and training programs for this population.

  20. Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hwa; An, Jee Hyun; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Nam Hoon

    2015-11-30

    Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Seoul, South Korea. A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake.

  3. A 7-year follow-up study on the mental health of North Korean defectors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Woo-Taek; Eom, Jin-Sup; Min, Sung Kil

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to describe the relationship of past trauma and current stress on the mental health of North Korean (NK) defectors living in South Korea 7 years after a baseline assessment. Of the 200 who participated in the initial study, 106 participated in follow-up. Previous data regarding past traumatic events experienced in North Korea and during defection, past posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their current stress levels were correlated with the participants' current mental health status including depression, anxiety, and PTSD. The rate of PTSD in the sample and the scores on the PTSD symptom scale decreased significantly from the baseline. The participants' current mental health was negatively related to previous traumatic experiences in North Korea and past symptoms of PTSD, but unrelated to previous trauma experienced during defection. In addition, although current mental health was negatively related to only current culture-related stress, it was unrelated to the level of current ordinary life stress. The results of this study suggest that PTSD symptoms decreased during the 7 years between assessments, and that current culture-related stress is the most important variable related to the mental health of NK defectors living in South Korea. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases found in North Jeolla Province, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang

    2012-03-01

    This study aims to record and conserve orally transmitted traditional plant-based therapies for respiratory diseases in North Jeolla Province, Korea. Data were collected with semistructured questionnaires through the participatory rural appraisal method. This study reveals that overall, 14 respiratory diseases have been treated with a total of 43 species of medicinal plants belonging to 40 genera in 26 families. This study also reports 149 different modes of plant-based therapeutic application of medicinal material. The informant consensus factor for the common cold is 0.84, the highest among 14 different respiratory ailments, followed by whooping cough, asthma, nosebleed, bronchitis, cough, and so on. Medicinal plants used to treat seven respiratory ailments had a 100% fidelity level. This study can help to preserve the traditional knowledge and local health traditions of North Jeolla Province amid rapid industrialization and urbanization. The findings of this study warrant follow-up clinical research to determine the most effective traditional remedies toward development of herbal medicinal products for integration into the Korean health care system.

  5. The Diversity-Segregation Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Richard

    2017-06-01

    There is a long literature extolling the virtues of diversity for both the civility and economic performance of nations and cities. On the most basic level, diversity helps nations and cities attract the wide range of creative talent that drives innovation and economic growth. Yet similarly, there is a large amount of literature on the sorting and segregation of different types of people into distinct communities. This in turn undermines the very mixing of people and groups required for economic prosperity to flourish. This essay looks at the conundrum between diversity and segregation. It argues that both are increasingly salient, interdependent, and interconnected features of large, advanced cities or metropolitan areas. This diversity-segregation conundrum is increasingly a core feature of our social and economic landscape. It reviews several recent studies that highlight this problem, as well as some of my own very recent empirical findings on the issue. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  6. Investigation of Spatiotemporal Pattern of Drought in North Korea Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Drought, as one of the severest disasters in the world, have attracted the attention of researchers and general public. Sometimes even short, intense droughts can cause significant damages to the natural environment as well as the economy. In recent years, North Korea (NK) has been suffering severe droughts. Yet, the thorough field investigation of drought disaster conditions in NK is impossible now. Thus, it is necessary to get more information of drought conditions to restore the damaged environment in NK after unification. RS data can be used to monitor vegetation, bare soil conditions, especially in inaccessible regions. This information can be used to derive spatial variation of drought conditions. Thus, the spatiotemporal pattern of drought conditions in NK using multi-sensor RS data and available meteorological data were investigated in this study. The RS data---MODIS NDVI (MOD13A3) and LST (Land Surface Temperature) (MOD11A2) from 2000 to 2014 which obtain the vegetation health conditions were used to derive two operationally used agricultural drought indices: Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI). The in-situ precipitation data from 27 weather stations from 1981 to 2014 were used for identifying the relative dry/wet years and acquiring meteorological drought index Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The correlations between the agricultural drought indices and metrological drought index were derived. These data were stored in GIS and used for spatial analysis to figure out the spatiotemporal pattern of drought in NK. The spatiotemporal information of NK drought in this study can provide the basic information for restoring the drought damaged field after the unification of Korea.

  7. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  8. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Li, Xuemei; Wu, Jing

    2017-05-01

    We conduct a systematic survey on locally triggered earthquakes by large distant earthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano, an active intraplate volcano on the border between China and North Korea. We examine waveforms of distant earthquakes recorded at broadband station Changbaishan (CBS) near the volcano with estimated dynamic stresses over 5 kPa between 2000 and 2016. Out of 26 selected distant earthquakes, three of them show positive evidence of triggering during large-amplitude surface waves. The earthquakes that had positive or possible evidences of triggering generated larger long-period surface waves, indicating that they are more efficient in triggering microseismicity. In addition, since 2006 North Korea has conducted five underground nuclear explosion (UNE) tests only 140 km away from Changbaishan Volcano. By systematically examining waveforms of these UNEs recorded at station CBS, we find that none of them have triggered microearthquakes in Changbaishan Volcano.

  9. The role of humanitarian NGO's: impact on South Korean food aid policy towards North Korea from 1995 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, K Y

    2011-01-01

    The existing literature has provided only a partial explanation of the political role of South Korean humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in government food aid policy making towards North Korea between 1995 and 2007. Using a constructivist approach which includes non-state actor and normative factors in the analysis of state policy making, this thesis demonstrates that South Korean humanitarian NGO advocacy was consequential in explaining changes in South Korea’...

  10. An Empirical Study of Peace Tourism Trends between Politicaly Divided North and South Korea: Past, P{resent and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Youngsun

    2005-01-01

    On April 13-15, 2000 South and North Korean leaders met in Pyongyang for a meeting of peace ending over fifty years of hostilities. According to this meeting, South and North Korea were believed to be among the economies most directly affected by the world peace process. This had a large effect on both countries in many aspects, socially, politically and economically. One of the sectors, which may gain immediate benefits, is tourism even though the study of the relationship between tourism an...

  11. Ionospheric disturbances induced by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Chen, Chia-Hung; Watanabe, Shigeto; Lin, Charles; Liu, Jenn-Yanq; Habu, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    disturbances caused by a missile launched from North Korea on 12 December 2012 were investigated by using the GPS total electron content (TEC). The spatial characteristic of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances produced by missiles and rockets was first determined. Considering the launch direction and the height of estimated ionospheric points at which GPS radio signal pierces the ionosphere, the missile passed through the ionosphere at heights of 391, 425, and 435 km at 0056:30, 0057:00, and 0057:30 UT, respectively. The observed velocities of the missile were 2.8 and 3.2 km/s at that time, which was estimated from the traveling speed of the front edge of V-shaped disturbances. Westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances propagated at 1.8-2.6 km/s. The phase velocities of the westward and eastward V-shaped disturbances were much faster than the speed of acoustic waves reported in previous studies, suggesting that sources other than acoustic waves may have played an important role. Furthermore, the plasma density depletion that is often observed following missile and rocket launches was not found. This suggests that the depletion resulting from the missile's exhaust was not strong enough to be observed in the TEC distribution in the topside ionosphere.

  12. North Korean defectors seeking health certification to take the national medical licensing examination in the Republic of Korea: figures and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Hee

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea) announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%): 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%). This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors' eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel.

  13. North Korean defectors seeking health certification to take the national medical licensing examination in the Republic of Korea: figures and procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In May 2011, the Ministry of Unification of the Republic of Korea (Korea announced that 21,165 defectors from Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea had settled in Korea. Since healthcare workers are counted among these defectors, it is necessary to provide them with a pathway to certification to work in Korea. This report summarizes the vetting and approval process defectors from North Korea must pass through to be eligible to take the national medical licensing examination. Defectors must pass an oral test conducted by the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board to be eligible to sit for the exam. From 2002 to August 2011, 41 North Korean defectors applied for the approval process to take the exam. Twenty-nine were approved (70.7%: 23 physicians, 1 dentist, 2 oriental medical doctor, 1 nurse, and 2 pharmacists. Out of 29 approved, 11 passed the licensing examination (39.3%. This report also highlights the difficulty in assessing North Korean defectors' eligibility by oral test, and suggests that adequate competency should be emphasized to recognize their unique abilities as healthcare personnel.

  14. Influenza Vaccination Coverage and Its Associated Factors among North Korean Defectors Living in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Gyu; Lee, Haewon; Yi, Jinseon; Kim, Min Sun; Park, Sang Min

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to examine influenza vaccination coverage of North Korean defectors (NKD) in the Republic of Korea (Korea) and explore the factors affected the vaccination coverage. Total 378 NKD were analyzed. Four Korean control subjects were randomly matched by age and gender from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (n = 1,500). The adjusted vaccination coverage revealed no statistical difference between the defectors group and indigenous group (29.1% vs. 29.5%, P = 0.915). In the aged under 50 group, the vaccination coverage of NKD was higher than that of Korean natives (37.8% vs. 25.8%, P = 0.016). However in the aged 50 yr and over group, the vaccination coverage of North Korean defectors was lower than that of the natives (28.0% vs. 37.6%, P = 0.189). Even the gap was wider in the aged 65 yr and over group (36.4% vs. 77.8%, P = 0.007). Gender and medical check-up experience within 2 yr showed association with the vaccination coverage of NKD. Influenza vaccination coverage of aged defectors' group (aged 50 yr and over) was lower than indigenous people though overall vaccination coverage was similar. Further efforts to increase influenza vaccination coverage of this group are needed.

  15. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Rochow V Benno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body.

  16. Ethnomedicinal application of plants in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jang; Kim, Hyun

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to record and conserve oral traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in the western plain region of North Jeolla Province, Korea. Our research team interviewed 46 key informants (20 men and 26 women) who have lived over 50 years in the area. The average age of the informants was 74 (with a minimum age of 56 to maximum 84). Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observation using semi-structured questionnaires. Ethnobotanical inventory possessed by the residents included 183 species of plants distributed in 156 genera belonging to 68 families and were used in 626 use-reports. Among them, the medicinal plants were comprised as 42 families, 75 genera, and 83 species in usage in 195 ways. A total of 71 ailments were treated with 222 kinds of remedies using medicinal plants. Parts of plant that were used as treatments total up to 17 and the methods of preparation for medicinal materials add up to 28. Informant consensus factor (ICF) showed that the muscular-skeletal disorders had the highest agreement measure (1.0) followed by cuts and wounds (0.87) and respiratory system disorders (0.77). Overall, 29 plant species showed fidelity level of 100%. This study is noteworthy in that it records rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in a time period of pressing environmental changes with regard to the newly built sea wall, eventually leading more or less to the immigration of the seaside inhabitants and the familiarization of the modern medical systems to the farmland inhabitants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health-Promoting Behavior and Influencing Factors in Young North Korean Refugees (NKRs) Living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jumin; Kwon, Young Dae; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi Eun; Noh, Jin-Won

    2018-02-02

    The number of young North Korean refugees (NKRs) entering South Korea to escape famine and poverty and improve their quality of life is drastically increasing. The aims of this study were to identify and compare health promoting lifestyle behaviors (HPLBs) of young NKRs, compared to South Koreans, and to investigate influencing factors related to HPLBs in young NKRs. Data were obtained from 150 NKRs residing in South Korea and 161 South Koreans. Respondents provided their psychological status (depression, stress, and life satisfaction) and HPLBs. The NKRs reported lower interpersonal relations scores and higher spiritual growth scores compared to the control group. Attendance in religious services, stress, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with HPLBs in young NKRs. Health education and/or promotion programs focusing interpersonal relations and spiritual growth may be beneficial. In addition, regular psychological health screening is proposed as part of health-checkup programs, potentially improving adjustment to South Korean society.

  18. Community-based public health interventions in North Korea: one non-governmental organization's experience with tuberculosis and hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, L C; Linton, J A

    2005-05-01

    The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, also known as North Korea, is the most isolated country in the world, and has been a source of interest, politically and socially, since the 1953 ceasefire of the Korean War. While in the past year, interest has focused on the nuclear dispute with the USA, over the past decade, most interest has revolved around the economic plight of the country, the lack of funds and resources for health care, and the subsequent public health declines. North Korea's present economic and public health problems began in the early 1990s due to the gradual loss of economic support from its communist allies (i.e. after the fall of the Soviet Union and the capitalization of China), combined with an inordinate number of natural disasters (floods, famine and drought) all occurring within the same time span. These simultaneous events initiated a 'snowball effect' of severe economic depression and a rapid deterioration of the overall public health infrastructure in the country. North Korea's continued isolation and reluctance to release health statistics has left the international community uncertain of the precise extent of the public health devastation. The uncertainty of the situation has been further complicated by disparate accounts of the public health declines. For instance, the North Korean Government has estimated that approximately 220,000 people died due to famine in the 1990s, while the World Health Organization (WHO) claims that this figure is closer to 2 million. In the past few years, the willingness of the North Korean Government to engage the outside world has increased. This is reflected by the growing number of foreign aid organizations or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that have been permitted entry into the country. NGOs have not only served to improve various aspects of the public health system but also serve as a source of 'on-the-ground' information for the outside world. This role has proven critical not only for

  19. The Role of Pavlov's Theory in North Korea in the Late 1950s: Ideological Struggle in Medicine and Scientification of Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with Pavlov theory in North Korea in the late 1950s, focusing on its role in ideological struggle in medicine and in reinterpretation of traditional medicine. In North Korean Ministry of Health found Pavlov theory to have rich resources which could be used in the construction of the North Korea's socialist medicine. First of all, Pavlov theory provided the North Korean Communist Party with a powerful ideological weapon against capitalist medical thoughts, representing superior socialist medicine based upon Marx-Leninism and dialectical materialism. This paper examines the contents of Pavlov theory introduced in the North Korea from the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. Pavlov theory in the North Korea was not merely a political slogan but a unified medical system of thought, ranging from biological theory on the organism and pathogenesis to clinical theory. Nonetheless, Pavlov theory became Pavlov doctrine in the ideological struggle in healthcare field initiated by Kim Il Sung and the Communist Party. In the process of the ideological struggle, the abducted surgeon Kim Si-Chang was accused and purged of counter-revolutionary and refusal to conform to Pavlov doctrines by the Communist Party in 1959. Interestingly, Pavlov theory was used in reinterpretation of Traditional Medicine in North Korea from unscientific practice to a rich and scientific complementary medicine by connecting the two with common theoretical components such as Pavlov's typology. By the enthusiastic Communist Party members, Pavlov doctrine was introduced, transformed and exploited to build monolithic ideology system in medicine in North Korea in the late 1950s.

  20. [Health knowledge, health promoting behavior and factors influencing health promoting behavior of north korean defectors in South Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Myoung Ae; Yi, Myungsun; Choi, Jung An; Shin, Gisoo

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify health knowledge, health promoting behavior and factors influencing health promoting behavior of North Korean defectors in South Korea. Participants in this study were 410 North Korean defectors, over 20 years of age residing in Seoul. They were recruited by snowball sampling. Data were collected from April to June, 2010. Health knowledge, health promoting behavior, self-efficacy, perceived barriers to health promoting behavior and social support were measured by structured questionnaires, and perceived physical and mental health status were measured by one item with 10-point numeric rating scale. The data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression. Health knowledge, health promoting behavior, and perceived barriers to health promoting behavior were moderate while self-efficacy and social support were high. Factors influencing health promoting behavior of the participants were found to be self-efficacy, social support and perceived barrier to health promoting behavior. The results of this study indicate that nursing intervention programs enhancing self-efficacy, social support and reducing perceived barriers to health promoting behavior need to be developed for North Korean defectors in South Korea.

  1. Association of Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization with Menstrual Problems among North Korean Women Defectors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Hee Sook; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-11-01

    North Korean women defectors have suffered from anxiety, depression, and somatization after defection. Also they have had many menstrual problems like amenorrhea. This study was done to identify the correlations of anxiety, depression, and somatization to menstrual problems among North Korean woman defectors in South Korea. The participants in this study were 126 women from 5 government resettlement centers throughout South Korea. Questionnaires which included State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Center for Epidemiological studies-Depression Scale (CED-S), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to identify anxiety and somatization. Data were collected between June and September, 2012. The women reported the following problems; amenorrhea (9.5%), hypomenorrhea (13.6%), menorrhagia (19.8%), polymenorrhea (13.5%), oligomenorrhea (4.8%), changes in amount of menstrual discharge (4.0%), and changes in amount of blood clot (9.5%). Anxiety (r=0.20, p=0.002), depression (r=0.25, p=0.005), and Somatization (r=0.35, p<0.001) were correlated with number of menstrual problems. The results of this study indicate that mental health services need to be taken into account in interventions for North Korean woman defectors to improve their reproductive health including addressing menstrual problems.

  2. 75 FR 53837 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... financial and other support, including money laundering, the counterfeiting of goods and currency, bulk cash... Korea; (D) to have, directly or indirectly, engaged in money laundering, the counterfeiting of goods or...

  3. China's Memory and Commemoration of the Korean War in the Memorial to Resist America and Aid (North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Jung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After confronting each other as enemies during the Korean War, South Korea and China established diplomatic relations in 1992, forty years after fighting had ended. Around this time, the Chinese city of Dandong near the northern border of the Korean peninsula erected a memorial to observe the fortieth anniversary of the Korean War. In the twenty years since, China has become South Korea’s primary economic partner and its largest market for exports. In effect, the memory of wartime hostility has coexisted with the reality of economic cooperation. This article examines how the Korean War, known in China as the “War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea,” is commemorated by the war memorials in China, with a specific focus on the memorial in Dandong. It also discusses how North and South Korea have responded to the contrasting perspectives on the war embodied by these memorials, and it concludes with some reflections about how the memory of war can be restructured to convey a message of peace for the future.

  4. September 3rd, 2017 underground nuclear test in North Korea: Results from satellite radar imagery and dislocation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Nikkhoo, M.; Motagh, M.; Wei, S.; Barbot, S.; Burgmann, R.

    2017-12-01

    On September 3rd 2017, two seismic events were detected in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)'s Punggye-ri nuclear test site. US Geological Survey and China Earthquake Networks Center determined a body wave magnitude of Mb 6.3 for the first and larger event. Underground explosions have been well studied using seismic waveforms, the surface displacement associated with this kind of source is, however, poorly known due to the lack of geodetic measurements. Here, we use satellite observations to determine the first-ever complete (3D) surface displacement characterization associated with North Korea's sixth underground nuclear test. We measure the surface displacement by cross-correlating high-resolution radar images (2.5 m in azimuth and 0.5 m in the range direction) acquired by the German TerraSAR-X satellite. We combine azimuth and range offsets from two ascending and two descending tracks to map the 3D surface displacements. The horizontal motions of up to 3.5 m show a divergent pattern centered at the top of Mt. Mantap with a central zone of subsidence of 0.5 m, indicating the surface projection of the source (epicenter). The horizontal motions are distributed asymmetrically with larger displacements on the west and south flanks than the east and north flanks, suggesting a strong topographic control on the surface displacement pattern. We infer the location, depth and geometry of the deformation sources through applying the compound dislocation model (CDM) and the boundary element method (BEM) to the surface displacements. We show that the significant topographic effect on the near field displacements is due to the shallow depth and large radius of the explosion cavity and the steep slopes of the ground zero. The simulated surface displacements in our model consist of the contributions of two consecutive deformation sources, which are represented by two inflating and contracting finite cavities, respectively. The exposed characteristics of the

  5. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Relationship between Precambrian North Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic tillites of North Korea and Southern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B.; Zhai, M.; Peng, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Jia, X.; Zhang, H.; Lei, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Relationship between Precambrian Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton (NCC) is focus of attention. There are Neoproterozoic tillites in Phyongnam Basin, Nangrim massif, North Korea (NK) and Southern NCC. Nangrim massif was regarded as a part of the NCC according to similar Precambrian basements between Nangrim massif and Longgang massif in the Northeast NCC. But the comparation of Neoproterozoic rocks is lacked between NK and NCC. Detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 2 pebbly phyllite samples of Pirangdong Series in Phyongnam Basin and 2 argillaceous cemented mix-conglomeate samples of Luoquan Series in Southern NCC was analyzed in this research. Detrital zircon ages of pebbly phyllites of Pirangdong Series distribute mainly at 1.85 Ga, 1.8 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.4 Ga and 1.2 Ga. A small number of them are at 3.2 Ga, 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.3 Ga, 2.1 Ga and 900 - 860 Ma. Detrital zircon ages of mix-conglomeates of Luoquan Series mainly focus on 2.5 Ga, 2.2 Ga, 2.0 Ga, 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga. Minor of them distribute at 1.12 Ga. The similar age distribution of Pirangdong and Luoquan Series of 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga, 1.85 - 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga corresponds to Precambrian significant tectonic- magmatic- thermal events of the NCC, which indicates that the Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC are main provenances of both Pirangdong and Luoquan Series. This also confirm that the Phyongnam Basin is a part of Neoproterozoic sedimentary covers of the NCC. It is worth to mention that 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma magmatic rocks in the NCC are seldom reported which relate to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent. whereas they crop out widely in the South China Craton (SCC) and was always regarded as a mark distingusing the two craton. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma zircon ages preserved in sedimentary rocks not only in North Korea and Southern NCC but also in Northeast NCC and East NCC provide data to compare Neoproterozoic strata between NCC and SCC and important clues to

  7. Evidence of intercontinental transfer of North American lineage avian influenza virus into Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Lim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Myeong-Seob; Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2011-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) can be genetically distinguished by geographical origin. The present study found evidence of intercontinental transfer of North American lineage AIV into Asia via migratory bird populations. The North American lineage genes were detected in live animal markets during avian influenza surveillance, seemed to have reassorted with Eurasian AIV in wild bird habitats, and had transmitted to live animal markets. Enhanced AIV surveillance is required to understand the influence of newly transferred North American lineage AIV genes on AIV evolution in Asia and to investigate AIV ecology in various transcontinental migrant species. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. For the Heirs of Revolution: Current Educational Practices in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-chan

    1981-01-01

    Based on a 10-day visit to North Korean educational establishments by the author, this article discusses educational philosophy, curriculum, teaching methods, educational system organization, and educational practices at all levels from primary school through higher education institutions. (DB)

  9. Economic and Political Changes and Import Demand Behavior of North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kang-Taeg Lim; Jae-Young Kim

    2002-01-01

    We study some empirical aspects of North Korean economy implied in its import behavior in the period before the collapse of Soviet Union. Our analysis is based on econometric inference for a cointegration relation and some model determination methods. We have found that for North Korean economy some non-market factors are important determinants of the import behavior. The non-market factors are related to the country¡¯s political situations, its political relation with two communist superpowe...

  10. Investigation of drought-vulnerable regions in North Korea using remote sensing and cloud computing climate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhang; Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2018-02-08

    Drought is one of the most severe natural disasters in the world and leads to serious challenges that affect both the natural environment and human societies. North Korea (NK) has frequently suffered from severe and prolonged droughts since the second half of the twentieth century. These droughts affect the growing conditions of agricultural crops, which have led to food shortages in NK. However, it is not easy to obtain ground data because NK is one of the most closed-off societies in the world. In this situation, remote sensing (RS) techniques and cloud computing climate data (CCCD) can be used for drought monitoring in NK. RS-derived drought indices and CCCD were used to determine the drought-vulnerable regions in the spring season in NK. After the results were compared and discussed, the following conclusions were derived: (1) 10.0% of the total area of NK is estimated to be a drought-vulnerable region. The most susceptible regions to drought appear in the eastern and western coastal regions, far from BaekDu-DaeGan (BDDG), while fewer drought regions are found near BDDG and the Nahngrim Mountains. The drought-vulnerable regions are the coastal regions of South Hamgyong Province, North Hamgyong Province, South Pyongan Province, and South Hwanghae Province. The latter region is the food basket of NK. (2) In terms of land cover, the drought-vulnerable regions mainly consisted of croplands and mixed forest.

  11. Factors associated with the frequency of physician visits among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Kwon, Young Dae; Jeon, Wootack; Noh, Jin-Won

    2015-03-07

    Since the mid-1990s, a growing number of North Korean defectors have been arriving in South Korea, many of whom have various somatic and mental disorders. The health status of defectors is an important predictor of their successful resettlement. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of physician visits among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea, as well as the factors associated with this frequency. The data used in this study were collected through survey questionnaires and interviews conducted from April 6 to May 20, 2009, and involving 500 North Korean defectors who entered South Korea in 2007. This study used three domains of independent variables: 'health-related factors,' 'special characteristics of North Korean defectors,' and 'demographic and socio-economic factors'. Nested multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the factors related to the frequency of physician visits between January 1 and December 31, 2008. The average number of physician visits made by the participants during 2008 was 15.3; 14.5% of participants did not have physician visits. The number of physician visits was largely associated with health-related variables including disability, chronic disease and self-rated health status. The frequency of physician visits was higher among those with a disability, chronic disease, lower self-rated health score, a greater number of traumatic experiences during their escape, lower annual family income, and among females. This study confirmed that the number of defectors' physician visits was related with objective and subjective health status, traumatic experiences during their migration, economic, and demographic variables. The results serve useful understanding of medical utilization characteristics among North Korean defectors in South Korea.

  12. Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, R. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Werth, D. W.; Chiswell, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    A method is outlined and tested to detect low level nuclear or chemical sources from time series of concentration measurements. The method uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the concentration signature from a known or suspected source at a receptor which is then regressed successively against segments of the measurement series to create time series of metrics that measure the goodness of fit between the signatures and the measurement segments. The method was applied to radioxenon data from the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) collection site in Ussuriysk, Russia (RN58) after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) underground nuclear test on February 12, 2013 near Punggye. The metrics were found to be a good screening tool to locate data segments with a strong likelihood of origin from Punggye, especially when multiplied together to a determine the joint probability. Metrics from RN58 were also used to find the probability that activity measured in February and April of 2013 originated from the Feb 12 test. A detailed analysis of an RN58 data segment from April 3/4, 2013 was also carried out for a grid of source locations around Punggye and identified Punggye as the most likely point of origin. Thus, the results support the strong possibility that radioxenon was emitted from the test site at various times in April and was detected intermittently at RN58, depending on the wind direction. The method does not locate unsuspected sources, but instead, evaluates the probability of a source at a specified location. However, it can be extended to include a set of suspected sources. Extension of the method to higher resolution data sets, arbitrary sampling, and time-varying sources is discussed along with a path to evaluate uncertainty in the calculated probabilities.

  13. The ideational foundations of coercion. Political culture and policies towards North Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderco, M.; Wagner, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The notion that states’ foreign and security policies are not exclusively driven by material interests is now firmly established. Whose ideas matter and in what way, however, has remained subject to debate. We advance this debate by studying the crisis diplomacy of liberal democracies towards North

  14. The ideational foundations of coercion. Political culture and policies towards North Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderco, M.; Wagner, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that states’ foreign and security policies are not exclusively driven by material interests is now firmly established. Whose ideas matter and in what way, however, has remained subject to debate. We advance this debate by studying the crisis diplomacy of liberal democracies towards North

  15. North Korea after Kim Chong-il: Leadership Dynamics and Potential Crisis Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    genealogical link to his father through Confucian notions of filial piety and ancestor worship of Kim Il-sung as the “father” of the North Korean state...People’s Guerrilla War in the History of War,” Korean Central News Agency (December 16, 2006). 36 The “politics of loyalty and filial piety ” not

  16. North Korea's nuclear weapons program:verification priorities and new challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Duk-ho (Korean Consulate General in New York)

    2003-12-01

    A comprehensive settlement of the North Korean nuclear issue may involve military, economic, political, and diplomatic components, many of which will require verification to ensure reciprocal implementation. This paper sets out potential verification methodologies that might address a wide range of objectives. The inspection requirements set by the International Atomic Energy Agency form the foundation, first as defined at the time of the Agreed Framework in 1994, and now as modified by the events since revelation of the North Korean uranium enrichment program in October 2002. In addition, refreezing the reprocessing facility and 5 MWe reactor, taking possession of possible weapons components and destroying weaponization capabilities add many new verification tasks. The paper also considers several measures for the short-term freezing of the North's nuclear weapon program during the process of negotiations, should that process be protracted. New inspection technologies and monitoring tools are applicable to North Korean facilities and may offer improved approaches over those envisioned just a few years ago. These are noted, and potential bilateral and regional verification regimes are examined.

  17. Translations on North Korea, Number 605, Kulloja Number 4, April 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-26

    brought up with foresight, and the task of research in new technology and its adoption is conducted on a planned basis—which are factors all serving in...of the country, then one must necessarily adopt a realistic attitude toward the communists of the North, one-half of the country where a solid base...in economic conditions and development levels, and interracial relations. By cunning methods U.S. imperialism is sowing seeds of discord between

  18. Human rights and U.S. Foreign Policy in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hollenbaugh, Shaun D.

    1999-01-01

    In an effort to maintain peace and stability in the East Asia region, and more specifically on the Korean peninsula, the U.S. faces an enormous challenge. The collapse of the Soviet Union, repeated natural disasters, and gross regime mismanagement of economic and social resources have left thousands of North Koreans starving, while at the same time the DPRK spends exorbitant amounts of money on its military. To maintain both its legitimacy and security, the Pyongyang regime purposely and will...

  19. China and the Splitting of Alliances: Historic Cases and Implications for North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 66–67. 20 Wolfgang Saxon , “Edward Crankshaw is Dead at 75; Author on Soviet and Hapsburgs,” New...sensitivity for sovereignty that underscored a victim mentality fatal to the alliance.129 Yet this issue occurred late in the 1950s, when tensions in...to only 50 Russian firms.135 To remove this influence, Ulaanbaatar and Moscow drove away the majority of Chinese immigrants during the late 1920s and

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Hepatitis B Vaccination Strategies to Prevent Perinatal Transmission in North Korea: Selective Vaccination vs. Universal Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in North Korea, it is essential that birth doses of HBV vaccines should be administered within 24 hours of birth. As the country fails to provide a Timely Birth Dose (TBD) of HBV vaccine, the efforts of reducing the high prevalence of HBV have been significantly hampered. To examine the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies to prevent perinatal transmission of HBV in North Korea, we established a decision tree with a Markov model consisting of selective, universal, and the country's current vaccination program against HBV. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from societal and payer's perspectives and evaluated by Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY). The results suggest that introducing the universal vaccination would prevent 1,866 cases of perinatal infections per 100,000 of the birth cohort of 2013. Furthermore, 900 cases of perinatal infections per 100,000 could be additionally averted if switching to the selective vaccination. The current vaccination is a dominated strategy both from the societal and payer's perspective. The Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) between universal and selective vaccination is $267 from the societal perspective and is reported as $273 from the payer's perspective. Based on the assumption that the 2012 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in North Korea, $582.6 was set for cost-effectiveness criteria, the result of this study indicates that selective vaccination may be a highly cost-effective strategy compared to universal vaccination.

  1. On the 17-keV conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hime, A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in pursuance of the 17-keV neutrino are discussed with emphasis upon experiments employing solid state detectors. Studies have shown that electron scattering effects are the likely origin of the anomalies observed in β decay spectra measured at Oxford and Guelph. While missing links remain, it is improbable that a 17-keV neutrino exists in nature and a resolution of this conundrum is within reach

  2. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Harmful Cyanobacterial Material Production in the North Han River (South Korea): Genetic Potential and Temperature-Dependent Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonhee; Park, Chaehong; Yoon, Youngdae; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2018-03-03

    Cyanobacteria synthesize various harmful materials, including off-flavor substances and toxins, that are regarded as potential socio-economic and environmental hazards in freshwater systems, however, their production is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potential and properties of harmful materials produced by cyanobacteria, depending on temperature, and undertook a phylogenetic analysis of cyanobacteria present in the North Han River (South Korea). Production potentials were evaluated using gene-specific probes, and the harmful material production properties of strains showing positive potentials were further characterized at different temperatures in the range 15 to 30 °C. We identified six cyanobacterial strains based on 16S rDNA analysis: two morphological types (coiled and straight type) of Dolichospermum circinale, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Oscillatoria limosa, Planktothricoides raciborskii, Pseudanabaena mucicola , and Microcystis aeruginosa . We confirmed that cyanobacterial strains showing harmful material production potential produced the corresponding harmful material, and their production properties varied with temperature. Total harmful material production was maximal at 20~25 °C, a temperature range optimal for cell growth. However, harmful material productivity was highest at 15 °C. These results indicate that the expression of genes related to synthesis of harmful materials can vary depending on environmental conditions, resulting in variable harmful material production, even within the same cyanobacterial strains.

  4. China's multiple role(s) in world politics: Decrypting China's North Korea strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Noesselt, Nele

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that geostrategic and security interests alone are not sufficient to explain China’s foreign policy choices. It argues that ideas about what China’s role as an actor in the increasingly globalized international system should be, and about world order in general, deeply impact on China’s foreign policymaking process. Taking the North Korean issue as a case study, this paper postulates that China is cur-rently engaged in a search for a ‘new’ identity as a g...

  5. Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among North Korean Adolescent Refugees Residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2017-08-14

    We examined factors affecting the depressive symptoms and the relationship between depression and quality of life among 131 North Korean adolescent refugees aged 12-24 years. We compared sociodemographic, social, and individual characteristics and perceived the quality of life between participants with and without depression. Thirty-seven refugees (28.2%) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. The refugees with depression were younger ( t = 2.67; p = 0.009), more likely to be male (χ² = 6.98; p = 0.009), and more likely to have a Chinese father (χ² = 9.05; p = 0.003) than those without depression. The refugees with depression had lower levels of psychological social support ( t = 2.96; p = 0.004) and resilience ( t = 4.24; p refugees at risk of depression.

  6. Anxiety and depression among North Korean young defectors in South Korea and their association with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seul Ki; Min, Seong Joon; Cho, Myung Sook; Joung, Hyojee; Park, Sang Min

    2011-05-01

    This study examined anxiety and depression among 108 North Korean adolescent and young adult (age, 12-29 years) defectors who settled in South Korea, and evaluated the relationship between their mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Subjects completed a questionnaire that included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short Form with 36 questions (SF-36; consists of mental and physical health components) for measuring HRQoL, and items related to the period of time since defection and settlement and socio-demographic variables. Among the participants, 53.7% scored ≥ 8 on the anxiety measure questionnaire, and 22.2% scored ≥ 11; 36.1% of the participants scored ≥ 8 on the depression measure questionnaire and 14.8% scored ≥ 11. Both anxiety and depression subscales were associated with lower scores of total SF-36, physical component and mental component score. Depressive symptom appeared more frequently among the subjects who had lived in South Korea for Korea for 2 year or longer (odds ratio=3.77, 95% confidence intervals=1.12 to 12.70). Among North Korean adolescent and young adult defectors, anxiety and depression were associated with lower HRQoL. Therefore, it is needed to develop strategies to screen for mental health and intervene to reduce anxiety and depression during their early resettlement stage.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening and Its Associated Factors Among North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongok; Kim, HeesSook; Yang, Wonhee; Lee, HaeWon; Park, Sang Min

    2018-02-01

    North Korean defectors (NKD) have many health problems related to insufficient nutrition, trauma from escaping, and being exposed to infectious diseases, but little research exists on their cancer screening. A total of 638 NKD participated in this cross-sectional survey. South Korean natives (SKN) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V were selected using age matching to each NKD. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The cervical cancer screening rate of NKD was significantly lower than for SKN (42 and 70 %, respectively; P < .001). The adjusted proportions of cervical cancer screening for NKD in all age groups under 60 years (P < .01) and having education beyond high school (P < .001) were significantly lower than that of SKN. NKD who had education under a high school level were more likely to have cervical cancer screening compared to NKD with education beyond a high school level (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.12-2.93). NKD were less likely to receive appropriate cervical cancer screening compared to SKN, especially those aged 30-39 years or married. Tailored interventions for NKD are needed to improve cervical cancer screening compliance.

  8. Full moment tensors with uncertainties for the 2017 North Korea declared nuclear test and for a collocated, subsequent event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvizuri, C. R.; Tape, C.

    2017-12-01

    A seismic moment tensor is a 3×3 symmetric matrix that characterizes the far-field seismic radiation from a source, whether it be an earthquake, volcanic event, explosion. We estimate full moment tensors and their uncertainties for the North Korea declared nuclear test and for a collocated event that occurred eight minutes later. The nuclear test and the subsequent event occurred on September 3, 2017 at around 03:30 and 03:38 UTC time. We perform a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors, generating synthetic waveforms at each moment tensor grid point and then evaluating a misfit function between the observed and synthetic waveforms. The synthetic waveforms are computed using a 1-D structure model for the region; this approximation requires careful assessment of time shifts between data and synthetics, as well as careful choice of the bandpass for filtering. For each moment tensor we characterize its uncertainty in terms of waveform misfit, a probability function, and a confidence curve for the probability that the true moment tensor lies within the neighborhood of the optimal moment tensor. For each event we estimate its moment tensor using observed waveforms from all available seismic stations within a 2000-km radius. We use as much of the waveform as possible, including surface waves for all stations, and body waves above 1 Hz for some of the closest stations. Our preliminary magnitude estimates are Mw 5.1-5.3 for the first event and Mw 4.7 for the second event. Our results show a dominantly positive isotropic moment tensor for the first event, and a dominantly negative isotropic moment tensor for the subsequent event. As expected, the details of the probability density, waveform fit, and confidence curves are influenced by the structural model, the choice of filter frequencies, and the selection of stations.

  9. Measurements of radioxenon in ground level air in South Korea following the claimed nuclear test in North Korea on October 9, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringbom, A.; Elmgren, K.; Lindh, K.; Peterson, J.; Bowyer, T.W.; Hayes, J.C.; McIntyre, J.I.; Panisko, M.; Williams, R.

    2009-01-01

    Following the claimed nuclear test in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) on October 9, 2006, and a reported seismic event, a mobile system for sampling of atmospheric xenon was transported to the Republic of South Korea (ROK) in an attempt to detect possible emissions of radioxenon in the region from a presumed test. Five samples were collected in the ROK during October 11-14, 2006 near the ROK-DPRK border, and thereafter transported to the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) in Stockholm, Sweden, for analysis. Following the initial measurements, an automatic radioxenon sampling and analysis system was installed at the same location in the ROK, and measurements on the ambient atmospheric radioxenon background in the region were performed during November 2006 to February 2007. The measured radioxenon concentrations strongly indicate that the explosion in October 9, 2006 was a nuclear test. The conclusion is further strengthened by atmospheric transport models. Radioactive xenon measurement was the only independent confirmation that the supposed test was in fact a nuclear explosion and not a conventional (chemical) explosive. (author)

  10. Penentangan Tiongkok Terhadap Korea Selatan Dalam Pengadaan Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (Thaad) Di Korea Selatantahun 2016

    OpenAIRE

    ", Habiburrahman; ", Pazli

    2017-01-01

    The tensions on the Korean Peninsula have had an impact on the surrounding countries. North Korea with their nuclear weapons development makes South Korea feel their country is threatened. North Korea's nuclear test in early 2016 makes South Korea put highly concern on this issue, then prompted South Korea to re-consider and approve suggestions from the United States to place Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) in South Korea. The achievement of the agreement with the United States th...

  11. Not at All Effective: Differences in Views on the Causes of Prescription Non-adherence Between North Korean Defectors and Medical Providers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung

    2015-06-01

    By focusing on North Korean defectors' medical experiences in South Korea and their medical providers' experiences treating the defectors, this article considers the differences between the views of these two groups in regard to the causes of prescription non-adherence. The results suggest that (a) whereas the defectors tended to see their symptoms as being physical in nature, the medical providers often ascribed symptoms to psychological/socio-cultural influence; (b) whereas the defectors tended to trust in their ability to self-diagnose and in their belief systems established in North Korea, the medical providers tended not to place trust in these aspects; (c) whereas the defectors tended to view the available medical treatment as inappropriate for them, the medical providers often noted the presence of tolerant bacterial strains as causes of treatment failure; and (d) whereas the defectors felt that the treatment they received was slow and ineffective and attributed this to capitalism, the medical providers felt that the defectors failed to understand the concept of staged treatments. Based on the findings, some solutions are suggested to address the complex issue of North Korean defectors' prescription non-adherence in terms of subjective/objective health assessments and patient-centered care. North Korean defectors' established health beliefs/lack of medical knowledge based on their previous medical and cultural experiences gave rise to beliefs and practices associated with medicine that differ significantly from those of the health providers and that have the potential to severely compromise the defectors' health. Therefore, therapy negotiation and appropriate education are suggested as possible solutions, and as an agenda, the notion of civic friendship is addressed. Implications for medical practice, prevention, and intervention are also discussed.

  12. Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Drought Characteristics in the Hwanghae Plain, North Korea Using Time Series SPI and SPEI: 1981–2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available North Korea is a food-deficit nation in which climate change could have a significant impact on drought. We analyzed drought characteristics in the Hwanghae Plain, North Korea using both the multiple timescales of the standardized precipitation index (SPI and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI from 1981 to 2100. The probability of non-exceedance for a one-month SPEI below −1.0 was only 1.1% in the spring season of 1995 but increased to 24.4% in 2085. The SPEI for a ten-year return period varied from −0.6 to −0.9 in 1995 and decreased to −1.18 in 2025. The results indicate that severe drought is more likely to occur in future as a result of climate change. The seasonal drought conditions were also significantly influenced by climate change. The largest decrease in the SPEI occurred in late spring and early summer, both of which are important for rice growth. Drought characteristics include severity, duration, and intensity. Therefore, we applied the time series of SPIs and SPEIs to the runs theory and found that the drought intensity identified by one-month SPEIs in 1995 was at a level of 1.21, which reached 1.39 in 2085, implying that climate change will intensify drought in the future.

  13. The Construction of the Faculty of Hamheung Medical College in North Korea, 1946-48: An Unrest Coexistence of Political Ideology and Medical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geun Bae KIM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal how Hamheung Medical College in North Korea kept up its faculty with the trend of a new political system. The time period consists of three series of evaluations that occurred between the start of a reformation action in 1946 and the establishment of the regime in 1948. At the time, it was difficult to secure college faculty in the medical field, because of a serious shortage of medical personnel. Moreover, the problem in the recruitment of faculty at the medical college grew bigger since the members were required to have a high level of political consciousness. Then how did Hamheung Medical College accomplish this ideal securing of faculty that possessed political ideology and medical expertise? For the first time, a faculty evaluation at the local level was carried out and got rid of a few pro-Japanese or reactionary factions but maintained most of the faculty. Although academic background and research career of the faculty were considered, securing of the manpower in terms of number was crucial for the reconstruction of a professional school level. At the second time, as the central education bureau’s intervention tightened the censorship, most of the faculty were evaluated as unqualified. Indeed, it was difficult to satisfy the standard of professionalism which emphasized a high level of academic career and political thought that included affiliation of Workers’ Party of North Korea. The Medical College could not find faculty that could replace those professors and therefore, most of them maintained their faculty positions. Since then, the faculty who received excellent evaluations led the school at the very front. At the third time, the Medical College itself led the evaluations and implemented more relaxed standards of political ideology and medical expertise. Faculty who were cooperative to the reformation actions that North Korea carried forward or had working experience at the hospital and health service

  14. [The Construction of the Faculty of Hamheung Medical College in North Korea, 1946-48: An Unrest Coexistence of Political Ideology and Medical Expertise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geun Bae

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to reveal how Hamheung Medical College in North Korea kept up its faculty with the trend of a new political system. The time period consists of three series of evaluations that occurred between the start of a reformation action in 1946 and the establishment of the regime in 1948. At the time, it was difficult to secure college faculty in the medical field, because of a serious shortage of medical personnel. Moreover, the problem in the recruitment of faculty at the medical college grew bigger since the members were required to have a high level of political consciousness. Then how did Hamheung Medical College accomplish this ideal securing of faculty that possessed political ideology and medical expertise? For the first time, a faculty evaluation at the local level was carried out and got rid of a few pro-Japanese or reactionary factions but maintained most of the faculty. Although academic background and research career of the faculty were considered, securing of the manpower in terms of number was crucial for the reconstruction of a professional school level. At the second time, as the central education bureau's intervention tightened the censorship, most of the faculty were evaluated as unqualified. Indeed, it was difficult to satisfy the standard of professionalism which emphasized a high level of academic career and political thought that included affiliation of Workers' Party of North Korea. The Medical College could not find faculty that could replace those professors and therefore, most of them maintained their faculty positions. Since then, the faculty who received excellent evaluations led the school at the very front. At the third time, the Medical College itself led the evaluations and implemented more relaxed standards of political ideology and medical expertise. Faculty who were cooperative to the reformation actions that North Korea carried forward or had working experience at the hospital and health service received a high level of

  15. Solving the shape conundrum in $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose a multi-step Coulomb-excitation study of $^{70}$Se at HIE-ISOLDE using the $^{208}$Pb( $^{70}$Se, $^{70}$Se*)$^{208}$Pb* reaction at a safe energy of 5.0 MeV/u. We aim at a precise measurement of the $\\left \\langle 2^{+}_{1} \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}\\hat{E}2 \\hspace{0.1cm} || \\hspace{0.1cm}2^{+}_{ 1} \\right \\rangle$ diagonal matrix element as well as gaining information on additional matrix elements. Such information will shed light onto the shape conundrum of the 2$^{+}_{1}$ state in $^{70}$Se as well as foreseeing the opportunity for a more detailed understanding of the shape-coexistence phenomenon in this region.

  16. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  17. 6. Dampak Program Pengembangan Nuklir Korea Utara Terhadap Hubungan Bilateralnya Dengan Tiongkok Tahun 2013 – 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaeni, Nur Afiyah; Utomo, Tri Cahyo; Hanura, Marten

    2017-01-01

    China and North Korea have had good bilateral relations, as the result of their geographical proximity and their similar ideology (communist). China's status as a member of the UN Security Council and its stable economy, causes North Korea to depend on diplomatic and economic support from China. North Korea needs diplomatic support from China because its nuclear proliferation since North Korea decided to withdraw from the non-proliferation treaty. As North Korea's closest ally, China provided...

  18. Synchronous peaks in trap catches of malaria-infected mosquito species at Daeseongdong, a border village between North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Wilkerson, Richard C; Harrison, Genelle; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Lee, Won-Ja

    2012-06-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health threat near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separates North and South Korea. Adult mosquitoes were collected from 20 July through 21 October, 2010 at Daeseongdong, a small village within the DMZ. Molecular techniques were used to identify Anopheles to species and for detection of Plasmodium vivax sporozoites in their head and thorax. Trap catches showed concordant peaks of Anopheles belenrae and An. kleini early in the study period and concordant peaks of An. pullus and An. sinensis later in the season. Three well defined peaks of the 107 sporozoite positive mosquitoes were observed: 34.6% were An. kleini, 23.4% were An. belenrae, 21.5% were An. sinensis, 19.6% were An. pullus, and 0.9% were An. lesteri. Estimation of the extrinsic incubation period from daily temperatures did not help identify preceding biting peaks of An. pullus and An. sinensis, when infection should have been acquired. We explore possible reasons for the sudden appearance and disappearance of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes, including the influx of infected mosquitoes from adjoining areas, and weather patterns. Regular surveillance for infected mosquitoes near border areas of the Republic of Korea may provide advance warning of increased malaria risk potential. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  20. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeunhee J

    2016-02-01

    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Planning for a Peaceful Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    considerations, there appears to be one institution in South Korea ideally suited for the task of making North Korea competitive: the chaebol (conglomerates...government relations in South Korea) would conflict. It goes without saying which one will receive the greater weight. The chaebol are probably ideally...terms of reducing chaebol competitiveness internationally and possibly encouraging anti-competitive behavior domestically) as well as a political one

  3. Multilingual Practices and Ideologies of Refugees in the Neoliberal Era: The Case of North Korean Refugee Students in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun Woo; Han, Moon-sub; Hyun, Eun Ryung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the multilingual practices and ideologies of North Korean refugee students in neoliberal South Korean society. Language tracking forms were completed over a seven-day period and individual interviews about participants' perceptions of English, Chinese, South Korean, and North Korean were conducted. The findings show that…

  4. Problem Based Learning (PBL): a conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha H; Warelow, Philip J; Jackson, Karen L

    2009-10-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) using minimal guided instruction is used as an educational strategy across a broad variety of disciplines in the tertiary sector. This paper includes some of the strengths and weaknesses of PBL, both in general and in relation to the health care setting, encompassing some of its philosophical underpinnings and its methodological approach. In an effort to explore some of the benefits and problems with PBL in the work setting, this account will comprise a realistic rather than idealistic focus and will include a range of perspectives from both a facilitator and student standpoint. We suggest that PBL is a useful strategy across a comprehensive nursing degree programme (as the ideal) provided the learning programme is supported financially and that its ideal creed which supports a small group approach are adhered to. What we find is that reality is often different, with individual facilitators condensing their PBL programmes to incorporate a modified PBL approach with this personalized approach often taking strength away from the original conceptions of PBL. What we suggest here is that these circumstances constitute a conundrum.

  5. An A to Z guide to DSM-IV conundrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, A J; First, M B; Widiger, T A; Miele, G M; Tilly, S M; Davis, W W; Pincus, H A

    1991-08-01

    The work on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) poses many puzzling conundrums that touch on complicated and important theoretical and practical issues. None of these can be resolved in the DSM-IV, but we hope that the Task Force's decisions will be informed by thorough reviews of the currently available evidence and extensive input from all sectors of the mental health field. In this article we provide an alphabetical guide to DSM-IV conundrums that we hope will stimulate comments, suggestions, and criticisms about the work of the Task Force.

  6. North Korea and Iran’s Nuclear Programs as Instability Factors in the New System of International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    that North Korea’s mission to increase its own offensive capabilities is overshadowed by the commercial objective to attract more potential buyers for...diplomatic compulsion ) failure. Apparently, this research will affect the future National Intelligence Council’s nuclear program evaluation of Iran, in

  7. For North Korea to become Paradise on Earth : Stefanus Alliance International and its partners' mission and visions for impacting the lives of North Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrberg, Randi

    2016-01-01

    This master’s thesis presents an empirical study of how Stefanus Alliance international together with its partners understand their mission directed at the North Korean people and what impact they envision. Inquiring into this has implied exploring their motivational basis, their hopes and expectation for the outcomes of their work as well as their missiological perspectives. The approach of the thesis is a qualitative case-study making use of triangulation in the data sampling. Hence the res...

  8. Nutrition and Health in North Korea: What’s New, What’s Changed and Why It Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Article Type: Research Paper\\ud Purpose: To examine the changing health and nutritional status of the North Korean population since the famine of the mid-1990s and the dominant perspective that little has changed since in the DPRK.\\ud Design, Methodology, Approach: Using hitherto neglected data from major international organizations, this research charts the little-known changes in patterns of food availability and food accessibility in aggregate, national terms, with some disaggregation of t...

  9. Radioxenon detections in the CTBT international monitoring system likely related to the announced nuclear test in North Korea on February 12, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbom, A; Axelsson, A; Aldener, M; Auer, M; Bowyer, T W; Fritioff, T; Hoffman, I; Khrustalev, K; Nikkinen, M; Popov, V; Popov, Y; Ungar, K; Wotawa, G

    2014-02-01

    Observations made in April 2013 of the radioxenon isotopes (133)Xe and (131m)Xe at measurement stations in Japan and Russia, belonging to the International Monitoring System for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, are unique with respect to the measurement history of these stations. Comparison of measured data with calculated isotopic ratios as well as analysis using atmospheric transport modeling indicate that it is likely that the xenon measured was created in the underground nuclear test conducted by North Korea on February 12, 2013, and released 7-8 weeks later. More than one release is required to explain all observations. The (131m)Xe source terms for each release were calculated to 0.7 TBq, corresponding to about 1-10% of the total xenon inventory for a 10 kt explosion, depending on fractionation and release scenario. The observed ratios could not be used to obtain any information regarding the fissile material that was used in the test. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of fixed sample size plans for monitoring lepidopteran pests of Brassica oleracea crops in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, A J; Waters, E K; Kim, H J; Pak, W S; Furlong, M J

    2009-06-01

    The combined action of two lepidoteran pests, Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Pieridae),causes significant yield losses in cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) crops in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for these cropping systems are in their infancy, and sampling plans have not yet been developed. We used statistical resampling to assess the performance of fixed sample size plans (ranging from 10 to 50 plants). First, the precision (D = SE/mean) of the plans in estimating the population mean was assessed. There was substantial variation in achieved D for all sample sizes, and sample sizes of at least 20 and 45 plants were required to achieve the acceptable precision level of D < or = 0.3 at least 50 and 75% of the time, respectively. Second, the performance of the plans in classifying the population density relative to an economic threshold (ET) was assessed. To account for the different damage potentials of the two species the ETs were defined in terms of standard insects (SIs), where 1 SI = 1 P. rapae = 5 P. xylostella larvae. The plans were implemented using different economic thresholds (ETs) for the three growth stages of the crop: precupping (1 SI/plant), cupping (0.5 SI/plant), and heading (4 SI/plant). Improvement in the classification certainty with increasing sample sizes could be seen through the increasing steepness of operating characteristic curves. Rather than prescribe a particular plan, we suggest that the results of these analyses be used to inform practitioners of the relative merits of the different sample sizes.

  11. Preventing Task Force Smith: The Need to Return US BCTs to Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-12

    nationalinterest.org/ blog /the-buzz/can-south-korea-fight-north-korea-without- america-14837. 8 Michael Raska, “RMA Diffusion Paths and Patterns in South Korea’s...nationalinterest.org/ blog /the-buzz/north-koreas-submarine-fleet-big- threat-or-big-joke-20300?. 15 Figure 7: DPRK Submarine Capability43F44...Accessed 10 March 2017. http://nationalinterest.org/ blog /the- buzz/can-south-korea-fight-north-korea-without-america-14837. 21 McIntyre, Jamie

  12. The United States and the Koreas - Adding Substance to Sunshine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    .... These include the development in South Korea of strong democratic institutions, a vibrant economy, and a professional military, juxtaposed to North Korea, variously described as a failing or failed...

  13. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea......'s ODA policy, along with its growth in quantity, is at a crossroads for the enhancement of its quality. Discussions and debates are going on regarding the reforms in Korea's ODA activities, and this paper examines key issues raised. It first reviews the past and present of Korea's ODA, and identifies...... like the objective of ODA, positioning of Korea's ODA as an emerging donor and the nature of aid to North Korea. We also argue that a shift of ODA policy is required to promote reform, based on a thorough reflection on the role of ODA in the alleviation of poverty and promoting sustainable development...

  14. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  15. Energy conundrum, digital revolution and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersun, Oe.

    2007-01-01

    actors: 'The Big Emerging Markets'. (China, India, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Turkey, South Africa, Poland, Argentina, and Indonesia are 'The Big Ten'). Together they are the most interesting consumers in the world energy market. Turkey, as one of them, will be the subject of a brief case study in this paper. We will look at the options available to Turkey, the fastest growing economy in the region, in making strategic choices among alternative energy sources. Neither market forces alone, nor progress in new technologies will solve our problems. We need a new understanding, at the level of public opinions and the politicians, on the urgency and the gravity of the unique and particular conditions of the 21st century, and a holistic approach for tackling them efficiently

  16. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  17. IAEA Board of Governors recommends landmark budget increase. ElBaradei updates Board on IAEA work in Iraq and Iran; expresses concern about North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA's Board of Governors today agreed on the first IAEA significant budget increase in more than a decade and a half. The increase of $15 million over the $245 million 2003 regular budget is envisioned to grow to $25 million by 2007. The budget is subject to approval by the IAEA's General Conference in September. 'This represents a real vote of confidence in the IAEA and a recognition of the importance of our work,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'It is a long overdue but very welcome first step in tackling the chronic under-funding of the IAEA.' Dr. ElBaradei, in a statement to the Board, said 'The budget that has been agreed responds in a balanced manner to the priorities of the Agency in both the regulatory and developmental fields. The bulk of the increase goes to the verification programme, because that programme has been experiencing the greatest demand for additional resources and has for years been the most chronically under-funded.' In his statement, Dr. ElBaradei also addressed some recent developments of particular importance in Iraq, Iran and North Korea. On Iraq, Dr. ElBaradei referred to the report of his recent verification mission to Iraq, which, he noted, was confined to verification of material subject to safeguards at Location C Nuclear Storage Facility near Tuwaitha. The report notes that at least 10 kg of uranium compounds could have been dispersed. 'While fortunately neither the quantity nor the type of material involved would be sensitive from a proliferation point of view,' Dr. ElBaradei said, 'I have called upon the Authority to ensure the physical protection of the entire nuclear inventory in Iraq and to make every effort to recover, where possible, the looted material and place it under Agency safeguards.' Dr. ElBaradei noted that the Authority has informed the IAEA that it would assume responsibility for nuclear safety. The Agency mission therefore did not look into possible safety and health effects of the

  18. Seasonal and environmental determinants of leptospirosis and scrub typhus in small mammals captured at a U.S. military training site (Dagmar North), Republic of Korea, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kevin S; Klein, Terry A; Otto, Jean L; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Ha, Si Jung; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Ji Hae; Baek, Luck Ju; Song, Jin-Won

    2009-10-01

    This study sought to identify seasonal and environmental determinants of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals trapped at Dagmar North training area, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Small mammals received titer assays to the aforementioned diseases. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether associations existed between risk of small-mammal infection and independent variables such as season of capture, habitat, small-mammal species, and sex. Murine typhus was not detected among the animals assayed. Risk of scrub typhus infection was associated with season, habitat, and small-mammal species. Risk of leptospirosis infection was associated with season and habitat. These findings indicate determinants of infection exist for scrub typhus and leptospirosis at this training site. This information can be used for developing appropriate preventive medicine plans and coordinating troop activity during periods of reduced exposure decreasing the likelihood of disease transmission to humans.

  19. Common processes at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet

    2014-11-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  20. Dispersion bias, dispersion effect, and the aerosol-cloud conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Guo Huan; Peng Yiran

    2008-01-01

    This work examines the influences of relative dispersion (the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean radius of the cloud droplet size distribution) on cloud albedo and cloud radiative forcing, derives an analytical formulation that accounts explicitly for the contribution from droplet concentration and relative dispersion, and presents a new approach to parameterize relative dispersion in climate models. It is shown that inadequate representation of relative dispersion in climate models leads to an overestimation of cloud albedo, resulting in a negative bias of global mean shortwave cloud radiative forcing that can be comparable to the warming caused by doubling CO 2 in magnitude, and that this dispersion bias is likely near its maximum for ambient clouds. Relative dispersion is empirically expressed as a function of the quotient between cloud liquid water content and droplet concentration (i.e., water per droplet), yielding an analytical formulation for the first aerosol indirect effect. Further analysis of the new expression reveals that the dispersion effect not only offsets the cooling from the Twomey effect, but is also proportional to the Twomey effect in magnitude. These results suggest that unrealistic representation of relative dispersion in cloud parameterization in general, and evaluation of aerosol indirect effects in particular, is at least in part responsible for several outstanding puzzles of the aerosol-cloud conundrum: for example, overestimation of cloud radiative cooling by climate models compared to satellite observations; large uncertainty and discrepancy in estimates of the aerosol indirect effect; and the lack of interhemispheric difference in cloud albedo.

  1. Obesity epidemic: overview, pathophysiology, and the intensive care unit conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Ryan T; Frazier, Thomas H; McClave, Stephen A; Kaplan, Lee M

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States, second only to smoking. The annual number of deaths attributed to obesity is estimated to be as high as 400,000. Nearly 70% of the adult U.S. population is overweight or obese. The historical viewpoint toward obesity has deemed it to be a lifestyle choice or characterological flaw. However, given the emerging research into the development of obesity and its related complications, our perspective is changing. It is now clear that obesity is a heterogeneous disease with many different subtypes, which involves an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The current epidemic of obesity is the result of an obesogenic environment (which includes energy-dense foods and a lack of physical activity) in individuals who have a genetic susceptibility for developing obesity. The pathophysiology associated with weight gain is much more complex than originally thought. The heterogeneous nature of the disease makes the development of treatment strategies for obesity difficult. Obesity in general is associated with increased all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality (from cardiovascular, diabetic, hepatic, and neoplastic causes). Yet despite increased overall mortality rates, current evidence suggests that when these same patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), the obesity provides some protection against mortality. At present, there is no clear explanation for this obesity conundrum in critical illness.

  2. Collaborative Research on Sustainability: Myths and Conundrums of Interdisciplinary Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sherren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing interdisciplinary academic departments has been a common response to the challenge of addressing complex problems. However, the assumptions that guide the formation of such departments are rarely questioned. Additionally, the designers and managers of interdisciplinary academic departments in any field of endeavour struggle to set an organisational climate appropriate to the diversity of their members. This article presents a preliminary analysis of collaborative dynamics within two interdisciplinary university departments in Australia focused on sustainability. Social network diagrams and metrics of coauthorship and cosupervision are analysed qualitatively. A “vicarious interdisciplinarity” was identified among key academics working narrowly in order to earn the resources that allow them to support others working interdisciplinarily. Those supported in this way appear to benefit from the esteem and nonredundant collaborative connections their mentors provide via this strategy, but they experience uncertainty about their own career opportunities in similar settings. This article thus unearths a conundrum of succession for interdisciplinary academic environments, and suggests that simple colocation of diverse academic stars is an inadequate strategy to achieve effective intradepartmental collaboration.

  3. Co-producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, A; Repper, J; Banks, D; Remnant, J

    2013-08-01

    There is a raft of policy guidelines indicating that mental health nurses should be increasing the social inclusion of mental health service users. Despite this there is no universally accepted definition of social inclusion and there is a dearth of empirical evidence on the successful outcome of increasing inclusion for mental health service users. Recognizing the lack of clarity surrounding the concept we have a produced a social inclusion framework to assist mental health professionals and service users to co-produce social inclusive outcomes. Although we agree that social inclusion can be a positive aspect of recovery, we question the extent to which mental health nurses and service users in co-production can overcome the social, economic and political structures that have created the social exclusion in the first place. An understanding and appreciation of the structure/agency conundrum is required if mental health nurses are to engage with service users in an attempt to co-produce socially inclusive outcomes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Market resiliency conundrum: is it a predicator of economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wamalwa Wanzala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resiliency provides fundamental insights on the speed at which the marginal price impact increases as transaction volume increases in the stock market yet very few empirical research has been dedicated to its study. Consequently, this study was directed towards determining whether market resiliency is a predicator of economic growth. Secondly, the study also sought to examine whether real interest rate and risk premium moderate the relationship between stock market resiliency and the economic growth in Kenya. To solve the conundrum on the relationship between market resiliency and economic resiliency growth, a sagacious moderating regression analysis (MRA was used. The liquidity and variance ratios were used as measures of resiliency while real interest rate and risk premium were taken as moderating variables. The CUSUM plots were used to determine the stability of the model. The results of this study shows that market resiliency is a predicator of economic growth and both real interest rates and risk premium moderates the relationship between stock market resilience and the economic growth in Kenya.

  5. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  6. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  7. Great Expectations: The U.S. Army X Corps in Korea, September-November 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    months earlier, in late June, seven North Korean People’s Army divisions invaded the Republic of Korea and captured its capital of Seoul.7 The South... Korea at Osan in early July 1950, delaying the advancing North Koreans for two weeks and ultimately withdrawing with the loss of Taejon and heavy...40Ibid., 269. 41United States Army, Eighth Army Korea , “Logistics Study of the Korean Campaigns, 1950- 1953,” December 31, 1954, http

  8. The U.S.-ROK Security Relations: Their Implications for the Future of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    her disavowal of any aggresive intensions toward the Philippines.’ 1 Japan then proceeded with its plans to establish a protectorate over Korea...Survey, (June 1970), p. 524. 23. Soon Sung Cho, "North and South Korea: Stepped-up Aggresion and the Search for New Security," Asian Survey (January 1969...there is mounting evidence, in North Korea’s behavior , that it will not refrain from resorting to force of arms. All of 119 I this suggests that the

  9. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year...Subsequent reports to the South Korean National Assembly in the same year and in 1999 are cited in the media as stating that North Korea operates

  10. Identifying core nursing sensitive outcomes associated with the most frequently used North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International nursing diagnoses for patients with cerebrovascular disease in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Whyte, James; Kim, Youngae; Park, Sang Youn

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the core nursing sensitive outcomes according to the most frequently used five North American Nursing Diagnosis Association-International for patients with cerebrovascular disease using the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC). A cross-sectional survey design was used. First, nursing problems were identified through 78 charts review, and then linkages between each of nursing problems and nursing sensitive outcomes were established and validated by an expert group for questionnaires. Second, 80 nurses working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit and neurosurgery departments of five Korean hospitals were asked to evaluate how important each outcome is and how often each outcome used to evaluate patient outcomes using 5-point Likert scale. Although there were some differences in the core outcomes identified for each of the nursing problem, consciousness, cognitive orientation, neurologic status and communication were considered the most critical nursing sensitive outcomes for patients suffering cerebrovascular disease. Core nursing sensitive outcomes of patients suffering cerebrovascular disease using NOC were identified to measure the effectiveness of nursing care. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  12. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  13. Dissecting spatiotemporal patterns of functional diversity through the lens of Darwin's naturalization conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sara E; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2017-06-01

    Darwin's naturalization conundrum describes the paradigm that community assembly is regulated by two opposing processes, environmental filtering and competitive interactions, which predict both similarity and distinctiveness of species to be important for establishment. Our goal is to use long-term, large-scale, and high-resolution temporal data to examine diversity patterns over time and assess whether environmental filtering or competition plays a larger role in regulating community assembly processes. We evaluated Darwin's naturalization conundrum and how functional diversity has changed in the Laurentian Great Lakes fish community from 1870 to 2010, which has experienced frequent introductions of non-native species and extirpations of native species. We analyzed how functional diversity has changed over time by decade from 1870 to 2010 at three spatial scales (regional, lake, and habitat) to account for potential noninteractions between species at the regional and lake level. We also determined which process, environmental filtering or competitive interactions, is more important in regulating community assembly and maintenance by comparing observed patterns to what we would expect in the absence of an ecological mechanism. With the exception of one community, all analyses show that functional diversity and species richness has increased over time and that environmental filtering regulates community assembly at the regional level. When examining functional diversity at the lake and habitat level, the regulating processes become more context dependent. This study is the first to examine diversity patterns and Darwin's conundrum by integrating long-term, large-scale, and high-resolution temporal data at multiple spatial scales. Our results confirm that Darwin's conundrum is highly context dependent.

  14. Acorn production and utilization in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Overstreet; Seongmin Choi; Chan-Ryul Park; Dowon Lee; Thomas Gradziel

    2015-01-01

    Oak acorns have historically provided food for humans and animals in cultures across Asia, North Africa, Europe, and North America. The advent of the twentieth-century saw acorns become marginalized as a food crop in the United States and most of the world, but they have remained a constant part of the cuisine of the Korean Peninsula. Consequently, Korea is often cited...

  15. South-north dipolar pattern around mid-1990s in Korean summer rainfall variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2017-06-01

    From the time series of rainfall in summer (June, July and August) in South and North Koreas for recent 28 years (1981-2008), rainfall has significantly increased in South Korea while it has significantly decreased in North Korea since 1996. In particular, the decreasing trend of summer rainfall in North Korea was more conspicuous during the second Changma (late August - mid-September). This characteristic was also found in the south-north dipolar pattern based on 1996 by empirical orthogonal function analysis using summer rainfall observed in all weather observation stations in South and North Korea. The decreasing rainfall trend in North Korea was found to be associated with the weakening of convection by anomalous northeasterlies from anomalous anticyclone centered on around Baikal Lake during summer. On the other hand, the increasing rainfall trend of South Korea was associated with the strengthened anomalous cyclone in the southern region of China, which in turn strengthened anomalous southwesterlies.

  16. The e-waste conundrum: Balancing evidence from the North and on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Review of Economics and Finance ... Based on the principle of participatory development, the authors posit that the informal sector concentrates on the collection, disassembly and segregation, while the formal sector manages the upstream state-of-the-art processing requiring more capital and technology investment ...

  17. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social\\ud identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North\\ud Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats\\ud outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic]\\ud threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North\\ud Korean preju...

  18. Natural gas demand prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Jin Kwon

    1997-01-01

    Korea s natural gas demand has increase enormously since 1986. Natural gas demand in Korea will approach to 29 million tonnes by the year 2010, from little over 9 million tonnes in 1996. This rapid expansion of natural gas demand is largely due to regulations for environmental protection by the government as well as consumers preference to natural gas over other sources of energy. Especially industrial use of gas will expand faster than other use of gas, although it will not be as high as that in European and North America countries. To meet the enormous increase in demand, Korean government and Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) are undertaking expansion of capacities of natural gas supply facilities, and are seeking diversification of import sources, including participation in major gas projects, to secure the import sources on more reliable grounds. (Author). 5 tabs

  19. Peace Festival Project as Culture Commidified in DMZ Area, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Youngsun

    2008-01-01

    Tourism, because of its peculiar nature, depends much on security and safety at the destination. Likewise, Korea needs to assure concrete security and safety to develop tourism in particular. In new millennium, however, Korea has a major issue to be solved. That is to decrease the political tension between South and North so as to accelerate the reunification of the peninsula. In this context, the peace festival tourism project should be placed in the first priority since this will ease the s...

  20. Status of wound management in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Sik; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2017-08-30

    In spite of a period of intense economic, social, and political hardship following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea has made great strides in economic growth over the past half century, and also remarkable progress in the medical field. However, wound research has been slow to take off in South Korea. Meanwhile, as is the case in many countries in Western Europe and North America, South Korea is seeing a steady increase in its aged population. The growth in the geriatric population has in turn brought on more cases of chronic wounds. Though South Korea only began to recognize the importance of wound management in the early 2000s, it was fortunate enough to have sophisticated related industries, such as biotechnology and information technology, and brilliant, industrious, and eager wound researchers, contributing to rapid development of the field. The country has particular strengths in research for innovative cell-based treatments and products for managing wounds. Notwithstanding government policy ill-equipped to sufficiently support such advancement, better communication between experts and public officials will no doubt bring forth even more achievements in this very promising field. It is in this context that this article aims to summarize current wound management practices, research, training, product development, and government policies regarding wound management in South Korea as of the year 2017. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  1. Man-influenced vegetation of North Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 381-404 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * weed communities * man -depending vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  2. Translations on North Korea, Number 500

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-11

    cultural revolution is a struggle to brush away the grime in peoples’ lives and domiciles , factories and villages. The ideological, technical and...Central Standing Committee of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan (Chongnyon), made public a statement on December 6 disclosing the...hui puppet clique stage such a "cabinet reshuffle" whenever they find themselves in a hopeless quagmire. This is their base habitual tactics. The

  3. North Korea: Return to an Engagement Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin T

    2004-01-01

    .... However, the strategic environment has changed significantly. The end of the Cold War brought significant economic growth to East Asia, leaving many nations tied to global trade to sustain their economies...

  4. Translations on North Korea, Number 552

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-19

    economy, including water for irrigation, electric power, industrial use, drinking, river transporta- tion, fresh water fish propagation, rafting...Pyongyang Art Troupe of our country arrived in Zanzibar on 23 August. The national flags of our country and Tanzania were flying on the flagpoles at...and chairman of the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council, 39 other leading officials of the party and government of Zanzibar and a large number of

  5. Translations on North Korea No. 618

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-25

    imperialism is much like being burdened with a patient afflicted with "om" ( scabies —a contagious skin disease caused by scabies worms). "The...meeting. This shows that the discontent and resistance of students as well as workers, peasants and people of all other strata have reached a point of...bombs. Moving here and there in the university compound, the students held a demon- stration. They stubbornly resisted , shouting slogans demanding the

  6. Translations on North Korea, Number 545

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-23

    filial piety and was a good neighbor. Despite her hardships, she managed the poor...77 p 2 [Article by Kang Tok-su: " The Classic Document Which Gave the Full Scientific Answer to the Problem of the Transition and the Dictatorship of... the Proletariat"] [Text] It is 10 years since the great leader Comrade Kim Il-song presented his immortal classic masterpiece "On the Problem

  7. Translations on North Korea, Number 529

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-23

    to relieve the concern of the fatherly leader and make him happy. Whether it be an old gray-haired scientist, intent on chuche- fuided scientific...where did this great river of loyalty, now flowing forcefully through the entire nation and reaching every corner of rivers and mountains, originate

  8. Translations on North Korea No. 559

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-02

    46 Paper Scores Fukuda’s Korean Equilibrium Doctrine (KCNA 13 Oct 77) 47 Yongsong Plant To Build Large-Size Machine Tools (KCNA, 13...FUKUDA’S KOREAN EQUILIBRIUM DOCTRINE Pyongyang KCNA in English 1043 GMT 13 Oct 77 OW [Text] Pyongyang 13 October (KCNA)—NODONG SINMUN today comments...on the piffle of Japanese Prime Minister Fukuda in his recent answer to an inter- pellation at the Diet that "one should be cautious so that the

  9. Translations on North Korea, Number 561

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-07

    responsible for foreign affairs). 1973, visited, among others, Pakistan , PRC, Algeria and the Soviet Union. KYE UNG-T’AE (Age unknown; Vice Premier and...around 100 chongbo of pine-nut trees, 2 chongbo of white apricot trees, and 300,000 medicinal herb roots were raised at the Pyoktong Agricultural

  10. United States' Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seiber, III, Lones B

    2007-01-01

    .... Because of the regional parallels between the Korean and Vietnamese nations, our approach to the Vietnamese problem after the end of the Vietnamese war, a constructive engagement approach, was useful...

  11. Translations on North Korea, Number 563

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-11-29

    grip, and 6-story, 8-story and 15-story apartment buildings were raised. A modern city sprouted up with such incredible speed that not even the...plant, the Chaechon clothing plant, the Yonpyon clothing plant, the Yuson soy sauce plant in Chaeryong County, and one other unit; the title of double

  12. [One hundred years history of surgery in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S I; Yeh, B

    1999-01-01

    Introduction of western surgery into Korea is closely related to the introduction of western medicine itself into Korea. In December 4th, 1884 Allen, who came to Korea as a Missionary Doctor of North Presbyterian Church of America, had a chance to treat a patient with severe stab wounds. The patient was a nephew of Queen Myungsung. The patient, Min Young Ik was recovered completely. These happenings led to the establishment of 'Kwangheywon (renamed to Jejoongwon 2 weeks later)', the first westernized hospital in Korea. With the great financial aids from Severance family, Jejoongwon developed into Severance Hospital and Medical School in 1904, and greatly contributed to education of Surgery for Korean medical students. Meanwhile Korean Government established the Medical School and Hospital to train Korean Doctors in 1899. But the original intentions became to be impaired by occupation of Korea by Japan in 1910. As a colony, many Japanese Surgeons came to Korea as professors of Kyungsung Medical College, and gave only few chances for Koreans to become a professor. On the contrary, several surgeons became professors in the private, missionary 'Severance Union Medical College'. After liberation from Japanese occupation in 1945, American medical system was introduced into Korea, and many surgeons had a chance to be trained in America. There was great advancements in the field of surgery, especially of neurosurgery, during a tragic Korean War. With the restoration of economy after the 1960s, surgery in Korea continued to develop toward an independent and consolidated fields of medicine.

  13. Alliance or Reliance? Reconsidering U.S. Forces in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Kublai Khan launched two invasions on Japan from Korea.18 However, Japan’s power increased significantly during the Edo Period (1615-1868) and began...nations provided military support to United Nations operations in South Korea during that period , and while many of these countries have benefited from...north with the Yellow Sea and China to their west. To the south and east lies the East Sea and Japan . Korea has experienced war, occupation, and

  14. Massive hemoptysis in a patient with pulmonary embolism, a real therapeutic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiolanda Herodotou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive Hemoptysis and pulmonary embolism are two very severe and potentially fatal pulmonary emergencies requiring completely different treatments. We present the case of a 45-year old male transmitted to our Hospital for massive hemoptysis who at the same time was found to suffer from pulmonary embolism. Hemoptysis was treated with bronchial artery embolization which resulted in cessation of haemorrhage and allowed the administration of anticoagulant therapy a few days later. This case report gives an answer on how to manage a real therapeutic conundrum which is the coexistence of a massive hemoptysis and a concomitant pulmonary embolism.

  15. A case of pervasive refusal syndrome: a diagnostic conundrum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    A case is presented of an 11-year-old girl with pervasive refusal syndrome (PRS) who ultimately recovered acutely and completely after an 18-month paediatric hospitalisation. There was an apparent absence of previously proposed important aetiological factors in PRS, such as family pathology and markedly traumatic or abusive experiences, and her recovery was sudden and complete. The authors consider the differential diagnoses of PRS paying particular attention to the possibility of a conversion disorder or catatonia, given the absence of PRS in the North American literature. Consideration of catatonia is important as it has a diagnostic test and responds rapidly to appropriate treatment, in contrast to conventional treatment for PRS and conversion disorder.

  16. Carrot, stick, or sledgehammer: U.S. policy options for North Korean nuclear weapons

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons has shaken the foundations of U.S. policy in Northeast Asia. Because of North Korea's record of state-sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its development of operational nuclear weapons is deeply disturbing. Although most agree North Korea should not possess nuclear weapons, nobody has a solution. This thesis evaluates three U.S. polic...

  17. East Asia: Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-18

    243113 JPRS-KAR-88-015 18 JULY 1988 -JPRS Repor East Asia Korea \\s #^ \\fl """telST^BXrtiOl^ blArEMENT Appro^6^ foi pub Distribution... Asia Korea JPRS-KAR-88-015 CONTENTS 18 July 1988 OLYMPICS TONG-A ILBO Discusses Co-Hosting Possibility SOUTH KOREA POLITICAL PPD Requests...tries should be thoroughly investigated. The main opposition party also called for an investiga- tion into whether an alleged bribe worth 6.25

  18. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  19. Military Exercises in Korea: A Provocation or a Deterrent to War?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, John S

    2006-01-01

    The 53-year alliance between the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK) has been a deterrent to the Stalinist North Korean state along the most heavily militarized zone remaining of the Cold War era...

  20. Understanding Field Experiences: The Zone of Maximal Contact and the Conundrums and Sacred Stories in Teacher Education. Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnegar, Stefinee

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the author's comments on the studies by Tom Russell, David Dillon, Shawn Bullock, Lynn Thomas, and Andrea Martin which are reported in this issue of "Studying Teacher Education." Here Stefinee Pinnegar reflects on the intractable conundrums of teacher education and teachers educators that she felt was her…

  1. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  2. A Safety Conundrum Illustrated: Logic, Mathematics, and Science Are Not Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.; Collins, Kristine R.

    2010-01-01

    In an ideal world, conversations about whether a particular system is safe, or whether a particular method or tool enhances safety, would be emotion-free discussions concentrating on the level of safety required, available evidence, and coherent logical, mathematical, or scientific arguments based on that evidence. In the real world, discussions about safety are often not emotion-free. Political and economic arguments may play a bigger role than logical, mathematical, and scientific arguments, and psychological factors may be as important, or even more important, than purely technical factors. This paper illustrates the conundrum that can result from this clash of the ideal and the real by means of an imagined conversation among a collection of fictional characters representing various types of people who may be participating in a safety discussion.

  3. Solving the Martian meteorite age conundrum using micro-baddeleyite and launch-generated zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D E; Chamberlain, K R; Tait, K T; Schmitt, A K; Darling, J R; Barker, I R; Hyde, B C

    2013-07-25

    Invaluable records of planetary dynamics and evolution can be recovered from the geochemical systematics of single meteorites. However, the interpreted ages of the ejected igneous crust of Mars differ by up to four billion years, a conundrum due in part to the difficulty of using geochemistry alone to distinguish between the ages of formation and the ages of the impact events that launched debris towards Earth. Here we solve the conundrum by combining in situ electron-beam nanostructural analyses and U-Pb (uranium-lead) isotopic measurements of the resistant micromineral baddeleyite (ZrO2) and host igneous minerals in the highly shock-metamorphosed shergottite Northwest Africa 5298 (ref. 8), which is a basaltic Martian meteorite. We establish that the micro-baddeleyite grains pre-date the launch event because they are shocked, cogenetic with host igneous minerals, and preserve primary igneous growth zoning. The grains least affected by shock disturbance, and which are rich in radiogenic Pb, date the basalt crystallization near the Martian surface to 187 ± 33 million years before present. Primitive, non-radiogenic Pb isotope compositions of the host minerals, common to most shergottites, do not help us to date the meteorite, instead indicating a magma source region that was fractionated more than four billion years ago to form a persistent reservoir so far unique to Mars. Local impact melting during ejection from Mars less than 22 ± 2 million years ago caused the growth of unshocked, launch-generated zircon and the partial disturbance of baddeleyite dates. We can thus confirm the presence of ancient, non-convecting mantle beneath young volcanic Mars, place an upper bound on the interplanetary travel time of the ejected Martian crust, and validate a new approach to the geochronology of the inner Solar System.

  4. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  5. Learning Lives of Young Adult North Korean Defectors: Identity Reconstruction within Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of North Korean defectors (NKDs) entering South Korea, and the remarkable trend of NKDs is their demographic transition; the defectors in their 20s and 30s now constitute a majority among NKDs in South Korea. In this sense, this study aims to explore North Korean young adult defectors' (referred to…

  6. 'Purumi' in South Korea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new tall fescue variety (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) named 'Purumi' was developed by the National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, South Korea from 1999 to 2007. For synthetic seed production of this new variety, 5 superior clones: EFa9108, EFa0010, EFa0020, EFa0108 and EFa0202 ...

  7. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  8. Dance Education in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  9. Divided Korea: United Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  10. Nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea

  11. South Korea's Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  12. Nuclear Export Control Policy in Korea - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsook

    2008-01-01

    The International community has been facing with the continued challenges for possession and proliferation of WMD over the past years. In addition, it is known that the terrorist groups are interested in acquiring WMD. The black market of WMD related materials and technologies show also the one of seriousness of our challenges. A number of international treaties, agreements and initiatives to control the proliferation of weapons of N, B, C and their delivery system have been existed to deal with these challenges, but their missions are challenged greatly in recent a series of nuclear issues by Iran and North Korea. The paper reviews the current international export control status and Korea export control system and policy. It also addresses some agenda to be done as future export control policy in Korea

  13. Mis toimub Põhja-Koreas? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2004-01-01

    Infoagentuuri UPI teatel võib Põhja-Korea liider Kim Jong-il olla surnud, avalikest kohtadest on hakatud maha võtma tema portreesid. Põhja-Korea infoagentuur eitab seda. Ekspertide versioonidest Põhja-Koreas toimuva kohta

  14. Congress and U.S. Policy on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees: Recent Legislation and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma

    2009-01-01

    .... The passage of the reauthorization of the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2008 (P.L. 110-346) reasserted congressional interest in influencing executive branch policy toward North Korea...

  15. A study of border tourism and the DMZ development in South Korea as a peace promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young-Sun.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the peace process and tourism development and cooperation between South Korea and North Korea prior to reunification. As a relatively new academic field, the development of the body of knowledge in tourism is immature. Lack of research focused on the politics of tourism, divided nations, and peace tourism, has been a drawback. It has required theoretical support from other disciplines and a methodology designed particularly for studying domestic and international tour...

  16. The local enhancement conundrum: in search of the adaptive value of a social learning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-02-01

    Social learning mechanisms are widely thought to vary in their degree of complexity as well as in their prevalence in the natural world. While learning the properties of a stimulus that generalize to similar stimuli at other locations (stimulus enhancement) prima facie appears more useful to an animal than learning about a specific stimulus at a specific location (local enhancement), empirical evidence suggests that the latter is much more widespread in nature. Simulating populations engaged in a producer-scrounger game, we sought to deploy mathematical models to identify the adaptive benefits of reliance on local enhancement and/or stimulus enhancement, and the alternative conditions favoring their evolution. Surprisingly, we found that while stimulus enhancement readily evolves, local enhancement is advantageous only under highly restricted conditions: when generalization of information was made unreliable or when error in social learning was high. Our results generate a conundrum over how seemingly conflicting empirical and theoretical findings can be reconciled. Perhaps the prevalence of local enhancement in nature is due to stimulus enhancement costs independent of the learning task itself (e.g. predation risk), perhaps natural habitats are often characterized by unreliable yet highly rewarding payoffs, or perhaps local enhancement occurs less frequently, and stimulus enhancement more frequently, than widely believed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section 500.586 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations in... interest in the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June 19, 2000. (b)(1...

  18. Effects of El Nino Modoki on winter precipitation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Woo [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki-Seon [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Typhoon Center, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hi-Ryong [Pukyong National University, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Nam-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    This study compares the impacts of El Nino Modoki and El Nino on precipitation over Korea during the boreal winters from 1954 to 2009. Precipitation in Korea tends to be equal to or greater than the normal level during an El Nino Modoki winter, whereas there is no significant change during an El Nino winter. Greater than normal precipitation during El Nino Modoki was also found over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China and much of southern Japan. The latitudes of these regions are 5-10 further north than in southern China, where precipitation increases during El Nino. The following two anomalous atmospheric circulations were found to be causes that led to different precipitation distributions over East Asia. First, an atmospheric wave train in the lower troposphere, which propagated from the central tropical Pacific (cyclonic) through the southern Philippine Sea (anticyclonic) to East Asia (cyclonic), reached the southern China and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino, whereas it reached Korea and southern Japan during El Nino Modoki. Second, an anomalous local meridional circulation, which consists of air sinking in the tropics, flowing poleward in the lower troposphere, and rising in the subtropics, developed between the southern Philippine Sea and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino. During El Nino Modoki, however, this circulation expanded further to the north and was formed between the southern Philippine Sea and regions of Korea and southern Japan. (orig.)

  19. Tracking themes in Manuchehri’s candle conundrum in Arabic and Persian poetry till the end of 7th century AH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvane Saneai

    2016-09-01

     Manouchehri has derived some of his themes for ode of candle conundrum from Arabic literature. Following him, other poets have applied such themes in their poets. In fact, at the beginning of this stream is seen the composition of candle conundrum whose first symptoms can be seen in Arab poetry. Following Manouchehri, the poets have used in their poems the themes as follows: Shortening the wick of the candle, candles’ yellow face, candles’ laughing and crying, candles’ soul and body, Love and Lovers.

  20. A Review Of The United States Government’s Status Quo North Korean Foreign Policy Approach And Reasons For Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    unity over South China Sea, Yahoo News, Jan 2016. http://news.yahoo.com/kerry-press-china-over-north-korea- urge-asean-014102596.html 38 Brent Choi...34 Yahoo News. Jan 24, 2016. http://news.yahoo.com/kerry-press-china-over- north-korea-urge-asean-014102596.html (accessed Jan 24, 2016). Bunn, M. Elaine

  1. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  2. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu, Rahim; Oluwafemi, Akintunde; Ademola, Afolabi; Olatunji, Okikiola

    2018-01-01

    Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to th...

  3. Could the gut microbiota reconcile the oral bioavailability conundrum of traditional herbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wen, Qi; Jiang, Jun; Li, Hai-Long; Tan, Yin-Feng; Li, Yong-Hui; Zeng, Nian-Kai

    2016-02-17

    A wealth of information is emerging about the impact of gut microbiota on human health and diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes. As we learn more, we find out the gut microbiota has the potential as new territory for drug targeting. Some novel therapeutic approaches could be developed through reshaping the commensal microbial structure using combinations of different agents. The gut microbiota also affects drug metabolism, directly and indirectly, particularly towards the orally administered drugs. Herbal products have become the basis of traditional medicines such as traditional Chinese medicine and also been being considered valuable materials in modern drug discovery. Of note, low oral bioavailability but high bioactivity is a conundrum not yet solved for some herbs. Since most of herbal products are orally administered, the herbs' constituents are inevitably exposed to the intestinal microbiota and the interplays between herbal constituents and gut microbiota are expected. Emerging explorations of herb-microbiota interactions have an opportunity to revolutionize the way we view herbal therapeutics. The present review aims to provide information regarding the health promotion and/or disease prevention by the interplay between traditional herbs with low bioavailability and gut microbiota through gut microbiota via two different types of mechanisms: (1) influencing the composition of gut microbiota by herbs and (2) metabolic reactions of herbal constituents by gut microbiota. The major data bases (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched using "gut microbiota", "intestinal microbiota", "gut flora", "intestinal flora", "gut microflora", "intestinal microflora", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", or "herbal medicine" as keywords to find out studies regarding herb-microbiota interactions. The Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition, Volume I) was also used to collect the data of commonly used medicinal herbs and their quality

  4. Lusatia and the coal conundrum: The lived experience of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, Tom; Müller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The German Energiewende, or energy transition, is an ambitious suite of policy measures which aim to decarbonize the German economy and achieve an almost complete transition to an energy system based on renewable energy by mid-century. This article contends that the energy transition is also a social process. We develop a provisional local ethnography of the Energiewende, an account of the lived experience of this social process from the perspective of villagers in Atterwasch, Kerkwitz and Grabko, in the region of Lusatia in Eastern Germany. Their experiences are particularly salient, since their villages are facing demolition to make way for the expansion of the nearby Jänschwalde coal mine. The villagers’ struggle to defend their homes highlights a fundamental contradiction in the energy transition, sometimes referred to as the “coal conundrum”. The contest over the future of coal in Lusatia can be seen as a struggle to control key cultural ‘scripts’ or narratives, of home, belonging, ecological modernization, climate change, and democratic deficit. Our research suggests that any resolution of the coal conundrum, and effective implementation of the Energiewende, must be informed by an understanding of these scripts, and how they underpin the motivations and mentalities of different social actors. - Highlights: • The German energy transition is a social process as well as a set of policy measures. • Lusatia, in Eastern Germany, is a social laboratory of the Energiewende. • The contestation of coal in Lusatia is a struggle to control cultural ‘scripts'. • Home and belonging, ecological modernization, and climate change are key scripts. • More “energy democracy” would bolster the legitimacy of the energy transition.

  5. The conundrum of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Avino, Gonzalo; Riquelme, Ismael; Padilla, Oslando; Villaseca, Miguel; Aguayo, Francisco R; Corvalan, Alejandro H

    2017-09-26

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma shows a higher prevalence in the Americas than Asia. We summarize all studies of Epstein Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in the Americas, focusing on host characteristics, environmental associations and phylogeographic diversity of Epstein-Barr virus strains. In the Americas, the prevalence of Epstein Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma is 11.4%, more frequent in males and portray predominantly diffuse-type histology. EBERs, EBNAs, BARTs and LMP are the highest expressed genes; their variations in healthy individuals may explain the phylogeographic diversity of Epstein-Barr virus across the region. Gastric cancer cases harbor exclusively the western genotype (subtype D and kept Xho I site), suggesting a disrupted co-evolution between the pathogen and its host. Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma molecular subtype cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas display PIK3CA gene mutations, amplification of JAK2, PD-L1 and PD-L2 and CpG island methylator phenotype, leading to more extensive methylation of host and viral genomes than any other subtypes from the study. Environmental conditions include negative- and positive- associations with being firstborn child and smoking, respectively. A marginal association with H. pylori has also been reported. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is associated with Epstein Barr virus in 80%-86% of cases, most of which have been included as part of Epstein Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma series (prevalence 1.1%-7.6%). Whether these cases represent a variant of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma is discussed. We propose novel research strategies to solve the conundrum of the high prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma in the Americas.

  6. U-Pb rutile thermochronology: a review and status report on a vexing conundrum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Dye, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Among the available intermediate-temperature thermochronometers utilizing U-Pb isotopic measurements of accessory minerals, rutile stands out as among the least apparently understood in terms of diffusion kinetics and daughter-loss mechanisms. Discrepancies persist between a variety of empirical and experimental estimates of apparent closure temperature for the U-Pb rutile thermochronometer, ranging from as low as 400°C to greater than 600°C. This range in the temperature component of the thermochronometer is particularly vexing given the otherwise attractive chronologic and petrologic characteristics of rutile, and a new Zr-in-rutile thermometric calibration (Watson et al., 2006, Crystallization thermometers for zircon and rutile, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 151:413-433) that could complement U-Pb-based thermochronology. The crux of the U-Pb rutile conundrum lies in apparent discrepancy between nominal closure temperatures inferred on the basis of: a) empirical multiple mineral-isotope relative thermochronology for metamorphic terrains, versus b) the available experimental determination of Pb volume diffusion parameters in rutile (Cherniak et al., 2000, Pb diffusion in rutile, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 139:198-207). This contribution will review the state-of-the-art in U-Pb analytical measurements of rutile, and the constraints provided by empirical studies of the relative closure properties of rutile and a variety of other mineral-isotope thermochronometers. A thermochronological case study combining Rb-Sr mica and U-Pb zircon, monazite, titanite and rutile ages and trace element thermometry from Cretaceous-Paleogene amphibolite-facies gneisses of the northern U.S. Cordillera will highlight the problems and potential of this valuable thermochronometer.

  7. De demografische staat van Noord-Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry

    2018-01-01

    Noord-Korea – officieel de Democratische Volksrepubliek Korea – is de laatste totalitair geregeerde communistische staat. Het land is veel in de media, maar wat weten we eigenlijk over de demografie van Noord-Korea? En hoe verhoudt hun gezondheid en welvaart zich tot die van hun buurland Zuid-Korea?

  8. Estonia builds ties with South Korea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Korea Vabariigis toimunud välisminister Urmas Paeti ja Lõuna-Korea välis- ja kaubandusministri Yu Myung-hwani kohtumisel räägiti Eesti ja Lõuna-Korea poliitilise, majandus-, teadus- ning infotehnoloogiaalase koostöö arendamisest. Urmas Paet kohtus ka Lõuna-Korea energia ja infotehnoloogia aseministri Cho Seokiga

  9. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  10. A framework for verifying the dismantlement and abandonment of nuclear weapons. A policy implication for the denuclearization of Korea Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Sukeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Denuclearization of Korean Peninsula has been a serious security issue in the North East Asian region. Although the Six-Party Talks has been suspended since North Korea declared a boycott in 2008, aims of denuclearizing North Korea has still been discussed. For instance, the recent Japan and the U.S. '2+2' dialogue affirmed its importance to achieve complete and verifiable denuclearization of North Korea, including scrutinizing its uranium enrichment program, through irreversible steps under the Six Party process. In order to identify effective and efficient framework for denuclearization of North Korea, this paper examines 5 major denuclearization methods including (1) the Nunn-Luger Method, (2) the Iraqi Method, (3) the South African Method, (4) the Libyan Method and (5) the denuclearization method shown in the Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC), while referring to the recent developments of the verification studies for nuclear disarmament, such as a joint research conducted by the United Kingdom and Norway and any other arguments made by disarmament experts. Moreover, this paper argues what political and security conditions will be required to make North Korea to accept intrusive verification for its denuclearization. Conditions for successful denuclearization talks among the Six-Party member states and a realistic approach of verifiable denuclearization will be also examined. (author)

  11. Changing water cycle over Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, Korea experienced relatively strong drought, and annual mean precipitation was the third lowest since observation started at 1969 causing adverse impact on the several sectors including farming industry. Most precipitation in Korea occurs during summer season. In case of 2015 Korean drought, summer rainfall was much below than normal. On the other hand, another severe drought occurred in 2017 spring, which was followed by a couple of heavy rainfall cases that caused human casualties and damage in various sectors. Here we want to analyze this fast shifting of water cycle over Korea with a focus on its causing mechanisms and large scale atmospheric circulation features.

  12. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  13. Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-07-01

    The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

  14. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  15. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases ...

  16. South Korea - oil refining overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the economic problems of the 1990s, the petroleum refining industry of South Korea underwent much involuntary restructuring in 1999 with respect to takeovers and mergers and these are discussed. The demand for petroleum has now pretty well recovered. The reasons for fluctuating prices in the 1990s, how the new structure should be cushioned against changes in the future, and the potential for South Korea to export refined petroleum, are all discussed

  17. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-04-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  18. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Korea Estimated with a Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Maengseok; Lee, Youngjo; Oh, Seungyoung; Chu, Chaeshin; Gwack, Jin; Youn, Seung-Ki; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Huh, Sun

    2012-12-01

    The spatial and temporal correlations were estimated to determine Plasmodium vivax malarial transmission pattern in Korea from 2001-2011 with the hierarchical generalized linear model. Malaria cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the incidence was estimated according to age, sex, and year by the hierarchical generalized linear model. Spatial and temporal correlation was estimated and the best model was selected from nine models. Results were presented as diseases map according to age and sex. The incidence according to age was highest in the 20-25-year-old group (244.52 infections/100,000). Mean ages of infected males and females were 31.0 years and 45.3 years with incidences 7.8 infections/100,000 and 7.1 infections/100,000 after estimation. The mean month for infection was mid-July with incidence 10.4 infections/100,000. The best-fit model showed that there was a spatial and temporal correlation in the malarial transmission. Incidence was very low or negligible in areas distant from the demilitarized zone between Republic of Korea and Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) if the 20-29-year-old male group was omitted in the diseases map. Malarial transmission in a region in Korea was influenced by the incidence in adjacent regions in recent years. Since malaria in Korea mainly originates from mosquitoes from North Korea, there will be continuous decrease if there is no further outbreak in North Korea.

  20. Nuclear energy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The total electricity generated in 1998 was 215,300 GWh with 43,261 MWe of total installed capacity of electric power, while in 1978 when the first Nuclear Power Plant began operation it was 31,510 GWh with 6,916 MWe installed capacity. The share of nuclear power generation in 1998 increased up to 41.7%. Currently, 16 units of nuclear power are operating with an additional four units under construction. Nuclear power has contributed to enhancing energy security and supplying stable energy for Korea. The government's strong commitment to the nuclear power program together with a long-term national policy resulted in favorable conditions for KEPCO to manage the program and promote increasing levels of national participation in successive nuclear power projects. The role of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource can not be emphasized enough with respect to global environmental issues. Increasing the share of nuclear power in the total installed capacity for electricity generation will undoubtedly play a very important role. (author)

  1. 75 FR 82070 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade... notice that it is inviting the parties to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Chapter 19 panel proceeding in Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, USA-MEX-1904-04, to file...

  2. Carrot, Stick, or Sledgehammer: U.S. Policy Options for North Korean Nuclear Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orcutt, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    .... Because of North Korea'a record of state-sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its development of operational nuclear weapons is deeply disturbing...

  3. The Impact of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis on Northeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Jonghun

    2007-01-01

    The DPRK's nuclear issue is difficult to be managed in a peaceful way because of the negative aspects of nuclear proliferation, unacceptable not only on the Korean Peninsula but also in the international community. North Korea, the U.S...

  4. A review of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, John A; Tan, Bernard; Casey, Michael

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence of tuberculosis and its management in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. A review of technical reports of NGOs' experience working in North Korea with Democratic People's Republic of Korea officials, tuberculosis healthcare personnel and tuberculosis patients. Site visits, observations and experiences are also included. Until 2001, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, was predominately isolated with an unknown healthcare system but has since allowed NGOs, WHO and international agencies to rehabilitate the healthcare infrastructure involving 200 people's Country Hospitals, 13 Prophylactic Hospitals, 62 Sanitariums and 4 Special Hospitals. The mid 1990s witnessed a resurgence of tuberculosis in North Korea with 100,000 new cases reported yearly. Preliminary analysis revealed that poverty, neglect, lack of resources and isolation resulted in the overall deterioration of public health services. Present estimates suggest a prevalence of 220 per 100,000 with 45,000 new cases. Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in North Korea that will require increased efforts by the national government and international agencies to control

  5. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Project No. 0782; NRC-2013-0244] Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). ADDRESSES...

  6. Next Generation Reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Choi, Youngsang; Park, Keecheol

    1990-01-01

    In Korea, nuclear power will be continuously needed to meet the trend of steady increase in electricity demand. But in relation to the further development of nuclear energy, there are still many uncertainties to be solved such as power demand forecast, site availability, thermal energy utilization and technology enhancement for economic and safety. To cope with those uncertainties effectively and to proceed the nuclear projects uninterruptedly, KEPCO decided to initiate two research project. i. e., one is 'the outlook and developmental strategy of nuclear energy for the early 21st century in the R. O. K' and the other is 'the feasibility study on the advanced reactors in Korea. Prospects of nuclear energy in Korea was overviewed and recommendations from the industry were introduced. It is strong opinion of Korea nuclear industry that nuclear policy should be changed from the support policy to the target management policy. In the point of reactor strategy, the life of light water reactor technology might be longer than expected before in Korea and it is emphasized that good maintenance of light water reactor technology and smooth transition program to the advanced technologies should be carefully considered. There are differences in the opinions between preferences to the evolutionary and/or passive, inherently safe reactors but, in the long-term point of view, it is judged to be desirable to have alternatives

  7. Nuclear program of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.S.; James, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Slightly larger than Portugal, South Korea comprises the lower half on the Korean Peninsula, covering approximately 38 thousand square miles. the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in 1948, and until 1962 the country grew slowly. However, through a series of five-year economic plans initiated by South Korean President Park Ching Hee, South Korea has since created an export-oriented economy, which now plays a major role in regional as well as global trade. South Korea has been forced to constantly upgrade its power generation structure in order to sustain the explosive growth it has experienced. Nuclear power has been a major player in this expansion and is expected to play an ever-increasing role. The country presently operates nine nuclear reactors with a total net generating capacity of 7,266 MWe. By the year 2006, the nuclear program is scheduled to grow to 27 reactors, with a net generating capacity exceeding 23 thousand MWe. Once this goal is reached, nuclear-generated power would account for more than 40 percent of the country's total installed electrical capacity

  8. Korea keele õpetamisest / Angelina Tšaikovskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tšaikovskaja, Angelina

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli külastas 7. dets. 1999 Korea Vabariigi suursaadik Helsingis Dong-chil Yang, kes tundis huvi idamaade keelte õpetamise vastu TPÜ-s ja lubas toetada korea keele õpetamist ülikoolis

  9. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    concessions on imports of U.S. pork and pharmaceuticals , as well as work visas for South Korean professionals entering the United States. South Korea...Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia , Panama, and South Korea, by Remy Jurenas U.S.-South Korea Relations Congressional Research

  10. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  11. Climatological Features of Korea-Landfalling Tropical Cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the interdecadal variation by applying the statistical change-point analysis to the frequency of the tropical cyclone (TC that landed in the Korean Peninsula (KP for the recent 54 years (1951 to 2004 and performed cluster classification of the Korea-landfall TC tracks using a Fuzzy Clustering Method (FCM. First, in the interdecadal variation analysis, frequency of TC that landed in the KP was largely categorized into three periods: high frequency period from 1951 to 1965, low frequency period from 1966 to 1985, and high frequency period from 1986 to 2004. The cluster analysis result of the Korea-landfall TC tracks produced the optimum number of clusters as four. In more detail, Cluster A refers to a pattern of landing in the southern coast in the KP starting from East China Sea followed by heading north while Cluster B refers to a pattern of landing in the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, also starting from East China Sea followed by heading north. Cluster C refers to a pattern of landing in the southern region of the west coast in the KP moving from mainland China while Cluster D refers to a pattern of landing in the mid-north region of the west coast in the Korean Peninsula, also moving from mainland China.

  12. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  13. Development of Korea telecommunication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    It concentrates on development of Korea telecommunication technology, which is made up seven chapters. It gives description of manual central telephone exchange or private automatic telephone exchange, transmission technology on wire line and cable line technology and optical transmission, radio communication technology on mobile and natural satellite communication, network technology with intelligent network, broadband ISDN and packet switched Data Network, terminal technology with telephone and data communication terminal and development of Information Technology in Korea. It has an appendix about development of military communication system.

  14. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  15. [The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Young

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  16. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Tritium research activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung, E-mail: kjjung@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun, E-mail: shyun@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Chung, Dongyou; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Hyeon Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hongsuk; Choi, Woo-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyu-Min; Moon, Chang-Bae [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Central Research Institute, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Dongguk University, Jung-gu, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jungho; Kim, Dong-Sun [Kongju National University, Cheonan, Chungnam, 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hung-Man [Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd., Danwon-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Seung Jeong [Dankook University, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Hyunchul [Inha University, Nam-gu, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, Chungbuk, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • NFRI, KAERI and KHNP CRI are major leading group for the ITER tritium SDS design; studying engineering, simulation of hydride bed, risk analysis (on safety, HAZOP), basic study, control logic & sequential operation, and others. KHNP has WTRF which gives favorable experiences for collaboration researchers. • Supplementary research partners: Five Universities (Dongguk University and POSTECH, Inha University, Dankook University, Korea National Transport University, and Kongju National University) and one industrial company (Daesung Industrial Gases Co., Ltd.); studying on basic and engineering, programming & simulation on the various topics for ITER tritium SDS, TEP, ISS, ADS, and etc. - Abstract: Major progress in tritium research in the Republic of Korea began when Korea became responsible for ITER tritium Storage and Delivery System (SDS) procurement package which is part of the ITER Fuel Cycle. To deliver the tritium SDS package, a variety of research institutes, universities and industry have respectively taken roles and responsibilities in developing technologies that have led to significant progress. This paper presents the current work and status of tritium related technological research and development (R&D) in Korea and introduces future R&D plans in the area of fuel cycle systems for fusion power generation.

  18. Life in South Korea Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  19. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  20. North Korea’s 2009 Nuclear Test: Containment, Monitoring, Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    hydroacoustic ), Earth (seismic), or atmosphere (infrasound); a fourth detects radioactive material from a nuclear test. Scientists concur that... Laboratory report LA-12942-MS, UC-700 and UC-703, June 1995, pp. 89-92, http://www.osti.gov/ bridge/servlets/purl/72900-YlaqIV/webviewable/72900.pdf...Seismic Results from DOE’s Non-Proliferation Experiment: A Comparison of Chemical and Nuclear Explosions,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  1. Efficacy of Economic Sanctions: North Korea and Iran Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    by one or more international actors against another, ostensibly with a view to influencing that entity‟s foreign and/or security behavior.”2 Risa ...2 Brendan Taylor, Sanctions as Grand Strategy (London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010), 12. 3 Risa A. Brooks, “Sanctions

  2. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    .... The United States, apparently caught unaware, paused for many months to consider the political and security ramifications of donating significant food, medicines, and funds to the effort. Given previous U.S...

  3. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    reciprocal web of duties and obligations: the son obeys the father by following the dictates of filial piety ; the father provides for and educates the...officially abolished with the Kabo Reforms. The Traditional Family and Kinship Filial piety (hyo in Korean; xiao in Chinese), the first of the Five...work schedules subordinate parental authority to that of the state and its representatives. Some aspects of filial piety remain salient in contemporary

  4. Han Sol-Ya and His Literature: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-30

    process; ef dig- I r I pst^gratiAK ritk vitality * | 1 . ■ s I ’A «ft r<? sore 9 «i’i/i.1 igiit»* was filled ritfe typical characters of! j...8217■’- i 8 sueli an smvir©»n.er«t? I ’•■ran.ted to -»rite ray f laming; passions &nd i I 1 I desires an

  5. State Succession in the Case of a Unified Korea Resulting from the Collapse of North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    .... Effectively isolated from the international community and the world economy, bereft of the great power patronage that it once enjoyed from the Soviet Union and China, and enduring economic shortages...

  6. Occupational health in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Domyung; Hisanaga, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    The government-initiated Annual Workers Health Examination Program and the Industrial Accident Compensation Program both of which are delivered from outside the workplace mainly by a handful of service agents have remained the cornerstones of occupational health and safety (OHS) policy in South Korea since the 1960s. Initially, policies centered on the technical dimensions of OHS problems. This acultural approach is no longer efficient, and the scope of problems that can be dealt with is limited. The injury rate has gone down from 6 to less than 1 injury per 100 insured workers, but since the 1980s there has been no sign of improvement in the death rate from industrial accidents, and future improvement in the injury rate is not expected. As South Korea is facing major economic and social changes, review of current OHS policy is also underway. International collaborations and comparisons will surely add thoughtful perspectives to this discussion.

  7. Sport Nationalism in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Tosa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for ...

  8. Nuclear waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O.-K.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers overall status of nuclear waste management in Korea from low level radioactive waste to spent nuclear fuel, especially the construction of LILW repository of which site had been selected in November 2005. The expansion of on-site spent fuel storage capacity, transshipment between neighboring plants, construction of space-efficient dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel and application of vitrification technology for the treatment of LILW will be included in the discussion. (author)

  9. Nuclear safety endeavour in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-hoon lee

    1987-01-01

    Korea's nuclear power plant program is growing. As it grows, nuclear safety becomes an important issue. This article traces the development of Korean nuclear power program, the structure of the nuclear industries, the Nuclear Safety Center and its roles in the regulation and licensing of nuclear power plant, and also identifies some of the activities carried out to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. An autoerotic death in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Accidental autoerotic asphyxia occurring during autoerotic activity is usually considered the unanticipated failure of a sexual stimulation device to induce hypoxia during solitary sexual arousal. Here, we provide the first reported case of autoerotic death in Korea. In the present case, a young man died from asphyxiation as a result of being suspended with his head in a plastic bag. The death was considered accidental and not suicidal. The diagnosis of autoerotic death may be difficult when typical features are absent.

  11. Indoor and outdoor poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Korea determined by passive air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Shoeib, Mahiba; Kim, Kyeong-Soo; Park, Jong-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Despite concerns to their increasing contribution to ecological and human exposure, the atmospheric levels of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been determined mainly in Europe and North America. This study presents the indoor and outdoor air concentrations of volatile PFASs [fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols/sulfonamide ethyl acetate (FOSAs/FOSEs/FOSEA)] for the first time in Korean cities. In contrast to the good agreement observed for indoor FTOHs levels in Korea and Europea/North America, FOSAs/FOSEs levels were 10–100-fold lower in Korean indoor air, representing a cultural difference of indoor source. Korean outdoor air contained higher PFAS levels than indoor air, and additionally showed different PFAS composition profile from indoor air. Thus, indoor air would not likely be a main contributor to atmospheric PFAS contamination in Korea, in contrast to western countries. Inhalation exposure of volatile PFASs was estimated to be a minor contributor to PFOA and PFOS exposure in Korea. - Highlights: ► Volatile PFASs were measured in indoor and outdoor airs of Korea, for the first time. ► Cultural difference in indoor source was observed for Korea v.s. western countries. ► Furthermore, PFASs concentrations were higher in indoor air than outdoor air. ► Indoor air was not a major contributor to atmospheric PFASs contamination in Korea. ► Release from industrial activities was considered a possible source. - Korean outdoor air showed not only different PFAS composition profile but higher PFAS levels than indoor airs, indicating indoor air would not be a main source to Korean atmospheric PFASs.

  12. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  13. Limited = Limiting Reading of Social Constructionism: A Reply to Carl Ratner's "Epistemological, Social, and Political Conundrums in Social Constructionism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Dey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RATNER's "Epistemological, Social, and Political Conundrums in Social Constructionism" provides ample illustration of how a grossly negligent, read both limited and limiting, exegesis of social constructionism has the demonstrable effect of installing the impression of the subject matter forming a homogeneous unity and an utmost negative one at that. The present commentary will show that the irony of RATNER's article is not that it has gotten social constructionism completely wrong but that it conceals that he himself is a (hyperreal constructionist and that his account might be used for pinpointing how the construction of (hyperreality works in textual practice. To rebut RATNER's assertion that social constructionist theorizing engenders a relativistic worldview of "everything goes" on the basis of his own account, it will be shown that though his truth is (partly random, temporary and thus alterable it does have real implications (both existent and potential for those referring to it, in either positive or negative terms. The commentary will close with tentative suggestions for an ethos of reading that seeks to cultivate a sensitivity towards the singular spirit of social constructionist writings as well as the necessity of creative inheriting and hence invention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801474

  14. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    negotiated under the KORUS FTA and the Korea- EU FTA, which went into effect in 2011. According the AUSTR Wendy Cutler, South Korea agreed to a two-year...parliamentary elections earlier in the year. Some analysts have called on South Korea to join the 11-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) free trade...agreement negotiations, in which the United States is participating. The TPP talks are a key element of the Obama Administration’s strategy of

  16. Opening of the national biobank of Korea as the infrastructure of future biomedical science in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Yun; Hong, Eun Jung; Nam, Jung Min; Han, Bogkee; Chu, Chaeshin; Park, Ok

    2012-09-01

    On April 26, 2012, the Korea National Institute of Health officially held the opening ceremony of newly dedicated biobank building, 'NationalBiobank of Korea'. The stocked biospecimens and related information have been distributed for medical and public health researches. The Korea Biobank Project, which was initiated in 2008, constructed the Korea Biobank Network consisting of the National Biobank of Korea (NBK) with 17 regional biobanks in Korea. As of December 2011, a total of 525,416 biospecimens with related information have been secured: 325,952 biospecimens from the general population obtained through cohort studies and 199,464 biospecimens of patients from regional biobanks. A large scale genomic study, Korea Association Resource (KARE) and many researches utilized the biospecimens secured through Korea Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and Korea Biobank Project (KBP). Construction of 'National Biobank of Korea', a dedicated biobank building at Osong means that NBK can manage and check quality of the biospecimens with promising distribution of 26 million vials of biospecimen, which provide the infrastructure for the development of health technology in Korea. The NBK and the National Library of Medicine (to be constructed in 2014) will play a central role in future biomedical research in Korea.

  17. Towards the Paris Agreement - negative emission and what Korea can contribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Lee, Woo Kyun; Son, Yowhan; Kindermann, Georg; Patrizio, Piera; Mesfun, Sennai; Yowargana, Ping; Mac Dowall, Niall; Yamagata, Yoshiki; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Aoki, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    Energy from fossil fuel comprises more than 80% of the total energy consumption in Korea. While aiming at ambitious renewable energy targets, Korea is also investigating the option of carbon capture and storage (CCS) - especially applied to emissions from the conversion of coal to energy. Two CCS pilot plants linked to existing coal plants are in the pipeline - one in the Gangwon Province (north east Korea) and another one in Chungnam Province (in the west of Korea). The final target is the capturing of one million tons of CO2 per year. The best storage options for CO2 have been identified offshore Korea, with the Ulleung Basin, off the east coast of Korea, considered to feature the greatest potential. Kunsan Basin, off the west coast, is considered another optional site. The objective of this study is to analyze Koreas's negative emissions potential through BECCS (bioenergy combined with CCS) created under the assumption that the two CCS pilot plants were retrofit for cofiring biomass from sustainable domestic forest management and coal. Various scenarios include inter-alia additional green field plants for BECCS. In a first step, national and global biophysical forest models (e.g. G4M) are applied to estimate sustainable biomass availability. In a second step, the results from these forest models are used as input data to the engineering model BeWhere. This techno-engineering model optimizes scaling and location of greenfield heat and power plants (CHP) and related feedstock and CO2 transport logistics. The geographically explicit locations and capacities obtained for forest-based bioenergy plants are then overlaid with a geological suitability map for in-situ carbon storage which can be further combined with off-shore storage options. From this, a theoretical potential for BECCS in Korea is derived. Results indicate that, given the abundant forest cover in South Korea, there is substantial potential for bioenergy production, which could contribute not only to

  18. North Korean Aesthetic Theory: Aesthetics, Beauty, and "Man"

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-West, Alzo

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetics is not a subject usually associated with North Korea in Western scholarship, the usual tropes being autocracy, counterfeiting, drugs, human-rights abuse, famine, nuclear weapons, party-military dictatorship, Stalinism, and totalitarianism. Where the arts are concerned, they are typically seen as crude political propaganda. One British…

  19. Investigating the cooperative strategies between China and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interests of the riparian countries (North Korea and China) are defined in terms of the cooperative 2-person nonzero-sum game, and the Nash product is then calculated for various alternative strategies. The results reveal that the Kangkudong Dam and the Simpo Dam should be collaboratively constructed, and that the ...

  20. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    2011-01-01

    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  1. Lost in Travel or a Different Conception? (Mis-)Appropriation of Transformative Learning Theory in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Joong; Cho, Sungmin

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical thought on adult and/or lifelong learning in the Republic of Korea has been largely indebted to Western theoretical frameworks in the past few decades. Academic journal articles and doctoral dissertations dealing with the topic of learning in adulthood flooded with Western, typically North American, theories and concepts. Is it indeed…

  2. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  3. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with Pap test use among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Chung, Yoonkyung

    2017-10-01

    Lack of medical care in North Korea and vulnerability to human trafficking during their migration increase risks of cervical cancer among North Korean refugees. To better understand factors influencing Pap test use, we conducted a qualitative study of eight North Korean refugees in South Korea. Individual barriers were limited knowledge, lack of perceived need for preventive services, and concerns about costs. Environmental facilitators included having female providers, receiving family support, and free screenings. Refugees' health outlook, including viewing cancers as fatal diseases, hindered seeking Pap tests. Multi-faceted approaches to address individual and environmental factors in promoting Pap tests are warranted.

  4. Fear of a Black femme: The existential conundrum of embodying a Black femme identity while being a professor of Black, queer, and feminist studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Kaila Adia

    2017-10-02

    Although a Black femme identity has been defined and embodied by many as an identity with Black feminist roots and revolutionary potentials, Black femmes are still rendered hypervisible and invisible through racist and heteronormative politics. Similarly, embodying a Black femme identity as a professor in academia often engenders these same pretenses of hypervisibility and invisibility. This essay explores what this existential conundrum has been for me as both a Black femme and professor of Black queer and feminist studies, while illuminating the mix of forces within academia that have attempted to stifle my chosen sexual identity and gendered performance.

  5. Guides about nuclear energy in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This document summarizes the main information on nuclear energy in South Korea: number of reactors in operation, type, date of commissioning, nuclear facilities under construction, nuclear share in power production, companies and organizations (Korea electric power company (KEPCO), Korea atomic energy institute (KAERI), Korea institute of nuclear safety (KINS), Korea nuclear energy foundation (KNEF), Korea hydro and nuclear power (KHNP), nuclear environment technology institute (NETEC), Korea basic science institute (KBSI)), nuclear fuel fabrication, research works on waste disposal, nuclear R and D in fission and fusion, safety of nuclear facilities, strategies under study (1000 MWe Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP), 1400 MWe advanced power reactor (APR), small power water cooled reactors (system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) research program), development of fast reactors (Kalimer research program), development of the process of direct use of PWR fuel in Candu (DUPIC), use of reprocessing uranium, transmutation of trans-uranian and wastes (KOMAC program), first dismantling experience (Triga Mark II and III research reactors). (J.S.)

  6. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  7. The Flynn effect in Korea: Large gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Cho, S.H.; Murphy, R.; Lee, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Secular gains in IQ test scores have been reported for many Western countries. This is the first study of secular IQ gains in South Korea, using various datasets. The first question is what the size of the Flynn effect in South Korea is. The gains per decade are 7.7 points for persons born between

  8. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  9. South Korea's Development Success: Lessons for Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From a least developed and aid receiving country to a developed and donor country within six decades, South Korea represents one of the unprecedented world's phenomenal and remarkable development experience. A combination of political and economic elements has been the key driver behind Korea's development ...

  10. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  11. The 13 february action plan and the prospects for the North Korean nuclear issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narushige, Muchishita

    2007-01-01

    On 13 February, the Third Session of the Fifth Round of the Six-Party Talks ended with the adoption of the 'Action Plan' for the implementation of the September 2005 Joint Statement.2 The Action Plan has two phases - the initial phase and the 'next' phase - but the core of the deal lies in the initial stage in which the parties agreed to exchange the nuclear freeze and the provision of energy. In the initial phase, North Korea will 'shut down and seal' the Yongbyon nuclear facility, including the reprocessing facility, and invite back International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) personnel to conduct monitoring and verifications within 60 days. In return, the other parties of the talks will provide emergency energy assistance equivalent to 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil (HFO) to North Korea. There are other items in the initial stage such as North Korea discussing a list of all its nuclear programs with other parties, and the United States and North Korea starting bilateral talks toward full diplomatic relations. However, these items are rather nominal and symbolic in nature and will not likely produce meaningful results in a short period of time. The second phase is even more open-ended. In the second phase, North Korea will provide a complete declaration of all nuclear programs and disable all existing nuclear facilities. In return, the other parties will provide economic, energy and humanitarian assistance up to the equivalent of 950,000 tons of HFO. However, the timing and the details of the nuclear 'disablement' and the provision of assistance are not specified, making it likely that the parties will disagree over how to interpret the words in the Action Plan. The Action Plan provides that five Working Groups (WG) on different topics will be established in order to discuss the details, but the effectiveness of the WG remains to be seen. The Action Plan, therefore, represents the lowest common denominator for the parties involved. In agreeing to the plan, all

  12. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  13. The War on “Red Drugs”: Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Park

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army’s tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK’s own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.

  14. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ganiyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to the very top of their career not as a result of lack of requisite qualifications, and experience etc.; but as a result of factors that are rooted in cultural, societal, organizational, individual and psychological factors that inhibit women career advancement.  Against the aforementioned background, the paper concludes that women advance marginally to certain level in corporate executive cadre, before they experience ‘glass ceiling’ that impedes their prospect of attaining senior executive position. Accordingly, women compared to men represent an insignificant fraction of those in managerial positions due to cultural prejudice, religion convictions, family related issues, individual and organizational influences. Similarly, inadequate opportunity to networks and seek sponsorship limits women progression to top managerial hierarchy. The study recommends the need to articulate policy frameworks that promote strong organizational culture and a more helpful and supportive environment to develop women leadership skills.  Similarly, there is need to promote sponsorship for women in a way and manner that safeguard the relationships between sponsors and protégés.

  15. Sport Nationalism in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Tosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for athletes’ distinguished results, and so on. Nationwide enthusiasm promoted by media creates nationalistic solidarity. In postcolonial South Korea, sport has been used as a special tool to achieve focused political aims, such as prevailing against the anti-communist and anti-Japanese competitions. But recently, as the Korean society becomes more affluent and matured, people begin to enjoy the appeal of sport per se. The mega sport events, including public viewing, present a typical scene of Korean nationalistic enthusiasm, but it is also a good example of ritual consumption and the development of sport as art. To understand the vitality of sport in East Asia, it is important to notice the coexistence of the non-utilitarian aspect of sports with their political and ritual use.

  16. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  17. Seismic risk map of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Lee, Y.K.; Eum, S.H.; Yang, S.J.; Chun, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study on seismic hazard level in Korea has been performed and the main results of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Historians suggest that the quality of historical earthquake data may be accurate in some degree and the data should be used in seismic risk analysis. 2. The historical damage events are conformed in historical literatures and their intensities are re-evaluated by joint researchers. The maximum MM intensity of them is VIII evaluated for 17 events. 3. The relation of earthquakes to surface fault is not clear. It seems resonable to related them to tectonic provinces. 4. Statistical seismic risk analysis shows that the acceleration expected within 50O year return period is less than 0.25G when only instrumental earthquakes are used and less than 0.10G if all of instrumental and historical earthquakes are used. The acceleration in Western Coast and Kyungsang area is higher than the other regions in Korea. 5. The maximum horizontal acceleration determined by conservative method is 0.26G when historical earthquake data are used and less than 0.20G if only instrumental earthquakes are used. The return period of 0.26G is 240 years in Kyungsang province and longer in other provinces. (Author)

  18. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  19. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  20. Interdecadal variation of April mean rainfall in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, In-Gyum; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The statistical change-point analysis demonstrates that there is a climate regime shift in the April mean precipitation in Korea in 1981. The April mean precipitation in the years post-1981 showed a distinct decrease compared to the years pre-1981. This phenomenon was also noticed in China and Japan, excluding south China. One of the major causes for this decrease in April mean precipitation was the increased snow depth in the mid-latitude regions of continental East Asia. This resulted in a strengthened cold and dry anticyclone anomaly over continental East Asia and a relatively weakened subtropical anticyclone anomaly over the western North Pacific, thus forcing a continuation of the typical winter pressure pattern of "high-West and low-East" in East Asia in April. The strengthened northerly anomaly from this zonal pressure pattern anomaly played a significant role in restricting the northern movement of the subtropical anticyclone and preventing the inflow of warm and humid air into Korea.

  1. Some Aspects Of Human Sparganosis In Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung Yull; Bae, Jong Hoa; Seo, Byong Seol

    1975-06-01

    Human sparganosis in Korea was discussed on the bases of five human cases experienced by the present authors and 58 case records already reported by many previous authors, in aspects of epidemiology and clinical features. Sparganosis is not infrequent tissue helminthiasis now in Korea and the incidence has been evidently increased during past 10 years. It might be interpreted that improved medical delivery system and health care exposed the hidden but prevalent disease. The distribution of sparganosis in Korea is apparently subdivided into three major endemic areas; Kyunggi Do, Kyungsang Do and Hamkyung Nam Do. Although scanty in other areas of Korea, the distribution of this disease is presumably throughout the whole peninsula of Korea except Cheju Do. The majority of human cases of sparganosis in Korea has revealed raw consuming of snakes for treatment of tuberculosis, syphilis and joint pain, for tonics and for the belief of special nutrition among very limited group of Korean population. Because of this kinds of mode of infection, comprising four fifths of all cases, the majority of cases detected were male adult consisting of about 70% of total cases. And drinking of untreated water in rural area where no protective, sanitary measures for water sources were provided in the past, seems another important causes of infection especially in women and children in Korea. Thus it may be concluded that sparganosis in Korea is concluded by eating of infective stages per os voluntarily or involuntarily, but not through the direct invasion. Clinically, subcutaneous mass or lump was the most frequent problem in those patients and those masses were associated with inflammatory signs. By the anatomical location of the lesion, some peculiar manifestations could be developed as in orbital, abdominal, urethral, ureteral and vertebral cases. And the lesions could be complicated by haemorrhage or abscess formations. The larval worms hitherto collected in Korea has been identified

  2. South Korea: Safe travel destination for foreign females?

    OpenAIRE

    Hypén, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find out if South Korea is a safe country for foreign female travellers. The aim was to study the opinions and experiences of bloggers, who had written about South Korea, regarding how safe the country is, and how foreigners and women are treated in South Korea. First is the theoretical background, which covers first South Korea as a country including general information, history, brief presentation of South Korea as a travel destination and definition ...

  3. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    demobilization are significant. During the second stage of demobilization, called reinsertion , former combatants are provided short-term material assistance...Operations, DDR in Peace Operations, 4. 7 longer-term process of reintegration. Reinsertion can include provision of food, clothes, shelter, medical...While reinsertion functions as short-term assistance for ex-combatants, the UN sees reintegration as “the process by which ex-combatants acquire

  4. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  5. Dental PACS development in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an image information technology system for the transmission and storage of medical images. In Korea the first full PACS was installed at Samsung Medical Center in 1994, but, the rate of distribution was very slow. The government's approval for the medical insurance reimbursement for full PACS examinations in November 1999 became the turning point. Thereafter the number of hospitals with full PACS has steeply increased. In September of this year, PACS was installed at 906 medical institutes, including most of university hospitals and general hospitals. The first full dental PACS was installed at Wonkwang University Dental Hospital in 2002. Now ten out of eleven university dental hospitals implemented full dental PACS. The current status and technological factors of dental PACS in Korean university dental hospitals and the future perspectives of dental PACS are described.

  6. Regional cooperation prospects in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Korea follows a well-established nuclear nonproliferation policy and could consider regional cooperation as proposed by many nuclear experts over the years. Real problems exist in establishing cooperation, but as the nuclear industry continues to grow, the motivation increases. The US should be a partner in the regional cooperation also. This paper summarizes significant advances made by the NNCA in applying remote monitoring technologies to support international safeguards in the ROK, providing the technical foundation for the use of these technologies for transparency between partner countries. Concrete steps are proposed to form an institutional and then a governmental approach for transparency in the use of nuclear material and even, eventual establishment of a regional safeguards inspection regime. (author)

  7. Dental PACS development in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an image information technology system for the transmission and storage of medical images. In Korea the first full PACS was installed at Samsung Medical Center in 1994, but, the rate of distribution was very slow. The government's approval for the medical insurance reimbursement for full PACS examinations in November 1999 became the turning point. Thereafter the number of hospitals with full PACS has steeply increased. In September of this year, PACS was installed at 906 medical institutes, including most of university hospitals and general hospitals. The first full dental PACS was installed at Wonkwang University Dental Hospital in 2002. Now ten out of eleven university dental hospitals implemented full dental PACS. The current status and technological factors of dental PACS in Korean university dental hospitals and the future perspectives of dental PACS are described.

  8. Korea's 1-watt plan ''Standby Korea 2010''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yungrae

    2010-09-15

    Korea announced standby power of all electronics shall be reduced to below 1W by 2010. Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, Korean government) and Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO) established ''Standby Korea 2010'' which is a roadmap to limit standby power below 1W by 2010. Korea implemented mandatory program over a relatively short period of time, incorporating the better elements from the more established national program and adding new initiatives, such as the threat of using mandatory warning label for products that fail to meet standby power targets.

  9. Synoptic Forcing of the Korea Strait Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliman, John D; Riser, S. C; Jacobs, Gregg; Ko, Dong S; Ngodock, Hans; Preller, Ruth H; Riedlinger, Shelley K

    2004-01-01

    Korea strait transport variations in the synoptic frequency band are examined using results of a numerical 3-D primitive equation model, satellite observed sea-level variations, a linear barotropic...

  10. Two Different modes of Springtime PM10 Concentration Variations in Korea and the Associated Meteorological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Wie, J.; Lee, Y. K.; Moon, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study identifies the two EOF modes of springtime PM10 variations in Korea and their associated meteorological conditions. The daily PM10 data from 318 stations and NCEP reanlaysis data during four years (2012-2015) were used. The first EOF mode, which accounts for 70.3% of the total PM10 variation, shows the increase or decrease of PM10 concentrations in the entire region. Regression analysis between the PC time series of the first mode and the meteorological variables shows that the PM10 concentrations increase under dry conditions associated with the high pressure system. The lagged regression analysis also shows that the strong westerly winds at lag -l day contributes to enhanced PM10 concentration, implying the transport of PM10 from China. The second EOF mode, which accounts for 8.5% of the total variation, exhibits a dipole mode of opposite sign for the Gyeonggi region (north-western part of Korea) and the Yeongnam region (south-eastern part of Korea). In this mode, the decrease of PM10 concentrations is closely related to the precipitation associated with the mid-latitude cyclone.This research was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program"

  11. [Keywords network analysis of articles in the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine 1997-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun; Choi, Mankyu

    2008-11-01

    There are very few researches on North Korea's academic activities. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the available data are reliable. This study investigated research activities and knowledge structure in the field of Preventive Medicine in North Korea with a network analysis using co-authors and keywords. The data was composed of the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine ranged from Vol. 1 of 1997 to Vol. 4 of 2006. It was the matrix of 1,172 articles by 1,567 co-authors. We applied R procedure for keywords abstraction, and then sought for the outcome of network forms by spring-KK and shrinking network. To comprehend the whole networks explicitly demonstrated that the academic activities in North Korea's preventive medicine were predisposed to centralization as similar as South Korea's, but on the other aspect they were prone to one-off intermittent segmentation. The principal co-author networks were formulated around some outstanding medical universities seemingly in addition to possible intervention by major researchers. The knowledge structure of network was based on experimentation judging from keywords such as drug, immunity, virus detection, infection, bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. Though North Korea is a socialist regime, there were network of academic activities, which were deemed the existence of inducive mechanism affordable for free research. Article keywords has laid greater emphasis on experiment-based bacterial detection, sustainable immune system and prevention of infection. The kind of trend was a consistent characteristic in preventive medicine of North Korea having close correlation with Koryo medical science.

  12. The Impact of US Forces in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    particularly where roles and deportment were concerned) which, for the sake of the future United States-Republic of Korea relations, should he re...Korea .... M. Tao Sun Pak, a socia• worker employed by the Osan AB Chapter of the Ameramsan Association, talks to a hild of a Korean woman and an...emphasized the sanitary cultivation and treatment of food supplies, this attitude stimulated the im- provement of the Korean diet . Furthermore, a’ lot of

  13. India-Korea Trade and Investment Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Pravakar; Kumar Rai, Durgesh; Kumar, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Though economic relations between India and Korea have been strengthening, the current size of trade and investment between the two countries is relatively low compared to the size and structural complementarities of the two economies. In this context, the present paper analyses trade and investment relations and explores future areas of potential co-operation between India and Korea. We find that the increase in merchandise trade between the two countries has been mainly because of the chang...

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Against Women Among North Korean Refugees: A Comparison With South Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; Ryu, Wonjung

    2017-04-01

    North Korean refugees in South Korea have been reported as at higher risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, few studies have examined risk factors of IPV among North Korean refugees. This study aimed to report the prevalence of IPV against women among North Korean refugees, and compared the risk factors of IPV against women between South Koreans and North Korean refugees in South Korea. Data from a nationwide survey about domestic violence in South Korea were used. The rate of IPV against women by North Korean refugees was 57.1%, which is considerably higher than that of South Koreans (9.9%). The regression analysis indicated that North Korean refugees perpetrated partner violence against women more frequently than South Koreans, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. Child abuse victimization and witnessing IPV between parents were the main factors of IPV against women among South Koreans. On the other hand, stress and a tolerant attitude toward using violence were significantly associated with IPV against women among North Korean refugees. The findings suggested that stress management and education on reducing tolerance to violence should be provided to prevent IPV against women among North Korean refugees.

  15. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  16. Change in the tropical cyclone activity around Korea by the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Correlation between the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting Korea and the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) was analyzed over the last 37 years. A clear positive correlation existed between the two variables, and this high positive correlation remained unchanged even when excluding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years. To investigate the causes of the positive correlation between the two variables in non-ENSO years, after the 8 years with the highest EASMI (high EASMI years) and the 8 years with the lowest EASMI (low EASMI years) were selected, and the average difference between the two phases was analyzed. In high EASMI years, in the difference between the two phases regarding 850 and 500 hPa streamline, anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in mid-latitude East Asian areas. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed near Korea, with these anomalous southeasterlies playing the role of anomalous steering flows making the TCs head toward areas near Korea. In addition, a monsoon trough strengthened more eastward, and TCs in high EASMI years occurred more in east ward over the western North Pacific.

  17. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  18. The Evolution of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Implications for Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Min, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The world today is confronted by North Korea that has apparently acquired successfully nuclear weapons, and by Iran that seems bent on acquiring, at a minimum, a virtual nuclear weapons capability. This trend suggests that prospects for freezing, if not rolling back, both Iran's and North Korea's programs are becoming increasingly difficult prospects. While President George W. Bush came under attack for going to war with Iraq based on faulty intelligence assessments and also for labeling Iran, Iraq and North Korea as part of the 'axis of evil', it cannot be denied that the world's 'most dangerous states with the most dangerous weapons' remain one of the defining security challenges of the post-9/11 era. Nevertheless, the Bush Administration's efforts to prevent, and failing that, to minimize the fallout from a nuclearized North Korea and a potentially nuclear capable Iran, have been decidedly mixed. Although North Korea maintained nuclear ambiguity for two decades, it finally gave up the pretense of having a 'virtual nuclear weapons program' in October 2006 whereas Iran continues on the path of nuclear brinkmanship. Whether Iran is going to cross the nuclear Rubicon remains uncertain but the fact that it has the requisite technologies and the political will to cross the nuclear threshold if it chose to do so remains unchanged. Regardless of Tehran's ultimate choice and attendant strategic consequences, Iran cannot but have gained key glimpses and insights from North Korea's decades-long pursuit of nuclear weapons. While Iran and North Korea have vastly different political histories and national ideologies, their paths have criss-crossed on the road towards nuclearization. Tehran and Pyongyang are not 'natural' allies although Iran has benefited from North Korea's ballistic missile sales (such as the Shahab-3 long-range missile). For its part, Pyongyang has gained not only from missile exports to Iran, but perhaps more significantly, by Iran's own nuclear challenge

  19. Security Sector Reform and the Serbian Conundrum: Are Security Sector Reform Efforts Bringing Serbia Closer to European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Marion J

    2005-01-01

    .... In 2005, certain of the southern Slav nations have gained NATO and EU membership, as in the case of Slovenia, or have drawn ever closer to qualifying for membership, as in the case of Croatia and Bulgaria...

  20. The Development of Astronomy in Korea and the Emergence of Astrophysics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nha, Il-Seong; L. Nha, Sarah; Orchiston, Wayne

    There are two books and one review paper that have been written about the history of astronomy in Korea. Chronologically, they are the review paper "Astronomy in Korea" (Rufus, Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, XXVI, 1-69, 1936), and the books The Hall of Heavenly Records, Korean Astronomical Instruments and Clocks 1380-1780 (Needham et al., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986a) and History of Astronomy in Korea (Nha, Seoul National University Press, Seoul, 2000). In order to overview the emergence and development of modern astronomy and astrophysics in South Korea, much of the present chapter is based on these three references, along with various papers published by the present authors and other astronomers.

  1. The Length of Residence is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Foreign-English Teachers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiang-Obounou, Brice Wilfried

    2017-12-26

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as "English Teacher". Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81) and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304) were selected. The length of residence and eating Korean ethnic food were used as proxy indicators for acculturation. Gender was associated with hypertension: 17.6% of males self-reported to have the cardiovascular risk factor when compared to females (7.4%). The length of residence in Korea was associated with hypertension ( p = 0.045), BMI ( p = 0.028), and physical inactivity ( p = 0.046). English teachers who had been residing in Korea for more than five years were more likely to report hypertension (OR = 2.16; p = 0.011), smoking (OR = 1.51; p = 0.080), and overweight/obesity (OR = 1.49; p = 0.009) than participants who had been living in Korea for less than five years. This study found evidence of the healthy immigrant effect and less favorable cardiovascular risk profiles among English teachers who have lived in Korea for over five years.

  2. The Length of Residence is Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Foreign-English Teachers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a group of disorders that involve the heart and blood vessels. Acculturation is associated with CVD risk factors among immigrants in Western countries. In this study, the association between acculturation and CVD risk factors was examined among English teachers from Europe and the USA living in Korea. English teachers were defined as those who reported their profession as “English Teacher”. Only English teachers from Europe (UK, and Ireland, n = 81 and North America (Canada and USA, n = 304 were selected. The length of residence and eating Korean ethnic food were used as proxy indicators for acculturation. Gender was associated with hypertension: 17.6% of males self-reported to have the cardiovascular risk factor when compared to females (7.4%. The length of residence in Korea was associated with hypertension (p = 0.045, BMI (p = 0.028, and physical inactivity (p = 0.046. English teachers who had been residing in Korea for more than five years were more likely to report hypertension (OR = 2.16; p = 0.011, smoking (OR = 1.51; p = 0.080, and overweight/obesity (OR = 1.49; p = 0.009 than participants who had been living in Korea for less than five years. This study found evidence of the healthy immigrant effect and less favorable cardiovascular risk profiles among English teachers who have lived in Korea for over five years.

  3. Research reactor's role in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C-O.

    1995-01-01

    After a TRIGA MARK-II was constructed in 1962, new research activity of a general nature, utilizing neutrons, prevailed in Korea. Radioisotopes produced from the MARK-II played a good role in the 1960's in educating people as to what could be achieved by a neutron source. Because the research reactor had implanted neutron science in the country, another TRIGA MARK-III had to be constructed within 10 years after importing the first reactor, due to increased neutron demand from the nuclear community. With the sudden growth of nuclear power, however, the emphasis of research changed. For a while research activities were almost all oriented to nuclear power plant technology. However, the specifics of nuclear power plant technology created a need for a more highly capable research reactor like HANARO 30MWt. HANARO will perform well with irradiation testing and other nuclear programs in the future, including: production of key radioisotopes, doping of silicon by transmutation, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiments, cold neutron source. 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Third North Korean nuclear test: what is the state of the North's programme?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Two months ago, following North Korea's Unha-3 launch, which put a small satellite into orbit, this publication discussed the possibility of a third North Korean nuclear test. As expected, Pyongyang remained true to its traditional policy of provocation. With carefully calculated timing, it carried out a third nuclear test on 12 February, just hours after Barack Obama's State of the Union address, four days before former leader Kim Jong-il's birthday, and on the eve of the investiture of the new South Korean president on the 25 February. Moreover, the North Korean regime is billing this test as a riposte to the new round of sanctions adopted on by the Security Council on 22 January following the Unha-3 launch in December, as it announced on the 24 January. Yet, aside from the associated posturing, this test confirms, if more confirmation were needed, the North's determination to develop an effective nuclear deterrent. The use of the term miniaturisation is certainly in part a propaganda exercise (can actual miniaturisation be achieved after three nuclear tests, one or two of whose success is highly doubtful?). Nonetheless, North Korea has clearly made progress in developing a nuclear weapon and an intercontinental ballistic missile derived from the Taepodong-2, and has promised to carry out further ballistic launches. Without a doubt, even if the North is a long way from possessing what we would consider an operational nuclear capability, its determination has helped it to make progress, and the country shows no signs of wanting to change course. In light of this fact, what can the international community do beyond existing and future sanctions regimes? Doubtless very little. China, which continues to support the North and which has been known in the past to exert influence on Pyongyang, has expressed its firm displeasure as to the North's activities but appears to have no leverage over Kim Jong-un. The Six-Party talks have little chance of

  5. CERN welcomes Korea as an official collaborator

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    His Excellency Mr. Won-Hwa Park, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, with CERN's Director-General at the signature ceremony to mark Korea as an official collaborator. On 25 October, the Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Switzerland, His Excellency Mr Won-Hwa Park, visited CERN. He came to sign, together with the Director-General Dr Robert Aymar, a formal Cooperation Agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Korea, witnessed by Dr Joo-Han Kim of the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. With this agreement that covers the development of scientific and technical cooperation in high-energy physics, Korea's participation in the experimental physics programme of CERN has now been formalised. Two days earlier, Dr Myung-Bak Lee, the former Mayor of Seoul, paid a visit to CERN, accompanied by ten members of his staff and fifteen Korean journalists. CERN was one of the destinations in Europe (together with GSI in Germany) on Dr Lee's agenda to gain information and to estab...

  6. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  7. Põhja-Korea leppe hinnaks on energia / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Põhja-Korea andis lubaduse seisata 60 päeva jooksul oma olulisim tuumareaktor ja avada taas uksed rahvusvahelistele inspektoritele, kui saab vastutasuks rasket kütteõli. Lisa: Pyongyuang saab vastutasuks. Kaart: Põhja-Korea tuumarajatised

  8. Perancangan Buku Ilustrasi Fashion Korea Untuk Anak Muda Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetia, Heni; Wibowo, Wibowo; Aryanto, Hendro

    2013-01-01

    Fashion adalah suatu bagian dari manusia sehari-hari yang tidak terpisahkan. Tren fashion tidak pernah redup dan menjadi acuan bagi lahirnya jenis-jenis fashion di dunia seperti halnya fashion Korea yang pada saat ini memang sangat populer di kalangan masyarakat muda. Fashion Korea ini muncul setelah munculnya fenomena K-Pop atau Korean Wave. Tujuan dari perancangan ini adalah untuk memperkenalkan budaya Korea Selatan khususnya fashion Korea di Surabaya. Masyarakat masih belum terlalu mengena...

  9. Colombia and its participation in the war of Korea: A relection 64 years after the conlict started.

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Meléndez Camargo

    2015-01-01

    The document is a relection on the participation of Colombia in the war of Korea and the political implications it brought to the country. Such participation generated much controversy in Colombia because this decision turned the nation into the only Latin American country that cooperated with the North American cause to defeat the expansion of communism. In this geopolitical context of the Cold War, the so called “satellite wars” began, sponsored by the United States and the former Soviet...

  10. Summary of accelerator related activities in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    In Korea, about ninety accelerators are operating, and most of these accelerators have been used for medical treatments and industrial applications. From the late 1980s, large accelerator programs have been launched. The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) had built the Pohang Light Source (PLS) in 1994, and 14 beamlines provide photon beams to users. In 1997, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started a 1 GeV proton accelerator development project. From 2002, as the second phase of the project, KAERI has been constructing a 100 MeV proton accelerator. In 2002, the National Cancer Center (NCC) launched the project of a 230 MeV proton cyclotron for medical treatments. In this report, the major activities in Korea accelerator development projects are presented, and also many related activities, such as nuclear data with accelerators, FEL, and industrial applications of accelerators, are included. (author)

  11. [Feminism in nursing science in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2005-08-01

    Although feminism has been actively discussed and applied to nursing in Western societies since the 1980s, it is little known among Korean scholars as well as Korean nurses. This article explores the use of feminist perspectives in nursing science in other developed countries and suggests how feminism could be applied to nursing science in Korea. The literature related to nursing and feminism were reviewed in terms of nursing practice, education, and research. This article describes what feminism is and how feminism and nursing have evolved historically over time in other countries, especially in Western societies. In addition, it discusses how it can be applied to nursing practice, education, and research in Korea. Accepting feminist perspective in Korean nursing could benefit in empowering nurses by valuing nursing, by raising self-esteem of nurses, and by raising the consciousness of socio-political realities. Eventually it could benefit in changing and developing nursing science in Korea.

  12. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  13. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  14. Xiphodynia: A diagnostic conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawken Erin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents 3 case reports of xiphodynia that presented to a chiropractic clinic. The paper examines aspects of xiphodynia including relevant anatomy of the xiphoid, as well as the incidence, aetiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. A brief overview of the mechanism of referred pain is presented.

  15. The deportation conundrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalir, B.

    2014-01-01

    This text is part of a series of posts addressing the issue of ‘borders’ and globalisation. A while back, we interviewed Heath Cabot on her upcoming book ‘On the Doorsteps of Europe’ which documents the Greek asylum crisis from the entry point of bureaucracy and paperwork. This was followed by a

  16. P and T research program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    The national energy demand is taking a sharp rise on account of the rapid growth of economy in Korea. Unfortunately, Korea has not much choice of alternative energy a promising option for Korea. For instance, eleven nuclear plants are in operation and 7 plants are under construction. Several plants are in planning stage. KAERI has played a major role in the design and operation of the plants in Korea. The spent fuel issue is calling for acute attention nationwide as the number of plants increases. Korea is actively seeking a technical solution to that problem surfacing on the horizon. A preliminary conceptual study on the P and T technology was performed from 1992 to 1996 and the future research directions were derived from that study. Because of the situation Korea is facing with, one of the major technical guidelines is that the P and T technology should be developed in compliance with the NPT. The concept of an accelerator driven subcritical system was found to be the most favorable option according to the conceptual study. KAERI set up an ambitious accelerator driven system development program for next 10 years. Key elementary technologies for a high current accelerator and a subcritical system are scheduled to be developed and experimented for the first five years (1997-2001). For the second five years (2002-2006), the accelerator program is pushed for the completion to parameters of 1 GeV, 20mA with capability to drive a subcritical system. For the subcritical system, a detail design study is to be performed and a small mockup system is to be built for bench scale test purpose

  17. International energy assistance needs and options for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David F. von; Hayes, Peter; Williams, James H.; Greacen, Chris; Sagrillo, Mick; Savage, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Recent agreements between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the other countries involved in the six-party talks on the future of the DPRK's nuclear weapons program have focused attention on the North Korean energy sector, and, specifically, what the international community can or should do to assist the DPRK in energy sector redevelopment. During two visits to North Korea in 1998 and 2000, a team of American and North Korean researchers conducted a unique rural energy use survey in a flood-affected rural village in the DPRK-the farming village of Unhari. The information gathered during the survey has important implications on how to properly approach the ongoing rural energy crisis in the DPRK, and, more broadly, to provide overall energy sector assistance. The results of the Unhari survey are described briefly, followed by suggestions of internal policy and legal reforms, approaches to international cooperation, key and attractive energy sector technologies and processes for energy sector redevelopment in the DPRK

  18. Korea's evolving business-government relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Mee

    2015-01-01

    South Korea has gained economic development despite the obstacles it faced as a war-torn country with little natural resources and capital. Poverty, lack of democracy, as well as war and conflict were challenges the country faced in the early 1960s; issues not very different from what many developing countries face in the 21st century. This paper focuses on the following topics during the most dynamic period in South Korea's economic development from 1960s to 1980s: the developmental state an...

  19. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  20. Manuscripts on establishment of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This book mentions establishment of Korea nuclear power with twelve manuscripts. It is comprised of twelve documents with conversation and recollection the contents of this book are summary, conversation with Yoon, Se Won, conversation with Choe, Paeng Seop, conversation with Lee, Dong Jip, conversation with Lee, Sang Su, conversation with Kim, Jong Ju, conversation with Lee, Jong Hun, conversation with Youn, Young Ryeok, conversation with Han, Pil Sun, recollection on my nuclear energy by Kim, Dong Hun, recollection on my nuclear power by Lee, Chang Gun, I and nuclear power by Park, Ik Su. It reports the establishment on history and process of Korea nuclear power plant through dialogue with twelve people.

  1. Offshore Wind Power Planning in Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Chul Soo; Cha, Seung-Tae; Park, Sang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Wind power generation is globally recognized as the most universal and reliable form of renewable energy. Korea is currently depending mostly on coal and petroleum to generate electrical power and is now trying to replace them with renewable energy such as offshore wind power generation. To make...... that connecting offshore wind power generation to a power system has on the power system. This paper looks over offshore wind power planning in Korea and describes the development of impact assessment technology of offshore wind farms....

  2. Disarmament and confidence-building in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Il Nam

    1992-01-01

    Disarmament and confidence building are essential issues to be addressed urgently as they are directly linked with national security. The successful solutions of this issue will ensure world peace and security. These statements have special significance if applied to the situation in North-East Asia and particularly Korean Peninsula. Even under the circumstances of the continued existence of the United States Nuclear Threat, the Government of North Korea has concluded a safeguards agreement and has been inspected by IAEA, thus indicating constant effort to denuclearize the Korean peninsula

  3. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. The JIIM Domain: Examination of U.S. Military Sustainment Assistance Following North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    psychological instrument to control population and belief systems. North Korean propaganda induces a nationalistic atmosphere for North Korean leaders. A...19-20. 7Ibid. 8C. Sarah Soh, “ Infertility among Korea’s “comfort women” survivors: A comparative perspective,” Women’s Studies International...U.S. military community once viewed the LOGCAP contractor as a money grubbing profiteer. Over time, the diligence of the LOGCAP community and action

  5. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  6. International trends in health science librarianship part 11: Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yukiko; Sato, Kuniko; Suwabe, Naoko; Gemba, Hiroko; Nozoe, Atsutake; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Hye Yang

    2014-09-01

    This is the 11th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at the Far East (Greater China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). The current issue surveys developments in Japan and Korea. The next issue will explore trends in South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka). Next year all four issues will be devoted to trends in four regions in Africa (Southern Africa, East Africa, West Africa and North Africa. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  7. A centennial book of Korea electric power corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book gives description of KEPC with power and life such as lighting, electric power, electric heat and communication, introduction of electric civilization, establishment and manage of Hansung electric company on opening of electric train, regulation of the train, opening of lamp business, construction of Yongsan generator, the Japanese invasion with trouble of supplying electricity, control over power business and development of water power generation, division of Korea and Korea war on damage out of Korea war and rebuild, development and growth on establishment of Korea electric power, establishment of Korea electric power by private and water power development project, stability and development, and challenge for future.

  8. An Economic Return to Education in Small-scale Fisheries in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    investigated amongst small-scale fishing communities in north-east Madagascar. We found that educational level is low in Malagasy fishing ... contribution of education to the economy, society and well-being of humans over the .... of labor education in South Korea from a sociopolitical and economic perspective.

  9. A North Korean Defector's Journey through the Identity-Transformation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myonghee

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined how a North Korean defector attending a college in South Korea transformed her identity while learning English. This study was grounded in the notion of second language learning as a struggle of a socially constituted being in which the language learner constantly structures and restructures his or her social identity.…

  10. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extreme value distributions to model rainfall data from South Korea. Keywords. Annual maximum daily rainfall; extreme value theory; generalized extreme value distribution; Gumbel distribution; return levels; trend; data analysis, ..... Pareto distribution and Markov chain based mod- els. One could fit these distributions to the ...

  11. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual maxima of daily rainfall for the years 1961–2001 are modeled for five locations in South Korea (chosen to give a good geographical representation of the country). The generalized extreme value distribution is fitted to data from each location to describe the extremes of rainfall and to predict its future behavior.

  12. S.A.A.F. IN KOREA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UN~CCr- .\\. '\\ \\. FOOTNOTE. Mr Dermot Michael Moore, MA (History) is a senior Lecturer of. History at the University of Fort Hare and he is also a Major in the. SAIC (Comdos). He is currently doing research on the SAAF in. Korea for a D Litt et Phil Degree at Unisa. References. 1. J. W. Pratt, A History of United States Foreign ...

  13. First International Earth Science Olympiad South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. First International Earth Science Olympiad - South Korea. Information and Announcements Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 76-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  15. Teaching Elementary School Children about Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching elementary school students about Korea by introducing them to the country's folktales, clothing, art, music, and food. Includes a folktale adapted as a play and suggestions for teaching about traditional costumes, folk dances, music, and masks, as well as Korean mealtime and table manners. (GEA)

  16. Recent progress in food irradiation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong-ho Kwon

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses progress in research into food irradiation and government approval of the process in Korea. The development of the first cobalt-60 food irradiator is described and the role of international, trade and consumer associations in its commercialization discussed. (U.K.)

  17. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  18. Examining professional emergency managers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoo-Man

    2017-01-01

    Although the number of emergency managers has risen in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea) over the years, their role is not yet as defined and noteworthy compared to other professions because of its unidisciplinary approach. This article investigates how Korea has to improve emergency managers' disciplinary approach to ultimately contribute to the goal of effective transnational disaster management. This study uses qualitative content analysis of government policies, college curricula, nongovernmental organizations' (NGOs') emergency-manager certification, and mass media coverage to compare emergency managers' unidisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. The key tenet is that Korea must change its emergency managers' unidisciplinary approach into a multidisciplinary approach because the former is less effective when dealing with complicated disaster management systems. To achieve this change, the stakeholders must carry out their assigned responsibilities under risk-oriented management. As for the study's international implications, developing nations may consider the enhancement of related educational curricula, collaborative learning, continuous evaluation, disaster awareness, and disaster prevention for the emergency managers' multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Evidences from China, Korea and Japan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Okinawa, SES has no impact on health. The findings in Japan study suggest a major revision of SGTLE and FSCT that health is not related to SES. All three studies contribute to our understanding of the relationship between leisure lifestyle and health cross-culturally. Keywords: Leisure lifestyle, health, China, Korea, ...

  20. Black Teachers of English in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Quanisha D.

    2017-01-01

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodological tool and Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a lens to examine how the term native English speaker (NES) is socially constructed when subscribed by Black teachers of English (BTE) in South Korea. In addition to examining how Black teachers of English interpret the term native English speaker, this…

  1. An Analysis of Korea-ASEAN Trade and its Implications for the Shipping Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Seok Ha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shipping industry is an import economic player in Korea, and demand for shipping closely intertwines with the global trade climate. Understanding how movements of income and price influence freight volume measured in TEU is critical for improving shipping companies’ fleet deployment and scheduling. This paper estimated within the framework of a vector error correction model in a time series analysis for the period of 2000Q1 to 2015Q2 trade elasticities of income and real exchange rate of Korea's exports to and imports from ASEAN-5 (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. We found that trade elasticity of income exerts a significant, positive influence on the volume of Korea's exports to and imports from ASEAN-5 and that during the same period the real exchange rate exerts asymmetric influence over Korea's trade with them. Surprisingly, we failed to find the Korea-ASEAN FTA to further facilitate trade volume between Korea and ASEAN-5, when measured in TEU.

  2. Anti-terror/non-proliferation efforts and South Korea's planning for atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Chae Sung

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between rapidly changing international security environments, the US security policy on the one hand, and policy environments of atomic energy. Based on the notion that the issue of atomic energy development is closely interrelated with the situation of international security especially after the tragic incident of 9/11, this study focuses on the impact of changing security environments on the conditions under which South Korea uses atomic power. It also deals with the subject of how the new framework of NPT, and the policy of IAEA influences upon South Korea's atomic polices in the future. This study examines the nature and contents of the US foreign policy and its efforts toward nonproliferation and counterproliferation. This study also deals with the Iranian case in which the US efforts of counterproliferation and Iranian argument for the rights of peaceful use of atomic energy based on the concept of national sovereignty. The Iranian case sheds light on the most acute aspect of current stage of nonproliferation, but also on the way of solving the North Korean nuclear crisis. This study also take issue with the future course of nonprolieration and the South Korea's policy for its maximum use of atomic energy

  3. Progress of Nuclear Hydrogen Program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae

    2009-01-01

    To cope with dwindling fossil fuels and climate change, it is clear that a clean alternative energy that can replace fossil fuels is required. Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant and storable and has a high energy density. As other advanced countries, the Korean government had established a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy in 2005. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe and economical way. Among various hydrogen production methods, the massive, safe and economic production of hydrogen by water splitting using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) can provide a success path to the hydrogen economy. Particularly in Korea, where usable land is limited, the nuclear production of hydrogen is deemed a practical solution due to its high energy density. To meet the expected demand for hydrogen, the Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) launched a nuclear hydrogen program in 2004 together with Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). Then, the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development program was launched in 2006, which aims at the development and validation of key and challenging technologies required for the realization of the nuclear hydrogen production demonstration system. In 2008, Korean Atomic Energy Commission officially approved a long-term development plan of the nuclear hydrogen system technologies as in the figure below and now the nuclear hydrogen program became the national agenda. This presentation introduces the current status of nuclear hydrogen projects in Korea and the progress of the nuclear hydrogen key technologies development. Perspectives of nuclear process heat applications are also addressed

  4. Feasibility study of EEW application in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, H.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.

    2008-12-01

    At present, it seems almost impossible to predict where and how much strong a earthquake will happen within very limited time such as two or three days before it occurs. However, the advantage of modern electronic techniques can support us very fast communication tools around nation-wide area so that we can receive P- waves arrival information from seismic stations through communication lines before S-waves strike our living site. This is the key of EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) concept that is under development around world especially including Japan, United State of America, and Taiwan. In this pilot study we proposed the direction for developing Korean Earthquake Early Warning System. Considering the state of the art techniques used in Japan, USA and Taiwan, ElarmS would be more adaptable to Korea since ElarmS can work from the low limit of moderate earthquakes around magnitude 3.5, which would annually happen in Korea. We investigate empirical magnitude scaling relationship for South Korea using 27 events ranging in magnitude from 2.2 to 4.9 recorded by the Korea Institute of Geoscience And Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for 2007. We measure the maximum predominant period and the peak displacement or velocity amplitude from the first 4 seconds of P wave arrivals to derive period-magnitude and amplitude-magnitude scaling relationship, respectively. For the period-magnitude relationship, we find that 10 Hz low-pass filter yields better estimate than 3 Hz. This is because the magnitudes of most events used in this study are too small (<3.0). It is also shown that peak displacement for velocity instruments and peak velocity for accelerometers have their own magnitude scaling relationships, respectively. Thus, for the amplitude-magnitude relationship, like the relationships in northern California, two individual amplitude scaling relationships would be necessary.

  5. Impacts of Tropical North Atlantic SST on Western North Pacific Landfalling Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Gao, S.; Chen, Z.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the impacts of tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly (SSTA) on tropical cyclones (TCs) making landfall over East Asia. We find that TNA SSTA has significant negative correlations with the frequency of TCs making landfall over China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, and the entire East Asia. TNA SST influences the frequency of TC landfalls over these regions by regulating TC genesis location and frequency and steering flow associated with modulated environmental conditions. During cold TNA SST years, larger low-level relative vorticity and weaker vertical wind shear lead to more TC formations in the northern SCS and to the east of Philippines, and larger low-level relative vorticity, higher mid-level relative humidity, and weaker vertical wind shear result in more TC formations over the eastern part of WNP. Anomalous northeasterly steering flow favors more TCs to move westward or west-northwestward and make landfall over Vietnam, South China and Taiwan Island and thus in the entire China, and more TCs take regular northeastward recurving tracks and make landfall over Korea and Japan because of insignificant steering flow anomalies in the vicinity. The modulation of large-scale environments by TNA SSTA may be through two possible pathways proposed in previous studies, i.e., Indian Ocean relaying effect and subtropical eastern Pacific relaying effect. Our results suggest that TNA SSTA is a potential predictor for the frequency of TCs making landfall over China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan, and the entire East Asia.

  6. Safety enhancement efforts after Fukushima accident in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.C.

    2014-01-01

    On March 11 of 2011, a massive earthquake and powerful tsunami hit the north-eastern region of Japan and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was massively damaged. Korea which is located closest to Japan was not directly affected, however, its people were shocked. They were concerned over the possibility of being exposed to radiation as well as for the safety of domestic nuclear power plants. The Korean government recognized the need to take prompt and immediate actions to alleviate these concerns. The Korean government immediately implemented special safety inspection and derived 50 long and short-term improvement action items to ensure safety of NPPs under extreme hazard conditions. At present, stage 3 of implementation strategy is being implemented, with completion of 22 items including ASTS (Automatic Seismic Trip System) as well as revision of 14 items including suitability review of action measures taken for investigation and research of maximum earthquake at NPP sites. The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission was conducted for two weeks during July 10 and 22, 2011, which happened to be the very first review mission to be carried out since the Fukushima disaster. A module on the policy issues related to the actions taken after the Fukushima accident was newly added to the mission. The mission highlighted positive aspects of Korea's safety regulatory program, praising its technical competence and effectiveness. Additionally it concluded that Korea has been responding to the accident in a timely and an effective manner. The follow-up review mission is scheduled in December of this year, expanding the scope to include radiation safety as well. The most noteworthy change in Korea since the Fukushima accident is independence of the regulatory body. Not only to enhance effectiveness and independence of the regulatory body but to secure nuclear safety, the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was established on October 26

  7. The United States and biological warfare: secrets from the early cold war and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, A

    2001-01-01

    The United States and Biological Warfare is about accusations that the United States resorted to bacteriological warfare at a time of great military stress during the Korean War. In December 1951, the then US Secretary of Defense ordered early readiness for offensive use of biological weapons. Soon afterwards, the North Korean and Chinese armies accused the United States of starting a large-scale biological warfare experiment in Korea. The US State Department denied the accusation. Both parties to the dispute maintain their positions today. The authors spent 20 years researching the accusations in North America, Europe and Japan. They were the first foreigners to be given access to Chinese classified documents. The reader is also introduced to the concept of 'plausible denial', an official US policy which allowed responsible governmental representatives to deny knowledge of certain events. The authors hope that their work will contribute to the understanding of a time when modern war expanded into a new type of violence.

  8. Põhja-Korea pani tuumarelvaohte ümber hindama / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Põhja-Korea tuumakatsetusest. Praegu on varasemad oletused Põhja-Korea peatsest tuumarünnakust USA-le asendunud teadmisega, et Põhja-Korea raketid suudavad lennata 1300 km. Kaart: Põhja-Korea tuumarelvaohu ulatus. Lisa: Korea teadlasi õpetasid venelased

  9. Applications of NASA GSFC's Land Information System (LIS) for water resources management in Korea and East-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Hwang, E.; Jung, H. C.; Kim, E. J.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Kumar, S.; Chae, H.; Baeck, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has contributed to resolve global water issues by utilizing their long-term legacy of remote sensing technologies supported by a state of art software engineering. In this context, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a land surface model framework to monitor and predict water hazards such as flood and drought with the Land Information System (hereafter LIS) applied to North America and beyond it to include a global coverage. However, it is still challenging to apply the LIS to East-Asia where a rice-paddy agriculture is prevalent compared to other parts of the world, but retains a high population density in this region. Thus, this paper introduces recent efforts from the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-water) in S. Korea to establish the LIS in East-Asia including Korea, aiming at producing surface hydrology datasets in Asia. One of the ultimate goals of this project is to manage the water hazards in Korea and to provide the water resources dataset in East-Asia by adapting the LIS with their abundantly available hydrometeorological observations to support the LIS applications. Preliminary results from initiating efforts since the beginning of 2017 between NASA and K-water are addressed in the paper to review the possible outcomes after this ongoing project to benefit both entities. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant (17AWMP-B079625-04) from Water Management Research Program sponsored by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  10. Prediction of future subsurface temperatures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, S. K.; Jeong, J.; SHIN, E.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of climate change has been increasingly recognized because it has had the huge amount of impact on social, economic, and environmental aspect. For the reason, paleoclimate change has been studied intensively using different geological tools including borehole temperatures and future surface air temperatures (SATs) have been predicted for the local areas and the globe. Future subsurface temperatures can have also enormous impact on various areas and be predicted by an analytical method or a numerical simulation using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data of rocks. SATs have been measured at 73 meteorological observatories since 1907 in Korea and predicted at same locations up to the year of 2100. Measured SATs at the Seoul meteorological observatory increased by about 3.0 K from the year of 1907 to the present. Predicted SATs have 4 different scenarios depending on mainly CO2 concentration and national action plan on climate change in the future. The hottest scenario shows that SATs in Korea will increase by about 5.0 K from the present to the year of 2100. In addition, thermal diffusivity values have been measured on 2,903 rock samples collected from entire Korea. Data pretreatment based on autocorrelation analysis was conducted to control high frequency noise in thermal diffusivity data. Finally, future subsurface temperatures in Korea were predicted up to the year of 2100 by a FEM simulation code (COMSOL Multiphysics) using measured and predicted SATs, and thermal diffusivity data in Korea. At Seoul, the results of predictions show that subsurface temperatures will increase by about 5.4 K, 3.0 K, 1.5 K, and 0.2 K from the present to 2050 and then by about 7.9 K, 4.8 K, 2.5 K, and 0.5 K to 2100 at the depths of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m, respectively. We are now proceeding numerical simulations for subsurface temperature predictions for 73 locations in Korea.

  11. Nuclear energy development and utilization in the republic of Korea and desirable policy directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Youngku; Chang, Soon Heung

    1994-01-01

    There have been important worldwide changes in recent years that will have great influence on out future. The collapse of the former Soviet Union and East Europe and the final agreements of the Uruguay Round (UR) indicate that the world's future focus lies on economics and technology rather than ideology. Each nation is trying to strengthen its international competitiveness, and thereby maximize their national interests in this age of limitless competition. The worldwide energy consumption, especially in developing countries, is expected to increase continuously in the next century. Considering the limited resources of fossil fuels, securing a stable energy supply will be a factor of paramount importance from the viewpoint of national security. Another important problem of mankind in the 21th century is to preserve the environment of the earth, while maintaining economic growth. Recognition of the importance of the earth environment is spreading very rapidly, especially in advanced countries. Concrete approaches to preserve the earth environment are expected to be formulated in the upcoming Green Round (GR) negotiations which follow the UR. Probably the GR will demand an overall reorganization of the industrial structure. With respect to nuclear energy, the threat of nuclear weapons of the former Soviet union has significantly lessened owing to the termination of the Cold War. However, international regulations for nuclear non-proliferation are being strengthened as the countermeasure for the deterioration of management and surveillance capability of the former Soviet Union for nuclear weapons and for the increase in the possibility of nuclear weapons development in Iraq, North Korea, etc. Domestically, the Declaration of Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, the possibility of North Korea's disregard of the NPT, and the opposition of local people to construction of nuclear facilities have caused significant difficulties in efficient development and utilization

  12. The Supply of Female Scientists Conundrum: An International Study Exploring the Predictors of Females' Intentions to Major in Science Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Susan E.

    The goal of this study was to perform an exploratory analysis of a comprehensive list of independent variables identified from literature to determine which, if any, are effective predictors in forecasting a female's intention to study science postsecondary. This is likely to be indicative of interest to study science when pursing higher education as well as choice of major and possible career. The postulated model guiding this analysis, which was based on prior research, recognized that factors pertaining to students, parents, schools, and peers are all important. This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings of this study suggest that external factors, such as those considered from the environment, are indeed important in determining a female's intention to study science postsecondary. The findings of this study provided further refinement by demonstrating that for the 15 countries included in this analysis from the Oceania, Latin America, European, and Asian regions there were some overarching and consistent factors that are positively associated with females' intentions to study science postsecondary. These findings essentially paint a portrait of females who intend to study science postsecondary, which are used to suggest additional research as well as interventions to help mitigate the female scientist conundrum observed worldwide.

  13. Response to comment on “The conundrum between chemoautotrophic production and reductant and oxidant supply: A case study from the Cariaco basin”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaona; Taylor, Gordon T.; Astor, Yrene; Varela, Ramon; Scranton, Mary I.

    2012-12-01

    Jost (in press) argued that our measured chemoautotrophic production is overestimated due to methodology and that oxygen contamination is the most likely explanation for the energy conundrum. We have endeavored to minimize atmospheric exposure from sample collection through incubation since the CARIACO program began. We have also intentionally added headspaces to examine the aeration effect and found that, if anything, oxygen contamination appears to suppress 14C fixation rates at the depths of interest. Even if trace oxygen contamination occurs during sample preparation and incubation, we do not believe that could explain the 800 to1600-fold difference between the chemoautotrophic production and the reactant supply using stoichiometry based on lab cultures of sulfide oxidizers. In Li et al. (2012), the stoichiometry we used does not violate any thermodynamic laws. Thus the value we used, while probably on the high side, is theoretically possible. We argue that production of sulfide within the redoxcline may be a significant source based on the fact that a large fraction of the organic matter produced by the chemoautotrophs within the redoxcline does not seem to settle into underlying sediment traps. Our main intention was to propose that in situ sulfide production, i.e., a “cryptic sulfur cycle”, within the redoxcline might be a significant, but neglected process.

  14. Status of nuclear data activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa [Nuclear Data Evaluation Lab., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Yusung, Taejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    Although nuclear data activities in Korea are still in the early stage, considerable demands for more accurate and wide-range nuclear data from nuclear R and D fields activated a new nuclear data project titled as `Development of Nuclear Data System`. It was launched this year as one of nation-wide long-term nuclear R and D programs in Korea for the next decade. Its main goals are (1) to establish nuclear data system, (2) to build up the infra-structure for utilization of nuclear data and (3) to develop highly reliable nuclear data system. To achieve these goals, international cooperation and cultivation of human resource as well as construction of measurement facilities will be indispensable. This report briefly describes the demands of nuclear data from the nuclear R and D programs, current nuclear data activities and future plan with its strategy. (author)

  15. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Oh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  16. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  17. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  18. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country's government homepage search. Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the "Alternative Chemical Search program," has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of Chemical Substances and the Chemical Control act

  19. India-Korea CEPA: Potentials and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential economic impacts of India- Korea CEPA using trade indices, partial equilibrium and computable general equilibrium. One hypothetical scenario is examined in SMART model and two hypothetical tariff liberalization scenarios are examined in GTAP model focusing on short run and long run. Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART model, we tried to assess the impact of liberalization under the CEPA, assuming full liberalization of imports from the India i...

  20. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Choi, Suck-Chei; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines...

  1. Increasing Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo; Shin, Hayley; Song, Jung Han; Kwak, Soo Heon; Kang, Seon Mee; Won Yoon, Ji; Choi, Sung Hee; Cho, Sung Il; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Hak Chul; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The number of people with metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, and changes in socioenvironmental factors contribute to this increase. Therefore, investigation of changes in metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea, where rapid socioenvironmental changes have occurred in recent years, would be foundational in setting up an effective strategy for reducing this increasing trend. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared the prevalence and pattern of metabolic syndrome ...

  2. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-28

    contentious bilateral issues, how Japan should handle the issue of “comfort women” who were forced to provide sexual services to Japanese soldiers during...have been as follows: Rhee Syngman, July 28, 1954; Roh Tae Woo, October 18, 1989; Kim Young Sam, July 26, 1995; and Kim Dae Jung , June 10, 1998...occur through 2018.” 53 The original cost estimate was over $10 billion; South Korea was to contribute $4 billion of this. Estimates in 2010

  3. Climate change with Korea as the center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Ok

    1998-04-01

    This book deals with climate change with Korea as the center, which is divided into ten chapters. It explain climate change by human life. The contents of this book are climate change, climate before human period, great ice age of prehistoric period, prehistoric times of last glacial era, climate change in historical era, change during observation time for 100 years, warming period, global environment period, the cause of climate change and climate and human. It has reference and an index.

  4. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  5. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  6. South Korea's export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butez, M.

    2016-01-01

    The main assets of KEPCO is its capacity to build nuclear power plants on-time and its important feedback experience in reactor exploitation. KEPCO manages thermal plants and all the nuclear plants operating in South Korea. In 2009 a contract was signed for the construction of 4 reactors in United Arab Emirates by KEPCO but since then no other major contract has been signed. The Korean export offer includes the APR1400 reactor that is a third generation reactor with a power output of 1400 MWe, 4 APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor) are being built in Korea. The offer includes also a second generation reactor: the OPR1000 (Optimised Power Reactor) with a power output of 1000 MWe. The OPR1000 has its origin in a technology transfer from Westinghouse. Only 12 OPR1000 are operating in the world and all are situated in Korea. KEPCO is developing a third generation of the OPR1000 reactor named the APR1000 intended for export. The Korean export strategy aims at emergent first-time buyer countries and asian countries. The Korean offer does not neglect niche markets like small reactors and research reactors. The SMART project is a reactor with an output of 300 MWth that will be able to produce electricity and desalinate water. The Korean export strategy relies on a strong cohesiveness and involvement between public and private actors in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  7. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  8. Korea's choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology

  9. The Eighth Army in Korea: The Value of Intangible Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    requirements of Korea. Tank warfare and thinking could not contend in the devilish terrain that Korea presented as capably as the infantry mindset . Korea...Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur ,” The Atlantic (January/February 2015). 27 Mitchell, Matthew B. Ridgway: Soldier, Statesman, Scholar, Citizen, 20...Army’s mindset thoroughly when Ridgway inherited it late in December of 1950.30 Frans Osinga, writing on the theories left behind by John Boyd, notes a

  10. Korea presses forward; but who gets the orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, B.

    1986-01-01

    A decision is expected soon as to the successful bidders to build two nuclear power stations in South Korea. The competition is keen with Westinghouse, Framatone, AE of Canada and Combustion Engineering all bidding. However, a final decision may be delayed following a review of Korea's future electricity demand. This paper shows a reduction in the electricity demand previously predicted. Korea's electricity supply and demand and the Government's energy policy is discussed. (UK)

  11. South Korea as a tourism destination for Finnish travellers

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Sujeong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to define South Korea as a tourism destination for Finnish travellers. South Korea seems not to be a very popular destination compared to other Asia country for Finnish travellers. This even though Finnair operates daily straight flight to Seoul and there are many business relationships going on between Finland and South Korea. Therefore, the main target respondent of the thesis is Finnish travellers. Research result from Finnish respondents can give evaluatio...

  12. Kebijakan Korea Selatan Dalam Polusi Udara Lintas Batas Tiongkok

    OpenAIRE

    Rezqi, Jhanna Baitiez; Windiani, Reni; Paramasatya, Satwika

    2016-01-01

    China has been trying to enhance their industry production in pursuit ofeconomic growth to overcome poverty in the region.In other hand, theindustrial growth have a negative impact on the environment, causing severeair pollution. Air pollution did not only hurt China but spread to SouthKorea's region, which is causing problem to South Korea. This study aims tofind why South Korea did not protest related to China's Transboundary AirPollution. The study uses qualitative research method with ana...

  13. Põhja-Korea vanglast põgenes 120 poliitvangi / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Lõuna-Korea ajakirjanduse väitel on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrist põgenenud 120 poliitvangi, 21 tabati, kuid enamik on jõudnud Hiinasse. USA andmeil on Põhja-Korea vangilaagrites ligi 200 000 poliitvangi

  14. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... (Preliminary)] Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine..., Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly...

  15. Confidence- and security-building in North-East Asia. Working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the discussions in Working Group I there were two general preoccupations which prevailed throughout the consideration of questions relating to North-East Asian confidence and security building: how much could North-East Asia learn from the European experience in Confidence Building measures, and could any of the underlying factors- economic, political and social which has moved Europe towards military and security accommodation be seen to work also in the Asia-Pacific region. The problem of North Korea is underlined in view of non acceptance of the IAEA safeguards regime although it had entered into multilateral set of obligations with other signatories by assenting the Non-proliferation Treaty

  16. Filling South Korea’s Counterinsurgency Gap: Looking Ahead to Potential Problems Facing South Korea in the Aftermath of North Korea’s Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency. The manual presents six types of insurgencies related to insurgent motives. This archetype framework can aid...groups. In 1167, a young civil administrator humiliated a respected general, Jeong Jung -bu, by burning his long beard with a candle during a royal

  17. Sectoral Innovation System Foresight in Brazil and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand; Park, Byeongwon

    involved in strategic innovation system (IS) transformation. This paper seeks to address the latter research gaps by exploring sector foresight in Brazil and South Korea (henceforth Korea). Though very different, both countries face challenges of IS transformation. In both countries sector level foresight...... in emerging economies as Brazil and Korea. Chapter two will outline the basic principles of ISF that will be translated into indicators for our measuring of ISF. Also, it will illustrate why the sector-level approach is necessary. Chapter three presents sector foresight cases from Brazil and Korea. Chapter...

  18. Country Report for Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woon [Shinil General Hospital, 47-7, Suyou5dong, Kangbuk-Gu, 142-070 Suyou 5 Dong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear Power in Korea: Electric generation from 20 reactors: 130,715 million kWh/y; Nuclear generation of total electricity: 40 %. Reactor types: - 4 PHWR (Candu), 16 PWR (6 USA-Westinghouse, 2 French-Framatome, 8 Korean-OPR1000). Nuclear future: - Under Construction: 4 PWR (OPR1000), 2 PWR (APR1400, ShinKori no 3 and 4). - Planned: 2 PWR (APR1400, ShinWooljin no 3 and 4). - R and D investment plan in 2008 managed by MEST (ex- MOST) due to new governmental unification: - next generation reactor: 2 units of APR1400 construction and development of APR1400+, - NTP cooperative research: Gen-IV with SFR, Pyro-process, - Nuclear application: SMART, KSTAR for ITER construction, - Waste disposal management: LILW, SF, Decommission, - RFT, Safety enforcement, radiation protection, public communication, medical use, etc. Nuclear Power in Korea: Status of Radioactive Waste Disposal Site: - Site: Kyeongju, southeast part of Korea, - Size: 2,098,419 m{sup 2}, - Waste type: Low/Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and RI waste, - Disposal type: Cavern, - Capacity: 1. stage 100,000 drums (total 800,000 drums), - Under Licensing Process for Construction WIN-Korea Activity in 2007: 250 members and 11 organization sponsors. 1. 2007 Symposium on Nuclear with Women: - Topic: 'Rendezvous of Nuclear and Renewable Energy', October 11, 2007 at Conference Hall of National Congress. Audience: 400 from Women NGO and the Assembly. - Panel: six specialists from energy, journalism, and women NGO's discussed about energy secure, saving, development of environment friendly energy, protection from global warming. - Results: public communication effect from mass media. 2. 2007 Symposium Conferences: General Meeting/workshop, Nov. 6, 2007, sponsored by KOFWST (Korea Federation of Women's Science and Technology Associations)/Seoul Education Culture Centre. participants: 100 members. Lectures: 'Women's Self Leadership', 'Survey Results of Public understanding on

  19. Remote monitoring and its implication in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Jung Soo; An, Jin Soo; Kwack, Eun Ho

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Remote monitoring can provide technical advantages such as reductions in inspection labor hours and exposures in radiation, as well as less intrusiveness to facility operators, while maintaining continuity of knowledge through timely inspection and cost effectiveness if it is used properly. But it has also drawbacks such as possible loss of information surety, and heavy initial investment and transmission cost. In Korea remote monitoring has been operating as a part of enhanced cooperation with the IAEA to reduce safeguards efforts in PWRs, by the recommendation of the working group of the IAEA and Korea since August 2000. Before then, as a task of Korean support program one reactor was operating with remote monitoring. At this moment six reactors are under operation of remote monitoring. And by May 2001 it will be extended to twelve reactors, all PWRs in Korea. It is implemented to combine existing digital surveillance and seals with connection of transmission lines, based on assumption without much additional cost that the member state can bear. Remote monitoring becomes a backbone of safeguards implementation to the IAEA and Korea safeguards as a solution to seek more efficient and effective ways of safeguards implementation on PWRs, where the Korea assumes routine inspections, while the IAEA takes PIV and random inspections. Enhanced cooperation is based on share of data and transfer through remote monitoring. Field trials show that there are some difficulties in hardware and cost. Hardware failures are being fixed. And As regards transmission cost, there are two methods considered such as introduction of a new technology, VPN (Virtual Private Network), and data amount reduction. VPN that uses public networks may be an ultimate solution in the point of cost reduction that may needs more tests. It is under development as a test of Korean support program. Another approach is to elongate PTI (Picture Taking Interval) of surveillance camera within

  20. North Korean Leadership Dynamics and Decision-making under Kim Jong-un: A Second Year Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Marxist- Leninist model for self -reliance called Juche. It became the principal ideology for politics, economics, national defense, and foreign...Leader Comrade Kim Jong Il in High Esteem Down through Generations. The 90-minute fourth installment of the official documen- tary film series...organization which will manage sports and athletics in North Korea.218 Jang Song-taek was appointed chairman of the com- mission. While the North Korean