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Sample records for north eastern arizona

  1. SALINITY AND SODICITY INTERACTIONS OF WEATHERED MINESOILS IN NORTHWESTERN NEW MEXICO AND NORTH EASTERN ARIZONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Musslewhite; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Weathering characteristics of minesoils and rooting patterns of key shrub and grass species were evaluated at sites reclaimed for 6 to 14 years from three surface coal mine operations in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. Non-weathered minesoils were grouped into 11 classifications based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Comparisons of saturated paste extracts, from non-weathered and weathered minesoils show significant (p < 0.05) reductions in SAR levels and increased EC. Weathering increased the apparent stability of saline and sodic minesoils thereby reducing concerns of aggregate slaking and clay particle dispersion. Root density of four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canascens), alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), and Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys junceus) were nominally affected by increasing EC and SAR levels in minesoil. Results suggest that saline and sodic minesoils can be successfully reclaimed when covered with topsoil and seeded with salt tolerant plant species.

  2. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  3. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna...... invasion of migrants from Baltica that arrived later during the Hirnantian. The offshore migration of this atypical Hiscobeccus fauna likely demonstrates the path of warm-water currents as the Centrum SO locality was located at the equator during the Late Ordovician....

  4. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria. EC Otoh, NW Johnson, IS Danfillo, OA Adeleke, HA Olasoji. Abstract. Background:To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in North Eastern Nigeria. Study DesignA record-based study of primary head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at ...

  5. A refraction study of deep crustal structure in the Basin and Range:Colorado Plateau of eastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, Dan M.; Keller, G. R.; Sbar, Marc L.

    1981-07-01

    A reversed seismic refraction profile extending 260 km between Globe, Arizona and Tyrone, New Mexico has been recorded using quarry blasts from open pit copper mines as energy sources. Interpretation of these data suggest a 28-km-thick crust for the Basin and Range in east-central Arizona and a 32-km-thick crust for the Transition Zone in eastern Arizona and western New Mexico. Delays in Pn arrivals have been interpreted as evidence for approximately 4 km of abrupt crustal thickening near Morenci, Arizona. The area of abrupt Moho offset corresponds to rapid changes in tectonic style, late Quaternary faulting, Quaternary and late Tertiary volcanism, high heat flow and evidence for partial melting of the lower crust. Uniformity of layer thicknesses along the profile can be interpreted as upward displacement of the Basin and Range relative to the Transition Zone. The above evidence suggests that the Transition Zone of eastern Arizona and western New Mexico may be experiencing active tectonic readjustment.

  6. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world’s independent centers of domestication. PMID:16894156

  7. Maternal Perspectives of Prenatal Sonogram in a North-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited information exists on maternal perspectives of prenatal sonogram in north-eastern Nigeria. This study was aimed at documenting the views and expectations of pregnant women concerning prenatal sonogram as well as their level of awareness of its purpose, limitations and safety in a predominantly Moslem society.

  8. Modelling mite dynamics on apple trees in eastern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, J.M.; Werf, van der W.; Nyrop, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The model described in this paper simulates seasonal dynamics of Panonychus ulmi and the phytoseiid predator Typhlodromus pyri on apple trees in Eastern North America. It was originally developed to understand the effect of weather, predation, cannibalism, alternate food for the predator, and uneven

  9. Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economietric analysis of cowpea production in the north-eastern part of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Stephen, SI Mshelia. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.127-130. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  10. Depression amongst healthcare workers in Maiduguri, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Very few studies reported the high prevalence of emotional reactions amongst healthcare workers, in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression among health care workers in two tertiary health institutions in Maiduguri, north-Eastern Nigeria. Methods: In this comparative, ...

  11. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A dinocyst zonation for the Neogene succession in the eastern part of the North Sea Basin (Denmark) is presented. The zonation is based on an extensive database comprising data from more than fifty onshore and offshore boreholes and about twenty five outcrops. Most of the nineteen dinocyst zones ...

  12. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer in Gombe, North Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive breast cancer specimens submitted to the Pathology Department Of Federal. Medical Centre, Gombe which renders histopathology services to four states in the North Eastern region of Nigeria. A total of 172 cases of malignant breast tumours were recorded during the 7 ...

  13. Oral health practices among pregnant women in North Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to document oral health practices of pregnant women in two tertiary institutions in North-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of pregnant women seen at the antenatal clinics of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Federal Medical ...

  14. Oral health practices among pregnant women in North Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-27

    Aug 27, 2011 ... Objective: The objective of this study was to document oral health practices of pregnant women in two tertiary institutions in North-eastern ... Forty-four (15%) had had previous encounter with a dentist, while the highest frequency of oral care was twice a day in ... The research and ethical committee of the ...

  15. Histopathological Types of Breast Cancer in Gombe, North Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive breast cancer specimens submitted to the Pathology Department Of Federal Medical Centre, Gombe which renders histopathology services to four states in the North Eastern region of Nigeria. A total of 172 cases of malignant breast tumours were recorded during the 7 ...

  16. Left Dislocation in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrason, A, Dr

    The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Sulemaniyya and Ḥalabja. Studies in. Semitic Languages and Linguistics 44. Leiden: Brill. Khan, G. 2007. The North Eastern Neo-Aramaic Dialects. Journal of Semitic Studies 52. 1–20. Khan, G. 2008a. The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Urmi. Gorgias Neo-Aramaic Studies. Piscataway: ...

  17. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The north eastern Arabian Sea and the north western Bay of Bengal within the Indian exclusive economic zone were explored for their environmental characteristics during the winter monsoons of 2000 and 2001 respectively. The two regions were found...

  18. Trail Trees: Living Artifacts (Vivifacts of Eastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Kawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Living trees historically modified by human populations, oftentimes referred to as “culturally modified trees” (CMTs, are found throughout the North American landscape. In eastern North America specifically, indigenous populations bent thousands of trees to mark trails, and some of these still exist in the region today. In this article, we present a synthesis of current knowledge on trail trees, including their speculated functions, formation, and selection. We also examine the theoretical implications of these living artifacts (or vivifacts and how they may open new avenues for investigation by archaeologists, environmental historians, and ethnobiologists. To conclude, we make a call for expanded public recognition and documentation of trail trees, discussing the need for their incorporation into forest and park management plans.

  19. The Use of Satellite Microwave Rainfall Measurements to Predict Eastern North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Derek

    1998-01-01

    .../I) radiometers onboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) constellation of polar orbiting satellites to improve eastern North Pacific Ocean tropical cyclone intensity specifying and forecasting techniques...

  20. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  1. Radium 226 in the deep north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, M.

    1986-01-01

    With reference to the distribution of radium-226 in the western equatorial and north-eastern deep Atlantic Ocean it was possible to establish structures in the correlations of radium-226 to its chemical homologue Ba and dissolved SiO 2 . An 11-box model of the deep Atlantic Ocean was used to obtain information on the size of the radium-226 and Ba sources. The soil source derives mainly from the dissolution of barite. For the first time, an evaluation of the radium-226 flow resulting from the dissolution of particulate matter is presented. The box model and the radium-226 concentrations measured put down the value as 23-46·10 -21 mol/m 2 s. (DG) [de

  2. Conflict and societal change in late prehistoric eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, George R; Chaplin, George; Zavodny, Emily

    2013-01-01

    As recently as the 1980s, archeologists focusing on prehistoric eastern North America paid little attention to intergroup conflict. Today the situation is quite different, as indicated by this Special Issue. Archeologists now face three principal challenges: to document the temporal and spatial distribution of evidence of conflict; to identify the cultural and environmental conditions associated with variation in the nature and frequency of warfare over long periods of time and large geographical areas; and to determine the extent to which intergroup tensions contributed to or resulted from changes in sociopolitical complexity, economic systems, and population size and distribution. We present data from habitation and mortuary sites in the Eastern Woodlands, notably the midcontinent, that touch on all three issues. Palisaded sites and victims of attacks indicate the intensity of conflicts varied over time and space. Centuries-long intervals of either high or low intergroup tensions can be attributed to an intensification or relaxation of pressure on resources that arose in several ways, such as changes in local population density; technological innovations, including subsistence practices; and the natural environment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  4. Volcanic rocks of the eastern and northern parts of the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard B.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Ulrich, George E.

    1976-01-01

    The eastern and northern parts of the San Francisco volcanic field, between San Francisco Mountain and the Little Colorado River, contain about 175 cinder cones, many with one or more associated lava flows, and one center of silicic volcanism, O'Leary Peak. Basaltic flows and cones are divided into five groups, primarily on the bases of stratigraphic and physiographic relations, degree of weathering and erosion, K-Ar and tree-ring age determinations, and, in part, chemical and petrographic data:

  5. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Phillips, George E

    2017-01-01

    Ceratopsids ("horned dinosaurs") are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian) of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  6. Managing white-tailed deer: eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates (<3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest of adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  7. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Farke, Andrew A.; Phillips, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs”) are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from t...

  8. The eastern Asian and eastern and western North American floristic disjunction: congruent phylogenetic patterns in seven diverse genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Q Y; Soltis, D E; Soltis, P S

    1998-10-01

    One of the most remarkable examples of intercontinental disjunction of the North Temperate Flora involves eastern Asia and eastern and western North America. Although there has been considerable interest in this phytogeographic pattern for over 150 years (e.g., Gray, 1859; Li, 1952; Graham, 1972; Boufford and Spongberg, 1983; Wu, 1983; Tiffney, 1985a, 1985b), relationships among taxa displaying the disjunction remain obscure. Understanding phylogenetic relationships is, however, a prerequisite for historical biogeographic analyses of this distributional pattern. To understand better the relationships of taxa displaying this intercontinental disjunction, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using a variety of DNA data sets for species of four genera (Cornus, Boykinia, Tiarella, and Trautvetteria) that occur in eastern Asia, eastern North America, and western North America. An area cladogram was constructed for each of the four genera, all of which show a similar pattern of relationship: the eastern Asian species are sister to all North American species. An identical phylogenetic pattern is also found in three other taxa exhibiting this disjunction (Aralia sect. Aralia, Calycanthus, and Adiantum pedatum). The congruent phylogenetic pattern found in these seven diverse genera raises the possibility of a common origin of the eastern Asia, eastern and western North America disjunction. The data are in agreement with the long-standing hypothesis that this well-known floristic disjunction represents the fragmentation of a once continuous Mixed Mesophytic forest community and suggest that the disjunction may have involved only two major vicariance events: an initial split between Eurasia and North America, followed by the isolation of floras between eastern and western North America. However, congruence between phylogenies and geographic distributions does not necessarily indicate an identical phytogeographic history. Taxa exhibiting the same phylogenetic pattern may have

  9. Phylogenetic diversity anomaly in angiosperms between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Jin, Yi; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-10-24

    Although eastern Asia (EAS) and eastern North America (ENA) have similar climates, plant species richness in EAS greatly exceeds that in ENA. The degree to which this diversity difference reflects the ages of the floras or their rates of evolutionary diversification has not been quantified. Measures of species diversity that do not incorporate the ages of lineages disregard the evolutionary distinctiveness of species. In contrast, phylogenetic diversity integrates both the number of species and their history of evolutionary diversification. Here we compared species diversity and phylogenetic diversity in a large number of flowering plant (angiosperm) floras distributed across EAS and ENA, two regions with similar contemporary environments and broadly shared floristic history. After accounting for climate and sample area, we found both species diversity and phylogenetic diversity to be significantly higher in EAS than in ENA. When we controlled the number of species statistically, we found that phylogenetic diversity remained substantially higher in EAS than in ENA, although it tended to converge at high latitude. This pattern held independently for herbs, shrubs, and trees. The anomaly in species and phylogenetic diversity likely resulted from differences in regional processes, related in part to high climatic and topographic heterogeneity, and a strong monsoon climate, in EAS. The broad connection between tropical and temperate floras in southern Asia also might have played a role in creating the phylogenetic diversity anomaly.

  10. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  11. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M

    2011-02-01

    Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations.

  13. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood.

    We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  14. Surface Wind Observational Database in North Eastern North America: Quality Control Procedure and Climatological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Hidalgo, Ángela; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. It also presents some insights of the long-term climatological variability over the region. The database consists of 527 sites (487 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions. The records span from 1940 to 2010 and cover an approximate spatial extension of 2.2 × 106 km2. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. Due to the size of the data set, a great effort has been made on the automation of the procedures. A number of problems are associated with data management and data conventions: unification of measurement units and recording times due to the variety of institutional sources; detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; and detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. From the other hand there is a variety of treated instrumental errors: problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; high variability related erroneous records; wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Around 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected. The already quality controlled database allows for subsequent climatological analyses. The intra and inter decadal variability of the monthly surface wind field in such a vast and orographically complex region as the North Eastern North America is explored. Several decades of quality

  15. A checklist of Pteridophyta of the north-eastern Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of Pteridophyta recorded within a defined area of the north-eastern Orange Free State is presented. The geology, climate and vegetation of this area are discussed in brief.

  16. Elaphomyces appalachiensis and E. verruculosus sp. nov. (Ascomycota Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Castellano; Gonzalo Guevara Guerrero; Jesus Garcia Jimenez; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    We describe Elaphomyces verruculosus as new species from eastern North America, ranging from Quebec, Canada south along the eastern USA and along the Gulf Coast to northeastern México. E. verruculosus is similar in overall morphology to E. granulatus of Europe. In addition we re-describe E....

  17. Known breeding distribution and abundance of golden eagles in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Morneau; Junior A. Tremblay; Charles Todd; Tony E. Chubbs; Charles Maisonneuve; Jerome Lemaitre; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) breeds in both eastern and western North America. However, the former population has received much less attention than the latter. The purpose of this paper is to document the known distribution and abundance of eastern Golden Eagles within their breeding range and to identify gaps in knowledge for future studies....

  18. Assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna: new evidence from lizards and frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Macey, J; Schulte, James A; Strasburg, Jared L; Brisson, Jennifer A; Larson, Allan; Ananjeva, Natalia B; Wang, Yuezhao; Parham, James F; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Darwin first recognized the importance of episodic intercontinental dispersal in the establishment of worldwide biotic diversity. Faunal exchange across the Bering Land Bridge is a major example of such dispersal. Here, we demonstrate with mitochondrial DNA evidence that three independent dispersal events from Asia to North America are the source for almost all lizard taxa found in continental eastern North America. Two other dispersal events across Beringia account for observed diversity among North American ranid frogs, one of the most species-rich groups of frogs in eastern North America. The contribution of faunal elements from Asia via dispersal across Beringia is a dominant theme in the historical assembly of the eastern North American herpetofauna. PMID:17148411

  19. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quandt, Sara A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Whalley, Lara E.; Galvan, Leonardo; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chen, Haiying; Pharr, Kathryn E.; Isom, Scott; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations (μg/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  20. Heavy metals exposures among Mexican farmworkers in eastern North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quandt, Sara A., E-mail: squandt@wfubmc.edu [Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Talton, Jennifer W. [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Whalley, Lara E. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Galvan, Leonardo [North Carolina Farmworkers Project, Benson, NC (United States); Vallejos, Quirina M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chen, Haiying [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Pharr, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Isom, Scott [Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Arcury, Thomas A. [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Immigrant farmworkers are a population at risk for numerous environmental and occupational exposures. The metals arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium are known neurotoxins to which workers can be exposed both in the US and in their country of origin. Because farmworkers are exposed to neurotoxic pesticides, they may be at risk for adverse health effects from the combined exposure. Objectives: To examine the relationship between exposure to metals, as measured in urine, with personal and work-related characteristics of Mexican migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the US. Methods: We analyzed data on metals found in urine of 258 farmworkers recruited from 44 camps in eastern North Carolina in 2007. Geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to compare data with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We used multivariate regression models fitted for each metal to estimate the association of creatinine-corrected urinary metals and worker characteristics related to environmental and occupational exposures. Results: Geometric mean urinary metals concentrations ({mu}g/g creatinine) exceeded NHANES reference values for arsenic (13.23 [CI 11.11, 15.35] vs. 8.55 [CI 7.23, 9.86]) and lead (1.26 [CI 1.08, 1.43] vs. 0.63 [CI 0.60, 0.66]). Age, being from the central region of Mexico, and pack years of cigarette smoking were significant predictors of metals exposure; being a current smoker and years worked in US agriculture were not. Conclusions: This first study to examine indicators of worker body burdens of metals shows that workers have body burdens related to exposures other than work in the US. Further research should address their risk for adverse health outcomes due to combined exposures to neurotoxins in pesticides.

  1. Decadal oxygen change in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hahn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Repeat shipboard and multi-year moored observations obtained in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA were used to study the decadal change in oxygen for the period 2006–2015. Along 23° W between 6 and 14° N, oxygen decreased with a rate of −5.9 ± 3.5 µmol kg−1 decade−1 within the depth covering the deep oxycline (200–400 m, while below the OMZ core (400–1000 m oxygen increased by 4.0 ± 1.6 µmol kg−1 decade−1 on average. The inclusion of these decadal oxygen trends in the recently estimated oxygen budget for the ETNA OMZ suggests a weakened ventilation of the upper 400 m, whereas the ventilation strengthened homogeneously below 400 m. The changed ventilation resulted in a shoaling of the ETNA OMZ of −0.03 ± 0.02 kg m−3 decade−1 in density space, which was only partly compensated by a deepening of isopycnal surfaces, thus pointing to a shoaling of the OMZ in depth space as well (−22 ± 17 m decade−1. Based on the improved oxygen budget, possible causes for the changed ventilation are analyzed and discussed. Largely ruling out other ventilation processes, the zonal advective oxygen supply stands out as the most probable budget term responsible for the decadal oxygen changes.

  2. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Bizzarro

    Full Text Available Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1 Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2 Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3 When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska. Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  3. Spatial segregation in eastern North Pacific skate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarro, Joseph J; Broms, Kristin M; Logsdon, Miles G; Ebert, David A; Yoklavich, Mary M; Kuhnz, Linda A; Summers, Adam P

    2014-01-01

    Skates (Rajiformes: Rajoidei) are common mesopredators in marine benthic communities. The spatial associations of individual species and the structure of assemblages are of considerable importance for effective monitoring and management of exploited skate populations. This study investigated the spatial associations of eastern North Pacific (ENP) skates in continental shelf and upper continental slope waters of two regions: central California and the western Gulf of Alaska. Long-term survey data were analyzed using GIS/spatial analysis techniques and regression models to determine distribution (by depth, temperature, and latitude/longitude) and relative abundance of the dominant species in each region. Submersible video data were incorporated for California to facilitate habitat association analysis. We addressed three main questions: 1) Are there regions of differential importance to skates?, 2) Are ENP skate assemblages spatially segregated?, and 3) When skates co-occur, do they differ in size? Skate populations were highly clustered in both regions, on scales of 10s of kilometers; however, high-density regions (i.e., hot spots) were segregated among species. Skate densities and frequencies of occurrence were substantially lower in Alaska as compared to California. Although skates are generally found on soft sediment habitats, Raja rhina exhibited the strongest association with mixed substrates, and R. stellulata catches were greatest on rocky reefs. Size segregation was evident in regions where species overlapped substantially in geographic and depth distribution (e.g., R. rhina and Bathyraja kincaidii off California; B. aleutica and B. interrupta in the Gulf of Alaska). Spatial niche differentiation in skates appears to be more pronounced than previously reported.

  4. First report of the post-fire morel, Morchella exuberans, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of true morels (Morchella) fruiting on conifer burn sites are common in western North America where five different fire-adapted species of black morels (Elata Clade) have been documented based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses. Fruiting of post-fire morels in eastern North America, by comp...

  5. Assessing indicators relating to overall tourist satisfaction of ecotourism developments in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher L. Ellis; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    The Partnership for the Sounds is a non-profit organization based in eastern North Carolina and is in charge of operating a collection of museums and cultural sites including the North Carolina Estuarium in Washington, The Mattamuskeet Lodge in Swan Quarter, and the Columbia Theater Cultural Resource Center in Columbia. A recent survey was conducted at these areas by...

  6. Geochemical characterization of groundwater discharging from springs north of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2009–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Tillman, Fred D.; Anderson, Jessica R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Bills, Donald J.

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study was conducted on 37 springs discharging from the Toroweap Formation, Coconino Sandstone, Hermit Formation, Supai Group, and Redwall Limestone north of the Grand Canyon near areas of breccia-pipe uranium mining. Baseline concentrations were established for the elements As, B, Li, Se, SiO2, Sr, Tl, U, and V. Three springs exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards: Fence Spring for arsenic, Pigeon Spring for selenium and uranium, and Willow (Hack) Spring for selenium. The majority of the spring sites had uranium values of less than 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L), but six springs discharging from all of the geologic units studied that are located stratigraphically above the Redwall Limestone had uranium values greater than 10 μg/L (Cottonwood [Tuckup], Grama, Pigeon, Rock, and Willow [Hack and Snake Gulch] Springs). The geochemical characteristics of these six springs with elevated uranium include Ca-Mg-SO4 water type, circumneutral pH, high specific conductance, correlation and multivariate associations between U, Mo, Sr, Se, Li, and Zn, low 87Sr/86Sr, low 234U/238U activity ratios (1.34–2.31), detectable tritium, and carbon isotopic interpretation indicating they may be a mixture of modern and pre-modern waters. Similar geochemical compositions of spring waters having elevated uranium concentrations are observed at sites located both near and away from sites of uranium-mining activities in the present study. Therefore, mining does not appear to explain the presence of elevated uranium concentrations in groundwater at the six springs noted above. The elevated uranium at the six previously mentioned springs may be influenced by iron mineralization associated with mineralized breccia pipe deposits. Six springs discharging from the Coconino Sandstone (Upper Jumpup, Little, Horse, and Slide Springs) and Redwall Limestone (Kanab and Side Canyon Springs) contained water with corrected radiocarbon ages as much as 9

  7. Large bio-geographical shifts in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hátún, Hjálmar; Payne, Mark; Beaugrand, G.

    2009-01-01

    water masses in the north-eastern North Atlantic Ocean, associated with changes in the strength and extent of the subpolar gyre. These exchanges lead to variations in the influence exerted by the subarctic or Lusitanian biomes on the intermediate faunistic zone in the north-eastern Atlantic. This strong...... and persistent bottom-up bio-physical link is demonstrated using a numerical ocean general circulation model and data on four trophically connected levels in the food chain – phytoplankton, zooplankton, blue whiting, and pilot whales. The plankton data give a unique basin-scale depiction of these changes...

  8. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African

  9. Sediment budget for Rediu reservoir catchment, North-Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todosi, Cristian; Niculita, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    Sediment budgets are a useful tool for geomorphologic analysis, catchment management and environmental assessment, despite the uncertainties related to their assessment. We present the sediment budget construction and validation for a small catchment of 9.5319 kmp (953.19 ha) situated in the North-Eastern part of Romania. The Rediu reservoir was built between 1986 and 1988, on Rediu valley, a left tributary of Bahlui river, north-west from Iasi city. The catchment of the reservoir has 6.5 km in length and 2.5 km in maximum width, the altitudes decreasing from 170 m in the northern part, to 52 m in the southern part. The valley is symmetric, the altitude of the hillslopes going between 200 m to 75 m in one km length, in the transversal section with the maximum width. The floodplain is narrow having between 20 m to 210 m (in the area of confluence with Breazu tributary). The mean slope of the catchment is 6.4 degree, the maximum slope being 24.6 degrees. The length of channels which show banks of up to 2 m is 19.98 km. The land is used predominantly as crops (58.1 %), 16.7 % being covered by pastures (from which over half are eroded), 11.5 % percent of the catchment being covered by planted forests, 9.2 % by rural constructions and roads, 2.9 % by hayfields, 1.5 % by lakes and 0.1 % by orchards. Beside the Rediu reservoir, there are three ponds (15 771, 1761 and 751 sqm) in the catchment. We considered the trap efficiency for the reservoir and the ponds to be 95%. Aerial images from 1963, 1978 , 1984, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014 were used to assess the state of geomorphological processes before and after the reservoir construction. After 1970 a gully system situated in Breazu tributary sub-catchment and several active landslides along the main valley left side were forested. Beside these processes, soil erosion and human impact by constructions are the main processes generating sediment in the study area. The sediment yields were quantified by estimating the

  10. PATTERNS OF ENDEMISM OF THE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN CAVE FAUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 250 species of obligate terrestrial cave-dwelling animals (troglobionts) are known from single caves in the eastern United States. We investigate their geographic distribution, especially in relation to other troglobionts. We relate these patterns to taxonomic group, oppor...

  11. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  12. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  13. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  14. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomeg......A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density...

  15. 77 FR 58987 - North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission North Eastern States, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of North Eastern States, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority...

  16. Regional warming chnages fish species richness in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, ter R.; Hiddink, J.G.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Regional warming causes changes in local communities due to species extinctions and latitudinal range shifts. We show that the species richness of fish in 3 regional seas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean has changed over time (1997 to 2008), and we relate this to higher water temperatures and the

  17. Malignant Neoplasms Of The Ear, Nose And Throat In North Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The few cases seen in this study are the tip of the Iceberg. The apperent low figure in this region could be due to high cost of hospitalization, distant location of health facilities and absence of radiotherapy unit in our centre. Key words: ENT cancers, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, malignant midline reticulosis, and north eastern ...

  18. Recognition of imported lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini released in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu

    2002-01-01

    Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...

  19. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of three eastern North American Sanicula species (Apiaceae subf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Carol C. Baskin; Jerry M Baskin

    2010-01-01

    Dormancy breaking and germination requirements were determined for seeds of the eastern North American (eNA) species Sanicula canadensis, Sanicula gregaria and Sanicula trifoliata, and the data compared to those available for the European–Asian (EurA) congener Sanicula europaea. Seeds of the three eNA species had underdeveloped embryos that were physiologically dormant...

  20. Pollinators of the invasive plant, yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), in north-eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McIver; Robbin Thorp; Karen Erickson

    2009-01-01

    The potential pollinators of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) were surveyed at six sites in north-eastern Oregon, USA, between May and September from 2000 to 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the species composition and relative abundance of the insects that visited yellow starthistle throughout the flowering season and...

  1. Ecology and silviculture of the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinus. Westveld

    1953-01-01

    Using the climax forest as a guide to growing the species best suited to the climate and the site, the author offers a silvicultural system for managing the spruce-fir forests of eastern North America. Based on ecological principles, such silviculture is aimed to bring about forests that are inherently healthy and have a natural resistance to insects and disease.

  2. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive STOX O-2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O-2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O-2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen was...

  3. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  4. Biomass equations for shrub species of Tamualipan thornscrub of North-Eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Navar; E. Mendez; A. Najera; J. Graciano; V. Dale; B. Parresol

    2004-01-01

    Nine additive allometric equations for computing above-ground, standing biomass were developed for the plant community and for each of 18 single species typical of the Tamaulipan thornscrub of north-eastern Mexico. Equations developed using additive procedures in seemingly unrelated linear regression provided statistical efficiency in total biomass estimates at the...

  5. Life cycle assessment of cricket farming in north-eastern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hanboonsong, Y; Roos, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    presents the first case of a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed on an existing production system of Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer (field cricket) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket) production in north-eastern Thailand and compares it with broiler production in the same region. The system boundaries...

  6. extension needs of small-scale dairy farmers in the north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext./S. Afr. Tydskr. Landbouvoorl., Vol 30, 2001. Masiteng & Van der. Westhuizen. 75. EXTENSION NEEDS OF SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMERS. IN THE NORTH-EASTERN FREE STATE ..... Institute for Milk Production, Federal Dairy Research Centre, Kiel, F.R.G.. New York. KIRSTEN, J. & VAN ZYL, J., ...

  7. Differential growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Spatial variations in abundance and growth of larval sprat Sprattus sprattus L. were examined across a tidal front in the eastern North Sea, off the west coast of Denmark. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential advantage for sprat larvae of residing in the vicinity of a tidal front...

  8. Surgical removal of eyes in a tertiary institution in North eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Surgical eye removal is performed for various end-stage eye diseases to provide adequate comfort, replace volume and give good functional and cosmetic appearance. The pattern of eye removal is unknown for North Eastern Nigeria. Objective To determine the indications for eye removal in the study ...

  9. A new species of Chaetaglaea (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini), from eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Ken H; Troubridge, Jim T

    2016-01-01

    Chaetaglaea tremula (Harvey) occurs through the Gulf States, from southern Florida, west to eastern Texas. Coastal populations, previously referred to Chaetaglaea tremula occurring from the Carolinas, at least as far north as Massachusetts and shoreline dunes in southwestern Ontario are recognized as distinct and described here as Chaetaglaea rhonda. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for Chaetaglaea rhonda and Chaetaglaea tremula.

  10. Integrated Scenarios of Regional Development in Two Semi-Arid States of North-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döll, Petra; Krol, Martinus S.

    2002-01-01

    Scenario analysis of the future is an important tool for supporting sustainability-oriented regional planning. To assist regional planning in two federal states in semi-arid North-eastern Brazil, Ceará and Piauí, we developed integrated qualitative¿quantitative scenarios that show potential

  11. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fernandes Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records’ in the area based on strandings (Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera physalus, Peponocephala electra, and Pseudorca crassidens. A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis, N = 12, the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  12. Stranding survey as a framework to investigate rare cetacean records of the north and north-eastern Brazilian coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alexandra Fernandes; Siciliano, Salvatore; Emin-Lima, Renata; Martins, Bruna Maria Lima; Sousa, Maura Elisabeth Moraes; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Júnior, José de Sousa E Silva

    2017-01-01

    Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005. At the coasts of the Maranhão and Piauí states, the surveys were conducted between 2003 and 2013. From 2003 to 2014, 34 strandings of cetaceans were registered. The study provides four additional species records' in the area based on strandings ( Balaenoptera borealis , Balaenoptera physalus , Peponocephala electra , and Pseudorca crassidens ). A mass stranding of Guiana dolphins ( Sotalia guianensis , N = 12), the most common species for the region, was reported for the first time. The records presented herein are of special concern, since they expand the knowledge on cetaceans from the Brazilian coast. In addition, this study conducted an analysis to verify the similarity between cetacean compositions described for north and north-eastern Brazil and the southern Caribbean region. The results showed a high similarity between these regions, proving the connection with the Caribbean cetacean fauna.

  13. The hidden treasures of long-term paired watershed monitoring in the forests and grasslands of Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Poff; D. G. Neary; V. Henderson; A. Tecle

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the 1950s, researchers of the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service established a series of paired watershed studies throughout north-central and eastern Arizona. A total of nine experimental watershed areas were established in the pinyon-juniper and chaparral woodlands, as well as the ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests. While most...

  14. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Howes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, held in place only by the "Chicken's Neck" or Siliguri Corridor - bears no relation to the way in which this region was imagined by the British East India Company (EIC in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Having obtained revenuefarming rights and judicial duties over the North-Eastern Frontier, as it was then known, through a 1765 diwani grant from the Great Mughal in Delhi, the EIC aspired first and foremost to revive the administration of revenue in the region, adding a monopoly in territory to their existing monopolies in the eastern trade. Given these primarily commercial interests, it should come as no surprise that the EIC's map-makers, their eyes fixed on the web of lucrative trade routes crisscrossing the region, homed in on the North-Eastern Frontier as the central point in "a synoptic vision that connected Bengal to China" (72. ...

  15. The Mesozoic Tectonic Dynamics and Chronology in the Eastern North China Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlin Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesozoic tectonic events in different areas of the eastern North China Block (NCB show consistency in tectonic time and genesis. The Triassic collision between NCB and Yangtze results in the nearly S-N strong compression in the Dabie, Jiaodong, and west Shandong areas in Middle Triassic-Middle Jurassic. Compression in the Yanshan area in the north part of NCB was mainly affected by the collision between Mongolia Block and NCB, as well as Siberia Block and North China-Mongolia Block in Late Triassic-Late Jurassic. However, in the eastern NCB, compressive tectonic system in Early Mesozoic was inversed into extensional tectonic system in Late Mesozoic. The extension in Late Mesozoic at upper crust mainly exhibits as extensional detachment faults and metamorphic core complex (MCC. The deformation age of extensional detachment faults is peaking at 120–110 Ma in Yanshan area and at 130–110 Ma in the Dabie area. In the Jiaodong area eastern to the Tan-Lu faults, the compression thrust had been continuing to Late Mesozoic at least in upper crust related to the sinistral strike slipping of the Tan-Lu fault zone.The extensional detachments in the eastern NCB would be caused by strong crust-mantle action with upwelling mantle in Late Mesozoic.

  16. Lack of divergence in seed ecology of two Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae) species disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Yang, Xuejun; Huang, Zhenying

    2015-06-01

    Many congeneric species are disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America. No previous study has compared the seed biology of closely related disjunct taxa of legumes or of a diaspore-heteromorphic species. Our objective was to compare seed dormancy in two such sister species in the genus Amphicarpaea (Fabaceae). We investigated the ecology and ecophysiology of aerial and subterranean seeds of the amphicarpic species Amphicarpaea edgeworthii from China and compared the results to those published for its sister species A. bracteata from eastern North America. The seed coat of aerial seeds of A. edgeworthii is well developed, whereas the seed coat of subterranean seeds is not. Aerial seeds have combinational dormancy (physical dormancy [PY] + physiological dormancy [PD]) broken by scarification followed by cold stratification or by after-ripening and scarification; whereas subterranean seeds have PD broken by cold stratification. Aerial seeds formed a persistent soil seed bank, and subterranean seeds a transient soil seed bank. Aerial seeds of A. bracteata also have PY+PD and subterranean seeds PD. Subterranean seeds of both species are desiccation intolerant. Dormancy in neither aerial nor subterranean seeds of both species has diverged over geological time. Compared to subterranean seeds, aerial seeds of both species dispersed over longer distances. Seed dispersal ability and degree of dormancy of neither species fits the high-risk/low-risk (H-H/L-L) strategy found in many diaspore-dimorphic species. Rather, both species have an H-L/L-H strategy for these two life history traits. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  17. The genus Phoeniculus in eastern and north-eastern Africa, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This record appears to represent an extension of nigriscapularis from nearby south- west Uganda, and is the best evidence for its occurrence in Tanzania. Stevenson. & Fanshawe (2003) show its range to include north-west Tanzania, and BirdLife. International (2012) includes the Kigoma area of western Tanzania within ...

  18. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The hickory genus (Carya contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51 Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

  19. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C

    2014-05-01

    At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their evolutionary history and to identify potentially fruitful

  20. Maloprim malaria prophylaxis in children living in a holoendemic village in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Msangeni, H A; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density, splenomeg......A randomized, double-'blind', placebo-controlled trial of weekly Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine, D-P) for malaria prophylaxis was conducted at Magoda village in north-eastern Tanzania. The effect of D-P on the incidence of clinical malaria, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and density...... the course of the trial, resulted in a reduction in the protective efficacy of D-P. Overall, D-P was able to reduce parasite densities and splenomegaly. D-P prophylaxis also resulted in an increase in PCV but this effect diminished towards the end of the trial. D-P exerted a suppressive effect on asexual...

  1. Growing the lost crops of eastern North America's original agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie G; Fritz, Gayle J; Patton, Paul; Carmody, Stephen; Horton, Elizabeth T

    2017-07-05

    Thousands of years before the maize-based agriculture practiced by many Native American societies in eastern North America at the time of contact with Europeans, there existed a unique crop system only known through archaeological evidence. There are no written or oral records of how these lost crops were cultivated, but several domesticated subspecies have been identified in the archaeological record. Growth experiments and observations of living progenitors of these crops can provide insights into the ancient agricultural system of eastern North America, the role of developmental plasticity in the process of domestication, and the creation and maintenance of diverse landraces under cultivation. In addition, experimental gardens are potent tools for public education, and can also be used to conserve remaining populations of lost crop progenitors and explore the possibility of re-domesticating these species.

  2. Late Ordovician-Early Silurian chitinozoans from north-eastern and western Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Mikulic, Donald G.; Kluessendorf, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Samples of uppermost Ordovician and Silurian strata from two cores from north-eastern and western Illinois were processed for chitinozoans. Due to apparent sea-floor oxidation or palaeoenvironmental constraints, very few samples yielded specimens, but those that did allow tentative correlation with established biostratigraphical zonations for the Chitinozoa. Samples from the Wilhelmi Formation of core DH76-21 in north-eastern Illinois yielded Spinachitina fragilis, a typically earliest Silurian taxon. A sample from the Maquoketa Group strata of core Principia #4, western Illinois, yielded a monospecific assemblage of Conochitina elegans, which is suggestive of a late Ordovician age. Higher in this core, a sample from the upper strata of the Bowling Green Dolomite yielded an assemblage indicating a late Rhuddanian to Aeronian age, including Angochitina hansonica, previously only described from strata in Nevada, and one new species, Fungochitina illinoisensis. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abundant seismic sections and well data from the Cenozoic succession in the eastern North Sea area generally reveal normal faulting, salt tectonics and localized tectonic inversion. However, inferences on the Cenozoic dynamic evolution of the region require thorough analysis of interactions between...... or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... including decompaction in the Central Graben along the Arne-Elin trend shows that two phases of basement related inversion took place duringthe Paleocene-Eocene and the Oligocene. Halokinetics and differential compaction across the Paleogene inversion structure explain later tectonic signals...

  4. Quality Control and First Insights on the Variability of Surface Wind Observations for North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, E.; González-Rouco, F. J.; Navarro Montesinos, J.; Hidalgo; Jiménez, P.; García-Bustamante, E.; Conte, J.; Casabella, N.; Beltrami, H.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades, a policy change in energy sources has been fostered in Atlantic Canada. The purpose of this has been to reduce the dependency on energy produced abroad and to propose feasible alternatives with the aim of reducing greenhouse emissions. The region offers a high potential for the development of wind energy facilities and studies within the framework of wind resource assessment are encouraged. Studies of this nature rely on the quality of observational data. Henceforth, it is essential to develop procedures that ensure the reliability of observations before they are subjected to any subsequent analysis. This work summarizes the Quality Control process applied to an observational database of surface wind module and direction in North Eastern North America. The data set consists of 525 stations compiled from three different sources: 344 land sites from Environment Canada (EC; 1940-2009) located in the provinces of Atlantic Canada and Quebec; 40 buoys distributed over the East Coast and the Canadian Great Lakes provided by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (FOC; 1988-2008); and 141 land sites over both Eastern Canada and North Eastern USA provided by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1975-2010). The process comprises different phases that: 1) unify measurement units and recording times; 2) find accidentally duplicated periods of data within a time series or between different stations; 3) check for physical consistency in the ranges of values; 4) detect time intervals of anomalous low and high variability; and 5) look for long term biases in mean and variance. The temporal extension and resolution of the quality controlled database allows to explore the wind variability at different temporal scales, from daily to multidecadal. This contribution will present a first assessment of the wind field climatology in the region, including a description of long term trends, analogous of wind circulation regimes and their relationship to large scale

  5. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  6. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  7. AHP 45: REVIEW: FOUNDING AN EMPIRE ON INDIA'S NORTH-EASTERN FRONTIERS 1790-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Howes

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly researched and carefully constructed monograph focuses on what is now north-eastern India, an irregularly-shaped region joined only by a narrow neck of land to the remainder of the Indian subcontinent and jostled (or nestled, depending on one's point of view) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Tibet. Crucially, author Gunnel Cederlöf argues, this representation of northeast India on modern maps - an island in constant danger of drifting away from mainland India, h...

  8. Distributional changes of American martens and fishers in eastern North America, 1699-2001: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Contractions in the geographic distributions of the American marten ( Martes americana) and fi sher ( M. pennanti) in eastern North America south of the St. Lawrence River between Colonial times (ca. 1650–1800) and the fi sher’s recent range expansion (ca. 1930–present) are well documented, but causal factors in these range contractions have only partially been studied. Traditional explanations for range contractions by both species are forest clearing and unregulated trapping; little consideration has been given to alternative explanations. It has been hypothesized that deep snow limits the distribution of fi shers, and that high fi sher populations limit the distribution of martens. I assessed the potential contributions of these factors to observed range contractions for these species by evaluating expected patterns of change in their historical distributions since Colonial times. Using published data on the distribution of martens and fi shers in eastern North America, including early and contemporary fur-harvest records ( n = 60,702), I found that broad-scale changes in their geographic distributions in eastern North America were consistent with 3 of those expectations, and partially so with a 4th. I recognize that retrospective analyses cannot establish the relative importance of land clearing, unregulated trapping, and changing climatic conditions on observed range contractions; nevertheless, when historical data from eastern North America are viewed in the context of long-term climate warming and the results of recent ecological studies, they suggest that traditional arguments may only partially explain historical range contractions for both species. This study further suggests that under a warming climate, northern range boundaries for the fi sher will expand, and southern range boundaries for the American marten will continue to contract.

  9. Phylogeography of Labrus bergylta (Pisces: Labridae in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Almada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ballan wrasse, Labrus bergylta (Labridae, is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish common in the north-eastern Atlantic from Norway to Morocco. It is a commercially important resource for local fisheries and is currently being used as cleaner fish to control sea lice in salmon farms in northern Europe. We analysed the phylogeographic patterns of this species using mitochondrial (control region and nuclear (I intron of the S7 gene markers in populations throughout its distributional range. The results revealed a marked genetic structure of L. bergylta along the sampled area, with a major separation found between the Archipelago of the Azores and all remaining locations and also a clear separation between the north-eastern Atlantic and Scandinavian locations. Similarly to other temperate species the genetic diversity decreased from north-eastern Atlantic to Scandinavian populations. Haplotype networks confirm the distinctiveness of the population from the Azores and show that Scandinavian populations also present some distinct haplotypes. The phylogeographic pattern and diversity indices found for the ballan wrasse are discussed and compared with others found for different labrid species. The recognition of different populations of L. bergylta may be an in important result for fisheries management and also for future regulation of capture and translocation of specimens to be used as cleaners in aquaculture facilities.

  10. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  11. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  12. Socio-economic effects of khat chewing in north eastern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, A; Dimba, E A O; Ndolo, U M; Chindia, M L

    2006-03-01

    The khat habit is a widespread phenomenon which has in the past two decades spread to parts of Western Europe and North America from Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Although khat has been identified as one of the most commonly abused substances in Kenya, restrictions on cultivation, trade and usage have been non-existent since its legalisation in 1977. To describe the socio-economic effects of khat chewing in Ijara District in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Cross sectional study. Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya. Fifty respondents were interviewed. Eighty eight percent of the respondents were khat chewers, and the majority (80%) had family members who engaged in the khat habit. There was a general lack of education on the negative effects of khat chewing. Due to reported mood changes and withdrawal symptoms when not chewing khat, many respondents used more than half of their domestic budgets on khat, but few (28%) perceived this as a waste of resources. Fifty four percent of khat chewers typically started the habit during the day, implying a waste of time for productive work. However, only 40% of the persons interviewed admitted that the drug affected work performance negatively. The khat habit was associated with strain on family relationships, anti-social behaviour and health effects such as insomnia. In spite of the negative socio-economic impact of khat in Ijara District, khat consumption remains a widespread habit.

  13. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  14. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  15. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Harland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC, and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP, and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka, given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  16. An Evaluation of the Role of Ozone, Acid Deposition, and other Airborne Pollutants in the Forests of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H.B. Garner; Terry Pagano; Ellis B. Cowling

    1989-01-01

    Existing knowledge on air pollutants that occur in the forests of eastern North America is summarized and interpreted.Resolution is sought to the conflict between the prevailing scientific judgment that ozone and other oxidants are most likely to be damaging eastern forests and the prevailing public perception that acidic and acidifying substances are the most likely...

  17. Observed and modeled pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan; Zenk, Walter; Bower, Amy; Johns, William

    2017-12-01

    The spreading of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) in the eastern North Atlantic has largely been studied in an Eulerian frame using numerical models or with observations limited to a few locations. No study to date has provided a comprehensive description of the ISOW spreading pathways from both Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives. In this paper, we use a combination of previously unreported current meter data, hydrographic data, RAFOS float data, and a high resolution (1/12°) numerical ocean model to study the spreading pathways of ISOW from both of these perspectives. We identify three ISOW transport cores in the central Iceland Basin (∼59°N), with the major core along the eastern boundary of the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) and the other two in the basin interior. Based on trajectories of observed and/or numerical floats seeded along 59°N, we also describe the ISOW spreading pathways and quantify their relative importance. Within 10 years, 7-11% of ISOW from 59°N escapes into the Irminger Sea via gaps in the RR north of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ); the water that moves through these gaps principally originates from the shallower ISOW layer along the RR eastern boundary. 10-13% travels further southward until the CGFZ, where it crosses westward into the western subpolar gyre. 18-21% of ISOW spreads southward along the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge into the Western European Basin (WEB). Most of the remaining water stays in the Iceland Basin over the 10-year period. A model-based investigation provides a first look at the temporal variability of these ISOW pathways. We find that the fraction of southward water exported into the WEB is anti-correlated with the export through the CGFZ, a result assumed to reflect these pathways' interactions with the North Atlantic Current in magnitude and/or position shift.

  18. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  19. Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Stephen; And Others

    This field guide is designed to permit observers to identify the cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) they see in the waters of the eastern North Pacific, including the Gulf of California, Hawaii, and the western Arctic of North America. The animals described are grouped not by scientific relationships but by similarities in appearance in…

  20. Invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into two postglacial tundras: North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent; Dózsa-Farkas, Klára

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study the invasion of terrestrial enchytraeids into the two postglacial tundras, North-eastern Greenland and the Arctic Archipelago of Canada. The majority of species recorded have a wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and the species diversity is considerably lower than...... that of potential source regions indicating either strong selection or varied dispersal ability. It appears that the Archipelago is influenced mainly from North America and North-eastern Greenland from Europe while the specialized fauna of the ancient Beringian tundra is of minor importance. The two alternative...

  1. A possible adaptation of herring feeding migrations to a change in timing of the Calanus finmarchicus season in the eastern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first years after the re-opening of the North Sea herring fishery in 1983, a relatively high proportion of the catches in early summer was taken in the eastern North Sea. After 1986, the proportion of the catch in the eastern North Sea gradually declined. It is assumed that the high

  2. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  3. Spatio-temporal examination of precipitation isotopes from the North American monsoon in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah from 2014 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley-Cordova, C. L.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    A significant summertime feature of climate in the southwestern United States (US) is the North American monsoon (NAM), also known as the Mexican monsoon, Arizona monsoon, and the southwestern United States monsoon. NAM is a crucial contributor to total annual precipitation in the Four Corners region of the US. Modern investigation of NAM in this region using stable isotopes has been poorly studied. This study characterizes the spatio-temporal changes of NAM based on stable isotopic results from 40 sites, located within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation, in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah from 2014 to 2017. Sample collections were collected monthly at each site from May to October. Examination of temporal trends of precipitation revealed strong monthly and interannual changes; spatial analysis showed weak large-scale relationships across the study area. Analysis of stable isotopes in precipitation, surface, ground, and spring waters can be used to interpret the isotopic differences in the modern hydro-climate of the Navajo Nation and Colorado Plateau to help predict future hydro-climate changes and its implications on future water resources.

  4. Characterization of "dead-zone" eddies in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Florian; Karstensen, Johannes; Krahmann, Gerd; Hauss, Helena; Fiedler, Björn; Brandt, Peter; Visbeck, Martin; Körtzinger, Arne

    2016-10-01

    Localized open-ocean low-oxygen "dead zones" in the eastern tropical North Atlantic are recently discovered ocean features that can develop in dynamically isolated water masses within cyclonic eddies (CE) and anticyclonic mode-water eddies (ACME). Analysis of a comprehensive oxygen dataset obtained from gliders, moorings, research vessels and Argo floats reveals that "dead-zone" eddies are found in surprisingly high numbers and in a large area from about 4 to 22° N, from the shelf at the eastern boundary to 38° W. In total, 173 profiles with oxygen concentrations below the minimum background concentration of 40 µmol kg-1 could be associated with 27 independent eddies (10 CEs; 17 ACMEs) over a period of 10 years. Lowest oxygen concentrations in CEs are less than 10 µmol kg-1 while in ACMEs even suboxic (ocean. Here water mass properties and satellite eddy tracking both point to an eddy generation near the eastern boundary. In contrast, the oxygen-depleted eddies south of 12° N carry weak hydrographic anomalies in their cores and seem to be generated in the open ocean away from the boundary. In both regions a decrease in oxygen from east to west is identified supporting the en-route creation of the low-oxygen core through a combination of high productivity in the eddy surface waters and an isolation of the eddy cores with respect to lateral oxygen supply. Indeed, eddies of both types feature a cold sea surface temperature anomaly and enhanced chlorophyll concentrations in their center. The low-oxygen core depth in the eddies aligns with the depth of the shallow oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Averaged over the whole area an oxygen reduction of 7 µmol kg-1 in the depth range of 50 to 150 m (peak reduction is 16 µmol kg-1 at 100 m depth) can be associated with the dispersion of the eddies. Thus the locally increased oxygen consumption within the eddy cores enhances the total oxygen consumption in the open eastern tropical North

  5. Parasite threshold associated with clinical malaria in areas of different transmission intensities in north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Lusingu, John P; Vestergaard, Lasse S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Sub-Sahara Africa, malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of ill health. Evaluation of malaria interventions, such as drugs and vaccines depends on clinical definition of the disease, which is still a challenge due to lack of distinct malaria specific clinical......-9, and 10-19 years). Dose response model was further extended to fit all age groups combined in each stratum. Sub-sampling bootstrap was used to compute confidence intervals. Cross-sectional and passive case detection data from Korogwe district, north eastern Tanzania were used. RESULTS: Dose response model...

  6. Extinction debt and colonization credit delay range shifts of eastern North American trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Vissault, Steve

    2017-01-01

    and biodiversity of forests, because they can result in 'extinction debts', where populations temporarily persist under unsuitable conditions, and 'colonization credits', where suitable locations are not occupied owing to slow demography and limited dispersal. Here we use a range dynamics model based...... on metapopulation theory to show that the distributions of 21 dominant trees in eastern North America are out of equilibrium with climate and demonstrate both extinction debt and colonization credit. Moreover, lags are more severe at northern range limits, suggesting that range contraction in response to warming...

  7. A new species of titi monkey, Callicebus Thomas, from north-eastern Brazil (Primates, Cebidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kobayashi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of titi monkey, Catticebus, is described based on five specimens obtained from the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. It is a member of the Personatus group, but is easily distinguished from the other forms. The most noticeable differences are in the pelage coloration, the forehead, crown, and ear being black, and having a zebra-like, striped pattern on the anterior half of the back. Distinct features of its dental morphology and craniometry are also described.

  8. Serological evidence of Rickettsia infections in forestry rangers in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinco, M; Luzzati, R; Mascioli, M; Floris, R; Brouqui, P

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae and other tick-borne microrganisms in the sera of 181 forestry rangers from Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Italy, was examined. Seven (3.9%) sera were positive for Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia helvetica, as single or dual infections; four of these sera had been found previously to be positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. Antibodies to Coxiella burnetii were detected in five (2.8%) sera, four of which were also positive for B. burgdorferi. These findings indicate that patients in this north-eastern Italian region with fever subsequent to tick-bite should be investigated for Rickettsia and Coxiella infections.

  9. Isotope hydrological evidence of geomorphological changes in North-Eastern Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Marton, L.; Miko, L.

    1991-01-01

    Stable isotope and radiocarbon data of groundwater stored in Quaternary aquifers in North-Eastern Hungary can not be explained by climatic changes alone. More than two hundred δD, δ 18 O and radiocarbon ages of waters from 79 wells show that the recharge are changed during the time of upper pleniglacial and late glacial. Groundwaters of the studied are can be divided into three categories, which can explain their origin. The data are consistent with geomorphological results giving isotope evidence of hydrology for a geodynamical event during the mentioned periods. (R.P.) 3 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Stable isotopes provide insight into population structure and segregation in eastern North Atlantic sperm whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrell, Asunción; Velásquez Vacca, Adriana; Pinela, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    highly mobile, shows indication of structuring in the eastern North Atlantic, an ocean basin in which a single population is believed to occur. To do so, we examined stable isotope values in sequential growth layer groups of teeth from individuals sampled in Denmark and NW Spain. In each layer we...... measured oxygen-isotope ratios (delta O-18) in the inorganic component (hydroxyapatite), and nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios (delta N-15: delta C-13) in the organic component (primarily collagenous). We found significant differences between Denmark and NW Spain in delta N-15 and delta O-18 values...

  11. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about thes...

  12. Glaciotectonic deformations in the Jammerbugt and glaciodynamic development in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stig A. Schack; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    –Early Weichselian Skærumhede Group, indicating a Saalian age of the glaciotectonic deformation. The balancing of the thrust fault structures shows that the thrust sheets in the tailing end of the complex had their source in the Skagerrak sea. The hole caused by displacement contributed to formation of the Skagerrak......The Quaternary geology in the eastern part of the North Sea is characterized by large-scale glaciotectonic complexes. The northernmost complex is the Jammerbugt Glaciotectonic Complex here addressed, which occupies an area of more than 300km2. It was recently recognized during an investigation...... of conventional seismic profiles located about 10km offshore the west coast of northern Denmark. The deformed bedrock includes the main part of the Cretaceous Chalk Group in the North Sea. In the northern part of the complex the detachment surface is situated in Lower Cretaceous greensand about 400m below sea...

  13. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located...... in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...

  14. Ethnomedicinal plants used by Chorei tribes of Southern Assam, North Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvasish Choudhury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore and enumerate the medicinal plants used by the Chorei tribe residing in Sourthern Assam part of North Eastern India in the treatment of various ailments. Methods: Systematic and intensive field surveys were conducted in Chorei inhabited parts of Southern Assam part of North East India to collect information on medicinal plants used by them in treatment of various ailments. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and personal observations made during the field visit. Results: A total of 53 different medicinal plants were recorded along with their vernacular names, parts used and mode of utilization by the Chorei tribes. Each of the plants was categorized according to their use in treatment of particular disease. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the Chorei tribe is primarily dependent of medicinal plant for treatment of various ailments.

  15. Examination of Health Effects and Long-Term Impacts of Deployments of Multiple Tag Types on Blue, Humpback, and Gray Whales in the Eastern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    deployments of multiple tag types on blue, humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific John Calambokidis Cascadia Research Collective 218...large whales including blue, humpback, and gray whales by conducting long term follow up of previously tagged individuals in the eastern North Pacific...humpback, and gray whales in the eastern North Pacific and our extensive monitoring of these populations. Despite extensive use of implant tags for more

  16. Northern fulmars as biological monitors of trends of plastic pollution in the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; O'Hara, Patrick D; Kleine, Lydia; Bowes, Victoria; Wilson, Laurie K; Barry, Karen L

    2012-09-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global issue, which highlights the need for internationally standardized methods of monitoring plastic pollution. The stomach contents of beached northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) have proven a cost-effective biomonitor in Europe. However, recent information on northern fulmar plastic ingestion is lacking in the North Pacific. We quantified the stomach contents of 67 fulmars from beaches in the eastern North Pacific in 2009-2010 and found that 92.5% of fulmars had ingested an average of 36.8 pieces, or 0.385 g of plastic. Plastic ingestion in these fulmars is among the highest recorded globally. Compared to earlier studies in the North Pacific, our findings indicate an increase in plastic ingestion over the past 40 years. This study substantiates the use of northern fulmar as biomonitors of plastic pollution in the North Pacific and suggests that the high levels of plastic pollution in this region warrant further monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A new sketch of the central North Banda Sea, Eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réhault, J. P.; Malod, J. A.; Larue, M.; Burhanuddinn, S.; Sarmili, L.

    The North Banda Sea (Eastern Indonesia) is an oceanic domain whose origin is controversial. New bathymetric and seismic reflection profiles, in addition to those published previously, allow presentation of a new bathymetric map and structural sketch of this basin. A general NW-SE structural pattern appears to be the result of: first, the orientation of very large NW-SE strike-slip faults. Among them the West Baru fracture zone is described for the first time and can be traced for about 300 km; second, the present direction of convergence seems to be oriented NE-SW. This has resulted in the faulting and underthrusting of the Banda Sea crust beneath the East Sulawesi margin, particularly well expressed in the north. As a consequence of the convergence along the Tolo Thrust an active accretionary prism is developed and a peripheral bulge arches the central domain of the North Banda Sea. The nature of the North Banda Sea floor is still unknown but several good dredging sites are identified to solve this major problem in the region.

  18. Neoarchean ductile deformation of the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-05-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups, and some Archean granitic gneisses were involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400-550 °C. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone

  19. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  20. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-07

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America.

  1. Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pividori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. More than 234 hectares of new plantations of lowland mixed forest have been realized in the last 20 years in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. In many of these is now needed to start thinning operations, but there is a lack of experience about this topic. Aim of this work was to undertake an experimentation on different types of thinnings. The thinning trial has been performed at Bosco San Marco forest, municipality of Cessalto (Venice, in a very dense hornbeam-oak plantation aged 16. In 2010, three different thinning types were implemented on 9 hectares according to the following layout: geometrical (34% of woody mass removed, selective (15%, mixed geometrical-selective (30%, control plot. Three years later no significant differences between thinning trials in term of diametric growth, geometrical thinning excepted, were observed. These results provide a suite of solutions to the forest manager for choosing the early thinning type in high tree density condition.

  2. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control.

  3. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarżyński, Szymon; Bartkowska, Izabela

    2018-02-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin), allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE). From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  4. Sewage Management Changes in the North-eastern Poland After Accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarżyński Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's accession to the European Union contributed to the infrastructure development of the whole country. One of the elements of the modernized infrastructure is the sewage network and facilities on this network, as well as facilities for waste water treatment and disposal of sludge. A wide stream of funds flowing to the country, and consequently also to the north-eastern polish voivodeships (Podlaskie, Warmian-Masurian, Lublin, allowed modernization, organize, and sometimes to build a new sewage management of this part of the country. The main factors and parameters that allow us to evaluate the development of the sewage management in north-eastern Poland are included: percentage of population using sewage treatment plants, number of municipal sewage plants with the division of their type, number of industrial plants, number of septic tanks, amount of sewage purified in a year, amount of sludge produced in the year, design capacity of sewage treatment plant, size of plant in population equivalent (PE. From a number of investments in the field of wastewater management carried out in the discussed area in the period after Poland's accession to the European Union, 9 investments were considered the most important, 3 from each of the voivodeships.

  5. Morphological and morphometric features of scaphoid bone in north eastern population, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothama, C; Sarda, R K; Konuri, A; Tamang, B K; Gupta, C; Murlimanju, B V

    2011-03-01

    A study was performed to analyse the morphometry and morphological variants of adult scaphoid bone in Sikkimese population of North Eastern India. The study included 100 dry human scaphoid bones. The bones which had previous signs of fracture were excluded. The morphometric parameters were measured with vernier caliper of 0.02 mm accuracy; the circumferences were measured by placing a thread around them and measuring its length. A magnifying lens was used to observe the number of foramina. From our observations, 22 (44%) of the left scaphoid were having conical shape and 28 (56%) were pyramidal in shape. On the right side, 36 (72%) had conical shape and 14 (28%) were pyramidal. All the bones had waist, except one right sided scaphoid (2%) in which the waist was absent. The scaphoid had main dorsal sulcus in 63% of cases, 29% had two dorsal sulci and 6% had Y shaped sulci. The dorsal sulcus was absent in 3 cases (1 on left side and 2 on the right side). All the scaphoids had a minimum of one foramen in the main dorsal sulcus and 92% had more than one foramen. The present study has provided the additional information on morphology and morphometry of adult human scaphoid bones in north eastern population, India. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important for the hand surgeons and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the morphologists and clinical anatomists.

  6. Infections of Ligula intestinalis on Freshwater Fish in Kars Plateau of North-Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mükremin Özkan; Yılmaz, Muhittin; Taşçı, Gencay Taşkın

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Ligula intestinalis and infections caused by these on freshwater fish in rivers and streams in the Kars plateau of north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. This research was conducted between April and July 2011. Fish samples were caught via a casting net and an electro-shocker. The samples were immediately examined to determine the prevalence of L. intestinalis plerocercoids. In this research, 310 stream fishes were studied to determine the prevalence of L. intestinalis plerocercoids. Detected fishes included 55.8% Capoeta capoeta, 24.2% Squalius cephalus, 11.0% Alburnus filippii, 5.8% Barbus plebejus lacerta, and 3.2% Alburnoides bipunctatus. L. intestinalis plerocercoids were found in 2.6% (8/310) of the examined fishes. The percentage of this parasite was found to be 38.9% (7/18) on B. plebejus lacerta and 0.6% (1/173) on C. capoeta. L. intestinalis plerocercoids were not observed on the other three fish species (S. cephalus, A. filippii, and Al. bipunctatus). In this study, L. intestinalis plerocercoids were reported for the first time in the Kars stream and its distributaries on the Kars plateau in north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey.

  7. Visual Impairment Registry of Patients from North Kolkata, Eastern India: A Hospital-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar; Biswas, Jaya; Saha Dutta Chowdhury, Mita; Dey, Asim Kumar; Chakrabarti, Asim

    2018-01-01

    To study the demographic profile, severity and causes of visual impairment among registered patients in a tertiary care hospital in north Kolkata, eastern India, and to assess the magnitude of under-registration in that population. This is a retrospective analytical study. A review of all visually impaired patients registered at our tertiary care hospital during a ten-year period from January 2005 to December 2014, which is entitled for certification of people of north Kolkata, eastern India (with a population denominator of 1.1 million), was performed. Overall, 2472 eyes of 1236 patients were analyzed in terms of demographic characteristics, cause of visual impairment, and percentage of visual disability as per the guidelines established by the government of India. Male patients (844, 68.28%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 65.69-70.87) registered more often than female patients (392; 31.72%, P = 0.0004). The registration rate for visual impairment was 11.24 per 100,000 per annum; this is not the true incidence rate, as both new patients and those visiting for renewal of certification were included in the study. Optic atrophy was the most common cause of visual impairment (384 eyes, 15.53%; 95% CI, 14.1-16.96). Commonest cause of visual impairment was optic atrophy followed by microphthalmos. Under-registration is a prevalent problem as the registration system is voluntary rather than mandatory, and female patients are more likely to be unregistered in this area.

  8. Reproductive biology of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita in north-eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C. Tsikliras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of round sardinella, Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847, was studied for the first time in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea. Round sardinella has gained much attention lately because of its biomass increase, which might be the result of climatic changes occurring across the Mediterranean Sea. Monthly samples were collected on board commercial purse-seiners for two complete year cycles (September 2000 to August 2002. Round sardinella is a gonochoristic fish. The overall female to male ratio was not statistically different (P=0.34 from unity, although it varied monthly and with the length of the fish. The seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index and the macroscopic characteristics of gonads showed that round sardinella in the northern Aegean spawns between May and July. Male round sardinella reach first sexual maturity at a smaller total length than females (155.0 and 168.3 mm respectively. Mean absolute fecundity (FA increased exponentially with body length (FA=0.0949xL4.22 and weight (FA=511.19xW1.02, with an average of ~21,000 oocytes produced per spawning female. Relative fecundity (FR ranged between 242 and 681 oocytes/g of body weight (average: 445 oocytes/g. The frequency distribution of oocytes showed that round sardinella produces a single batch of oocytes. In general, the reproductive characteristics of round sardinella in the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea differed when compared to stocks from other areas of its distribution.

  9. Syncope in children and adolescents living in north-eastern Poland - scope of causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, M; Szczepanski, W; Bossowski, A

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic yield of different tests and asses the scope of causes in children referring to the hospital with a syncope in north-eastern Poland. A review of 386 consecutive patients (age 2-18 years) living in north-eastern Poland presenting to the cardiology department with a new onset syncope (which appeared to be neurally mediated by history) was undertaken. The patients underwent physical examination, laboratory tests, electrocardiography, 24-holter monitoring, head-up tilt-test, exercise test, echocardiography and electroencephalography. All the tests were performed in most of the patients, without ending the diagnostics after finding the first probable cause of loss of consciousness. 229 potential causes of syncope were found in 191 patients (49.4%), with 2 possible causes in 32 patients and 3 potential causes in 3 patients. The top 3 tests with the highest diagnostic yield were: head-up tilt test (41.4%), 24-holter monitoring (14.5%) and echocardiography (8.4%). Electroencephalography was useful in 3 patients (1.5%) and exercise test did not help in any patient. In some children more than one potential cause of syncope was diagnosed. That might confirm multiple factors' causality of syncope. Head-up tilt-test has the highest diagnostic yield in children with syncope. If the diagnostic protocol is not very strict, one might find some crucial conditions in about 8.3% of patients.

  10. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km2 that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  11. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  12. Multidimensional Mantle Convection Models in Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, E.; Shahnas, H.; Pysklywec, R.; Gogus, O.; Eken, T.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus regions show many features of collisional tectonics with different convergence rates and shortening from south to north. The volcanism, sediment provenience, and thermochronological data suggest that the shortening and exhumation in the Greater Caucasus started during the Eocene-Oligocene synchronously with the collision between Arabia-Bitlis-Pötürge Massif in the south. Previous works indicate that the uplift (up to 2 km) in Eastern Anatolia related to upwelling mantle following the deformation of the Arabian oceanic lithosphere ( 11 Ma) during the ongoing Greater Caucasus closure is the dominant tectonic processes in the center of the region. However, there is no integrated geodynamic model that explains the deformation mechanisms of the region -and their possible interactions with each other -under the dynamic forces. In this study, we use multidimensional mantle-lithosphere convection/deformation models to quantify the geodynamic processes as constrained by the geological/geophysical observations in the region. For the models, seismic studies provide the high-resolution images of the upwelling mantle beneath Eastern Anatolia and the presence -and the locations- of the seismically fast structures associated with the relic/subducted slabs at varying depths such as the Bitlis slab in the south, and the Pontide and Kura slabs in the north. Fast polarization directions observed from splitting analyses exhibit an overall NE-SW oriented mantle anisotropy and a comparison between Pn and SKS derived fast wave azimuths indicates a crust-mantle coupling most likely implying vertically coherent deformation to the north of the study area. For the geodynamic models, we modify the mantle and lithosphere rheology as well as the thermal state. We interpret the estimated uplift and subsidence anomalies related to lithospheric variations (ranging from 54 km to 211 km) and subducting slab behavior with observed

  13. Northerly surface winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S.V.; Cayan, D.R.; Graham, N.E.; Georgakakos, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent spring and summer northerly surface winds are the defining climatological feature of the western coast of North America, especially south of the Oregon coast. Northerly surface winds are important for upwelling and a vast array of other biological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes. Intermittence in northerly coastal surface wind is characterized and wind events are quantitatively defined using coastal buoy data south of Cape Mendocino on the northern California coast. The defined wind events are then used as a basis for composites in order to explain the spatial evolution of various atmospheric and oceanic processes. Wind events involve large-scale changes in the three-dimensional atmospheric circulation including the eastern North Pacific subtropical anticyclone and southeast trade winds. Composites of QSCAT satellite scatterometer wind estimates from 1999 to 2005 based on a single coastal buoy indicate that wind events typically last 72-96 h and result in anomalies in surface wind and Ekman pumping that extend over 1000 kin from the west coast of North America. It may be useful to consider ocean circulation and dependent ecosystem dynamics and the distribution of temperature, moisture, and aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer in the context of wind events defined herein. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  15. Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Kardousha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey mosquito diversity in the north-eastern area, which includes the most important gas industrial city in Qatar, and to investigate the potential mosquitoes for transmitting diseases. Methods: A study was performed from September 2009 until June 2011 in Al-Khor district of North-eastern Qatar. Five localities were selected for larval collection: Al Khor City (the main city, Al Dhakira, Ras Laffan (gas industrial city, Simsimah and Al Ghuwariyah. The survey was carried out by using different sampling methods and covering all expected natural breeding sites. The larvae were collected, preserved and transferred to the laboratory for identification. Results: Our findings revealed that 10 species of mosquito larvae had been detected from the area and five of them were new records in Qatar. The species encountered were: Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Anopheles stephensi (Liston 1901, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say 1823 (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex pipiens biotype molestus (Forskal 1775 (Cx. pipiens, Culex univittatus (Theobald 1901, Culex pusillus (Macquart 1850, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles 1901 (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus (Edwards 1913, Culex sitiens (Weidmann 1828 and Culex perexiguus (Theobald 1901. The new recorded species were Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culex laticinctus, Culex sitiens and Culex perexiguus. The most prevalent type was Cx. pipiens molestus (31.29% and followed by Culex pusillus and Cx. quinquefasciatus which have relatively similar prevalence of 18.72% and 18.52% respectively. Anopheles stephensi was an established vector for malaria. Cx. pipiens molestus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were vectors of West Nile virus and filariasis. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was established as a vector of Rift Valley virus and Culex univittatus was the main vector of Sindbis virus. Conclusions: The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has

  16. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Barkley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem, and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are

  17. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  18. Migratory Connectivity of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus): Patterns of Spring Re-Colonization in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993) articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generatio...

  19. AHP 35: Review: MONASTIC AND LAY TRADITIONS IN NORTH-EASTERN TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Weiner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monastic and Lay Traditions in North-Eastern Tibet, edited by Yangdon Dhondup, Ulrich Pagel, and Geoffrey Samuel, is the product of a 2011 workshop convened at St. Michael's College, Llandaff, Cardiff. Although the conference's focus was the tantric practitioner community of the Reb kong region (Ch. Tongren, the resultant volume expands the scope of inquiry to include surrounding areas as well as monastic communities. The editors have organized the volume's nine chapters into three sections, the first on the Dge lugs pa monastic establishment, the second on Rnying ma pa and Bon tantric communities, and finally 'Ritual and Performance in Contemporary Reb kong'. While the chapters are all informative and scholarly, providing new, important empirical detail on an underresearched subject, several tend toward the descriptive. The most successful contributions, however, present their findings within larger analytical and contextual frameworks, giving their chapters explanatory weight beyond the more narrow confines of their studies. ...

  20. Mapped plant macrofossil and pollen records of late Quaternary vegetation change in eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.T.; Overpeck, J.T.; Webb, T. III [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[NOAA/NGDC, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We compiled a plant macrofossil database for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa (Picea sp., P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) at 264 late Quaternary sites. Presence/absence maps for these taxa at 18,000, 15,000, 12,000, 9000, 6000, 3000, and 0 {sup 14}C yr B.P. show changes in geographic ranges of these species in response to climatic change. Comparison of the macrofossil maps with isopoll maps for corresponding taxa corroborates inferences from the pollen data, and reveals species-level patterns not apparent in the pollen maps.

  1. Carbon isotope variations in the upper Carboniferous - Permian Mallemuk Mountain Group, eastern North Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stemmerik, L.; Magaritz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Isotope data from Late Palaeozoic limestones of the Wandel Sea Basin in eastern North Greenland show a variation of δ 13 C from 0.0 0/00 to 5.7 0/00 vs PDB. Carbonates depleted in 13 C occur in the basal part of lower Moscovian, upper Moscovian and middle Gzhelian transgressive sequences. 13 C enriched limestones occur later in the cycles. The most 13 C enriched limestones occur in the youngest (late Early Permian-early Late Permian) part of the sequence in Amdrup Land. The isotopic data is believed to represent changes in the global carbon cycle. Thus 13 C enriched carbonates correlate to periods of burial of organic carbon mostly as coal, while 13 C depleted carbonates formed as the result of erosion and oxidation of organic carbon during sea-level low stands. (author)

  2. A progressive declining in the burden of malaria in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Kitua, Andrew Y

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The planning and assessment of malaria interventions is complicated due to fluctuations in the burden of malaria over time. Recently, it has been reported that the burden of malaria in some parts of Africa has declined. However, community-based longitudinal data are sparse and the rea......BACKGROUND: The planning and assessment of malaria interventions is complicated due to fluctuations in the burden of malaria over time. Recently, it has been reported that the burden of malaria in some parts of Africa has declined. However, community-based longitudinal data are sparse...... and the reasons for the apparent decline are not well understood. METHODS: Malaria prevalence and morbidity have been monitored in two villages in north-eastern Tanzania; a lowland village and a highland village from 2003 to 2008. Trained village health workers treated presumptive malaria with the Tanzanian first...

  3. Ice ages leave genetic diversity 'hotspots' in Europe but not in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumibao, Candice Y; Hoban, Sean M; McLachlan, Jason

    2017-11-01

    After the last glacial cycle, temperate European trees migrated northward, experiencing genetic bottlenecks and founder effects, which left high haplotype endemism in southern populations and clines in genetic diversity northward. These patterns are thought to be ubiquitous across temperate forests, and are therefore used to anticipate the potential genetic consequences of future warming. We compared existing and new phylogeographic data sets (chloroplast DNA) from 14 woody taxa in Eastern North America (ENA) to data sets from 21 ecologically similar European species to test for common impacts of Quaternary climate swings on genetic diversity across diverse taxa and between continents. Unlike their European counterparts, ENA taxa do not share common southern centres of haplotype endemism and they generally maintain high genetic diversity even at their northern range limits. Differences between the genetic impacts of Quaternary climate cycles across continents suggest refined lessons for managing genetic diversity in today's warming world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Constraints Encountered by the Beneficiaries of Krishi Vigyan Kendra in North Eastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Nath

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among 200 farmers of ten purposively selected Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs in North Eastern region of India. The respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire for identifying the constraints and their suggestions for future improvement of KVK activities. The study revealed that unavailability of labour, unavailability of good quality seed and other inputs, unavailability of information about pest and disease management at right time,(inability to purchase modern agricultural implements and lack of capital were the major constraints. The respondents suggested that timely availability of seed and other inputs, regular and continuous monitoring, linking farmers to financial institutuions for financial support, and more long term practical oriented training programme are important for strengthening KVK activities.

  5. Climber Diversity across Vegetational Landscape of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish DVIVEDI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and diversity of climbers among grassland, wasteland and forest vegetations was examined with respect to their woodiness, climbing mode and circumnutation pattern across the vegetational landscape of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh during 2011-2015. A total of 111 climbers, constituting 63 lianas and 48 vine species, under 35 families, were recorded. The forest and wasteland vegetation were quite similar in regard with climber diversity. Family Convolvulaceae included a maximum of 19 climbers. Majority of twining climbers showed right-handed twining.  The wasteland vegetation was most suitable and quite similar to forest habitat for vines as well as for lianas. The right handed circumnutation was the dominant pattern among the twiners of the region. Local climbing flora provides considerable natural resource to the region. They often create special micro-habitats and increase the complexity of the ecosystem.

  6. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

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    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  7. Medico legal and epidemiological aspects of femicide in a judicial district of north eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschi, Carlo; Da Broi, Ugo; Zamai, Valentina; Palese, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Femicide is the intentional killing of a woman because she is female, and often occurs when there are pre-existing relations, intimate or otherwise, between the victim and the murderer. A retrospective epidemiological study was made of 34 female homicides recorded in a university departmental register of post-mortems, pertaining to a judicial district of about 700,000 inhabitants in north eastern Italy, during a 21-year period from January 1st 1993 to December 31st 2013. The temporal trend, the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and perpetrators, the circumstances surrounding the crime and the risk factors for femicide were studied with the aim of identifying and developing preventive strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and environmental risk factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases of major global health concern. In Tanzania, information on risk factors for dengue and chikungunya is limited. We investigated individual, household, socio-economic, demographic and environmental risk factors for dengue...... and chikungunya seropositivity. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken which included a total of 1003 participants from North-Eastern Tanzania, to determine the sero-prevalence of dengue and chikungunya and to investigate associated risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk...... factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity. Results: Environmental factors such as living in a house with uncovered containers within the compound had higher odds of being chikungunya IgM seropositive (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.76–4.76). Also, participants who kept hoofed animals in their home and who...

  9. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  10. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Songbirds as sentinels of mercury in terrestrial habitats of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Adams, Evan M.; Cristol, Daniel A.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Edmonds, Samuel T.; Gray, Carrie E.; Hoskins, Bart; Lane, Oksana P.; Sauer, Amy; Tear, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed environmental contaminant with a variety of deleterious effects in fish, wildlife, and humans. Breeding songbirds may be useful sentinels for Hg across diverse habitats because they can be effectively sampled, have well-defined and small territories, and can integrate pollutant exposure over time and space. We analyzed blood total Hg concentrations from 8,446 individuals of 102 species of songbirds, sampled on their breeding territories across 161 sites in eastern North America [geometric mean Hg concentration = 0.25 μg/g wet weight (ww), range of the USEPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, which will reduce Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 %. Mixed-effects modeling indicated that habitat, foraging guild, and age were important predictors of blood Hg concentrations across species and sites. Blood Hg concentrations in adult invertebrate-eating songbirds were consistently higher in wetland habitats (freshwater or estuarine) than upland forests. Generally, adults exhibited higher blood Hg concentrations than juveniles within each habitat type. We used model results to examine species-specific differences in blood Hg concentrations during this time period, identifying potential Hg sentinels in each region and habitat type. Our results present the most comprehensive assessment of blood Hg concentrations in eastern songbirds to date, and thereby provide a valuable framework for designing and evaluating risk assessment schemes using sentinel songbird species in the time after implementation of the new atmospheric Hg standards.

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF SEMI-NATURAL GRASSLANDS IN NORTH-EASTERN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVA APOSTOLOVA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the syntaxonomic diversity of the semi-natural grasslands in NorthEastern Bulgaria following the principles of the Ziirich-Montpellier School. A total number of 172 releves, collected during 2002-2004, is used. TWINSPAN clustering is applied for determination vegetation types. The diagnostic species groups for the associations and subassociations are created by Cocktail method using the phi-coefficient with values above 0.3 within the JUICE software. As a result class Fesluco-Brometea is established with the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Pimpinello-Thymion and Chrysopogoni-Danthonion. The originally described Botriochloetum ischaemi Pop 1977 association is considered as typical on the subassociation level and a part of our releves are referred to it. Following the nomenclature rules we determined the subassotiation typicum. One new subassociation named Thymefosum pannonici of more xerophytic character, as compared to typical one, and well represented by differential species is established. The geographical distribution of Agropyro-Thymetum zygoidi and Agrostideto-Chrysopogonetum grylli associations is extended to the territory of Bulgaria. Class Molinio-Arrhenalherefea is represented by Cynosurion alliance and Festuco-Agrostidetum association is established by its probably most eastern area of distribution.

  13. Combustion characteristics of north-eastern USA vegetation tested in the cone calorimeter: invasive versus non-invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison C. Dibble; Robert H. White; Patricia K. Lebow

    2007-01-01

    In the north-eastern United States, invasive plants alter forest fuels, but their combustion characteristics are largely unknown. We assessed unground samples of foliage and twigs in the cone calorimeter for 21 non-invasive, native species, paired with 21 invasive species (18 non-native). Variables included sustained ignition, peak heat release rate, total heat release...

  14. Good and Caring Teaching Behaviours as Perceived by Business Education Students in Tertiary Institutions in the North Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Magnus P.; Samson, Agatha; Baraya, Abdulmutallib Umar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated good and caring teaching behaviours as perceived by Business Education students in Tertiary Institutions in the North Eastern Nigeria. The latter needed good and caring teaching behaviours to reform the education sector that had been devastated by Boko Haram insurgency. The design of the study was survey. The research…

  15. Tracking population loss in Cornus florida since discovery of Discula destructiva, causal agent of dogwood anthracnose, in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Jones; William D. Smith; Daniel B. Twardus

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation monitoring project was to document the losses of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida (L.), an important ornamental and wildlife tree that grows across much of Eastern North America. The project was prompted in 2001 by the apparent abundance of flowering dogwoods along roadsides in the Morgantown, WV, area, despite a...

  16. A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: Does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Daniel C. Dey; Ross J. Phillips; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    The fire-oak hypothesis asserts that the current lack of fire is a reason behind the widespread oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration difficulties of eastern North America, and use of prescribed burning can help solve this problem. We performed a meta-analysis on the data from 32 prescribed fire studies conducted in mixed-oak forests to test whether they...

  17. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western Öland, south-eastern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamel, W.A. van

    1974-01-01

    This paper forms part of the author's thesis "Lithostratigraphy, environmental interpretation and conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western bland, south-eastern Sweden". The purpose of this investigation was to unravel the lithogenesis and the history

  18. Fungal parasites of algae in the waters of North-Eastern Poland with reference to the enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In tnę present work the results of investigations of the fungal parasites of algae in various types of water bodies (slough, ponds. lakes and river in North-Eastern Poland with reference to the chemical environment are presented.

  19. Preliminary report on the geology of the Red River Valley drilling project, eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-two wells, 26 of which penetrated the Precambrian, were drilled along the eastern edge of the Williston Basin in the eastern tier of counties in North Dakota and in nearby counties in northwestern Minnesota. These tests, along the Red River Valley of the North, were drilled to study the stratigraphy and uranium potential of this area. The drilling program was unsuccessful in finding either significant amounts of uranium or apparently important shows of uranium. It did, however, demonstrate the occurrence of thick elastic sections in the Ordovician, Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems, within the Red River Valley, along the eastern margins of the Williston Basin which could serve as host rocks for uranium ore bodies.

  20. Book Review: Evans, Arthur V. 2014. Beetles of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 560 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-13304-1 (paperback). Price: US $35.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    A book review is presented for “Beetles of Eastern North America” by Arthur V. Evans. This 560 page book was published in 2014 and treats over 1,400 species of beetles distributed in eastern North America....

  1. Water Mass Variability at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Roessler, Achim; Rhein, Monika

    2017-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the sub-polar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the sub-tropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) can be regarded as the southern border of the sub-polar gyre transporting water from the tropical regions northward. On its way towards the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) the NAC has partly mixed with waters from the sub-polar gyre and crosses the MAR split into several branches. For the study we analyzed data of water mass variability and transport fluctuations from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) project (2012-2015) which provided time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the MAR. The time depending positions of the NAC branches over the MAR were obtained from mooring time series and compared to sea surface velocities from altimeter data. The results show a high variability of NAC pathways over the MAR. Transition regimes with strong meandering and eddies could be observed as well as periods of strong NAC branches over the Fracture Zones affecting water mass exchange at all depth levels. A positive temperature trend at depths between 1000-2000 m was found at the Faraday Fracture Zone (FFZ). This warming trend was also detected by Argo floats crossing the MAR close to the FFZ region. During the second phase of RACE (RACE-II, 2016-2018) a mooring array across the eastern shelf break at Goban Spur was deployed to monitor the poleward Eastern Boundary

  2. 3D Crustal Velocity Structure Model of the Middle-eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, F.; Lin, J.; Wei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lithosphere thinning and destruction in the middle-eastern North China Craton (NCC), a region susceptible to strong earthquakes, is one of the research hotspots in solid earth science. Up to 42 wide-angle reflection/refraction deep seismic sounding (DSS) profiles have been completed in the middle-eastern NCC, we collect all the 2D profiling results and perform gridding of the velocity and interface depth data, and build a 3D crustal velocity structure model for the middle-eastern NCC, named HBCrust1.0, using the Kriging interpolation method. In this model, four layers are divided by three interfaces: G is the interface between the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust, with velocities of 5.0-5.5 km/s above and 5.8-6.0 km/s below. C is the interface of the upper and lower crust, with velocity jump from 6.2-6.4 km/s to 6.5-6.6 km/s. M is the interface between the crust and upper mantle, with velocity 6.7-7.0 km/s at the crust bottom and 7.9-8.0 km/s on mantle top. Our results show that the first arrival time calculated from HBCust1.0 fit well with the observation. It also demonstrates that the upper crust is the main seismogenic layer, and the brittle-ductile transition occurs at depths near interface C. The depth of interface Moho varies beneath the source area of the Tangshan earth-quake, and a low-velocity structure is found to extend from the source area to the lower crust. Based on these observations, it can be inferred that stress accumulation responsible for the Tangshan earthquake may have been closely related to the migration and deformation of the mantle materials. Comparisons of the average velocities of the whole crust, the upper and the lower crust show that the average velocity of the lower crust under the central part of the North China Basin (NCB) in the east of the craton is obviously higher than the regional average, this high-velocity probably results from longterm underplating of the mantle magma. This research is founded by the Natural Science

  3. Climatological coupling of the thermohaline decadal changes in Central Water of the Eastern North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Pérez

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Data collected at 42ºN, 10ºW in the intergyre region of the Northeast Atlantic show significant year to year variability in the T-S characteristics of the upper 800m of the water column. Taking salinity values on the sq = 27.1 kg m-3 isopycnal as representative of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water mass it was found that the variability correlates well with the wind stress at 43ºN, 11ºW, with cumulative river discharge (which we take as an index of precipitation over the ocean and with the NAO (which is an index of the strength and position of storm tracks and the state of the evaporation-precipitation balance. The covariation illustrates the close coupling between water mass formation and climate in the North Atlantic, where climate changes affect the deep ventilation by which ENACW is formed and the evaporation-precipitation balance from which the T-S signature results. Hints of a 20 year cycle in the ocean correlate with a 20 year periodicity in the NAO. It remains to be established whether there is a feedback mechanism by which water mass anomalies affect the climate and the intensity and variation of the NAO pattern, and the extent to which upper ocean observations can be used as an indicator of future climate trends.

  4. Monitoring receding of glaciers and in north-eastern pakistan through geo-informatics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir, U.B.

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan is amongst those countries which are blessed from the wide range of natural features. Pakistan is a land of varied topography, ranging from deep sea to top mountains of the world. Northern area of Pakistan carries the most fascinating mountainous series with snow-clad peaks of varying height. Apart from North and South Pole, Northern Pakistan hosts the greatest masses of glaciated ice in the world. The glaciers are of extreme worth in providing fresh water resources; this important resource is a vital source of water but it has been diminished due to anthropogenic interventions which, as a result, have unbalanced the indigenous eco-system. Monitoring of these glaciers is important to cater the water and power need of a country like Pakistan. By using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques, this paper is an attempt to address the receding of glaciers and snow cover in the extreme north-eastern districts of Pakistan. Monitoring of melting of glaciers due to climate change in the recent decades has been attempted in this study for Ghanche District. This study is also concerned with observing the spatial change in the snow cover and glaciers of Ghanche District. (author)

  5. Vertical density gradient in the eastern North Atlantic during the last 30,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogerson, M.; Ramirez, J. [University of Hull, Geography Department, Hull (United Kingdom); Bigg, G.R. [University of Sheffield, Department of Geography, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Rohling, E.J. [University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Past changes in the density and momentum structure of oceanic circulation are an important aspect of changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and consequently climate. However, very little is known about past changes in the vertical density structure of the ocean, even very extensively studied systems such as the North Atlantic. Here we exploit the physical controls on the settling depth of the dense Mediterranean water plume derived from the Strait of Gibraltar to obtain the first robust, observations-based, probabilistic reconstruction of the vertical density gradient in the eastern North Atlantic during the last 30,000 years. We find that this gradient was weakened by more than 50%, relative to the present, during the last Glacial Maximum, and that changes in general are associated with reductions in AMOC intensity. However, we find only a small change during Heinrich Event 1 relative to the Last Glacial Maximum, despite strong evidence that overturning was substantially altered. This implies that millennial-scale changes may not be reflected in vertical density structure of the ocean, which may be limited to responses on an ocean-overturning timescale or longer. Regardless, our novel reconstruction of Atlantic density structure can be used as the basis for a dynamical measure for validation of model-based AMOC reconstructions. In addition, our general approach is transferrable to other marginal sea outflow plumes, to provide estimates of oceanic vertical density gradients in other locations. (orig.)

  6. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  7. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiak K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001. There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.

  8. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Neogene Terrestrial Sediments from North- East of Malatya (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoca, Dicle Bal; Tatar, Cihan

    2017-04-01

    This study focuses on the Neogene alluvial fan deposits at the North- East of Malatya (Eastern Turkey). These alluvial fan sediments are largely the products of stream deposition during Upper Miocene - Pliocene. Previous sedimentary studies suggest that most of the alluvial input into the basin was from the the north, northeast, and east. Paleozoic-Mesozoic Metamorphics, the Oligocene - marine sediments, the Miocene Yamadaǧ Volcanics, and Neogene alluvial and intercalated lacustrine rocks comprise the main lithologic units in the area. Alluvial sediments are ocur in successive mudstone, sandstone and conglomerates. Macroscobic determinations show that clastics in the alluviums are derived from Yamadaǧ Volcanics which are at the north, northeast, and east of the alluviums. Previous petrographic studies show that these volcanics are composed of basaltic andesite to dacite in composition with typical calc-alkaline character. The aim of this study is to interpret the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of source area of these alluviums. Samples were collected from these alluvial fan alluviums, and X - ray powder diffraction (XRD), ICP-AES, ICP-MS were performed on these samples, Samples consist of clay minerals, calcite, feldspar, quartz and dolomite. Clay minerals were smectite, illite, mixed layer smectite-illite,and palygorskite, with Ca-smectite being the dominant clay phase. Smectite was derived from the transformation of volcanic glass and volcanic rock fragments. These samples are convenient with Fe shales and shales. The ratios of Zr/TiO2, Th/Sc, Zr/Sc, Y/Ni-Cr/V, Al/(Al+Fe+Mn) show dominance of neutral-basic volcanism in the area. Chondrite-normalized REE diagram show the presence of REE-bearing accessory minerals resulted in a positive LREE anomaly with respect to chondrite. Eu/Eu* values are between 0.77 and 1.53, (average 1.17). The absence of Eu anomalies shows that our samples are generally neutral-basic in composition. Key Words: Mineralogy

  9. Coastal Sea Level along the North Eastern Atlantic Shelf from Delay Doppler Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Benveniste, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Gravelle, M.; Dinardo, S.; Uebbing, B.; Scharroo, R.; Kusche, J.; Kern, M.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimetry data of the CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 missions processed with Delay Doppler methodology (DDA) provide improved coastal sea level measurements up to 2-4 km from coast, thanks to an along-track resolution of about 300m and a higher signal to noise ratio. We investigate the 10 Kilometre stripe along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf from Lisbon to Bergen to detect the possible impacts in sea level change studies of this enhanced dataset. We consider SAR CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 altimetry products from the ESA GPOD processor and in-house reduced SAR altimetry (RDSAR) products. Improved processing includes in RDSAR the application of enhanced retrackers for the RDSAR waveform. Improved processing in SAR includes modification both in the generation of SAR waveforms, (as Hamming weighting window on the burst data prior to the azimuth FFT, zero-padding prior to the range FFT, doubling of the extension for the radar range swath) and in the SAMOSA2 retracker. Data cover the full lifetime of CryoSat-2 (6 years) and Sentinel-3 (1 year). Conventional altimetry are from the sea level CCI database. First we analyse the impact of these SAR altimeter data on the sea level trend and on the estimation of vertical motion from the altimeter minus tide gauge differences. VLM along the North-Eastern Atlantic shelf is generally small compared to the North-Western Atlantic Coast VLM, with a smaller signal to noise ratio. Second we investigate impact on the coastal mean sea level surface and the mean dynamic topography. We evaluate a mean surface from the new altimeter data to be combined to state of the art geoid models to derive the mean dynamic topography. We compare the results to existing oceanographic and geodetic mean dynamic topography solutions, both on grid and pointwise at the tide gauge stations. This study is supported by ESA through the Sea Level CCI and the GOCE++DYCOT projects

  10. 76 FR 67206 - State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management State of Arizona Resource Advisory Council Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Management, Arizona State Office, One North Central Avenue, Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona 85004-4427, (602) 417... include: A welcome and introduction of Council members; BLM State Director's update on BLM programs and...

  11. Mantle source heterogeneity of the Early Jurassic basalt of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2018-04-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the basaltic rocks from the Early Jurassic Eastern North America (ENA) sub-province of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the systematic compositional variation from South to North. Moreover, the tectono-thermal regime of the CAMP is debated as it demonstrates geological and structural characteristics (size, radial dyke pattern) that are commonly associated with mantle plume-derived mafic continental large igneous provinces but is considered to be unrelated to a plume. Mantle potential temperature ( T P) estimates of the northern-most CAMP flood basalts (North Mountain basalt, Fundy Basin) indicate that they were likely produced under a thermal regime ( T P ≈ 1450 °C) that is closer to ambient mantle ( T P ≈ 1400 °C) conditions and are indistinguishable from other regions of the ENA sub-province ( T Psouth = 1320-1490 °C, T Pnorth = 1390-1480 °C). The regional mantle potential temperatures are consistent along the 3000-km-long ENA sub-province suggesting that the CAMP was unlikely to be generated by a mantle plume. Furthermore, the mantle potential temperature calculation using the rocks from the Northern Appalachians favors an Fe-rich mantle (FeOt = 8.6 wt %) source, whereas the rocks from the South Appalachians favor a less Fe-rich (FeOt = 8.3 wt %) source. The results indicate that the spatial-compositional variation of the ENA basaltic rocks is likely related to differing amounts of melting of mantle sources that reflect the uniqueness of their regional accreted terranes (Carolinia and West Avalonia) and their post-accretion, pre-rift structural histories.

  12. The impact of gyre dynamics on the mid-depth salinity signature of the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, K. C.; Lozier, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) is widely recognized for its role in establishing the mid-depth salinity signature of the subtropical North Atlantic. However, recent work has revealed an intermittent impact of MOW on the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin. This impact results from a temporally variable penetration of the northward flowing branch of the MOW past Porcupine Bank into the eastern subpolar basin. It has been shown that the salinity signature of the eastern subpolar basin, in particular the Rockall Trough, varies with the state of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): during persistent periods of strong winds (high NAO index), when the subpolar front moves eastward, waters in the subpolar gyre block the northward flowing MOW, preventing its entry into the subpolar gyre. Conversely, during persistent periods of weak winds (low NAO index), the front moves westward, allowing MOW to penetrate north of Porcupine Bank and into the subpolar gyre. Here, we investigate the manner in which the spatial and temporal variability in the northward penetration of the MOW and the position of the eastern limb of the subpolar front affect the mid-depth property fields not only in the subpolar gyre, but in the subtropical gyre as well. Using approximately 55 years of historical hydrographic data and output from the 1/12° FLAME model, we analyze the temporal variability of salinity along the eastern boundary and compare this variability to the position of the subpolar front in both the observational record and the FLAME model. We conclude that when the zonal position of the subpolar front moves relatively far offshore and the MOW is able to penetrate to the north, high salinity anomalies are observed at high latitudes and low salinity anomalies are observed at low latitudes. Conversely, when the frontal position shifts to the east, the MOW (and thus, the high salinity signature) is blocked, resulting in a drop in salinity anomalies at high latitudes

  13. Late Holocene Drought Variability in Eastern North America: Evidence From the Peatland Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    Tree-ring based drought chronologies from semi-arid regions of western North America have revealed substantial variability in water balance during the past 1000 years, including episodes of persistent drought more severe than any observed during historical times. Delimitation of regional and continental-scale footprints of these past drought events, including their spatial patterning in humid regions where moisture-sensitive paleoclimate records are scarce, is critical to understanding their dynamics and potential causes. Ombrotrophic peatlands are scattered throughout humid regions of North America at mid-latitudes and represent an underutilized source of multidecadal-scale information on past moisture variations. We are developing a spatial network of peatland-derived paleoclimate and paleoecological records in eastern North America, in an effort to 1) determine whether large, decadal to multidecadal droughts of the past several thousand years were spatially and temporally coherent, 2) assess whether the magnitude of past drought events was sufficient to force ecological change in terrestrial ecosystems, and 3) assess the underlying mechanisms and dynamics of widespread drought in North America. We have completed water-level reconstructions based on testate-amoeba assemblages from two ombrotrophic peatlands in mid-continental North America, Hole in the Bog (NC Minnesota) and Minden Bog (SE Michgian). We also have developed reconstructions from three Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands, South Rhody Peatland (NC Michigan), Hornet Peatland (NW Wisconsin), and Irwin Smith Peatland (NE Michigan). Although these kettle peatlands are not truly ombrotrophic, high-magnitude water-table fluctuations should still be attributable to climate variability, and we use these records to supplement our interpretation of regional climate history. Our results indicate that all high-magnitude fluctuations in water balance were spatially extensive, affecting bog-surface moisture

  14. Monitoring limber pine health in the Rocky Mountains and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Marcus Jackson; Brian Howell; William Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; Anne Marie Casper; Jennifer Klutsch

    2012-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) is an ecologically and culturally important, yet little studied, tree species within the Western United States. Its distribution extends from Alberta and southeastern British Colombia to New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California with isolated populations in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, eastern Oregon...

  15. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  16. Modelling blanket peatland hydrology and Holocene peatland development in north-eastern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Ward; Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils

    2017-04-01

    To study long-term peatland dynamics, several peatland models have been constructed in recent decades. Most modelling efforts have focussed on peat bogs, but for other peatland types, such as blanket peatlands, modelling studies are limited. Although blanket peatland is a rare ecosystem type on a global scale, 87 percent of the peat cover in the UK is of this type. Hillslope hydrology is fundamental to blanket peatland development and an improved representation and understanding of the relationships between climate, hydrology and peat growth is crucial to better understand the effects of environmental change on peatland evolution and the carbon balance. Here, a new spatially explicit process-based peat growth model is presented for blanket peatlands, which couples a detailed 2.5D-hillslope hydrology model with a peat accumulation and decomposition module. The resultant model allows to study the hillslope hydrology and blanket peatland development along topographically complex hillslopes over a Holocene timescale. Calibration and validation of the model parameters is based on a dataset of more than 250 peat thickness measurements along several hillslope transects and eight radiocarbon dated peat samples in the headwaters of the river Dee (Cairngorms National Park, north-eastern Scotland). The model results show that the topography-driven hillslope hydrology has a strong influence on the resultant peat development along the hillslope, stressing the need for spatial models in studying blanket peatlands. Model simulations for the studied area result in peat growth initiation dates situated mostly in the period 9000 - 7000 a BP, which corresponds largely to basal calibrated radiocarbon dates for peat deposits in central and north-eastern Scotland. The simulated blanket peat growth initiation occurs before the mid-Holocene forest cover decline. These results indicate that, for the studied area, the blanket peatland development is largely driven by the early

  17. Shear wave velocity structure of northern and North-Eastern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebede, F.; Mammo, T.; Panza, G.F.; Vuan, A.; Costa, G.

    1995-10-01

    The non-linear inversion technique known as hedgehog is utilized to define the average crustal structure of North and North-Eastern Ethiopia. To accomplish the task a two dimensional frequency-time analysis is performed to obtain Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves. Six earthquakes recorded by the broad-band digital seismograph installed at the Geophysical Observatory of Addis Ababa University are utilized. The crustal structure between the Gulf of Tadjura (western Gulf of Aden) and Addis Ababa crossing southern Afar (path I) can be approximated by a total thickness of about 22 km with average S-wave velocity in the range 2.3 - 3.9 km/s. The crust-mantle transition is poorly developed at greater depths and the shear wave velocity ranges from 4.0 km/s to 4.3 km/s. If the effect of the plateau part is taken into account the average total crustal thickness is found to be less than 18 km and the average S-wave velocity varies in the range 2.4 - 3.9 km/s. The low shear wave velocity under the Afar crust is consistent with the result of other geophysical studies. For path II, which passes through the border of the Western Ethiopian plateau, the average crustal structure is found to be approximated by a thickness of about 40 km and average S-wave velocity between 3.0 km/s and 3.9 km/s. The crust overlies a lithospheric mantle with a shear wave velocity in the range 4.1-4.4 km/s. (author). 37 refs, 11 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Plastic ingestion in marine-associated bird species from the eastern North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, S; Provencher, J F; Morgan, K H; Bertram, D F

    2013-07-15

    In addition to monitoring trends in plastic pollution, multi-species surveys are needed to fully understand the pervasiveness of plastic ingestion. We examined the stomach contents of 20 bird species collected from the coastal waters of the eastern North Pacific, a region known to have high levels of plastic pollution. We observed no evidence of plastic ingestion in Rhinoceros Auklet, Marbled Murrelet, Ancient Murrelet or Pigeon Guillemot, and low levels in Common Murre (2.7% incidence rate). Small sample sizes limit our ability to draw conclusions about population level trends for the remaining fifteen species, though evidence of plastic ingestion was found in Glaucous-Winged Gull and Sooty Shearwater. Documenting levels of plastic ingestion in a wide array of species is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding about the impacts of plastic pollution. We propose that those working with bird carcasses follow standard protocols to assess the levels of plastic ingestion whenever possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactivity in wastes generated from shale gas exploration and production - North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodłowski, Paweł; Macuda, Jan; Nowak, Jakub; Nguyen Dinh, Chau

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228. Excluding the waste proppants, the measured activity concentrations in solid samples oscillate around their worldwide average values in soil. In the case of the waste proppants, the activity concentrations of radionuclides from uranium and thorium decay series are significantly elevated and equal to several hundreds of Bq/kg but it is connected with the mineralogical composition of proppants. The significant enhancement of Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations after fracking process was observed in the case of return fracking fluids, but the radium isotopes content in these fluids is comparable with that in waste waters from copper and coal mines in Poland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simplified seismic stability evaluation of gravity dams subjected to high frequency eastern North American ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, P.; Ftima, M.B. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This study examined the use of simplified seismic analysis procedures to evaluate the dynamic stability of concrete dams subjected to high frequencies that are typical of eastern North America (ENA) earthquake ground motions. A typical 60 meter high concrete gravity dam was used to illustrate that dams subjected to severe high frequency ground motions are likely to experience cracking and sliding in the upper section where dynamic amplification is critical. In particular, this study examined the possibility of computing in-structure response spectra (ISRS) at the base of a sliding block to define suitable spectra compatible accelerograms. Analyzing the cracked component requires a definition of seismic input motions at the base of the block while considering dynamic amplification. It was concluded that it is not conservative to use accelerograms compatible with the linear, uncracked dam ISRS to perform transient rigid body sliding response analyses. It was noted that dynamic properties depend on dam base and upper joint cracking. Therefore, the intensity and frequency of seismic motions are modified as they propagate across the height of the dam. A nonlinear ISRS computed from cracked beam models is recommended for obtaining a conservative estimate of the residual sliding displacement of the upper block. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Resource-use strategies of native and invasive plants in Eastern North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberling, J Mason; Fridley, Jason D

    2013-10-01

    Studies in disturbed, resource-rich environments often show that invasive plants are more productive than co-occurring natives, but with similar physiological tradeoffs. However, in resource-limited habitats, it is unclear whether native and invasive plants have similar metabolic constraints or if invasive plants are more productive per unit resource cost - that is, use resources more efficiently. Using a common garden to control for environment, we compared leaf physiological traits relating to resource investments, carbon returns, and resource-use efficiencies in 14 native and 18 nonnative invasive species of common genera found in Eastern North American (ENA) deciduous forest understories, where growth is constrained by light and nutrient limitation. Despite greater leaf construction and nitrogen costs, invaders exhibited greater instantaneous photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) and marginally greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE). When integrated over leaf lifespan (LL), these differences were magnified. Differences in efficiency were driven by greater productivity per unit leaf investment, as invaders exhibited both greater photosynthetic abilities and longer LL. Our results indicate that woody understory invaders in ENA forests are not constrained to the same degree by leaf-based metabolic tradeoffs as the native understory flora. These strategy differences could be attributable to pre-adaptation in the native range, although other explanations are possible. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of Chironomid larvae of the Seybouse wadi, North-Eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjla Chaib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the Seybouse wadi (North-Eastern Algeria between 2008 and 2011 was conducted in 26 sampling sites located on the main river and its tributaries using chironomids. From 3264 collected larvae, forty-five chironomid species were identified, and were correlated to 13 environmental variables to predict determinant factors affecting their distribution. Indicator value (IndVal analysis was first performed to determine indicator chironomid species according to several factors (sites, seasons, source distance, granulometry, conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water velocity, pollution and the abundance of filamentous algae. Co-inertia analysis (CoIA supported the IndVal results, emphasising an upstream/downstream gradient in the first axis, while a granulometry gradient was emphasised by the second axis. A pollution gradient was also highlighted in the plane of the first two axes, separating tolerant Chironomus sp. 1, Cricotopus bicinctus and Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris from intolerant species as Phaenopsectra flavipes, Rheotanytarsus sp.1 and Cladotanytarsus sp. 1.

  3. Pattern of alcohol consumption by young people from North Eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Isabel Amorim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most used psychoactive substance among adolescents, is an important public health problem and a major risk factor for the health of this group. This study is regarding to the pattern of alcohol consumption by adolescents. Descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study, with a sample of 378 adolescents, which are attending three high schools, in north-eastern Portugal. In the data collection we used a questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS. The prevalence of alcohol is 86.8%. The mean score of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was 3.53±4.525 points. The vast majority of participants were located in the non-excessive alcohol consumption area (91.3%. The pattern of alcohol consumption differs significantly between gender (Wald: p ≤ 0,004 and the religious practice (Wald: p ≤ 0,027, with greater percentage of boys and students who did not practice any religion in excessive consumers. The prevalence of alcohol consumers is high. The proportion of young people with excessive consumption in our sample is lower than in other studies, but shows that there is a group of adolescents in excessive consumption. It found a relationship between consumption pattern, gender and religious practice. These results justify the development of public health interventions.

  4. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Barzon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  5. The attenuation of Fourier amplitudes for rock sites in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Gail M.; Boore, David M.

    2014-01-01

    We develop an empirical model of the decay of Fourier amplitudes for earthquakes of M 3–6 recorded on rock sites in eastern North America and discuss its implications for source parameters. Attenuation at distances from 10 to 500 km may be adequately described using a bilinear model with a geometric spreading of 1/R1.3 to a transition distance of 50 km, with a geometric spreading of 1/R0.5 at greater distances. For low frequencies and distances less than 50 km, the effective geometric spreading given by the model is perturbed using a frequency‐ and hypocentral depth‐dependent factor defined in such a way as to increase amplitudes at lower frequencies near the epicenter but leave the 1 km source amplitudes unchanged. The associated anelastic attenuation is determined for each event, with an average value being given by a regional quality factor of Q=525f 0.45. This model provides a match, on average, between the known seismic moment of events and the inferred low‐frequency spectral amplitudes at R=1  km (obtained by correcting for the attenuation model). The inferred Brune stress parameters from the high‐frequency source terms are about 600 bars (60 MPa), on average, for events of M>4.5.

  6. Nitrogen cycling in the secondary nitrite maximum of the eastern tropical North Pacific off Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Carolyn; Santoro, Alyson E.; Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Casciotti, Karen L.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrite is a central intermediate in the marine nitrogen cycle and represents a critical juncture where nitrogen can be reduced to the less bioavailable N2 gas or oxidized to nitrate and retained in a more bioavailable form. We present an analysis of rates of microbial nitrogen transformations in the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ) within the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP). We determined rates using a novel one-dimensional model using the distribution of nitrite and nitrate concentrations, along with their natural abundance nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope profiles. We predict rate profiles for nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction, and nitrite oxidation throughout the ODZ, as well as the contributions of anammox to nitrite reduction and nitrite oxidation. Nitrate reduction occurs at a maximum rate of 25 nM d-1 at the top of the ODZ, at the same depth as the maximum rate of nitrite reduction, 15 nM d-1. Nitrite oxidation occurs at maximum rates of 10 nM d-1 above the secondary nitrite maximum, but also in the secondary nitrite maximum, within the ODZ. Anammox contributes to nitrite oxidation within the ODZ but cannot account for all of it. Nitrite oxidation within the ODZ that is not through anammox is also supported by microbial gene abundance profiles. Our results suggest the presence of nitrite oxidation within the ETNP ODZ, with implications for the distribution and physiology of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and for total nitrogen loss in the largest marine ODZ.

  7. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  8. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  9. Abiotic factors influencing the ecology of wild rabbit fleas in north-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osacar-Jimenez, J J; Lucientes-Curdi, J; Calvete-Margolle, C

    2001-06-01

    During 1992, the population dynamics of rabbit fleas were compared at two sites in north-eastern Spain. The sites differed mainly in terms of annual rainfall and soil type. All flea species showed seasonal cycles of abundance, although peaks in numbers occurred at different times, reflecting their specific adaptations for coping with climatic variables. Adult Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) were found largely parasitizing rabbits in spring and adult Caenopsylla laptevi (Beaucournu etal.) (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) in the autumn. In contrast, monthly flea indices of Xenopsylla cunicularis (Smit) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and Echidnophaga iberica (Ribeiro et al.) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) peaked in summer. Spilopsyllus cuniculi was present at both sites, but was less common on the drier site, where monthly mean temperature and annual rainfall approached the flea's physiological limits. By contrast, E. iberica, X. cunicularis and C. laptevi, known to be better adapted for dryness, showed the opposite patterns of abundance. Nevertheless, even these arid-adapted species took advantage of the milder and wetter spring (X. cunicularis and E. iberica) or autumn (C. laptevi) for breeding and larval development. Although environmental temperature, rainfall and soil texture will influence the microclimate of the burrows where the flea larvae develop, burrow humidity seems to be more dependent on soil characteristics and past rainfall rather than the humidity of the external air.

  10. FREQUENCY STRUCTURE OF MAJOR RAINFALL EVENTS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUIBUL ALAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of rainfall received over an area is an important factor in assessing availability of water to meet various demands for agriculture, industry, irrigation, generation of hydroelectricity and other human activities. The distribution of rainfall in time and space is, therefore, an important factor for the economic development of a country. Due to rapid urbanization in various parts of the north-eastern region of Bangladesh, there is a growing need to study the rainfall pattern, and also frequency of the heavy rainfall events. This study was checked monthly average rainfall from daily records of last 50 years for this region. In order to check the major events, time history of monthly rainfall data were transformed into frequency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Estimated peak frequency (11.98 month depicts that major rainfall events of a year are occurring earlier than the previous year. The variability of rainfall in time scale was also checked from filtered signals, which is very useful for long-term water resources planning, agricultural development and disaster management for Bangladesh.

  11. GIS-based hazard and risk maps of the Douro river basin (north-eastern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Douro river basin, in north-eastern Portugal, is a very complex region in terms of its geomorphological structure and morphodynamics. More specifically, the region – the Port Wine-growing region, a UNESCO heritage site – is a landslide-prone area resulting from several factors intrinsic to the bedrock and its detritic cover, combined with factors capable of triggering slope instability mechanisms, such as intense rainfall and human activities. Recently, due to intense rainfall and human activities, frequent rock and mud slides occurred, some of them catastrophic, killing people and damaging property. In the last decade (2000–2010, an accurate inventory of these catastrophic events was made, showing that these events occurred near local small towns, Peso da Régua (2001, Armamar (2003 and Carrazeda de Ansiães (2007. In this paper, we present a case study using field data and Geographic Information Systems (GIS tools to evaluate landslide hazard and risk assessment following multicriteria evaluation techniques.

  12. Phylogenetics of Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula Complex (Serpentes: Colubridae), in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysko, Kenneth L; Nuñez, Leroy P; Newman, Catherine E; Bowen, Brian W

    2017-05-01

    Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America. Studies over the last century have used morphology and color pattern to describe numerous subspecies. More recently, DNA analyses have made invaluable contributions to our understanding of their evolution and taxonomy. We use genetic and ecological methods to test previous hypotheses of distinct evolutionary lineages by examining 66 total snakes and 1) analyzing phylogeographic structure using 2 mtDNA loci and 1 nuclear locus, 2) estimating divergence dates and historical demography among lineages in a Bayesian coalescent framework, and 3) applying ecological niche modeling (ENM). Our molecular data and ENMs illustrate that 3 previously recognized subspecies in the eastern United States comprise well-supported monophyletic lineages that diverged during the Pleistocene. The geographic boundaries of these 3 lineages correspond closely to known biogeographic barriers (Florida peninsula, Appalachian Mountains, and Apalachicola River) previously identified for other plants and animals, indicating shared geographic influences on evolutionary history. We conclude that genetic, ecological, and morphological data support recognition of these 3 lineages as distinct species (Lampropeltis floridana, Lampropeltis getula, and Lampropeltis meansi). © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MAXENT MODELLING OF THE POTENTIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM IN NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COPOȚ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most valued mushrooms in the World, because of its medicinal properties. In the context of North-Eastern Region’s development, any forest product could have a valuable contribution. Therefore, it is important to understand the mushroom’s ecology and generate a map of its optimal distribution. For this, we used one of the most performant species distribution models available – Maxent, field occurrences and climatic-topographic-biotic variables. After multi-collinearity testing and step-wise Maxent modelling, we came to an end with a 0.8 final model based on two predictors. Thus, in the region, the optimal habitat distribution is found in oak, beech, riparian or mixed forests bellow approximately 800 m altitude. The species can be found in almost all forests across lowland, colline and submontane regions according to tree host presence. The approach could be promising for other fungal species for the sustainable development of the region.

  14. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  15. Examining current or future trade-offs for biodiversity conservation in north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reside, April E; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M

    2017-01-01

    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near- or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.

  16. Origin and fate of methane in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Shelley, Felicity; Pritchard, William J; Maanoja, Susanna T; Trimmer, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) contain the largest pools of oceanic methane but its origin and fate are poorly understood. High-resolution (methane (20-105 nM) in the anoxic core of the largest OMZ, the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Sediment core incubations identified a clear benthic methane source where the OMZ meets the continental shelf, between 350 and 650 m, with the flux reflecting the concentration of methane in the overlying anoxic water. Further incubations characterised a methanogenic potential in the presence of both porewater sulphate and nitrate of up to 88 nmol g -1 day -1 in the sediment surface layer. In these methane-producing sediments, the majority (85%) of methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) gene sequences clustered with Methanosarcinaceae (⩾96% similarity to Methanococcoides sp.), a family capable of performing non-competitive methanogenesis. Incubations with 13 C-CH 4 showed potential for both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation in the waters within and above the OMZ. Both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation is corroborated by the presence of particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) gene sequences, related to type I methanotrophs and the lineage of Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera, known to perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO), respectively.

  17. [Bovine hypodermosis in north-eastern Algeria: prevalence and intensity of infestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benakhla, A; Lonneux, J F; Mekroud, A; Losson, B; Boulard, C

    1999-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1997 different factors related to warble fly infestation (prevalence, intensity, climate, breed) were studied in north-eastern Algeria. Mean prevalence during the period was 76%. This figure was obtained from a cattle market survey of four different regions (Jijel, Constantine, Guelma, and El Tarf). One-hundred percent of the herds were found to be infested in El Tarf and 61% of animals were infested. Within a herd, the intensity of infestation decreased with the age of the cattle. The mean number of warbles per animal decreased as reinfestations occurred. The peak of the emergence of warbles observed between January and March was progressively delayed in the older animals. Two species of Hypoderma were present in cattle in Algeria (H. bovis and H. lineatum) with a predominance of H. lineatum (63%) in the semi-arid area (Batna) and a majority of H. bovis (75%) in humid area (Jijel). Warbles appeared earlier in Batna (October) than in Jijel (November). The Prim'Holstein breed was more susceptible to the warble fly infestation than Montbeliard or local breeds. The implementation of a control programme for hypodermosis in Algeria is urgent. Control can be achieved through a mass treatment of cattle. This approach must take into account the factors described in this study which influence the epidemiology of the disease.

  18. Vertebral column deformities in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulli, Chiara G; Galatius, Anders; Kinze, Carl C; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Deaville, Rob; Jepson, Paul; Vedder, Elisabeth J; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Sabin, Richard C; Watson, Alastair

    2015-09-17

    Five white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris with outwardly vertebral kyphosis, kyphoscoliosis or lordosis were identified during a photo-identification survey of over 400 individuals (2002-2013) in Faxaflói and Skjálfandi Bays, Iceland. In addition, 3 stranding reports from Denmark, The Netherlands and the UK were analysed, providing both external observation and post mortem details of axial deviations of the vertebral column in this species. Two of the free-ranging cases and 2 of the stranded specimens appeared to have an acquired disease, either as a direct result of trauma, or indirectly from trauma/wound and subsequent infection and bony proliferation, although we were unable to specifically identify the causes. Our data represent a starting point to understand vertebral column deformations and their implications in white-beaked dolphins from the eastern North Atlantic. We recommend for future necropsy cases to conduct macro- and microscopic evaluation of muscle from both sides of the deformed region, in order to assess chronic or acute conditions related to the vertebral deformations and cause of death.

  19. Filamentous fungi vectored by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a public hospital in North-Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, R S S; Silveira, S S; Pessoa, W F B; Rodrigues, A; Andrioli, J L; Delabie, J H C; Fontana, R

    2013-03-01

    The increase in opportunistic fungal infections has led to the search for putative sources of contamination in hospital environments. Ants in a public hospital in Itabuna, north-eastern Brazil were examined for carriage of filamentous fungi. During a year-long survey, ants from different hospital areas were sampled. Preference was given to locations where it was possible to observe ants actively foraging. The fungi found on the ants' integument were cultured and identified. A total of 106 ant workers belonging to 12 species in 11 genera were collected. A total of 47 fungal strains was isolated from 40% of the ants (N = 42). We found 16 fungal species in 13 genera associated with the ant workers. The prevalent fungal genera were Aspergillus, Purpureocillium and Fusarium. The ants Tapinoma melanocephalum, Paratrechina longicornis and Pheidole megacephala were associated with six fungal genera; and four genera of fungi were associated with Solenopsis saevissima workers. Fungal diversity was higher in the following hospital areas: nursery, hospital beds, breastmilk bank and paediatrics. Ants act as carriers of soil and airborne fungal species, and ant control in hospital areas is necessary to prevent the dissemination of such micro-organisms. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Limnological record inferred from diatoms in sediments of Lake Skaliska (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sienkiewicz Elwira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Subfossil diatoms analysis was employed to reconstruct past environmental changes in Lake Skaliska. This lake, presently a palaeolake, is located on a wide plain called the Skaliska Basin (northern part of Mazury Lake District, north-eastern Poland. Changes in terrestrial vegetation suggest that the initial phase of the lake was in the early Holocene. In the sediments a total of 176 diatom species belonging to 35 genera were identified. The majority of diatoms are alkaliphilous and alkalibiontic, occurring mainly in meso-eutrophic water. Diatom flora development suggests that the best conditions for diatom growth prevailed throughout the Boreal and in the early Atlantic, a suggestion supported by the increased frequency of planktonic diatoms living in nutrient-rich water. A water pH reconstruction (DIpH based on diatoms points to alkalinity during the lake’s existence. Since roughly the mid-Atlantic the lake was shallowing, and at the beginning of the Subboreal peat sedimentation led to complete overgrowth of the lake.

  1. The 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake and its significance for seismic hazards in eastern North America: overview and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Chapman, Martin C.; Green, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    The 23 August 2011 Mw (moment magnitude) 5.7 ± 0.1, Mineral, Virginia, earthquake was the largest and most damaging in the central and eastern United States since the 1886 Mw 6.8–7.0, Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. Seismic data indicate that the earthquake rupture occurred on a southeast-dipping reverse fault and consisted of three subevents that progressed northeastward and updip. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) "Did You Feel It?" intensity reports from across the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, rockfalls triggered at distances to 245 km, and regional groundwater-level changes are all consistent with efficient propagation of high-frequency seismic waves (∼1 Hz and higher) in eastern North America due to low attenuation.

  2. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv >Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  3. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T [Department of Botany and Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming (United States); Brewer, Simon [Department of Botany, University of Wyoming (United States); Williams, John W, E-mail: yliu11@uwyo.ed [Department of Geography and Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  4. Genetic diversity and structure in hill rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces from the North-Eastern Himalayas of India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Somnath; Marndi, B. C.; Mawkhlieng, B.; Banerjee, A.; Yadav, R. M.; Misra, A. K.; Bansal, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hill rices (Oryza sativa L.) are direct seeded rices grown on hill slopes of different gradients. These landraces have evolved under rainfed and harsh environmental conditions and may possess genes governing adaptation traits such as tolerance to cold and moisture stress. In this study, 64 hill rice landraces were collected from the state of Arunachal Pradesh of North-Eastern region of India, and assessed by agro-morphological variability and microsatellite markers polymorphism. Ou...

  5. Assessing antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using fossil pollen data: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yao; Jackson, Stephen T; Brewer, Simon; Williams, John W

    2010-01-01

    We explored formal approaches to identifying and interpreting the antiquity and turnover of terrestrial ecosystems in eastern North America using pollen records. Preliminary results of cluster analyses, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, and likelihood estimation of ecosystem analog in a simple Bayesian model allow assessment of modern ecosystem antiquities and past ecosystem turnovers. Approaches discussed in this study thus provide a vehicle for further studies.

  6. Medicinal plants used for liver diseases in some parts of Kamrup district of Assam, a North Eastern State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoky, J; Das, P N

    2008-07-01

    An ethno-botanical survey was conducted in some tribal dominated pockets of Kamrup district of ASSAM, a North Eastern State of India. This report deals with 24 plant species used as herbal remedies for the treatment of liver ailments. Each entry includes the botanical and prevalent local name(s), other medicinal use(s), part(s) used, method of preparation and mode of administration.

  7. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae) Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwasina, Oseni Saheed; ThankGod, Onyiche Emmanuel; Augustine, Omonuwa Omojefe; Gimba, Fufa Ido

    2014-01-01

    Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consider...

  8. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  9. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms and population structure of Enterobacter cloacae non-susceptible to Ertapenem in North-Eastern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGuillard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone (FQ agents are a potential resort to treat infection due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase and susceptible to FQ. In a context of increase of non-susceptibility to carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae, we characterized FQ resistance mechanisms in 75 Enterobacter cloacae isolates non-susceptible to ertapenem in North-Eastern France in 2012 and describe the population structure by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among them, 14.7% (12/75 carried a carbapenemase-encoding gene. Except one isolate producing VIM-1, the carbapenemase-producing isolates carried the well-known IncL/M pOXA48a plasmid. Most of the isolates (59/75 harbored at least a FQ-R determinant. qnr genes were predominant (40%, 30/75. The MLST study revealed that E. cloacae isolates’ clonality was wide (24 different STs. The more widespread STs were ST74, ST101, ST110, ST114 and ST133. Carbapenem MICs were higher for E. cloacae ST74 than for other E. cloacae isolates. PMQR determinants were more often observed in E. cloacae ST74 isolates. These findings showed that (i pOXA-48a is spreading in North-Eastern France, (ii qnr is preponderant in E. cloacae, (iii E. cloacae comprised a large amount of lineages spreading in North-Eastern France and (iv FQ as an alternative to β-lactams to treat ertapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae are compromised.

  10. Population structure in Atlantic cod in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat: early life stage dispersal and adult migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Carl; Svedäng, Henrik; Knutsen, Halvor; Dahle, Geir; Jonsson, Patrik; Ring, Anna-Karin; Sköld, Mattias; Jorde, Per Erik

    2016-02-03

    In marine fish species, where pelagic egg and larvae drift with ocean currents, population structure has been suggested to be maintained by larval retention due to hydrographic structuring and by homing of adult fish to natal areas. Whilst natal homing of adults has been demonstrated for anadromous and coral reef fishes, there are few documented examples of philopatric migration in temperate marine fish species. Here, we demonstrate temporally stable genetic differentiation among spawning populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), and present genetic and behavioural evidence for larval drift and philopatric migration in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat area. We show that juvenile cod collected in the eastern Skagerrak and central Kattegat are genetically similar to cod from offshore spawning areas in the eastern North Sea. Genetic assignment of individual 2-5 year old fish indicates that cod residing at, or migrating towards, spawning areas in Kattegat and the North Sea display philopatric behaviours. Together these findings suggest a loop between spawning, larval drift and adult return-migrations to spawning areas and underlines that both oceanographic processes and migratory behaviour in the adult phase may be important for stock separation and integrity in marine temperate fishes such as Atlantic cod.

  11. Influence of the Eastern California Shear Zone on deposition of the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation: Insights from the Cibola area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; Homan, Mindy B.; Bennett, Scott E. K.

    2017-01-01

    The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) is a wide zone of late Cenozoic strike-slip faults and related diffuse deformation that currently accommodates ~20–25% of relative Pacific–North America plate motion in the lower Colorado River region (Fig. 1A; Dokka and Travis, 1990; Miller et al., 2001; Guest et al., 2007; Mahan et al., 2009). The ECSZ is kinematically linked southward to dextral faults in the northern Gulf of California (Bennett et al., 2016a), and it may have initiated ca. 8 Ma when major strike-slip faults developed in the northern Gulf and Salton Trough region (Bennett et al., 2016b; Darin et al., 2016; Woodburne, 2017). Thus deformation related to the ECSZ occurred in the lower Colorado River region during deposition of the Bouse Formation, which is commonly bracketed between 6.0 and 4.8 Ma (House et al., 2008; Sarna-Wojcicki et al., 2011; Spencer et al., 2013) and may be as old as 6–7 Ma in the south (McDougall and Miranda Martínez, 2014, 2016). Post-4.5 Ma broad sagging is recognized along the lower Colorado River (Howard et al., 2015), but the possibility that faults of the ECSZ influenced local to regional subsidence patterns during deposition of the Bouse Formation has received little attention to date (e.g., Homan, 2014; O’Connell et al., 2016). The Bouse Formation is a widespread sequence of late Miocene to early Pliocene deposits exposed discontinuously along the lower Colorado River corridor (Fig. 1A). In the southern Blythe basin it consists of three regionally correlative members: (1) Basal Carbonate, consisting of supratidal and intertidal mud-flat marls, intertidal and shallow subtidal bioclastic grainstone and conglomerate, and subtidal marl; (2) Siliciclastic member, consisting of Colorado River-derived green claystone, red mudstone and siltstone, and cross-bedded river channel sandstone; and (3) Upper Bioclastic member fossiliferous sandy calcarenite, coarse pebbly grainstone, and calcareous-matrix conglomerate (Homan, 2014

  12. Two late-Glacial avifaunas from eastern North Island, New Zealand : Te Aute Swamp and Wheturau Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Late-Glacial faunas from Wheturau Quarry near Gisborne and Te Aute, near Napier, North Island, New Zealand, are described and radiocarbon dates presented. These faunas suggest that the eastern North Island was covered in open shrubland until 10,500 years BP. There were significant changes in the fauna of the eastern North Island during the Early Holocene, when the dominant moa species was replaced; the key species Cnemiornis gracilis disappeared from the fauna; and others, such as Euryanas finschi became scarce. The Wheturau fauna includes the largest collection of Cnemiornis gracilis bones yet found, and a storm petrel that may be Oceanites maorianus, named from three skins collected last century off Banks Peninsula. The Te Aute site is notable for the large number of moa bones preserved, especially Euryapteryx curtus and Dinonnis giganteus. It is also the type locality for Diornis gazella Oliver, Cnermiornis gracilis Forbes, Circus teauteensis Forbes, Circus hamiltoni Forbes, and Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major Forbes. The record of Harpagornis moorei from Te Aute is shown to have been an error in identification by Hamilton, and Harpagornis is therefore unknown in the North Island. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Organic carbon budget for the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre: major role of DOC in mesopelagic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Falcón, Yeray; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Pérez-Hernández, María Dolores; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Mason, Evan; Arístegui, Javier

    2017-08-31

    Transports of suspended particulate (POC susp ) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon are inferred from a box-model covering the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Corresponding net respiration rates (R) are obtained from a net organic carbon budget that is based on the transport estimates, and includes both vertical and lateral fluxes. The overall R in the mesopelagic layer (100-1500 m) is 1.6 ± 0.4 mmol C m -2 d -1 . DOC accounts for up to 53% of R as a result of drawdown of organic carbon within Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW) that is entrained into sinking Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) that leads to formation of Mediterranean water (MW) at intermediate depths (~900 m). DOC represents 90% of the respired non-sinking organic carbon. When converted into oxygen units, the computed net respiration rate represents less than half the oxygen utilization rates (OUR) reported for the mesopelagic waters of the subtropical North Atlantic. Mesoscale processes in the area, not quantified with our approach, could account in part for the OUR differences observed between our carbon budget and other published studies from the North Atlantic, although seasonal or interannual variability could also be responsible for the difference in the estimates.

  14. Boron isotopes reveal multiple metasomatic events in the mantle beneath the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Zhou; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-12-01

    Linkages inferred between the geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle beneath eastern Eurasia and the stagnant Pacific slab documented geophysically in its mantle transition zone are as yet not clearly characterized. In this paper we report new elemental and isotopic data for boron (B) on a suite of well-characterized Cenozoic basalts (alkali basalts, basanites and nephelinites), with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like trace element signatures from western Shandong of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). Correlations between major elements (e.g., FeOT versus SiO2), trace elements (e.g., CeN/PbN versus BaN/ThN) and radiogenic isotopes (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb versus 87Sr/86Sr) suggest these basalts are derived via the mixing of melts from two mantle components: a fluid mobile element (FME; such as Ba, K, Pb and Sr) enriched component, which is most evident in the alkali basalts, and a FME depleted mantle component that is more evident in the basanites and nephelinites. The alkali basalts in this study have lower B concentrations (1.4-2.2 μg/g) but higher δ11B (-4.9 to -1.4) values than the basanites and nephelinites (B = 2.1-5.0 μg/g; δ11B = -6.9 to -3.9), and all the samples have nearly constant B/Nb ratios between 0.03 and 0.07, similar to the observed range in B/Nb for intraplate lavas. Our high-SiO2 samples have higher δ11B than that of our low SiO2 samples, indicating that the B isotopic differences among our samples do not result from the addition of a continental crustal component in the mantle source, or direct crustal assimilation during the eruption process. The positive B versus Nb correlation suggests the B isotopic compositions of the western Shandong basalts primarily reflect the pre-eruptive compositions of their mantle sources. Correlations among B, Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the western Shandong basalts differ from those among basalts from plume settings (e.g., Azores and Hawaii), and are inconsistent with models suggesting single-step metasomatic

  15. Environmental forcing of nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J A; Langlois, Rebecca J; Mills, Matthew M; Patey, Matthew D; Hill, Polly G; Nielsdóttir, Maria C; Compton, Tanya J; Laroche, Julie; Achterberg, Eric P

    2011-01-01

    During the winter of 2006 we measured nifH gene abundances, dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation rates and carbon fixation rates in the eastern tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The dominant diazotrophic phylotypes were filamentous cyanobacteria, which may include Trichodesmium and Katagnymene, with up to 10(6) L(-1)nifH gene copies, unicellular group A cyanobacteria with up to 10(5) L(-1)nifH gene copies and gamma A proteobacteria with up to 10(4) L(-1)nifH gene copies. N(2) fixation rates were low and ranged between 0.032-1.28 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) with a mean of 0.30 ± 0.29 nmol N L(-1) d(-1) (1σ, n = 65). CO(2)-fixation rates, representing primary production, appeared to be nitrogen limited as suggested by low dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate ratios (DIN:DIP) of about 2 ± 3.2 in surface waters. Nevertheless, N(2) fixation rates contributed only 0.55 ± 0.87% (range 0.03-5.24%) of the N required for primary production. Boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that the distribution of the gamma A proteobacteria and filamentous cyanobacteria nifH genes was mainly predicted by the distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, BRT indicated that multiple a-biotic environmental variables including nutrients DIN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and DIP, trace metals like dissolved aluminum (DAl), as a proxy of dust inputs, dissolved iron (DFe) and Fe-binding ligands as well as oxygen and temperature influenced N(2) fixation rates and the distribution of the dominant diazotrophic phylotypes. Our results suggest that lower predicted oxygen concentrations and higher temperatures due to climate warming may increase N(2) fixation rates. However, the balance between a decreased supply of DIP and DFe from deep waters as a result of more pronounced stratification and an enhanced supply of these nutrients with a predicted increase in deposition of Saharan dust may ultimately determine the

  16. Geomorphological map of a coastal stretch of north-eastern Gozo (Maltese archipelago, Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Mauro; Micallef, Anton; Biolchi, Sara; Chelli, Alessandro; Cuoghi, Alessandro; Devoto, Stefano; Gauci, Christopher; Graff, Kevin; Lolli, Federico; Mantovani, Matteo; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Pisani, Luca; Prampolini, Mariacristina; Restall, Brian; Roulland, Thomas; Saliba, Michael; Selmi, Lidia; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphological investigations carried out along the north-eastern coast of the Island of Gozo (Malta) have led to the production of a detailed geomorphological map. Field surveys, accompanied by aerial photo-interpretation, were carried out within the framework of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement Project ``Developing Geomorphological mapping skills and datasets in anticipation of subsequent Susceptibility, Vulnerability, Hazard and Risk Mapping'' (Council of Europe). In particular, this geomorphological map is the main output of a `Training Course on Geomorphological Mapping in Coastal Areas' held within the Project in November 2016. The study area selected was between Ramla Bay and Dacrhlet Qorrot Bay on the Island of Gozo (67 km2), part of the Maltese archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea. From a geological viewpoint, the stratigraphic sequence includes Late Oligocene (Chattian) to Late Miocene (Messinian) sedimentary rocks. The hard limestones of the Upper Coralline Limestone Formation, the youngest lithostratigraphic unit, dominate the study area. Underlying this formation, marls and clays belonging to the Blue Clay Formation extensively outcrop. The oldest lithostratigraphic unit observed in the study area is the Globigerina Limestone Formation, a fine-grained limestone. The lithostructural features of the outcropping units clearly condition the morphography of the landscape. The coast is characterised by the alternation of inlets and promontories. Worthy of notice is the large sandy beach of Ramla Bay partly backed by dunes. From a geomorphological perspective, the investigated coastal stretch is characterised by limestone plateaus bounded by steep structural scarps which are reshaped by gravitational and/or degradation processes, and milder slopes in Blue Clays at their foot comprising of numerous rock block deposits (rdum in Maltese) and active or abandoned terraced fields used for agricultural purposes. Landforms and processes related to

  17. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  18. Landslide Risk: Economic Valuation in The North-Eastern Zone of Medellin City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Johnny Alexander; Hidalgo, César Augusto; Johana Marín, Nini

    2017-10-01

    Natural disasters of a geodynamic nature can cause enormous economic and human losses. The economic costs of a landslide disaster include relocation of communities and physical repair of urban infrastructure. However, when performing a quantitative risk analysis, generally, the indirect economic consequences of such an event are not taken into account. A probabilistic approach methodology that considers several scenarios of hazard and vulnerability to measure the magnitude of the landslide and to quantify the economic costs is proposed. With this approach, it is possible to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the risk by landslides, allowing the calculation of the economic losses before a potential disaster in an objective, standardized and reproducible way, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The possibility of comparing different scenarios facilitates the urban planning process, the optimization of interventions to reduce risk to acceptable levels and an assessment of economic losses according to the magnitude of the damage. For the development and explanation of the proposed methodology, a simple case study is presented, located in north-eastern zone of the city of Medellín. This area has particular geomorphological characteristics, and it is also characterized by the presence of several buildings in bad structural conditions. The proposed methodology permits to obtain an estimative of the probable economic losses by earthquake-induced landslides, taking into account the uncertainty of the building costs in the study zone. The obtained estimative shows that the structural intervention of the buildings produces a reduction the order of 21 % in the total landslide risk.

  19. Synthesis and revision of groups within the Newark Supergroup, eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Olsen, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Newark Supergroup currently includes nine stratigraphic groups, each of which applies to part or all of the rock column of only one or a few basins. Because the group nomenclature within the Newark Supergroup is neither inclusive nor parallel in its concepts, nearly half of the strata within the Newark Supergroup lacks any group placement. A new system is proposed herein that (1) establishes unambiguous group boundaries, (2) places all Newark Supergroup strata into groups, (3) reduces the number of group names from nine to three, (4) creates parallelism between groups and three major successive tectonic events that created the rift basins containing the Newark Supergroup, and (5) coincidentally provides isochronous or nearly isochronous group boundaries. These proposed groups are (1) the Chatham Group (Middle Triassic to basal Lower Jurassic sedimentary rocks), (2) the Meriden Group (Lower Jurassic extrusive volcanic and sedimentary rocks), and (3) the Agawam Group (new name) (Lower Jurassic sedimentary rocks above all early Mesozoic igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks). This new rock classification system makes use of the fact that a discrete interval of synchronous or nearly synchronous volcanism and plutonism occurred throughout the early Mesozoic rift system of eastern North America. The presence or absence of volcanic rocks provides a powerful stratigraphic tool for establishing regional groups and group boundaries. The presence of sedimentary rocks injected by diabase dikes and sills, in the absence of extrusive volcanic rocks, places Newark Supergroup rocks in the Chatham Group. The presence of extrusive volcanic rocks, interbedded with sedimentary rocks injected by diabase dikes and sills, places Newark Supergroup rocks in the Meriden Group. The presence of sedimentary rocks lacking both extrusive volcanic rocks and diabase dikes and sills, places Newark Supergroup rocks in the Agawam Group. Application of this new regional group stratigraphy to the

  20. Flora and habitat of potato pits on karne hills in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in north-eastern Poland in the vicinity of the village of Haćki (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. This area is distinguished by an exceptionally numerous agglomeration of kames (10. Previous archaeological and soil research showed that kames have been inhabited by man from the iron age, and that the following stages of colonization are reflected in three levels of fossil soils. In modern times local people use the base of kames for the storage of potatoes over the winter. The potato pits are a cultural curiosity found only in this area. They are dug out in the cohesive, fine-grained substratum, which is the building material of kames, down to 1.5-2 m deep. Research plots (16 with a surface area of about 2-5 m2 were established in the potato pits in 1990. In the summer of the same year 16 phytosociological surveys were performed and soil samples taken. The investigated habitats are characterized by very low humidity. The concentration of carbon in the samples from potato pits dug out at the foot of a kame hill (the site of a settlement in the past results probably from the occurrence of soil from the Roman period. At the present time the pits are covered by poor ruderal flora (approx. 10 species in one phytosociological survey. It is distinguished from other communities of such type by a low participation of species occurring in the xerothermic grasslands.

  1. An iconic traditional apiculture of park fringe communities of Borena Sayint National Park, north eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adal, Hussien; Asfaw, Zemede; Woldu, Zerihun; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Damme, Patrick

    2015-09-07

    Traditional apiculture has been practised in Ethiopia over a long historical period and still remains a benign means to extract direct benefits from natural ecosystems. While its contribution to economic development and watershed protection is increasingly recognized its cultural significance is however, seldom noticed. This study was conducted using an ethnobotanical study approach to document the honey bee flora and associated indigenous knowledge of local communities in Borena Sayint National Park (BSNP), north eastern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 170 informants through semi-structured interviews and guided field walks, focus group discussion with 37 informants and 14 key informants and analyzed using standard analytical tools including ranking, comparisons and multivariate analyses. In total, 152 bee forage species in 133 genera and 74 families were documented. The Asteraceae and Rosaceae were represented with six species each over the other plant families. Percentage of mentions per species ranged between 76.9 and 13.5% for the most salient bee forage species. Dombeya torrida, Erica arborea, and Olinia rochetiana captured high community consensus as measured by rank order of popularity and designated as local appellation names of honey. Cluster analysis of priority ranking data showed relationships between key informants with respect to preferences, but ordination analysis did not indicate environmental proximity as a determinant of their responses. Five honey harvesting seasons occur each corresponding to the floral calendar of a dominant bee forage species that stipulate relocation of hives to appropriate locations within the national park. The apicultural tradition is iconic with economic value and forming part of the local peoples' cultural identity apt to be preserved as a bequest for posterity.

  2. Initial formation of an indigenous crop complex in eastern North America at 3800 B.P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D; Yarnell, Richard A

    2009-04-21

    Although geneticists and archaeologists continue to make progress world-wide in documenting the time and place of the initial domestication of a growing number of plants and animals, far less is known regarding the critically important context of coalescence of various species into distinctive sets or complexes of domesticates in each of the world's 10 or more independent centers of agricultural origin. In this article, the initial emergence of a crop complex is described for one of the best-documented of these independent centers, eastern North America (ENA). Before 4000 B.P. there is no indication of a crop complex in ENA, only isolated evidence for single indigenous domesticate species. By 3800 B.P., however, at least 5 domesticated seed-bearing plants formed a coherent complex in the river valley corridors of ENA. Accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates and reanalysis of archaeobotanical assemblages from a short occupation of the Riverton Site in Illinois documents the contemporary cultivation at 3800 B.P. of domesticated bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), marshelder (Iva annua var. macrocarpa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus), and 2 cultivated varieties of chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), as well as the possible cultivation of Cucurbita pepo squash and little barley (Hordeum pusillum). Rather than marking either an abrupt developmental break or a necessary response to population-packing or compressed resource catchments, the coalescence of an initial crop complex in ENA appears to reflect an integrated expansion and enhancement of preexisting hunting and gathering economies that took place within a context of stable long-term adaptation to resource-rich river valley settings.

  3. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever among children in north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilber, E; Cakir, M; Acar, E A; Orhan, F; Yaris, N; Bahat, E; Okten, A; Erduran, E

    2009-03-01

    To analyse the epidemiological and clinical features of children with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in north-eastern Turkey. A retrospective study of demographic features and physical and laboratory findings in 21 children with CCHF is described. Clinical course, treatment modalities and outcome were analysed. Most patients were admitted in June and July 2008; most were from the Gumushane and Kelkit valleys and half of them lived in rural areas. Mean (SD) age was 10.3 (3.9) years and the disease was more common in males (71.4%). Approximately 70% had a history of tick bite. The main symptoms were fever (17, 80.9%), nausea (11, 52.3%), malaise (10, 47.6%) and headache (7, 33.3%). At initial examination, approximately 70% of patients had leukopenia and 65% had thrombocytopenia. Anaemia developed during follow-up in six patients. Liver involvement was seen in 12 patients and one patient had acute tubular necrosis. Six patients had haemophagocytosis. Patients were hospitalised for a median 8 days (range 3-22) and nine patients had bleeding from various sites approximately 3-5 days after hospitalisation. Subcutaneous haematoma (6), especially epistaxis and at venepuncture sites (6) were the most common sites of bleeding. Pulmonary haemorrhage developed in two patients and they required ventilatory support. Overall mortality related to CCHF was 4.7% (one patient). Early diagnosis of CCHF and early referral to specialised centres are important for outcome. Exceptional epidemics may be seen in future owing to ecological and environmental changes.

  4. Spatial Profile of Poverty.Case Study:The North-Eastern Development Region in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei SCHVAB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the authors try to em-phasize the interdependent relations that are established between space and poverty, as well as the modalities through which poverty policies can be optimized and implemented at the territo-rial systems level in accordance to the polycen-tric development model.The f rst goal of the study is to understand the way in which the complexity of the territory, in its structure and relations, inf uences in un-equal ways the territorial pattern of poverty and development. The concept of territorial poverty that we use in the present study transcends the usual connotation of poverty as a simple lack of different kind of resources towards the incapacity of the system to offer a wide range of impulses and solutions to the encountered problems and thus induce a state of underdevelopment.The second goal is to understand in which ways the polycentric development theory can play a role in reducing poverty. In this sense the authors created a poverty index, and based on this index a polycentric development model was created for the North-Eastern region. This poly-centric development model has direct implica-tions for policy makers, as it highlights the areas that require the most attention and the develop-ment pole that should inf uence its development. By taking into consideration the results of this study, the next logical step for policy makers is to implement the necessary measures by consider-ing the relations between the development pole and the underdeveloped area that is under its in-f uence area. In this respect tailor-f t policies and measures can be applied in the effort to reduce poverty levels.

  5. Serological survey for Brucella antibodies in donkeys of north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijjani, A O; Junaidu, A U; Salihu, M D; Farouq, A A; Faleke, O O; Adamu, S G; Musa, H I; Hambali, I U

    2017-08-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and risk factors influencing the presence of Brucella antibodies in donkeys of Borno State, north-eastern Nigeria. The study aimed at providing baseline information that may be used in planning a control policy against equine brucellosis. Blood samples were collected from 601 donkeys, comprised of 374 males and 227 females from the six agricultural zones of the state between March 2013 and September 2014. The sera obtained were tested for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Of the 601 donkeys tested, 43 (7.2%) and 40 (6.7%) were seropositive by RBPT and cELISA, respectively. A seroprevalence of 8.6% was obtained in male and 3.5% in female donkeys. According to age, the highest seroprevalence of 9.6% was obtained from donkeys of age group 4-6 years. With respect to pregnancy status, a higher seroprevalence (6.8%) was obtained from pregnant donkeys compared to 3.8% obtained from the non-pregnant ones. There were statistically significant associations between the presence of antibodies and sex (p  0.05) was observed between the pregnancy status and presence of antibodies. The study concludes that Brucella infection is present in donkeys in all the agricultural zones of the state. The relatively high seroprevalence (7.2%) obtained is of public health concern because of the close interaction between donkeys, ruminants, and humans in the study area.

  6. Meso–Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure in the Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxing Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohai Bay Basin is a region where part of the North China Craton has been thinned and destroyed. It has experienced two periods of crustal thinning that occurred during the Cretaceous and Paleogene, but investigations of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric thermal structure are limited. Therefore, in this study, the distributions of mantle heat flow, crustal heat flow, and Moho temperatures during the Meso–Cenozoic are calculated based on analyses of the thermal history of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that the ratio of mantle heat flow to surface heat flow peaked during the late stages of the early Cretaceous and during the middle to late Paleogene. The corresponding mantle heat flow was more than 65% of the surface heat flow. Moho temperatures reached three peaks: 900–1100 °C in the late stages of the early Cretaceous; 820–900 °C in the middle to late Paleogene; and (in the Linqing Depression, Cangxian Uplift, and Jizhong Depression 770–810 °C during the early Neogene. These results reveal that the Bohai Bay Basin experienced significant geological change during the Cretaceous, including the transformation of lithospheric thermal structure from “cold mantle and hot crust” before the Cretaceous to “hot mantle and cold crust” after the Cretaceous. The results also indicate that the basin experienced two large-scale rifting events. Therefore, this work may provide the thermal parameters for further investigations of the geodynamic evolution of eastern China.

  7. Atmospheric Electric Field measurements at Eastern North Atlantic ARM Climate Research Facility: Global Electric Circuit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Francisco; Silva, Hugo; Nitschke, Kim; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility of the ARM programme (established an supported by the U.S. Department of Energy with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores), is located at Graciosa Island of the Azores Archipelago (39° N; 28° W). It constitutes a strategic observatory for Atmospheric Electricity since it is located in the Atlantic Ocean basin exposed to clean marine aerosol conditions which reduces the well known spectral signature of atmospheric pollution and enables the study of the so called Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). First evidences of the existence of a GEC affecting the Earth's Electric Environment has retrieved by the Carnegie cruise expedition, in what became known as the Carnegie Curve. Those measurements were made in the Ocean in several campaigns and the present studies aims at reconsidering measurements in similar conditions but in a long-term basis, at least 5 years. This will contribute to the understanding of the long-term evolution of the Ionospheric Potential (IP). In literature there is theoretical evidence that it is decreasing IP in strength, but that conjecture is still lacking valid experimental evidence. Moreover, to clearly identify the GEC signal two effects must be taken into account: the effect of surface radon gas variation, because the Azores Archipelago is a seismic active region the possible influence of Earthquakes cannot be discarded easily; the effect of short-term solar activity on the Atmospheric Electricity modulation, solar flares emitting solar particles (e.g., solar energetic protons) need to be considered in this study.

  8. [Clinical research outside of teaching hospitals: Current situation in north-eastern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, C; Dupoux, A; Déloy, L; Hertz, C; Jeanmaire, T; Parneix, N

    2015-04-01

    Most clinical research in France takes place in teaching hospitals. There are, however, many advantages to developing it in other hospitals: access to innovative treatments, improvement in healthcare quality, attractiveness of hospitals, increased trial inclusion rates and reduced selection bias. The objectives of our study were to report on the current situation of clinical research outside teaching hospitals. A three-stage survey was conducted between January 2012 and May 2013 in non-teaching hospitals of north-eastern France. First, questionnaires were sent to administrative and medical boards of all hospitals with more than 100 beds, then to head doctors of every department in hospitals with more than 300 beds and finally meetings were organized with members of 20 selected hospitals. The administrative and medical boards of 85 hospitals participated in the first stage of the survey; half of these hospitals were engaged in clinical research activities and for 10 the internal structuring was cross-disciplinary. Answers from 178 departments were obtained during the second stage; 47% reported a clinical research activity. Meetings with research teams in 20 hospitals allowed us to identify difficulties concerning research funding, transversal organization and sponsoring. Clinical research existed in more than half of the respondent non-teaching hospitals. Obstacles to its development can be grouped in three categories: 1) internal structuring of clinical research, 2) access to information and knowledge of how clinical research functions and to interlocutors outside the hospital and 3) access to skills necessary to sponsor clinical research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Human platelet antigens in Burmese, Karen and north-eastern Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuangtham, R; Romphruk, A; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Romphruk, A V

    2017-02-01

    A comparative study of allele frequencies at HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 in Burmese and Karen populations as well as at HPA-15 in north-eastern Thais (NET) is presented. Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are clinically important in several immune platelet disorders, including foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR). The knowledge of antigen frequencies in a population is essential for the evaluation of patients suffering from immune-mediated platelet disorders. A total of 285 unrelated, healthy Burmese, 242 Karen and 300 NET were recruited to this study. Genotype and allele frequencies of HPA-1 to -6 and HPA-15 were defined using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) RESULTS: No individuals homozygous for HPA-1bb, -2bb, -4bb, -5bb and -6bb were detected. HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a were present in all samples of Burmese and Karen origin. HPA-1b, -2b, -4b, -5b and -6b were rare in these populations. The frequencies of HPA-3a/-3b were 60·4/39·6% in Burmese and 55·8/44·2% in Karen, respectively. Frequencies of HPA-15a/-15b were 57·2/42·8% in Burmese, 52·5/47·5% in Karen and 49·8/50·2% in NET. The frequencies of HPA genotypes in our study indicates that HPA-1a, -2a, -4a, -5a and -6a are unlikely involved in FNAIT, PTP and PTR in Burmese and Karen populations. However, HPA-1b, -2b, -3a, -3b, -4b, -5b, -6b, -15a and -15b may likely stimulate alloantibodies in these populations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Freshwater fish's spatial patterns in isolated water springs in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Núñez, Jorge; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Jiménez-García, Daniel; Olmos Oropeza, Genaro; Galante, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    The Media Luna lake-spring was selected as representative of all thermal or no thermal springs in the zone of Valley of Rioverde, a semi-arid vegetation in the North-eastern of Mexico. This system is inhabited by 11 fish species, of which six are native. Four of the native species are endemic to the region and threatened due to touristic pressure and to the introduction of exotic species. The objectives were to determine the characteristics that influence the spatial distribution of the fish species, to analyze their spatial distribution patterns, and to describe the relationships between the different species. The general aim was to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. Several sessions were initiated in 1992 through direct observation. Later, between 1998 and 1999 five systematically seasonal sampling sessions were conducted (54 subaquatic transects/session). Finally, the data was updated by sampling in summer 2002 and winter 2006. Through the analysis was performed only for endemics of the region, like Ataeniobius toweri Meek, Cualac tessellatus Miller, Cichlasoma bartoni Bean and C. labridens Pellegrin, in at least one life stage, showed correlation with habitat variables or with other species. For these species, patterns of spatial aggregation and association with other species were observed. These results show a certain degree of specialization of endemic species to some microhabitat characteristics, as well as a significant interaction with other native species which they coexist. In addition, some significant relations between endemic and alien species suggest an antagonist relation. Management actions focused in the touristic use of the spring represent the main threat for these species, followed by an adequate management of exotic species. This study provides basis for future responsible management of these wetlands, where tourism and conservation can be combined.

  11. Agronomical evaluation of cape gooseberries (Physalis peruviana L. from central and north-eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Moreno Axel Mauricio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate agronomical traits in a germplasm collection of cape gooseberry from central and north-eastern Colombia in order to measure the variability of the collection in relation to the geographic origin of the accessions and their biological status (cultivated, feral and undetermined. For this purpose, a total of 54 accessions from the departments of Norte de Santander, Santander, Boyacá and Cundinamarca was evaluated using 30 descriptors (23 quantitative and seven qualitative by means of a principal component analysis (PCA applied to the quantitative variables and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA applied to the qualitative variables. The first two PCA components explained 52.42% of the total variation. The first component (39.79% was positively related to the weight and fruit size and negatively to the pH and maturity index. A hierarchical classification analysis based on the continuous variables resulted into two classes with contrasting affinities, with 94.37% of the cultivated accessions grouped into class 2 and 64% of the undetermined accessions grouped into class 1. The first three MCA axes explained 48.48% of the total variation. The first one (20.51% was related to strong serosity, medium fruit size and absence of damage caused by Phoma sp. A hierarchical classification analysis based on the categorical variables resulted in four classes (A, B, C, and D; with one of them (class B containing five accessions characterized by having strong serosity and absence of damage caused by insects and pathogens.

  12. Diagenesis of polymineralic temperate limestones in a cyclothemic sedimentary succession, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywick, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Temperate carbonate petrofacies (calcarenite and coquina) in the Pliocene-Pleistocene Petane Group of eastern North Island, New Zealand, are dominated by aragonite faunas consisting primarily of bivalves and gastropods. Unlike calcite-dominated temperate limestones, these polymineralic carbonates have undergone extensive early diagenetic alteration including extensive calcite cementation induced by aragonite dissolution. Marine cementation (type 1: pore-lining, bladed calcite) was isolated to biogenic pores. It predated glauconite and may have been precipitated as low-magnesium calcite, possibly in marine phreatic environments during sea-level transgressions. Four phases of calcite cement with varying but definitive degrees of meteoric influence occur in the Petane Group. Type 2 (ferroan scalenohedral calcite) was the initial pore-filling cement and precipitated from reduced pore fluids in a phreatic environment, possibly during or soon after the transition from marine to meteoric diagenesis. Type 3 (moderately ferroan drusy) calcite and type 4 (non-ferroan drusy) calcite were sequentially precipitated during meteoric conditions from pore waters that changed from reducing to oxidising. Type 5 (sinter) cements comprise several forms precipitated during vadose meteoric diagenesis, the final meteoric phase of alteration in the Petane Group. Ferroan calcite cementation of silt matrix in coquina limestones overlain by terrigenous silt (type 6: matrix cement) probably occurred simultaneously with type 2/3 pore-filling phases. A similar ferroan to moderately ferroan to non-ferroan suite of drusy calcite cements also lithified concretions in non-carbonate (siliciclastic sand) facies in the Petane Group, but only after the onset of compaction. Extensive skeletal diagenesis (stabilisation of magnesium calcite allochems, dissolution/recrystallisation of aragonite) occurred during type 3 and 4 cementation phases. Diagenesis in the Petane Group was stratigraphically influenced

  13. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  14. Migratory behavior of eastern North Pacific gray whales tracked using a hydrophone array.

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    Regina A Guazzo

    Full Text Available Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales behave and use sound while migrating. We detected, localized, and tracked whales for one full migration season, a first for gray whales. We verified and localized 10,644 gray whale M3 calls and grouped them into 280 tracks. Results confirm that gray whales are acoustically active while migrating and their swimming and acoustic behavior changes on daily and seasonal time scales. The seasonal timing of the calls verifies the gray whale migration timing determined using other methods such as counts conducted by visual observers. The total number of calls and the percentage of calls that were part of a track changed significantly over both seasonal and daily time scales. An average calling rate of 5.7 calls/whale/day was observed, which is significantly greater than previously reported migration calling rates. We measured a mean speed of 1.6 m/s and quantified heading, direction, and water depth where tracks were located. Mean speed and water depth remained constant between night and day, but these quantities had greater variation at night. Gray whales produce M3 calls with a root mean square source level of 156.9 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. Quantities describing call characteristics were variable and dependent on site-specific propagation characteristics.

  15. Fungal community in sclerotia of Japanese Beech forest soils in north eastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathia Amasya, Anzilni; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Makiko

    2014-05-01

    Sclerotia are resting structures of ectomycorrhizal fungi and appear as a response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as desiccation. They are hard, black, comparatively smooth and mostly spherical. Sclerotia are formed in rhizosphere and the 14C ages of sclerotia from A horizons of volcanic ash soils may range from modern until ca. 100~1,200 yr B.P. Most sclerotia-forming fungal species are known to be host-specific plant pathogens and therefore their abundance may indicate the presence of their host plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate fungal communities in sclerotia with an interest in describing the existing or may have previously existed host plant community. To investigate fungal community inside of sclerotia by 16S rDNA gene clone library, several hundred of sclerotia (ca. 1g) were collected from Fagus crenata forest soil in north eastern Japan. The rDNA ITS regions were then amplified by the PCR using primer pair ITS-1F/ITS-4. Aliquots of the amplified DNA were digested with restriction endonucleases AluI, Hae III, and HhaI to obtain ITS-RFLPs. To obtain the fungal community profiles a quenching fluorescence primer was used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to monitor the PCR amplification and then used for T-RFLP. The predominant group determined by clone library analysis from the sclerotia was Ascomycota: Arthrinium arundinis, which has been reported to be one of the soil fungal species responsible for bamboo degradation and a pathogen for many species belonging to Poaceae family.

  16. Pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India

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    Dipayan Choudhuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Spirometric evaluation of pulmonary function has been evolved as clinical tool in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of respiratory disorders. There are very few studies on normative reference values of pulmonary function parameters for adolescents from Tripura, a North-eastern state of India. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function and their predictors in male and female adolescents of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A total of 640 (320 from tribal and 320 non-tribal healthy, non-smoking male and female school children (age 10-14 years from four different districts of Tripura were randomly sampled for the study. The pulmonary function parameters analysed included forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% expired volume (FEF 25-75% , ratio of FEV 1 /FVC and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV. Results: The results revealed that body weight, body mass index (BMI, PEFR, FEF 25-75% and MVV are significantly high among male tribal children in comparison to non-tribal children. Height, weight, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, PEFR and MVV were found to be significantly more in tribal girls. In case of adolescents from Tripura, most of the pulmonary function parameters correlated with anthropometric parameters of the subject like height, weight, BMI, WHR, and WHtR. Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that both anthropometric and pulmonary function status of tribal and non-tribal adolescents from Tripura are comparable. The computed regression norms may be used to predict pulmonary function of adolescents from Tripura by using anthropometric indices.

  17. Characterization of non-methane volatile organic compounds at swine facilities in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Jessica; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    Samples were collected and analyzed in a field study to characterize C 2-C 12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted at five swine facilities in Eastern North Carolina between April 2002 and February 2003. Two sites employed conventional lagoon and field spray technologies, while three sites utilized various alternative waste treatment technologies in an effort to substantially reduce gaseous compound emissions, odor, and pathogens from these swine facilities. More than 100 compounds, including various paraffins, olefins, aromatics, ethers, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, halogenated hydrocarbons, phenols, and sulfides were positively identified and quantified by Gas Chromatographic/Flame Ionization Detection (GC/FID) analysis and confirmed by Gas Chromatographic/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis of one particularly complex sample collected assisted in providing identification and retention times for 17 sulfur-type VOCs including dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide as well as many other VOCs. Highest VOC concentration levels measured at each of the facilities were near the hog barn ventilation fans. Total measured VOCs at the hog barns were typically dominated by oxygenated hydrocarbons (HCs), i.e., ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone. These compounds, in addition to other oxygenated VOCs measured at the various sites, generally represented ˜37-73% of net total measured VOCs that were emitted from the hog barns at the various sites. Dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide, both recognized as malodorous compounds, were determined to have higher concentration levels at the barns than the background at every farm sampled with the exception of one farm during the warm sampling season.

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  19. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  20. Seasonal Variations of Oceanographic Variables and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Catches in the North Indramayu Waters Java Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuddin, Mega; Sunarto; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2018-02-01

    The remotely derived oceanographic variables included sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) catches are used as a combined dataset to understand the seasonal variation of oceanographic variables and Eastern Little Tuna catches in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The fish catches and remotely sensed data were analysed for the 5 years datasets from 2010-2014. This study has shown the effect of monsoon inducing oceanographic condition in the study area. Seasonal change features were dominant for all the selected oceanographic parameters of SST and Chl-a, and also Eastern Little Tuna catches, respectively. The Eastern Little Tuna catch rates have the peak season from September to December (700 to 1000) ton that corresponded with the value of SST ranging from 29 °C to 30 °C following the decreasing of Chl-a concentrations in September to November (0.4 to 0.5) mg m-3. The monsoonal system plays a great role in determining the variability of oceanographic conditions and catch in the north Indramayu waters, Java Sea. The catches seemed higher during the northwest monsoon than in the southeast monsoon for all year observations except in 2010. The wavelet spectrum analysis results confirmed that Eastern Little Tuna catches had seasonal and inter-annual variations during 2012-2014. The SST had seasonal variations during 2010-2014. The Chl-a also showed seasonal variations during 2010-2011 and interannual variations during 2011-2014. Our results would benefit the fishermen and policy makers to have better management for sustainable catch in the study area.

  1. GROWTH AND FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ULTRAPLANKTON ON A NORTH SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE EASTERN NORTH-ATLANTIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDHUIS, MJW; KRAAY, GW; GIESKES, WWC

    1993-01-01

    In the summer of 1989 vertical profiles of chlorophyll a were taken in the North Atlantic. Stations were located along a transect following longitude 20-degrees-W, between 60 and 33-degrees-N. Maximum chlorophyll a levels were located near the surface in the north (2 mugl-1) but became gradually

  2. Strategic conservation planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Drew, C. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts. Identifying common goals allows the ENCSEVA team to develop strategies that leverage joint resources and are more likely to achieve desired impacts across the landscape. The Plan will also provide an approach for ENCSEVA to meet applied research needs (identify knowledge gaps), foster adaptive management principles, identify conservation priorities, prioritize threats (including potential impacts of climate change), and identify the required capacity to implement strategies to create more resilient landscapes. ENCSEVA seeks to support the overarching goals of the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) and to provide scientific and technical support for conservation at landscape scales as well as inform the management of natural resources in response to shifts in climate, habitat fragmentation and loss, and other landscape-level challenges (South Atlantic LCC 2012). The ENCSEVA ecoregion encompasses the northern third of the SALCC geography and offers a unique opportunity to apply landscape conservation at multiple scales through the guidance of local conservation and natural resource management efforts and by reporting metrics that reflect the effectiveness of those efforts (Figure 1). The Environmental Decision Analysis Team, housed within the North Carolina Cooperative

  3. Impact of millennial-scale Holocene climate variability on eastern North American terrestrial ecosystems: Pollen-based climatic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.; Korejwo, D.A.; Meyers, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present paleoclimatic evidence for a series of Holocene millennial-scale cool intervals in eastern North America that occurred every ???1400 years and lasted ???300-500 years, based on pollen data from Chesapeake Bay in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cool events are indicated by significant decreases in pine pollen, which we interpret as representing decreases in January temperatures of between 0.2??and 2??C. These temperature decreases include excursions during the Little Ice Age (???1300-1600 AD) and the 8 ka cold event. The timing of the pine minima is correlated with a series of quasi-periodic cold intervals documented by various proxies in Greenland, North Atlantic, and Alaskan cores and with solar minima interpreted from cosmogenic isotope records. These events may represent changes in circumpolar vortex size and configuration in response to intervals of decreased solar activity, which altered jet stream patterns to enhance meridional circulation over eastern North America. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Floristic comparison of an Arizona Sky Island and the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora: the Huachuca Mountains and the Yecora area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana L. Reina G.

    2005-01-01

    The floras of the “Sky Island” Huachuca Mountains, Arizona (994 taxa; 316 km²; 1,524-2,885 m elevation, 1,361 m elevational range; 31°30’N) and the “mainland” Sierra Madre Occidental near Yécora, Sonora (1,284 taxa; ca. 2,080 km²; 820-2,140 m, 1,320 m elevational range; 28°24’N) were compared. Only 6.5% and 5.1% of the floras were non-native. Compositae, Gramineae, and...

  5. Short-term variability of gamma radiation at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site (Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radionuclides, and radon and its progeny in particular, can be used as a sensitive atmospheric tracer and an indicator of dynamic processes in the lower troposphere. Radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides (including Rn-222 progeny) is being continuously monitored since May 2015 in the framework of an ARM campaign at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the Government of the Autonomous Region of the Azores and University of the Azores. The resulting time series of 15-minute gamma ray counts radiation is characterized by occasional anomalies over a slowly-varying signal. Sharp peaks lasting typically 2-4 hours are coincident with heavy precipitation (> 10 mm/hour) and result from the scavenging effect of precipitation bringing radon progeny from the upper levels to the ground surface. However, the connection between gamma variability and precipitation is not straightforward as a result of the complex interplay of factors such as the precipitation intensity, the boundary layer height, the cloud's base height and thickness, or the air mass origin and atmospheric concentration of sub-micron aerosols, which influence the scavenging processes and therefore the concentration of radon progeny. Convective precipitation associated with cumuliform clouds forming under conditions of warming of the ground relative to the air does not produce enhancements in gamma radiation, likely as a result of the drop growing process being dominated by the fast accretion of liquid water, resulting in the reduction of the concentration of radionuclides by dilution. Events of convective precipitation further contribute to a reduction in gamma counts by inhibiting radon release from the soil surface and by attenuating gamma rays

  6. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, O.; Margolis, H. A.; Coursolle, C.

    2009-09-01

    This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C) exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto) and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff) to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj) and Pff (Pff-eco) relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re) and photosynthesis (Peco), respectively, were also quantified. Shallow (5 cm) soil temperature explained 67-86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm) soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring. Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max) saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m-2 s-1) and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two of the three years. Pff normalized for light peaked at air temperatures of 5-8°C, suggesting that this is the optimal temperature range for Pff. The Pff-eco/Peco ratio varied from 13 to 24% over the snow-free period and reached a minimum in mid-summer when both air temperature and Peco were at their maximum. On an annual basis, Pff-eco accounted for 17

  7. Evaluating controls on planktonic foraminiferal geochemistry in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kelly Ann; Thunell, Robert C.; Machain-Castillo, Maria Luisa; Fehrenbacher, Jennifer; Spero, Howard J.; Wejnert, Kate; Nava-Fernández, Xinantecatl; Tappa, Eric J.

    2016-10-01

    To explore relationships between water column hydrography and foraminiferal geochemistry in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific, we present δ18O and Mg/Ca records from three species of planktonic foraminifera, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, and Globorotalia menardii, collected from a sediment trap mooring maintained in the Gulf of Tehuantepec from 2006-2012. Differences in δ18O between mixed-layer species G. ruber and G. bulloides and thermocline-dweller G. menardii track seasonal changes in upwelling. The records suggest an increase in upwelling during the peak positive phase of El Niño, and an overall reduction in stratification over the six-year period. For all three species, Mg/Ca ratios are higher than what has been reported in previous studies, and show poor correlations to calcification temperature. We suggest that low pH (7.6-8.0) and [3 2-CO] values (∼70-120 μmol/kg) in the mixed layer contribute to an overall trend of higher Mg/Ca ratios in this region. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry analyses of G. bulloides with high Mg/Ca ratios (>9 mmol/mol) reveal the presence of a secondary coating of inorganic calcite that has Mg/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios up to an order of magnitude higher than these elemental ratios in the primary calcite, along with elevated Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. Some of the samples with abnormally high Mg/Ca are found during periods of high primary productivity, suggesting the alteration may be related to changes in carbonate saturation resulting from remineralization of organic matter in oxygen-poor waters in the water column. Although similar shell layering has been observed on fossil foraminifera, this is the first time such alteration has been studied in shells collected from the water column. Our results suggest a role for seawater carbonate chemistry in influencing foraminiferal calcite trace element:calcium ratios prior to deposition on the seafloor, particularly in high-productivity, low

  8. Determining water balance components at a lysimeter site in north-eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Kammerer, Gerhard; Cepuder, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The water balance of a certain soil profile in a certain time interval is subjected to changes of soil water content within the respective profile, and fluxes at its upper and lower boundary such as evapotranspiration and percolation, respectively. Weighing lysimeters are valuable instruments for water balance studies. Typically, mass changes - thus, changes of soil profile water content - are detected by a weighing system, while percolating water is measured by a tipping bucket or a weighed storage tank, and precipitation is measured by a rain gauge. Consequently, evapotranspiration can be determined by solving a simple water balance equation. However, a typical problem is that using separately measured precipitation data may cause implausible (negative) evapotranspiration. As a solution, the quantities can be determined directly from lysimeter mass changes, which are assumed to be positive due to precipitation and negative due to evapotranspiration. This method requires short measuring intervals and precise data. In this regard, data management of primarily older lysimeter facilities may be improved to fulfil these criteria. At an experimental site in north-eastern Austria hourly water balance components were determined using a reference lysimeter that was installed 1983 and equipped with lever-arm-counterbalance weighing system. A disadvantage of such systems is their sensitivity to external disturbances, mainly forces exerted by wind, which can significantly decrease measuring accuracy. Hence, we firstly studied the mechanical performance of the system regarding wind effects and oscillation behavior, and tested averaging procedures on noisy raw data to enhance measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy for a wind velocity piecewise sigmoid function was easy to fit and gave proper results of typical diurnal variation of evapotranspiration on single days without rainfall. However, on a longer time period with rainfall events, a polynomial spline function

  9. Pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater samples in north-eastern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslah, Bilel; Hapeshi, Evroula; Jrad, Amel; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Hedhili, Abderrazek

    2017-04-07

    Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices. The application of an optimized multi-residue method for the simultaneous confirmation and quantification of licit and illicit drugs has been investigated in influent and effluent wastewater samples from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in north-eastern Tunisia. Analysis was performed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Out of 12 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 11 of them were detected mainly in effluent wastewaters. In both matrices, antibiotics and β-blockers were the most detected groups. This suggests that these compounds show noticeable resistance against biological treatment in WWTPs. The estimated concentrations of antibiotics in effluents ranged from ca. 35 ng/L to 1.2 μg/L. However, all five studied illicit drugs were detected, mainly in influent wastewaters. Forensic investigation performed on people suspected to be drug abusers covering all Tunisian cities was conducted by monitoring an epidemiological study of human urine samples surveying rate of consumption for illicit drugs. Hence, these preliminary results confirmed the presence of illicit drugs in the influent wastewater samples. For example, quantification ranges for cocaine were found to be 25-450 ng/L in influent wastewater samples. Significant differences for cocaine consumption across the two sampling methods were observed. Consequently, we conclude that the analyses in wastewater are more reflective of the

  10. Eastern North American finite-frequency, compressional and shear tomographic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B.; Shen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Eastern North American margin and continental interior is imaged using a finite-frequency, tomographic method. Each of the P and S teleseismic body wave date sets consists of over 80,000 usable measurements recorded on the Transportable Array (TA). Sensitivity kernels are computed from a 1D model with grid spacing of 50 x 50 x 25 km. Measurements are performed automatically at three individual frequency bands, allowing a more effective use of the available broadband data. Imaged shear and compressional wave speeds show similar long-wavelength features of reduced wave speeds along the continent-ocean margin and increased wave speeds within the stable interior. Wave speeds throughout the model are highly variable at the scale of 100 to 200 km. Large wave speed reductions are present near New England, the Mid-Atlantic states, and the Gulf Coast states; these variations are present in previous models. Interestingly, the strongly reduced wave speeds near South Carolina are absent at depths greater than of 150 km within this model and recent teleseismic body-wave models. This result is contrary to a variety of surface wave models which contain an intense, reduced wave speed anomaly extending past 250 km depth and interpreted as a mantle upwelling associated with edge driven convection. An anomaly along the West Virginia-Virginia border, associated with volcanism and mantle upwelling, is also present, tightly constrained, and extends to 200 km depth. Moreover, the interior of the continent contains significant, regional wave speed variations. Variation of this style is present in other surface and body wave models and is not consistent with a massive, homogeneous continent with no internal variations. These internal continental variations suggest a compositional influence as temperature, melt and water are thought to have minimal effect. Unlike surface wave models that include a distinct continental base around 175 km, teleseismic body wave models, including this one

  11. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Modu Gofama

    Full Text Available Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV on antibody seroprevalence.We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%, 86% (79-91%, and 72% (65-79% in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%, 74% (66-81% and 69% (61-76% in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and

  12. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. L.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone's global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April-September) 2000-2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan) and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that require a more

  13. Testing models of basin inversion in the eastern North Sea using exceptionally accurate thermal and maturity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.; Gallagher, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    of the wells is the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone (STZ) in the eastern North Sea of (mainly) Carboniferous-Permian origin. Additional minor extension episodes occurred during the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly centred in the STZ. The STZ experienced strong compressional inversion during the late...... Cretaceous. A thick (c. 1600 m) late Cretaceous and Danian chalk sequence has recorded the associated marginal trough formation. A hiatus of duration c. 60 Myr follows until the deposition of thin Quaternary sediments. The question we address here is if the thermal data from the wells contain information...

  14. Impacts of elevated temperature on ant species, communities and ecological roles at two temperate forests in Eastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Robert [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Over the course of five years we have established a long-term array of warming chambers at Duke and Harvard Forest that simulate future conditions with regard to temperature. In these chambers, we have studied, ants, other animal taxa, fungi, bacteria and plants and their responses to the treatments. We have coupled these studies with lab experiments, large-scale observations, and models to contextualize our results. Finally, we have developed integrative models of the future distribution of species and their consequences as a result of warming in eastern North America and more generally.

  15. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, M; Witthöft, C M; Tepšić, J; Ranić, M; Hulshof, P J M; Hollman, P C; Porubska, J; Gohar, A; Debeljak-Martačić, J; Petrović-Oggiano, G; Novaković, R; Glibetić, M; Oshaug, A

    2010-11-01

    Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastructural development. The goal of the European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence has been to develop and integrate food composition data throughout Europe. EuroFIR joined forces in CD with the United Nations (UN) University and UN System Standing Committee on Nutrition, the Network for Capacity Development in Nutrition in Central and Eastern Europe, the Central and Eastern European Countries Food Data Systems network and with the Middle East and North African Capacity Building Initiative. The aim of this paper is to discuss an inventory of the status of food composition databases (FCDBs) and the training needs of compilers in non-EuroFIR countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to present the CD achieved through EuroFIR and other network collaborations. Two online questionnaires were created addressing the FCDB status and specific training needs in countries of the targeted regions. Data were collected during 2006-2008 and then analysed. Subsequently, CD activities were organised. Contacts were established in 19 CEE and 7 MENA countries, of which several had national food composition tables, but no electronic versions. Education, training, workshops, networking and the sharing of experiences were uniformly requested. Subsequently, CD activities in EuroFIR were organised focussing on food composition courses, exchange visits, workshops and individual training for PhD students, junior scientists and other staff categories, as well as conferences linked to food composition research and food information. To facilitate CD activities, EuroFIR has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Czech Republic, Hungary

  16. Coţofeni-Kostolac culture on the territory of north-eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The settlement of the territory of north-eastern Serbia by the representatives of the Coţofeni culture began during the second half of the IV millennium, probably under the pressure of invading tribes from Euroasian steppe. This territory extended over Transylvania, Banat, Oltenia and Muntenia (Map 2. On the territory of Serbia they settled from the Djrerdap gorge up to the Mlava river to the west, and through Kučajske mountains, Bor, Zaječar and further to the south, up to Niš. Aspecific symbiosis occurred on the territory of Serbia between the Coţofeni and the Kostolac cultures. According to the results of the latest project of re-identification, the number of Coţofeni-Kostolac sites and settlements increased to 76. After all the sites were re-identified and georeferenced, with consideration of the surrounding landscape, hydrography, geomorphology of the terrain and the character of the ceramic production finds, we believe that there is a need for re-analyzing specific aspects of the cultural and geographic development not only of settlements, but of the entire Coţofeni-Kostolac cultural phenomenon. In this paper we considered three archaeological sites in the Nišava valley, given that re-identification work over the past several years yielded new information (Bubanj-Staro Selo, Velika Humska čuka and Donja Vrežina. The topography of Coţofeni-Kostolac settlements on the territory of north-eastern Serbia, the Serbian part of the Danube valley and its hinterland, is characterized by diversity of position (location above sea level and landscape placement, types of houses and economic survival. In the 70’s of the last century sites were identified that are located in very inaccessible terrain, which in particular cases has an slope incline of 45°, where the number of such settlements in the meantime increased to nine. They are represented by Kulmja Škjopuluji in Klokočevac and Pjatra Kosti in Crnajka (T. I/1-2; Map 1/9, followed by

  17. Emergence of a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum in Golestan Province, north-eastern of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Asadi Kia, A; Gohardehi, Sh; Sharif, M; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Pagheh, A; Dadimoghadam, Y; Cheraghali, F

    2014-09-01

    Over the last decade, a few cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported in some districts of the province of Golestan, in north-eastern Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection among humans and domestic dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT) and PCR assays in the eastern zone of the province. Between 2011 and 2012, blood samples were randomly collected from 450 humans and 50 domestic dogs, in the eastern zone of Golestan Province including 7 villages from Marave-tappeh district where new cases of human VL had been recorded there. Each of these samples was tested for anti-Leishmania antibodies, in DAT, and for L. infantum kinetoplast DNA on whole blood, in PCR-based assays. A total of 450 human samples, 6 (1.33 %) were found seropositive and 13 (2.8 %) was found PCR-positive. Of the 50 dog samples, 16 (32 %) were found seropositive and 15 (30 %) were PCR-positive. All PCR-positive dogs were found seropositive except one as well as 6 (46.2 %) PCR-positive humans were also found seropositive. Moreover, the species of L. infantum was detected in all PCR-positive samples. The high prevalence of VL in the study areas offer it has emerged as an endemic focus in the province. Further investigations on the vectors, reservoirs and human population are recommended.

  18. Physiological Response of Local and Saanen x Local Cross Goats during the Late Rainy Season in North-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare in vivo performance and environmental adaptation of two genetic types of goats raised in north-eastern Brazil, 20 females (10 local and 10 Saanen x local were used in this experiment. During the late rainy season the goats were monitored for the following parameters: body weight, body (BT and skin temperature (ST, respiratory (RR and heart rate (HR as well as the air temperature (AT and humidity (HU in the pens in the morning (MR and afternoon (AR. From May to June the crossbred goats showed a significant gain (P< 0.05; the live weight of F1 was superior to the local goats (P< 0.05 at the end of the experiment. The physiological response during the AR was significantly superior to MR (P< 0.05 for all parameters. The local goats achieved the highest values of BT and ST during the experiment. On average, the physiological rhythms (RR and HR were higher in crossbred than local goats. In conclusion, crossbred goats showed to be less at risk to environmental stress condition in north-eastern Brazil.

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments from the north -eastern edge of the Fucino basin (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Galadini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The paleomagnetism of the Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments cropping out at the north-eastern edge of the Fucino extensionaI basin (Italy, Central Apennines was investigated. The area is characterized by strong neo-tectonic activity and the original purpose was to investigate possibIe verticaI axis rotations in Plio-Pleisto- cene sediments, in order to improve the understanding of the recent geodynamic processes. Scarcity of suit- able outcrops limited sampling at 8 sites (83 specimens from the north-eastern edge of the basin, in clay-rich intervals beIonging to two different sedimentary cycIes. The paleomagnetic resuIts pointed out a peculiar mag- netic behaviour common to the whole set of studied samples. The Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM is dominated by a vigcous normal component acquired under the influence of the present geomagnetic field, stable only below 200°C. Another (reverse very weak component, stable at higher temperatures (up to 400°C, is present in most of the samples. This component can be precisely isolated for only 7 specimens from 3 different sites and therefore the information gained is not statistically sufficient for any tectonic reconstruction. Rock magnetism analyses showed a variable magnetic mineralogy j but the NRM carriers are not well represented in the artificial remanences produced in the laboratory. Results suggest that the natural viscous remanence is most likeIy carried by coarse multi-domain magnetite.

  20. Factors controlling the depth habitat of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebotim, Andreia; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Jonkers, Lukas; Waniek, Joanna J.; Meggers, Helge; Schiebel, Ralf; Fraile, Igaratza; Schulz, Michael; Kucera, Michal

    2017-02-01

    Planktonic foraminifera preserved in marine sediments archive the physical and chemical conditions under which they built their shells. To interpret the paleoceanographic information contained in fossil foraminifera, the recorded proxy signals have to be attributed to the habitat and life cycle characteristics of individual species. Much of our knowledge on habitat depth is based on indirect methods, which reconstruct the depth at which the largest portion of the shell has been calcified. However, habitat depth can be best studied by direct observations in stratified plankton nets. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in vertically resolved plankton net hauls taken in the eastern North Atlantic during 12 oceanographic campaigns between 1995 and 2012. Live (cytoplasm-bearing) specimens were counted for each depth interval and the vertical habitat at each station was expressed as average living depth (ALD). This allows us to differentiate species showing an ALD consistently in the upper 100 m (e.g., Globigerinoides ruber white and pink), indicating a shallow habitat; species occurring from the surface to the subsurface (e.g., Globigerina bulloides, Globorotalia inflata, Globorotalia truncatulinoides); and species inhabiting the subsurface (e.g., Globorotalia scitula and Globorotalia hirsuta). For 17 species with variable ALD, we assessed whether their depth habitat at a given station could be predicted by mixed layer (ML) depth, temperature in the ML and chlorophyll a concentration in the ML. The influence of seasonal and lunar cycle on the depth habitat was also tested using periodic regression. In 11 out of the 17 tested species, ALD variation appears to have a predictable component. All of the tested parameters were significant in at least one case, with both seasonal and lunar cyclicity as well as the environmental parameters explaining up to > 50 % of the variance. Thus, G. truncatulinoides, G. hirsuta and G. scitula

  1. Forest floor carbon exchange of a boreal black spruce forest in eastern North America

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    O. Bergeron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports continuous automated measurements of forest floor carbon (C exchange over feathermoss, lichen, and sphagnum micro-sites in a black spruce forest in eastern North America during snow-free periods over three years. The response of soil respiration (Rs-auto and forest floor photosynthesis (Pff to environmental factors was determined. The seasonal contributions of scaled up Rs-auto adjusted for spatial representativeness (Rs-adj and Pff (Pff-eco relative to that of total ecosystem respiration (Re and photosynthesis (Peco, respectively, were also quantified.

    Shallow (5 cm soil temperature explained 67–86% of the variation in Rs-auto for all ground cover types, while deeper (50 and 100 cm soil temperatures were related to Rs-auto only for the feathermoss micro-sites. Base respiration was consistently lower under feathermoss, intermediate under sphagnum, and higher under lichen during all three years. The Rs-adj/Re ratio increased from spring through autumn and ranged from 0.85 to 0.87 annually for the snow-free period. The Rs-adj/Re ratio was negatively correlated with the difference between air and shallow soil temperature and this correlation was more pronounced in autumn than summer and spring.

    Maximum photosynthetic capacity of the forest floor (Pff-max saturated at low irradiance levels (~200 μmol m−2 s−1 and decreased with increasing air temperature and vapor pressure deficit for all three ground cover types, suggesting that Pff was more limited by desiccation than by light availability. Pff-max was lowest for sphagnum, intermediate for feathermoss, and highest for lichen for two

  2. Freshwater fish’s spatial patterns in isolated water springs in North-eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palacio-Núñez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Media Luna lake-spring was selected as representative of all thermal or no thermal springs in the zone of Valley of Rioverde, a semi-arid vegetation in the North-eastern of Mexico. This system is inhabited by 11 fish species, of which six are native. Four of the native species are endemic to the region and threatened due to touristic pressure and to the introduction of exotic species. The objectives were to determine the characteristics that influence the spatial distribution of the fish species, to analyze their spatial distribution patterns, and to describe the relationships between the different species. The general aim was to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. Several sessions were initiated in 1992 through direct observation. Later, between 1998 and 1999 five systematically seasonal sampling sessions were conducted (54 subaquatic transects/session. Finally, the data was updated by sampling in summer 2002 and winter 2006. Through the analysis was performed only for endemics of the region, like Ataeniobius toweri Meek, Cualac tessellatus Miller, Cichlasoma bartoni Bean and C. labridens Pellegrin, in at least one life stage, showed correlation with habitat variables or with other species. For these species, patterns of spatial aggregation and association with other species were observed. These results show a certain degree of specialization of endemic species to some microhabitat characteristics, as well as a significant interaction with other native species which they coexist. In addition, some significant relations between endemic and alien species suggest an antagonist relation. Management actions focused in the touristic use of the spring represent the main threat for these species, followed by an adequate management of exotic species. This study provides basis for future responsible management of these wetlands, where tourism and conservation can be combined. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1

  3. Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Wood, Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    With their extensive coverage, low clouds greatly impact global climate. Presently, low clouds are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs), and the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols remains the major source of uncertainty in climate simulations. The poor representations of low clouds in GCMs are in part due to inadequate observations of their microphysical and macrophysical structures, radiative effects, and the associated aerosol distribution and budget in regions where the aerosol impact is the greatest. The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) is a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary-layer (MBL) clouds, whose albedo and precipitation are highly susceptible to perturbations in aerosol properties. Boundary-layer aerosol in the ENA region is influenced by a variety of sources, leading to strong variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical properties. Recently a permanent ENA site was established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility on Graciosa Island in the Azores, providing invaluable information on MBL aerosol and low clouds. At the same time, the vertical structures and horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol, the radiative properties, precipitation efficiency, and lifecycle of MBL clouds, and the cloud response to aerosol perturbations. Much of this data can be obtained only through aircraft-based measurements. In addition, the interconnected aerosol and cloud processes are best investigated by a study involving simultaneous in situ aerosol, cloud, and thermodynamics measurements. Furthermore, in situ measurements are also necessary for validating and improving ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA site. This project is motivated by the need

  4. Do the Atlantic climate modes impact the ventilation of the eastern tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Kristin; Lübbecke, Joke F.

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) exist in the upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific at intermediate depth. They are a consequence of high biological productivity in combination with weak ventilation. The flow fields in the tropical Atlantic is characterized by Latitudinally Alternating Zonal Jets (LAZJs) with a large vertical scale. It has been suggested that LAZJs play an important role for the ventilation of the OMZ as eastward currents advect oxygen-rich waters from the western boundary towards the OMZ. In the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), the eastward flowing North Equatorial Undercurrent and North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) provide the main oxygen supply into the OMZ. Variability in the strength and location of the LAZJs is associated with oxygen variability in the ETNA OMZ. We here want to address the question whether the variability in the zonal current field can be partly attributed to the large-scale climate modes of the tropical Atlantic, namely the Atlantic zonal and meridional mode. An influence of these modes on the NECC has been found in previous studies. For the analysis we are using the output of a global ocean circulation model, in which a 1/10° nest covering the tropical Atlantic is embedded into a global 1/2° model, as well as reanalysis products and satellite data. The zonal current field and oxygen distribution from the high resolution model is compared to observational data. The location and intensity of the current bands during positive and negative phases of the Atlantic climate modes are compared by focusing on individual events and via composite analysis. Based on the results, the potential impact of the Atlantic climate modes on the ventilation of the ETNA OMZ is discussed.

  5. Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Oak cover types comprise half of the forestlands in the eastern United States. There is a great desire to sustain these highly valued forests. Unfortunately, reports of the successional replacement of oak are all too common, as they are throughout the world. Sustaining the oak resource requires the ability to both regenerate and recruit oak into the overstory as...

  6. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  7. Contrasting records of sea-level change in the eastern and western North Atlantic during the last 300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. J.; Barlow, N. L. M.; Gehrels, W. R.; Saher, M. H.; Woodworth, P. L.; Scaife, R. G.; Brain, M. J.; Cahill, N.

    2014-02-01

    We present a new 300-year sea-level reconstruction from a salt marsh on the Isle of Wight (central English Channel, UK) that we compare to other salt-marsh and long tide-gauge records to examine spatial and temporal variability in sea-level change in the North Atlantic. Our new reconstruction identifies an overall rise in relative sea level (RSL) of c. 0.30 m since the start of the eighteenth century at a rate of 0.9±0.3 mm yr. Error-in-variables changepoint analysis indicates that there is no statistically significant deviation from a constant rate within the dataset. The reconstruction is broadly comparable to other tide-gauge and salt-marsh records from the European Atlantic, demonstrating coherence in sea level in this region over the last 150-300 years. In contrast, we identify significant differences in the rate and timing of RSL with records from the east coast of North America. The absence of a strong late 19th/early 20th century RSL acceleration contrasts with that recorded in salt marsh sediments along the eastern USA coastline, in particular in a well-dated and precise sea-level reconstruction from North Carolina. This suggests that this part of the North Carolina sea level record represents a regionally specific sea level acceleration. This is significant because the North Carolina record has been used as if it were globally representative within semi-empirical parameterisations of past and future sea-level change. We conclude that regional-scale differences of sea-level change highlight the value of using several, regionally representative RSL records when calibrating and testing semi-empirical models of sea level against palaeo-records. This is because by using records that potentially over-estimate sea-level rise in the past such models risk over-estimating sea-level rise in the future.

  8. Two new species of Perlesta (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratieff, B.C.; Zuellig, R.E.; Kirchner, R.F.; Lenat, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of the Nearctic perlid genus Perlesta, P. durfeei Kondratieff, Zuellig, and Kirchner and P. georgiae Kondratieff, Zuellig, and Lenat are described and illustrated from Virginia and North Carolina, U.S.A., respectively.

  9. Insights into crustal structure of the Eastern North American Margin from community multichannel seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. K.; Becel, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the fall of 2014, the R/V Marcus Langseth collected gravity, magnetic, and reflection seismic data as part of the Eastern North American Margin Community Seismic Experiment. The dataset covers a 500 km wide section of the Mid-Atlantic passive margin offshore North Carolina, which formed after the Mesozoic breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. Using these seismic and potential field data, we present observations and interpretations along two cross margin and one along-margin profiles. Analyses and interpretations are conducted using pre-stack depth migrated reflection seismic profiles in conjunction with forward modeling of shipboard gravity and magnetic anomalies. Preliminary interpretations of the data reveal variations in basement character and structure across the entire transition between continental and oceanic domains. These interpretations help provide insight into the origin and nature of the prominent East Coast and Blake Spur magnetic anomalies, as well as the Inner Magnetic Quiet Zone which occupies the domain between the anomalies. Collectively, these observations can aid in deciphering the rift-to-drift transition during the breakup of North America and West Africa and formation of the Central Atlantic.

  10. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Petrocelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS, geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  11. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies.

  12. Cultural Resources, Studies, Eastern North Carolina Above Cape Lookout, Literature Review and Preliminary Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Moore, Chowan (1869), Owen H. Guion , Craven (1905), Daniel L. Ward, Craven (1939), and Philip P. Godwin, Gates (1971) served as speakers of the...LIX (1982), 24-48. Johnson, Guion G. Ante-Bellum North Carolina. A Social History. Chapel Hill, 1937. Kay, Marvin L. Michael, and Cary, Lorin Lee "A...National Forest, Craven County, North Carolina. Ms. on file, U. S. Forest Service, Asheville, N. C. 1980 Cultural Resource Survey of the Radio Tower Tract

  13. Spatial and seasonal variability of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton at the bottom seawater in the north coast of Sfax, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Amira; Denis, Michel; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-10-01

    In the frame of the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of pico-, nano- and microphytoplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 at the bottom, on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The restoration effect on coastal ultraphytoplankton (Sfax north coast restoration achieved by the Taparura Project.

  14. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  15. Soil macroinvertebrate communities across a productivity gradient in deciduous forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn S. Wenk; Mac A. Callaham; Joseph O' Brien; Paul J. Hanson

    2016-01-01

    Within the temperate, deciduous forests of the eastern US, diverse soil-fauna communities are structured by a combination of environmental gradients and interactions with other biota. The introduction of non-native soil taxa has altered communities and soil processes, and adds another degree of variability to these systems. We sampled soil macroinvertebrate abundance...

  16. Projected wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific under the influence of two CMIP5 climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Hegermiller, Christie; Barnard, Patrick; Ruggiero, Peter; van Ormondt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hindcast and 21st century winds, simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs), were used to drive global- and regional-scale spectral wind-wave generation models in the Pacific Ocean Basin to assess future wave conditions along the margins of the North American west coast and Hawaiian Islands. Three-hourly winds simulated by four separate GCMs were used to generate an ensemble of wave conditions for a recent historical time-period (1976–2005) and projections for the mid and latter parts of the 21st century under two radiative forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5), as defined by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) experiments. Comparisons of results from historical simulations with wave buoy and ERA-Interim wave reanalysis data indicate acceptable model performance of wave heights, periods, and directions, giving credence to generating projections. Mean and extreme wave heights are projected to decrease along much of the North American west coast. Extreme wave heights are projected to decrease south of ∼50°N and increase to the north, whereas extreme wave periods are projected to mostly increase. Incident wave directions associated with extreme wave heights are projected to rotate clockwise at the eastern end of the Aleutian Islands and counterclockwise offshore of Southern California. Local spatial patterns of the changing wave climate are similar under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, but stronger magnitudes of change are projected under RCP 8.5. Findings of this study are similar to previous work using CMIP3 GCMs that indicates decreasing mean and extreme wave conditions in the Eastern North Pacific, but differ from other studies with respect to magnitude and local patterns of change. This study contributes toward a larger ensemble of global and regional climate projections needed to better assess uncertainty of potential future wave climate change, and provides model boundary conditions for assessing the impacts of

  17. Marine debris in bottom trawl catches and their effects on the selectivity grids in the north eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaşar, Ahmet Raif; Özbilgin, Hüseyin; Gücü, Ali Cemal; Sakınan, Serdar

    2014-04-15

    In this study composition of marine debris and their blocking potential on the selectivity grid systems deployed on demersal trawls were investigated in the north eastern Mediterranean. For this, a total of 132 hauls were examined in two fishing season between 20 September 2010 and 19 February 2012. Results showed that plastic items were the most abundant debris (73% in terms of weight) and they were followed by metals (10%). Because of plastics and packing debris, it is highly probable that grids may have been blocked in 85% of trawl hauls. The bathymetric and geographical variability in the quantity of debris were evaluated, and concluded that particularly in some areas where direction of currents and bottom topography favor deposition, such devices may easily be rendered ineffective by the plastics and packing debris in particular. To solve this problem, several solution proposals are submitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utilization of information technology in eastern North Carolina physician practices: determining the existence of a digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David A; Layman, Elizabeth J

    2008-02-13

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has emphasized the importance of utilizing health information technologies, thus making the availability of electronic resources critical for physicians across the country. However, few empirical assessments exist regarding the current status of computerization and utilization of electronic resources in physician offices and physicians' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of computerization. Through a survey of physicians' utilization and perceptions of health information technology, this study found that a "digital divide" existed for eastern North Carolina physicians in smaller physician practices. The physicians in smaller practices were less likely to utilize or be interested in utilizing electronic health records, word processing applications, and the Internet.

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella strains in wild animals from a highly populated area of north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Silva; Ravaioli, Cinzia; Previato, Sara; D'Incau, Mario; Tassinari, Massimo; Guidi, Enrica; Lupi, Silvia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bergamini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a ubiquitous pathogen that can infect host species, like wild birds, rodents, and/or arthropods, which may transmit infection to domestic animals and human population. In order to assess the related risk, a cross-sectional study was performed on 1114 carcasses of wild animals from a north-eastern area of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. During post mortem examination, intestine samples were cultured. A statistical analysis demonstrated that there is no correlation between the presence of sub-clinically infected animals and greater human population density. In contrast, a significant correlation between the number of carcasses positive for Salmonella spp. and greater spatial density of pig, poultry, and cattle farms was observed (p wild animals with omnivorous feeding habits are particularly exposed to Salmonella colonization and, consequently, to spreading the organism. Regarding drug resistance, this study confirms the resistance to antimicrobials is increasing in commensal and environmental isolates.

  20. Preliminary Report on the Middle Neolithic Well from Sajószentpéter (North-Eastern Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Király

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2012, during a preventive archaeological excavation necessitated by the construction of a new highway bypassing Sajószentpéter (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-Eastern Hungary, a Middle Neolithic water well with astonishing wooden lining was uncovered by the archaeologists of Herman Ottó Museum, Miskolc. The 60 cm high remains of the tube-like wooden structure was made from a single oak tree with a total diameter of 90 cm. The trunk had been initially cut into four pieces (panels that were later bond together with trusses of twisted rods. The wooden structure had amazing tool-marks on the entire surface that could be related to at least 3 different chisels/axes and bear fundamental information regarding the chaine opératoire.

  1. The Amino Acid Composition of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus Segnis, Forskal, 1775 from The North Eastern Mediterranean Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Artar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to detect the content of amino acid in female and male specimens of blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis obtained from (including 12 male crab and also 12 female crab North Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. The protein was identified as 17.63% and 18.13% for female and male crab respevtively. Totally 9 essential amino acids were recorded in the present study. Lysine and leucine constituted the highest essential amino acid (EAA concentrations in P. segnis. This species was found to be in good score in terms of the level of EAA and the EAA/Non-EAA ratios when compared with other economical crab species.

  2. Distance Education Examination Management in a Lowly Resourced North-Eastern Region of Zambia: A Phenomenological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Simui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the management of distance education examination in a lowly resourced North-Eastern region of Zambia. The study applies Hermeneutic Phenomenology approach to generate and make sense of the data. It is the lived experiences of 2 invigilators and 66 students purposively selected that the study draws its insights from. Meaning within the generated data is elicited using the Chaos theory. Emerging from this study is a multiplicity of ingredients needed to effectively manage distance education examinations in a chaotic environment. The need for visionary leadership with a shared understanding of institutional purpose, the need for motivated staff with creativity and innovation and the need for effective communication are all vital ingredients needed to manage examinations. In conclusion, we now know that amidst chaos lay opportunities for innovation and creativity in terms of new strategies for managing distance education. To this extent, chaos should be treasured and not censured.

  3. Description of a new species of Platynus Bonelli from the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Yves

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the genus Platynus Bonelli, Platynus daviesi, is described from specimens collected in the Appalachian Mountains. The species is structurally most similar to Platynus parmarginatus Hamilton but differs in having the coloration of the body dorsally darker on average, the elytra proportionally longer and wider, the vertex and disc of pronotum with well impressed microsculpture, the elytral interval 3 with four or five discal setae in most specimens, and the median lobe of aedeagus less curved overall. DNA barcoding was performed on several species of eastern North American Platynus species and Platynus daviesi was found to be genetically distinct from Platynus parmarginatus. A key to the 12 species of Platynus found east of the Mississippi River is provided.

  4. There is no evidence for a temporal link between pathogen arrival and frog extinctions in north-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben L Phillips

    Full Text Available Pathogen spread can cause population declines and even species extinctions. Nonetheless, in the absence of tailored monitoring schemes, documenting pathogen spread can be difficult. In the case of worldwide amphibian declines the best present understanding is that the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has recently spread, causing amphibian declines and extinction in the process. However, good evidence demonstrating pathogen arrival followed by amphibian decline is rare, and analysis of putative evidence is often inadequate. Here we attempt to examine the relationship between Bd arrival and amphibian decline across north-eastern Australia, using sites where a wave-like pattern of amphibian decline was first noticed and at which intensive research has since been conducted. We develop an analytical framework that allows rigorous estimation of pathogen arrival date, which can then be used to test for a correlation between the time of pathogen arrival and amphibian decline across sites. Our results show that, with the current dataset, the earliest possible arrival date of Bd in north-eastern Australia is completely unresolved; Bd could have arrived immediately before sampling commenced or may have arrived thousands of years earlier, the present data simply cannot say. The currently available data are thus insufficient to assess the link between timing of pathogen arrival and population decline in this part of the world. This data insufficiency is surprising given that there have been decades of research on chytridiomycosis in Australia and that there is a general belief that the link between Bd arrival and population decline is well resolved in this region. The lack of data on Bd arrival currently acts as a major impediment to determining the role of environmental factors in driving the global amphibian declines, and should be a major focus of future research.

  5. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  6. Helminth parasites and reservoir status of captive wild ruminants in the semi-arid region of north-eastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar I Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the various helminth parasites and associated helminth reservoir status of captive wild ruminants in the semi-arid region of north-eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples were examined for nematode ova by the simple floatation technique using saturated sodium chloride solution as floatation medium. Trematode eggs were examined by the sedementation technique. The modified McMaster technique was used to determine the intensity of helminth infections among the various species of wild ruminants examined, while larval isolation and identification using the modified Baerman’s technique was used to determine the various species of parasites encountered. Results: Out of the 36 samples examined, a high parasite count due to Strongyle infection without the manifestation of overt clinical signs was observed among the captive wild ruminants. The egg counts ranged from 500 + 10.0 among the Grimm’s duicker (Sylvicaprea grimmia to 5, 350 + 51.70 among the Senegal hartebeest (Damaliscus korrigum. The helminth larvae recovered which were common to all the species of wild ruminants were those of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrogylus axei and Strongyloides papillosus, Demographic data such as age, sex and species of wild animals showed no significant (p>0.05 variation on the prevalence of the helminth infections. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the captive wild ruminants in the semi-arid region of north-eastern, Nigeria, were reservoirs of various helminth parasites of medical and veterinary importance. It was therefore, recommended that improved sanitary conditions in animal enclosures, regular and strategic anthelmintic medications may on one hand protect the spread of infection to attendants and visitors to the park. On the other hand it will enhance the in-situ conservation of the rare and endangered species of wild ruminants in the area. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 530-534

  7. Variations in prevalence and conduct of school food gardens in tropical and subtropical regions of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Shawn; Bossard, Antoine

    2009-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and usage of food gardens in primary schools in three distinct climatic regions of north-eastern Australia. Cross-sectional surveys combining quantitative and qualitative data collection. Two separate telephone questionnaires were developed and implemented, according to the presence or absence of a food garden within the school. Main outcome measures were answers to scaled response and open-ended questions related to factors supporting and inhibiting the establishment and sustainability of school food gardens. All state primary schools in three disparate regions of the north-eastern Australian state of Queensland were asked to participate in the study. A total of 71% (n 128) of schools agreed to participate. Of these, thirty-seven primary schools had functioning food gardens. The variations in prevalence between regions combined with respondent views indicated climate as a major factor affecting the success of food gardens. Gardens were often used as a tool by schools to teach science, environment or social skills. Gardening activities were generally linked to curriculum studies on plants, fruit and vegetable intake, and healthy eating. The main issues for schools and teachers in establishing food gardens were the time required and the lack of personnel to coordinate garden activities. Of the schools with food gardens, 92% believed their garden had been a success. The study revealed strong grass-roots support for school-based food gardens. Although climate and location were important factors associated with the presence of a functioning food garden, respondents nominated teacher involvement and sustained motivation as essential factors for successful school food gardens.

  8. Factors associated with carriage of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceaein North-Eastern France and outcomes of infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeo, Anaëlle; Guillard, Thomas; Barbe, Coralie; Thierry, Aurore; Bajolet, Odile; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Limelette, Anne; Brasme, Lucien; De Champs, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenems are frequently used as a last resort to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms, thus carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CNSE) is an emerging health threat. To assess risk factors and outcomes of CNSE carriage. We conducted a matched case-control study in six hospitals in North-Eastern France. The controls were patients harbouring carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Fifty-five cases and 110 controls were included. Most of the CNSE isolates were Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Carbapenemase production was observed in 40% of isolates and they produced OXA-48 only. CNSE carriage was significantly associated with recent antibiotic use ( P =  0.014), particularly carbapenems ( P =  0.03) and fluoroquinolones ( P =  0.016). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression showed that the presence of concomitant infection(s) (OR: 9.83; 95% CI 3.04-21.39, P =  0.0031), nosocomial infections (OR: 7.84; 95% CI 2.00-12.54, P  =   0.0063) and a high age (OR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P =  0.038) were independently associated with CNSE carriage. Moreover, patients infected with CNSE had worse outcomes: fewer resolved infections at 1 month ( P =  0.02), and they had a higher mortality rate ( P =  0.0004) and longer hospital stays ( P =  0.02). We identified three independent risk factors for CNSE carriage as well as worse outcomes in infected patients in North-Eastern France. This highlights the importance of early detection of CNSE and the need for antimicrobial therapy re-evaluation after bacteriological analysis has been performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Calibration of modelled mixing patterns in loess grain-size distributions: an example from the north-eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, M.G.A.; Prins, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Genetically meaningful decomposition (unmixing) of sediment grain-size distributions is accomplished with the end-member modelling algorithm. Unmixing of the loess grain-size distributions of a Late Quaternary loess-palaeosol succession from the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau indicates that the loess

  10. Intestinal helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamon Jacek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in the Augustów Primeval Forest (north-eastern Poland, with particular regard to zoonotic parasites.

  11. Limonene: attractant kairomone for white pine cone beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in an Eastern white pine seed orchard in Western North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller

    2007-01-01

    I report on the attraction of the white pine cone beetle, Canophthorus coniperda (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to traps baited with the host monoterpene limonene in western North Carolina. Both (+)- and (-)-limonene attracted male and female cone beetles to Japenese beetle traps in an eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. seed...

  12. Relationships between otolith and fish size from Mediterranean and north-eastern Atlantic species to be used in predator-prey studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, J; Manjabacas, A; Tuset, V M; Lombarte, A

    2016-10-01

    Regressions between fish length and otolith size are provided for 40 species from the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean and 142 species from the Mediterranean Sea. Regressions were also estimated at genus level. Most of the regressions (c. 84%) explained a high percentage of the deviance (>75%). © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. The Lived Experience of Human Rights and Labour Violations in Select Artisanal Mining Sites in North and South Kivu of the Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben); D Rothenberg

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report presents the findings of a documentary project on the lives of miners and others working in the artisanal mining industry in select sites in North Kivu and South Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This work is part of a larger

  14. Growth form and distribution of introduced plants in their native and non-native ranges in Eastern Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Ricklefs; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Qian

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the influence of plant traits on their ability to spread in non-native regions. Many studies addressing this issue have been based on relatively small areas or restricted taxonomic groups. Here, we analyse a large data base involving 1567 plant species introduced between Eastern Asia and North America or from elsewhere to...

  15. Farmers' information on sweet potato production and millipede infestation in north-eastern Uganda. II. Pest incidence and indigenous control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) is an important staple food for the people of north-eastern Uganda. Crop yields per unit area are low partly because of biological constraints, including pests like millipedes. The objective of this study was to generate information on pest incidence and

  16. Farmers' information on sweet potato production and millipede infestation in north-eastern Uganda. I. Associations between spatial and temporal crop diversity and the level of pest infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) is an important staple food for the people of north-eastern Uganda. Crop yields per unit area are low partly because of biological constraints, including pests like millipedes. The objective of this study was to generate information on pest incidence and

  17. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in North Carolina Eastern Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2016-10-01

    We detected Anaplasma phagocytophilum by DNA amplification in whole blood from free-ranging, hunter-killed American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the east coast of North Carolina, US. Molecular prevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 3% from 68 black bears. No DNA of other Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was identified.

  18. Arrow injuries in North Eastern Nigeria | Na'Aya | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Arrow injuries are common presentation at the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Nguru, North East Nigeria. The injuries are mostly unreported and there is neither a policy nor an action plan to curb their incidence. Aim: To establish an accurate data base for this clinical entity in this part of Nigeria and suggest ...

  19. Paleocene floral diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses angiosperm pollen taxon turnover (first and last appearance) and diversity events as metrics to describe the Paleocene floral history of the eastern Gulf Coast; data are from 64 samples and 67 angiosperm pollen taxa. Angiosperm pollen diversity was very low at the beginning of the Paleocene, rose slowly and then somewhat more rapidly to a maximum for the epoch in the middle of the late Paleoceneas a result of the maximum in rate of first appearances during the late early Paleocene and earliest late Paleocene. Diversity then dropped very rapidly at or near the end of the epoch as the rate of last appearances reached its maximum, resulting in the Terminal Paleocene Extinction Event. The latest Paleocene diversity decline coincided with an increase in mean annual temperature and probably in rainfall, representing the beginning of the climatic maximum for the Tertiary which characterized the early Eocene. The increase in diversity of early Paleocene floras in the eastern Gulf Coast resulted from exploitation of unfilled ecospace originating from (1) low regional diversity following the Terminal Cretaceous Extinction Event, and (2) creation of many new niches during the Paleocene, resulting, according to megafloral evidence, from a change to a new vegetation type (multistratal tropical rainforest) brought about by an increase in rainfall. The slow rate of recovery of earliest Paleocene angiosperm diversity in the eastern Gulf Coast may be explained in part by the diversity-dependence model of Carr and Kitchell (1980). However, additional factors may have contributed to the slow recovery: (1) the adverse terminal Cretaceous climates may have extended into the early Paleocene, (2) the initial Paleocene environment of the eastern Gulf Coast may have contained relatively few niches, (3) some earliest Paleocene angiosperms, particularly trees, may have had inherently poor capabilities for rapid evolution, and (4) there was a lack of significant immigration of

  20. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P 10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes.

  1. Neoarchean ductile deformation in the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong area, eastern Heibei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-04-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern NCC, one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups were sheared, but some Archean granitic gneisses were also involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400 to 550°C.LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone was

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.-P.; Craddock, W.H.; Lease, R.O.; Wang, W.-T.; Yuan, D.-Y.; Zhang, P.-Z.; Molnar, P.; Zheng, D.-W.; Zheng, W.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary rock deposited in the Chaka basin (north-eastern Tibetan Plateau) indicates a late Miocene onset of basin formation and subsequent development of the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan. Sedimentation in the basin initiated at ~11Ma. In the lower part of the basin fill, a coarsening-upward sequence starting at ~9Ma, as well as rapid sedimentation rates, and northward paleocurrents, are consistent with continued growth of the Ela Shan to the south. In the upper section, several lines of evidence suggest that thrust faulting and topographic development of the Qinghai Nan Shan began at ~6.1Ma. Paleocurrent indicators, preserved in the basin in the proximal footwall of the Qinghai Nan Shan, show a change from northward to southward flow between 6.5 and 3.8Ma. At the same location, sediment derived from the Qinghai Nan Shan appears at 6.1Ma. Finally, the initiation of progressively shallowing dips observed in deformed basin strata and a change to pebbly, fluvial deposits at 6.1Ma provide a minimum age for the onset of slip on the thrust fault that dips north-east beneath the Qinghai Nan Shan. We interpret a decrease in sediment accumulation rates since ~6Ma to indicate a reduction in Chaka basin accommodation space due to active faulting and folding along the Qinghai Nan Shan and incorporation of the basin into the wedge-top depozone. Declination anomalies indicate the beginning of counter-clockwise rotation since 6.1Ma, which we associate with local deformation, not regional block rotation. The emergence of the Qinghai Nan Shan near the end of the Miocene Epoch partitioned the once contiguous Chaka-Gonghe and Qinghai basin complex. In a regional framework, our study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread initiation and/or reactivation of fault networks during the late Miocene across the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. ?? 2011 The Authors. Basin Research ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists

  3. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  4. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years w...

  5. Biodiversity of zoobenthic hard-substrate sublittoral communities in the Eastern Mediterranean (North Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton

    2005-03-01

    The spatial dispersion of zoobenthos from sublittoral hard substrate communities in the northern part of the Aegean Sea has been studied during summer 1997 and 1998. Material was collected by SCUBA diving, by totally scraping off five replicate quadrates (400 cm 2 each) at three depth levels (15, 30, 40 m) from six sites located in Chalkidiki peninsula, plus one in Kavala Gulf. The examination of the 19,343 living specimens collected revealed the presence of 314 species. Though the multivariate analyses showed high similarity between stations, the structure of this sciaphilic algal community seems to have an increased spatial heterogeneity. Four distinct facies were recorded in accordance with the occurrence of different algal forms, the degree of hard substrate inclination and the water clarity. A short review on the biodiversity of sublittoral communities in the Mediterranean revealed the affinity between the western and the eastern basin and also among the photophilic and the sciaphilic algal communities.

  6. Movements of pacific bluefin tuna ( Thunnus orientalis) in the Eastern North Pacific revealed with archival tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustany, Andre M.; Matteson, Robyn; Castleton, Michael; Farwell, Charles; Block, Barbara A.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, 253 Pacific bluefin tuna were archivally tagged off the coast of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico between August 2002 and August 2005. One hundred and fifty-seven fish were recaptured and 143 datasets were obtained and analyzed, yielding electronic tag datasets of up to 1203 days. Mean days at large for the 143 fish was 359 ± 248 (SD) days. A total of 38,012 geolocations were calculated from light-based longitude and SST-based latitude estimates, allowing us to examine the seasonal movement of juvenile bluefin tuna off the west coast of North America. Electronic tagged bluefin tuna showed repeatable seasonal movements along the west coast of North America. Bluefin tuna were found farthest south in the spring when they were located off southern Baja California, Mexico and farthest north in the fall when fish were found predominately off central and northern California. Fish showed latitudinal movement patterns that were correlated with peaks in coastal upwelling-induced primary productivity. Interannual variation in the locality of these productivity peaks was linked with a corresponding movement in the distribution of tagged fish. Overall geographical area occupied by tagged bluefin varied with primary productivity, with fish being more tightly clustered in areas of high productivity and more dispersed in regions of low productivity. In the spring through fall, bluefin tuna were located in areas with the highest levels of primary productivity available in the California Current ecosystem. However, in the winter months, tagged bluefin tuna were found in areas with lower productivity compared to other regions along the coast at that time of year suggesting that during the winter, bluefin tuna are feeding on aggregations of pelagic red crabs, sardines and anchovies that preferentially spawn in areas of reduced coastal upwelling.

  7. Diversity and activity of benthic microbial communities at the North Alex mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarow, Dorothee; Feseker, Tomas; Schmitz, Ruth; Treude, Tina

    2010-05-01

    North Alex mud volcano, located on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan, is characterized by an active seepage center transporting pore fluids, hydrocarbons and gases from deep subsurface sources to the sediment-water interface. Surface sediments feature steep temperature gradient of 8.5°C m-1. We sampled the top 40 cm of the sediments at different locations between the center and rim of the mud volcano to study the diversity, activity, and physiological characteristics of benthic microorganisms. The sediments revealed the activity of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction with a mesophilic temperature optimum. Organisms involved in the process include consortia of methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2 group) and an unknown bacterial partner. Besides methanotrophic organisms the sediments harbored a variety of other bacterial and archaeal groups - including potentially thermophilic bacteria that could be involved in sulfur cycling. This poster presentation will provide an overview of microbial activities and community compositions of North Alex mud volcano sediments.

  8. Population structure of guppies in north-eastern Venezuela, the area of putative incipient speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, Magdalena; Alexander, Heather J; Babik, Wiesław; Mavárez, Jesús; Breden, Felix; Radwan, Jacek

    2014-02-17

    Geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence among populations in sexual traits are two important causes of genetic isolation which may lead to speciation. Genetic isolation may be facilitated if these two mechanisms act synergistically. The guppy from the Cumaná region (within the Cariaco drainage) of eastern Venezuela has been previously described as a case of incipient speciation driven by sexual selection, significantly differentiated in sexual colouration and body shape from the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata. The latter occurs widely in northern Venezuela, including the south-eastern side of Cordillera de la Costa, where it inhabits streams belonging to the San Juan drainage. Here, we present molecular and morphological analyses of differentiation among guppy populations in the Cariaco and San Juan drainages. Our analyses are based on a 953 bp long mtDNA fragment, a set of 15 microsatellites (519 fish from 20 populations), and four phenotypic traits. Both microsatellite and mtDNA data showed that guppies inhabiting the two drainages are characterised by a significant genetic differentiation, but a higher proportion of the genetic variance was distributed among populations within regions. Most guppies in the Cariaco drainage had mtDNA from a distinct lineage, but we also found evidence for widespread introgression of mtDNA from the San Juan drainage into the Cariaco drainage. Phenotypically, populations in the two regions differed significantly only in the number of black crescents. Phenotypic clustering did not support existence of two distinct groupings, but indicated a degree of distinctiveness of Central Cumaná (CC) population. However, CC population showed little differentiation at the neutral markers from the proximate populations within the Cariaco drainage. Our findings are consistent with only partial genetic isolation between the two geographic regions and indicate that the geographic barrier of Cordillera de la Costa has not played an

  9. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotopic composition of nitrate in the central Arabian Sea and eastern tropical North Pacific: A tracer for mixing and nitrogen cycles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Brandes, J.A.; Devol, A.H.; Yoshinari, T.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    Trench. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Cali- fornia, Los Angeles. -. AND I. R. KAPLAN. 1975. Isotopic fractionation of dissolved nitrate during denitrification in the eastern tropical North Pa- cific. Mar. Chem. 3: 271-299. CODISPOTI, L. A., AND J. P....-K. 1979. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen compounds in two marine environments: The Santa Barbara basin and the ocean off Peru. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Los Angeles. -, AND I. R. KAPLAN. 1989. The eastern tropical Pacific as a source of 15N...

  11. Vestiges of an Ancient Border in the Contemporary Genetic Diversity of North-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu M Neuvonen

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.

  12. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Salsola tragus in north-eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; Gourlie, Jennifer A; Lutcher, Larry K; Liu, Mingyang; Mallory-Smith, Carol A

    2018-05-01

    Farmers in the low-rainfall region of eastern Oregon rely on repeated applications of non-selective herbicides, predominately glyphosate, to control Salsola tragus in no-till fallow systems. Reports of poor glyphosate effectiveness have increased in recent years. Reduced efficacy is often attributed to dust, water stress, or generally poor growing conditions during application. Inadequate control also may be the result of the evolution of glyphosate resistance. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine if glyphosate-resistant S. tragus populations occur in Oregon. Results from dose-response studies confirmed glyphosate resistance in three of 10 Oregon Salsola tragus populations. The ratio I 50R /I 50S from dose-response curves was, on average, 3.1 for the relative dry biomass per plant and 3.2 for the % of surviving plants per pot in these three populations. Plant mortality at recommended glyphosate doses for the resistant populations was less than 30% 3 weeks after treatment. Glyphosate resistance in S. tragus highlights the imperative need to diversify weed control strategies to preserve the longevity and sustainability of herbicides in semi-arid cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Genetic diversity and structure in hill rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces from the North-Eastern Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Marndi, B C; Mawkhlieng, B; Banerjee, A; Yadav, R M; Misra, A K; Bansal, K C

    2016-07-13

    Hill rices (Oryza sativa L.) are direct seeded rices grown on hill slopes of different gradients. These landraces have evolved under rainfed and harsh environmental conditions and may possess genes governing adaptation traits such as tolerance to cold and moisture stress. In this study, 64 hill rice landraces were collected from the state of Arunachal Pradesh of North-Eastern region of India, and assessed by agro-morphological variability and microsatellite markers polymorphism. Our aim was to use phenotypic and genetic diversity data to understand the basis of farmers' classification of hill rice landraces into two groups: umte and tening. Another goal was to understand the genetic differentiation of hill rices into Indica or japonica subspecies. According to farmers' classification, hill rices were categorized into two groups: umte (large-grained, late maturing) and tening (small-grained, early maturing). We did not find significant difference in days to 50 % flowering between the groups. Principal component analysis revealed that two groups can be distinguished on the basis of kernel length-to-width ration (KLW), kernel length (KL), grain length (GrL), grain length-to-width ration (GrLW) and plant height (Ht). Stepwise canonical discriminant analysis identified KL and Ht as the main discriminatory characters between the cultivar groups. Genetic diversity analysis with 35 SSR markers revealed considerable genetic diversity in the hill rice germplasm (gene diversity: 0.66; polymorphism information content: 0.62). Pair-wise allelic difference between umte and tening groups was not statistically significant. The model-based population structure analysis showed that the hill rices were clustered into two broad groups corresponding to Indica and Japonica. The geographic distribution and cultivars grouping of hill rices were not congruent in genetic clusters. Both distance- and model-based approaches indicated that the hill rices were predominantly japonica or

  15. Reconstruction of the coastal morphodynamics of the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörschner, Nina; Böse, Margot; Frechen, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The Fulong-beach dune field is located at the north-eastern coast of Taiwan. Built up of medium and fine grained quartz rich sand, it represents a unique feature of only few kilometres along the east coast of Taiwan. This unique sedimentological regime makes the area most perfectly suitable for age estimations by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The dune field is crossed by the Shuangsi-river, which flows into the Pacific Ocean. The coastal area is subjected to very dynamic conditions in the transition zone between land and sea. Due to the constant force of marine and aeolian processes from tides, weather and sediment accumulation by rivers, it is a continuously changing area. Taiwan is located in a very active tectonic zone with high elevation rates, which reach from 4 mm per year at the east coast up to 7 mm per year in the southern parts of the island. Furthermore Taiwan is affected by medial 3.8 typhoons per year and minor earthquakes nearly occur every day (LIN ET AL. 2006). The consequences are high rates of erosion and sediment transport during very short time periods. The Fulong-beach coastal area is densely populated and proud for being a tourism destination. At the northern end of the dune field the Lungmen nuclear power plant is currently under construction. Four separate dune ridges could be identified from a digital elevation model and from field mapping. During the field campaign in October and November 2009 17 samples were taken for OSL-dating (MURRAY ET AL. 1995) out of the four dune ridges as well as out of a more than 30 m high elevated outcrop cut by the Shuangsi-river. The measurement and the evaluation of the OSL-samples will provide us an insight into the duration and intensity of the processes affecting the coastal area of Taiwan during the Holocene. We will give an outline during the poster presentation of the methodical approach and the morphodynamical processes affecting the Fulong-beach dune field in north-eastern Taiwan

  16. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in polar bears from eastern Russia, North America, Greenland, and Svalbard: biomonitoring of Arctic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Belikov, S E; Born, E W; Garner, G W; Malone, B; Olpinski, S; Ramsay, M A; Schliebe, S; Stirling, I; Stishov, M S; Taylor, M K; Wiig, O

    1998-08-01

    Adipose tissue samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were obtained by necropsy or biopsy between the spring of 1989 to the spring of 1993 from Wrangel Island in Russia, most of the range of the bear in North America, eastern Greenland, and Svalbard. Samples were divided into 16 regions corresponding as much as possible to known stocks or management zones. Concentrations of dieldrin (DIEL), 4,4'-DDE (DDE), sum of 16 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (sigma PCB), and sum of 11 chlordane-related compounds and metabolites (sigma CHL) were determined. In order to minimize the effect of age, only data for adults (320 bears age 5 years and older) was used to compare concentrations among regions. Concentrations of sigma PCB were 46% higher in adult males than females, and there was no significant trend with age. Concentrations of sigma CHL were 30% lower in adult males than females. Concentrations of sigma PCB, sigma CHL, and DDE in individual adult female bears were standardized to adult males using factors derived from the least-square means of each sex category, and geometric means of the standardized concentrations on a lipid weight basis were compared among regions. Median geometric mean standardized concentrations (lipid weight basis) and ranges among regions were as follows: sigma PCB, 5,942 (2,763-24,316) micrograms/kg; sigma CHL, 1,952 (727-4,632) micrograms/kg; DDE, 219 (52-560) micrograms/kg; DIEL, 157 (31-335) micrograms/kg. Geometric mean sigma PCB concentrations in bears from Svalbard, East Greenland, and the Arctic Ocean near Prince Patrick Island in Canada were similar (20,256-24,316 micrograms/kg) and significantly higher than most other areas. Atmospheric, oceanic, and ice transport, as well as ecological factors may contribute to these high concentrations of sigma PCB. sigma CHL was more uniformly distributed among regions than the other CHCs. Highest sigma CHL concentrations were found in southeastern Hudson Bay, which also had the highest DDE and

  17. Autologous cord blood harvesting in North Eastern Italy: ethical questions and emerging hopes for curing diabetes and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia VascottoInstitute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyBackground: The Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG, a region of North Eastern Italy, has passed legislation (Decree No 2324/2010 to regulate the banking of umbilical cord blood samples for personal, autologous, or family-directed use, and to implement the Agreement of the State-Regions Permanent Conference (Decree No 62/CSR/2010. This paper aims to identify the formalities and the reasons why families collect and bank their cord blood in foreign banks for both personal and private use.Methods: To this end, at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste (the regional capital city of the FVG, Italy, which assists about 1800 pregnant women a year, 129 questionnaires, drafted from January 2010 to December 2011 and concerning the granting of authorization to export samples, were examined.Results: The collected data showed that 75% of involved families had resorted to anonymous public collection, which is available to anyone with therapeutic needs, and provided compatibility and hematologic protocols recognized by the scientific and international community (main indications: leukemia, hemoglobinopaties, and inherited hematologic and immunologic disorders. Conversely, 25.0% requested private storage at a foreign bank for personal or family-dedicated use. The principal motivation by disease was for treatment for diabetes (22.4% and celiac disease (19.7% (a multiorgan disease for which the FVG region has provided safeguards by approving a specific law granting support to families; Decree No 561/2007. For these two types of disease we found that information was received from the internet and not from general medical physicians, with a significant difference found using the χ2 test (P < 0.01.Conclusion: The indication of treating these diseases with cord blood stem cell transplantation appears to be well grounded and encouraging, and has recently

  18. Vector species composition and malaria infectivity rates in Mkuzi, Muheza District, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, E J; Mahande, A M; Nkya, W M M

    2008-01-01

    Entomological surveys were conducted in Mkuzi village in Muheza District, north-east Tanzania from April to September 2003. The objectives were to determine the species composition and infectivity rates of mosquitoes in Mkuzi village. Mosquito collection was done using CDC light trap and pyrethrum...... spray catch (PSC) techniques. The light trap: spray catch ratio was 2.2:1. A total of 2157 mosquitoes were collected (light trap = 1483; PSC = 674). Anopheles gambiae s.s. accounted for 56.7% (N = 1224) of all mosquitoes collected. Other species were An. funestus complex (19.2%) and Culex...... quinquefasciatus (24.1%).The mosquito density per room was 74.15 and 33.7 for light trap and PSC techniques, respectively. A total of 1637 Anopheles mosquitoes were tested for circumsporozoite protein by Enzyme linked Immunosobent Assay (ELISA). The overall infectivity rate for circumsporozoite protein for P...

  19. Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three feral pig populations inhabiting contrasting environments along the north easterncoast of Australia have been investigated with respect to population structure, individual condition andreproduction. The population on Prince of Wales Island contains a large proportion of juvenile andsub-adult pigs but lacks pigs in the higher age classes. Individuals also breed at an earlier age thananimals of the mainland populations. Pig populations on Cape York Peninsula show a largerproportion of older animals and feral pigs living in rainforest habitats show a low proportion ofanimals in very young and very old age classes. Pigs from the lowland rainforest population are inbetter condition than those of the other populations for most of the year, reflecting the availability offood all year round in this environment. Differences in the population structure of the threepopulations are discussed with respect to fecundity and several mortality factors such as predation anddiseases/parasites.

  20. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Hanane; Ogilvie, Isla; El Khoury, Antoine C; Duan, Yinghui; Goetghebeur, Mireille M

    2011-01-07

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen), North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia) and Turkey. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%). G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%). G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  1. Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in the Middle Eastern and North African pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Objectives were to estimate the burden of RVGE among children less than five years old in the Middle East (Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted in major databases on the epidemiology and burden of rotavirus among children less than five years old between 1999 and 2009. Data from each country was extracted and compared. Results The search identified 43 studies. RVGE was identified in 16-61% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis, with a peak in the winter. RVGE-related hospitalization rates ranged from 14% to 45%, compared to 14%-28% for non-RVGE. Annually, RVGE caused up to 112 fatalities per 100,000 in certain countries in the region. Hospitalization costs ranged from $1.8 to $4.6 million annually, depending on the country. The most recent literature available showed that G1P[8] was the most prevalent genotype combination in 8 countries (range 23%-56%. G2P[4] was most prevalent in 4 countries (26%-48%. G9P[8] and G4P[8] were also frequently detected. Conclusions RVGE is a common disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Given the variety and diverse rotavirus types in the region, use of a vaccine with broad and consistent serotype coverage would be important to help decrease the burden of RVGE in the Middle East and North Africa.

  2. Migratory connectivity of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus): patterns of spring re-colonization in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993) articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generations. The 'single sweep' hypothesis proposes that overwintering monarchs continue to migrate northward after arriving on the Gulf coast and may reach the northern portion of the breeding range, laying eggs along the way. To examine these hypotheses, we sampled monarchs throughout the northern breeding range and combined stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD) to estimate natal origin with wing wear scores to differentiate between individuals born in the current vs. previous year. Similar to Malcolm et al. (1993), we found that the majority of the northern breeding range was re-colonized by the first generation of monarchs (90%). We also estimated that a small number of individuals (10%) originated directly from Mexico and, therefore adopted a sweep strategy. Contrary to Malcolm et al. (1993), we found that 62% of monarchs sampled in the Great Lakes originated from the Central U.S., suggesting that this region is important for sustaining production in the northern breeding areas. Our results provide new evidence of re-colonization patterns in monarchs and contribute important information towards identifying productive breeding regions of this unique migratory insect.

  3. Migratory connectivity of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus: patterns of spring re-colonization in eastern North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan G Miller

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus migrate up to 3000 km from their overwintering grounds in central Mexico to breed in eastern North America. Malcolm et al. (1993 articulated two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses to explain how Monarchs re-colonize North America each spring. The 'successive brood' hypothesis proposes that monarchs migrate from Mexico to the Gulf Coast, lay eggs and die, leaving northern re-colonization of the breeding range to subsequent generations. The 'single sweep' hypothesis proposes that overwintering monarchs continue to migrate northward after arriving on the Gulf coast and may reach the northern portion of the breeding range, laying eggs along the way. To examine these hypotheses, we sampled monarchs throughout the northern breeding range and combined stable-hydrogen isotopes (δD to estimate natal origin with wing wear scores to differentiate between individuals born in the current vs. previous year. Similar to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that the majority of the northern breeding range was re-colonized by the first generation of monarchs (90%. We also estimated that a small number of individuals (10% originated directly from Mexico and, therefore adopted a sweep strategy. Contrary to Malcolm et al. (1993, we found that 62% of monarchs sampled in the Great Lakes originated from the Central U.S., suggesting that this region is important for sustaining production in the northern breeding areas. Our results provide new evidence of re-colonization patterns in monarchs and contribute important information towards identifying productive breeding regions of this unique migratory insect.

  4. Properties, formation, and dissipation of the North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water and its impact on interannual spiciness anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shota

    2018-03-01

    The properties, formation, and dissipation of the North Pacific Eastern Subtropical Mode Water (ESTMW), their interannual variability, and impact on spiciness anomalies in the upper permanent pycnocline were investigated using Argo profiling float data in 2005-2015. The core temperature and salinity of ESTMWs were horizontally compensated to a constant density, and core potential density concentrates in a range of 24.5-25.2 kg m-3 with two distinct peaks. ESTMWs showed different spatial distribution and persistence for its core potential density. Denser ESTMWs with a potential density of 24.9-25.2 kg m-3 were formed in winter mixed layer depth maximum centered at 30°N, 140°W and lighter ESTMWs of 24.5-24.9 kg m-3 were formed south and east of it. After formation through shoaling of the winter mixed layer, the former persisted until the following autumn and a small part of it subducted in winter, while the latter dissipated in summer. The formation region of ESTMW corresponded to the summer sea surface density maximum resulting from its poleward sea surface salinity front. Sea surface density maximum maintains weak stratification during summer, preconditioning the deepening of the winter mixed layer and hence the formation of ESTMWs. A relationship between the ESTMW formation region and the summer sea surface density maximum was also found in the North Atlantic and the South Pacific, implying the importance of sea surface salinity fronts and the associated summer sea surface density maximum to ESTMW formation. Interannual variations of ESTMW reflected that of the winter mixed layer in its formation region, and the thickness of ESTMW was related to the Pacific decadal oscillation. ESTMW contributed to the occurrence of spice injection and affected spiciness anomalies in the upper permanent pycnocline through its formation and dissipation.

  5. Expansive Tidal Marshes on the North American Eastern Seaboard: Relics of Colonial Deforestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A.; Kirwan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments using a numerical model of tidal marsh ecomorphodynamic evolution suggest that changes in sediment supply (suspended sediment concentrations) reaching tidal marshes can play a role as strong as sea-level-rise rate in determining the extent and elevation of coastal wetlands. Testing a model-generated hypothesis, sediment coring and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary marshes, Massachusetts, USA, suggested that marshes prograded rapidly and substantially following colonial deforestation (Kirwan et al., Geology, 2011). This controversial claim has been questioned, in part because historical maps from 1780 and 1830 show that the marsh had already attained most of its modern extent by that time--which is earlier than some of the of the radiocarbon mid-point dates (Priestas et al., Geology Forum, Dec. 2012). However, given the uncertainties in the radiocarbon dates, and in identifying the earliest marsh-derived layers in sediment cores, the maps and the dating are broadly consistent (Kirwan and Murray, Geology Forum, Dec. 2012). In addition, previous studies have shown that considerable land-use change had already occurred in this small coastal watershed by the late 17th Century, with local laws against tree cutting in place by 1660, and evidence for regional deforestation by 1700. Our field evidence, combined with the historical maps, indicates that this early colonial development lead to an expansion of marshes by approximately 50 percent within the studied area. Given the widespread and pervasive nature of subsequent land-use changes on the Eastern Seaboard from colonial through civil war periods, many of the currently expansive marshes on the East Coast may be relict. Numerical modeling suggests that when sediment concentrations fall below the values required to form a marsh, the marsh will be metastable, with vegetation feedbacks able to maintain the relict morphology and ecology, but susceptible to irreversible loss in response to disturbances

  6. The Holocene environmental history of a small coastal lake on the north-eastern Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, N.; Klimaschewski, A.; Self, A. E.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund., D.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Nazarova, L.

    2015-11-01

    A radiocarbon and tephra-dated sediment core from Lifebuoy Lake, located on the north-east coast of Kamchatka Peninsula, was analysed for pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids and tephra in order to uncover regional environmental history. The 6500-year environmental history of Lifebuoy Lake correlates with the broad regional patterns of vegetation development and climate dynamics with both diatoms and chironomids showing near-synchronous changes. Between ca. 6300 and 3900 cal yr BP, the lake ecosystem was naturally enriched, with several Stephanodiscus species dominating the diatom plankton. This natural eutrophication state is likely to be due to a combination of the base-rich catchment geology, the fertilisation effect of several fires in the catchment, silica input from tephra layers and, possibly, nitrogen input from seabirds. The substantial tephra deposit at about 3850 cal yr BP might have stopped sedimentary phosphorus from entering the lake water thus decreasing the trophic state of the lake and facilitating the shift in diatom composition to a benthic Fragiliariaceae complex. Both diatoms and chironomids showed simultaneous compositional changes, which are also reflected by statistically significant changes in their rates of change 300-400 years after the arrival of Pinus pumila in the lake catchment. The rapid increase in both total diatom concentration and the percentage abundance of the large heavy species, Aulacoseira subarctica might be a response to the change in timing and intensity of lake spring turn-over due to the changes in the patterns of North Pacific atmospheric circulation, most notably westward shift of the Aleutian Low. The two highest peaks in A. subarctica abundance at Lifebouy Lake occurred during opposite summer temperature inferences: the earlier peak (3500-2900 cal yr BP) coincided with warm summers and the latter peak (300 cal yr BP-present) occurred during the cold summer period. These imply that A. subarctica shows no direct

  7. INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN CORN BORER (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner ON CORN HYBRIDS IN NORTH-WEST AND EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvjezdana Augustinović

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner is one of the major corn pest in the world and in Croatia. Former investigations of corn borer in Croatia covered mostly its Eastern region. In trials conducted in 1998 and 1999 the research was extended to the North Western part of Croatia too. Macro trials were carried out with corn hybrids of FAO groups 200-600 at three localities: Križevci, Agricultural institute Osijek and at «Belje» PIK Karanac. In 1998 the intensity of the corn borer attack at the locality of «Belje» PIK Karanac was about 37.92% and in Agricultural institute Osijek 80.83%. In 1999 it varied between 37.08% at the locality of Agricultural Institute Osijek and 71.20% at the locality in Križevci. The estimated number of holes per plant in all three localities in both years was higher than the number of caterpillars. Length of damage per plant was between 0.38 and 18.80 cm. The data showed significant differences in the intensity of damaging effects on different localities while no significant differences concerning various hybrids were found. The statistical data concerning yield in both years showed significant differences among hybrids, localities and their interactions.

  8. Linguatula serrata (Porocephalida: Linguatulidae Infection among Client-Owned Dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria: Prevalence and Public Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni Saheed Oluwasina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777 dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P>0.05. There was no significant difference between sexes (P>0.05. However, significant difference (P<0.05 was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.

  9. Detection and prevalence of four different hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. in Eastern North Carolina American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Lori S H; Stoskopf, Michael K; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2017-02-01

    Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. are globally emerging, obligate parasitic, epierythrocytic bacteria that infect many vertebrates, including humans. Hemoplasma infection can cause acute life-threatening symptoms or lead to a chronic sub-clinical carrier state. Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. transmission, prevalence, and host specificity are uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma species in blood from 68 free-ranging black bears from the eastern coast of North Carolina. DNA amplification of Mycoplasma 16S rRNA gene identified four distinct species infecting 34/68 (50%) of the black bear blood samples, including Candidatus M. haematoparvum. The high prevalence of hemotropic Mycoplasma infection in this wildlife species highlights the importance of understanding intra and inter species transmission. Black bears may play a role in the transmission of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. between animals, arthropod vectors, and humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate black bears as a potential reservoir for hemotropic Mycoplasma infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of habitat structure on genetic differentiation in red fox populations in north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Jacinta; McDevitt, Allan D; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Ruczyńska, Iwona; Górny, Marcin; Wójcik, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    The red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) has the widest global distribution among terrestrial carnivore species, occupying most of the Northern Hemisphere in its native range. Because it carries diseases that can be transmitted to humans and domestic animals, it is important to gather information about their movements and dispersal in their natural habitat but it is difficult to do so at a broad scale with trapping and telemetry. In this study, we have described the genetic diversity and structure of red fox populations in six areas of north-eastern Poland, based on samples collected from 2002-2003. We tested 22 microsatellite loci isolated from the dog and the red fox genome to select a panel of nine polymorphic loci suitable for this study. Genetic differentiation between the six studied populations was low to moderate and analysis in Structure revealed a panmictic population in the region. Spatial autocorrelation among all individuals showed a pattern of decreasing relatedness with increasing distance and this was not significantly negative until 93 km, indicating a pattern of isolation-by-distance over a large area. However, there was no correlation between genetic distance and either Euclidean distance or least-cost path distance at the population level. There was a significant relationship between genetic distance and the proportion of large forests and water along the Euclidean distances. These types of habitats may influence dispersal paths taken by red foxes, which is useful information in terms of wildlife disease management.

  11. Hydrogeochemical and stable isotope geochemical characterization of shallow ground waters and submarine ground water discharge in North-Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Böttcher, Gerd; Schwerdtfeger, Beate; Lipka, Marko; Westphal, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The evolution and hydrochemical composition of ground waters in Mecklenburg-Western Pommerania (North-Eastern Germany) is controlled by different natural and anthropogenic factors. In the present study, the hydrogeochemistry and stable isotope geochemistry (H, C, O, S) of shallow ground waters was investigated in 2014 and 2015. A mass balance approach is combined with physico-chemical modeling to define the mineral dissolution/precipitation potential as well as the processes taking place during the ground water development. The dissolved inorganic carbon system of the ground waters is controlled by the dissolution of biogenic carbon dioxide, the dissolution of (marine) carbonates and the oxidation of anthropogenically introduced DOC and at a few sites biogenic methane. The sulfur isotope composition of dissolved sulfate indicates the substantial impact from the oxidation of sedimentary pyrite using oxygen or nitrate as electron acceptor. The combined results are the base for a quantitative reaction path analysis. The composition of ground water is discussed with respect to its role as a source for fresh waters forming SGD and in a re-wetting wetland area (Hütelmoor) at the southern Baltic Sea coast line. Acknowledgements: The SGD/Hütelmoor part of this study is supported by German Science Foundation during DFG research training group BALTIC TRANSCOAST.

  12. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  13. Illness-related practices for the management of childhood malaria among the Bwatiye people of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kauna K

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of childhood illnesses are accompanied by fever,, including malaria. Child mortality due to malaria has been attributed to poor health service delivery system and ignorance. An assessment of a mother's ability to recognize malaria in children under-five was carried out among the Bwatiye, a poorly-served minority ethnic group in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods A three-stage research design involving interviews, participatory observation and laboratory tests was used to seek information from 186 Bwatiye mothers about their illness-related experiences with childhood fevers. Results Mothers classified malaria into male (fever that persists for longer than three days and female (fever that goes away within three days and had a system of determining when febrile illness would not be regarded as malaria. Most often, malaria would be ignored in the first 2 days before seeking active treatment. Self-medication was the preferred option. Treatment practices and sources of help were influenced by local beliefs, the parity of the mother and previous experience with child mortality. Conclusion The need to educate mothers to suspect malaria in every case of febrile illness and take appropriate action in order to expose the underlying "evil" will be more acceptable than an insistence on replacing local knowledge with biological epidemiology of malaria. The challenge facing health workers is to identify and exploit local beliefs about aetiology in effecting management procedures among culturally different peoples, who may not accept the concept of biological epidemiology.

  14. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  15. Plutonium and other alpha-emitters in bones of wild, herbivorous animals from north-eastern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, J.W. E-mail: mietelsk@alf.ifj.edu.pl; Gaca, P.; Jasinska, M

    2000-07-15

    The results of the investigation of {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and thorium isotope activity concentrations in bones of wild herbivorous animals (deer, roe-deer, boars, elks) from north-eastern Poland are presented. The area on which the animals were living had relatively high Chernobyl plutonium fallout. Possible traces of plutonium were seen only in four samples, but only for one it was it 3{sigma} above background, at 6.2 {+-} 2.4 mBq/kg (ash). The {sup 241}Am activity concentration was below the detection limits in all samples. The maximum {sup 228}Th concentration in the samples was 7.81 {+-} 0.44 Bq/kg (ash), calculated under the assumption of 100% thorium recovery. This isotope seems to originate in bones not from direct incorporation but from the decay of {sup 228}Ra. Large variations in activity concentration was observed, as well as some differences between boars and the chewing animals.

  16. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandois, L.; Nicolas, M.; VanderHeijden, G.; Probst, A.

    2010-01-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  17. Dynamics and structure of natural regeneration in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraruf L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration structures and spatial patterns of European larch (Larix decidua Miller, Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst., were analyzed in three high elevation LTER area in the Dolomites (North-Eastern Alps. Larch and spruce regeneration is mainly affected by dense forest cover and grasses competition whereas stone pine is mostly sensitive to late snow melting, fungal diseases and wild ungulate damages. The current stand and regeneration structure suggests that larch has been highly fostered in the past due to silvo-pastoral management practices. All species show a clear tendency to spatial intraspecific aggregation especially at short-distances. The spatial patterns of larch regeneration are more complex than the other two species, more heavily affected by a main factor such as the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes L. seed dispersal for stone pine or presence of canopy gaps for spruce. However, spatial patterns of all species depend on the number of the available microsites, that often match at small distance driving the formation of small mixed and unevenaged patches. Combining the age structure and spatial pattern information we were able to better understand the small-scale patterns and processes and the role of the past disturbances on the regeneration dynamics in space and time.

  18. Discordant temporal and geographic patterns in maternal lineages of eastern North American frogs, Rana catesbeiana (Ranidae) and Pseudacris crucifer (Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James D; Lougheed, Stephen C; Boag, Peter T

    2004-09-01

    Whether the Pleistocene has had a disproportionate impact on the recent diversification of temperate species, or played a lesser role in a more protracted process, has been a prominent evolutionary debate for the past decade. We used cytochrome b sequences to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of two widely co-distributed, and ecologically divergent frogs (Rana catesbeiana and Pseudacris crucifer) to examine the role of the Pleistocene in structuring these species. Results for R. catesbeiana reflect a pattern of allopatric fragmentation, likely in Coastal Plain refugia on either side of the Mississippi River dating to the mid to early Pleistocene. In contrast, P. crucifer contains numerous divergent lineages, including one west of the Mississippi River in the Interior Highlands, and in the east, multiple lineages that likely expanded from a number of southern Appalachian refugia with lineage sundering originating in the late Pliocene. Large-scale phylogeographic comparisons between these and other eastern North American species reflect both congruent and independent patterns of diversification, possibly reflecting the relative importance of dispersal ability and habitat associations. Although intra-lineage diversification has been structured by repeated Pleistocene glaciations, lineage sundering likely dates at least to the Pliocene in most (but not all) northern temperate amphibian and reptile species studied to date.

  19. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  20. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  1. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandois, L. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab - Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Nicolas, M. [ONF, Direction technique RENECOFOR, Bd de Constance 77300 Fontainebleau (France); VanderHeijden, G. [INRA, centre de Nancy, Equipe BEF, 54280 Champenoux (France); Probst, A., E-mail: anne.probst@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INP, EcoLab -Laboratoire d' ecologie fonctionnelle, ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (> 95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands.

  2. Dynamic simulation for wastewater treatment plants management: Case of Souk-Ahras region, north-eastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Dairi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatment performances of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs, located in North-Eastern Algeria (Souk-Ahras and Sedrata were tested using ASM1 model. The model, to be considered as a decision tool for the appropriate management of activated sludge systems, served for the prediction of both WWTP behaviours under different operating conditions. In Sedrata WWTP the first management scenarios is based on an increase of inflow rate, taking into account a new transfer volume from a nearby zone. In a second scenerio, the ultimate flow of 40 000 m3·d-1 is estimated. Regarding Souk-Ahras WWTP, three scenarios were tested. The first tested the impact of an increase of the extraction flow rate and yielded a reduction by 37% of sludge production. The second dealt with the management of the mass budget of substrata and biomass. Finally, the third application was devoted to the estimation of the plant ultimate capacity, estimated to be 60 000 m3·d-1.

  3. A reform strategy of the energy sector of the 12 countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Kagiannas, Argyris G.; Askounis, Dimitris Th.

    2006-01-01

    The development of an energy reform strategy based on the market economy so as to introduce competition in the market segments is of crucial importance for provision of a stable and favourable environment for energy investments. Reform strategies have begun developing in most of the 12 Mediterranean Countries of North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean, especially in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Even though energy sector reforms have been initiated, they are still at an early stage in most of these countries. The majority of energy utilities remain state owned, vertically integrated monopolies. Few of these countries have established energy regulators, and where they have, these institutions have many difficulties in effective development. In addition, competition is virtually absent from the sector, and private participation has been confined to independent power plants, which tend to be introduced into unreformed sectors. The aim of this paper is to propose energy reform strategies for the reform of the sector by 2010 in terms of the development of the regional oil, gas and electricity sectors in these countries

  4. Use of chemical tracers in assessing the diet and foraging regions of eastern North Pacific killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Margaret M; Herman, David P; Matkin, Craig O; Durban, John W; Barrett-Lennard, Lance; Burrows, Douglas G; Dahlheim, Marilyn E; Black, Nancy; LeDuc, Richard G; Wade, Paul R

    2007-03-01

    Top predators in the marine environment integrate chemical signals acquired from their prey that reflect both the species consumed and the regions from which the prey were taken. These chemical tracers-stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen; persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, patterns and ratios; and fatty acid profiles-were measured in blubber biopsy samples from North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca) (n=84) and were used to provide further insight into their diet, particularly for the offshore group, about which little dietary information is available. The offshore killer whales were shown to consume prey species that were distinctly different from those of sympatric resident and transient killer whales. In addition, it was confirmed that the offshores forage as far south as California. Thus, these results provide evidence that the offshores belong to a third killer whale ecotype. Resident killer whale populations showed a gradient in stable isotope profiles from west (central Aleutians) to east (Gulf of Alaska) that, in part, can be attributed to a shift from off-shelf to continental shelf-based prey. Finally, stable isotope ratio results, supported by field observations, showed that the diet in spring and summer of eastern Aleutian Island transient killer whales is apparently not composed exclusively of Steller sea lions.

  5. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. KOKKINI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  6. Trends in viral meningitis hospitalisations and notifications in the North Eastern Health Board (1997 - 2001): a cause for concern?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to compare trends in both hospital admissions and notifications of viral meningitis in the North Eastern Health Board (NEHB). Hospital admissions from 1997 to 2001, involving NEHB residents with an infectious disease diagnosis, were examined and viral meningitis cases were analyzed. During this period 265 NEHB residents were admitted to hospital with viral meningitis--an increase of 429% between 1997 and 2001 with the bulk of this increase during 2000 and 2001. A total of 1,234 bed days were taken up by this cohort and the mean length of stay was 4.5 days (95% CI 4.2 - 4.9). The number of viral meningitis notifications in the NEHB was 38 (ranging from 4 in 1997 to 11 in 2001). This number is much lower than expected given the corresponding number of hospital admissions for the same period. Thus, most cases were not notified which means that current surveillance systems under-estimate the disease burden of viral meningitis. Such under-reporting has implications for infectious disease policy in Ireland.

  7. Water supply management using an extended group fuzzy decision-making method: a case study in north-eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatour, Yasser; Bonakdari, Hossein; Zarghami, Mahdi; Bakhshi, Maryam Ali

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a group fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method to be applied in rating problems associated with water resources management. Thus, here Chen's group fuzzy TOPSIS method extended by a difference technique to handle uncertainties of applying a group decision making. Then, the extended group fuzzy TOPSIS method combined with a consistency check. In the presented method, initially linguistic judgments are being surveyed via a consistency checking process, and afterward these judgments are being used in the extended Chen's fuzzy TOPSIS method. Here, each expert's opinion is turned to accurate mathematical numbers and, then, to apply uncertainties, the opinions of group are turned to fuzzy numbers using three mathematical operators. The proposed method is applied to select the optimal strategy for the rural water supply of Nohoor village in north-eastern Iran, as a case study and illustrated example. Sensitivity analyses test over results and comparing results with project reality showed that proposed method offered good results for water resources projects.

  8. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15-19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of 'modern' lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences.

  9. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Deltamethrin Barrier Sprays for Mosquito Control in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Volkan, Josh K; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-11-07

    Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment. Oviposition traps were deployed weekly at the same locations. Differences were observed in mosquito abundance between neighborhoods, treatments, and weeks and differences varied between species. Mosquito abundance was generally significantly higher in traps placed on control properties (no insecticide) compared to traps placed on treatment properties. Bifenthrin and deltamethrin showed differences from each other in efficacy, but this varied between neighborhoods and species. Future studies could test the efficacy of barrier sprays at different application frequencies and/or in conjunction with weather monitoring. Coupled with regular mosquito surveillance and using integrated pest management principles, barrier sprays can be an effective tool for suppression of mosquito populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Subsidence and eustasy at the continental margin of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. B.; Steckler, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Biostratigraphic data from the COST B-2 well off New York and four deep commercial wells off Nova Scotia have been used to remove the effect of sediment loading at the Atlantic-type continental margin off the East Coast of North America. The resulting subsidence contains terms due to both 'tectonic' and 'eustatic' effects. By assuming the tectonic subsidence is thermal in origin these effects can be separated. The 'eustatic' effects have been isolated by least squares fitting an exponential curve to the subsidence data. The resulting sea-level curve shows a maximum rise in sea level during the Late Cretaceous era which probably does not exceed 150 m. The tectonic subsidence has been interpreted in terms of a simple thermal model for the cooling lithosphere. Based on this model the thermal thickness of the lithosphere and the total amount of crustal thinning are estimated. These estimates which are consistent with surface ship gravity and GEOS-3 altimeter measurements are used to define the structural elements which control the tectonic evolution of the margin.

  11. Microfossil response to the PETM at DSDP Site 401 (eastern North Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, A.; Walther, R.; D'haenens, S.; Joachim, C.; Speijer, R. P.; Mutterlose, J.; Norris, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55.8 Ma) is the most prominent of a number of global transient warming events during the Paleocene and Eocene epochs. This so-called hyperthermal has been studied in numerous sites with deep and shallow marine sediments as well as in terrestrial archives. Nearly all of these sections show indications of substantial warming based on temperature-sensitive geochemical proxies and a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion accompanied by biotic changes. However, only few complete deep-sea records exist from the North Atlantic region. In the Bay of Biscay at DSDP Site 401 the PETM is well developed and consists of a fairly thick sequence of clay-rich sediments providing well preserved calcareous microfossils. So far foraminiferal calcite has been used to compile high resolution carbon and oxygen isotope records for the sea-floor and the surface ocean from this site. Carbon isotopes represent the typical asymmetric, negative anomaly of about 2 per mil; oxygen isotope data suggest high rates of freshwater supply into the Bay of Biscay resulting in enhanced water column stratification during both the core of the carbon isotope excursion and the recovery phase. In this contribution we combine detailed assemblage records of planktic and benthic foraminifera as well as calcareous nannofossils studied from the same sample material in order to reconstruct the biotic response to this severe warming event. This allows us to detect differences and similarities between these microfossil groups that represent different life habitats and trophic strategies.

  12. Structural imaging of the East Beni Sueif Basin, north eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, E.; Sehim, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Beni Sueif Basin is the only tested hydrocarbon-bearing basin on the eastern side of the Nile in Egypt. The basin is located around 150 km to the south of Cairo. This work introduces the first attempt of seismic interpretation and structural patterns of this basin, for which subsurface published works are lacking. Structural imaging of the area is achieved through interpretation of pre-stack time migration (PSTM) seismic cube and data sets of seven wells. The penetrated sedimentary section is represented by Albian-Middle Eocene sediments. The East Beni Sueif Basin is a type of the whole graben-system and is bounded by two NW-SE bounding faults. These faults had continued activity in an extensional regime associated with fault-propagating folds. The basin is traversed by a N75°E-trending fault system at basement level. This fault system separates the basin into two structural provinces. The Northwestern Province is deeper and shows more subsidence with a predominance of NW-trending longitudinal faults and N60·W oblique faults to the basin trend. The Southeastern Province is shallow and crossed by N14·W-trending faults which are slightly oblique to the basin axis. Albian time had witnessed the main extensional tectonic phase and resulted in major subsidence along basin-bounding faults associated with growth thickening of basal deposits. During Senonian time, the basin experienced a mild phase of transtensional tectonics, which formed negative-flower structures entrapping different folds along the N75°E and N60·W faults. The timing and style of these structures are similar to the Syrian-Arc structures in several Western Desert oil fields. The basin emerged during the Paleocene with scoured and eroded top Cretaceous sediments. Subsidence was resumed during the Early Eocene and resulted in 1500 m-thick carbonate sediments. Lastly, a mild extensional activity possibly occurred during the Oligocene-Miocene time. Despite the possible restricted potentiality

  13. Applying plant functional types to construct biome maps from eastern North American pollen data: comparisons with model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Summers, Robert L.; Webb, Thompson, III

    Global biome models like BIOME1 convert climate-model simulations of past climates into biome distributions and thus facilitate comparison of both climate and biome model results with biomes estimate from paleoecological data. We adapted a biomization method, recently developed for European pollen data, for use with pollen data in eastern North America and then compared its estimated biomes with those derived from applying BIOME1 to the climate simulations from the NCAR CCM1 (National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model, Version 1) for 6000 years ago (6 ka). We first tested the biomization method by seeing how well the biomes inferred from modern pollen data match observed biomes. We found that modifications to the method were necessary in part to account for physiological differences between North American and European taxa, and in part to cope with our choice of using just 23 major pollen taxa. Our modifications significantly improved the match between observed modern biomes and pollen-derived biomes, as measured by the kappa statistic. We tested our tuning of the biomization method by matching its inferred 6 ka biomes to biomes estimated from pollen data using the modern analog technique. The degree of agreement at 6 ka is close to that for today, showing that (1) the biomization method and modern analog technique, when applied to the same pollen data, produce consistent results, and (2) the modifications made to the biomization method are robust back to 6 ka. We then used the results of the biomization method to test the biome maps simulated by BIOME1, which derives biome distributions from observed climate values for today and from the climatic simulations of the CCM1 for 6 ka. Only a fair agreement is seen, and significant offsets exist in the placement of biomes by BIOME1. For today BIOME1 simulates the boundary between the temperate deciduous and cool mixed forests to be too far south and the steppe-forest boundary to be too far west

  14. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human?wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, w...

  15. Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E.coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dong Tu

    2006-01-01

    Summary Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E. coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam Background: Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) disease is more prevalent in infants and children is a very important cause of sporadic diarrhoea cases and diarrhoea outbreaks in many countries. Currently, DEC also stands as a chief causal factor for diarrhoea among travellers. DEC disease is usually transmitted through food or wa...

  16. Two millennia of forest history deduced from closed depressions in the Lorrain plain (North-eastern, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frederic; Dupouey, Jean Luc; Dambrine, Etienne

    2010-05-01

    Recent archaeological surveys and ecological investigations in large "ancient" forests have shown that these areas had been often cultivated during the Roman or Medieval periods, and that this former land use is still deeply influencing present soil properties and plant biodiversity. This new perspective has boosted the research for sediment archives describing the state of forests across the archaeological and historical periods, especially in low altitude forest. Closed depressions (CD) or small hollows (over 30 000 CDs) are found in many silty plains of North-Western Europe (north-eastern France, Luxemburg and Belgium). They are defined as small (100 to 400 m²) closed wetlands, mostly supplied by rainwater. Their origin is debated. Recent coring campaigns in CDs of Lorraine (north-eastern France), 3 to 5 meters thick sediment cores were retrieved. It opened the way for palynological and pedological reconstruction of former landscapes. Here we present a sediment analysis of four peaty CDs (Assenoncourt, Römersberg, Sarrebourg and St Jean), located in different low altitude beech (Fagus) and oak (Quercus) forests, on silty clay soils, 50km from Nancy. As the oldest available map (Naudins, dated from 1728 to 1739) indicated forest boundaries similar to the present ones, these forests were considered as ancient forests. The sedimentation begins during the second Iron Age or Roman period. By this time, pollen analyses show an open landscape (70% of Non Arboreal Pollen), composed mostly by grassland (Plantago major/media, Poaceae and Asteraceae) and cropland (Cerealia-type, Centaurea cyanus). Around the 5th century AD, coinciding with the collapse of the Roman Empire, the pollen sequences describe rapid afforestation by Betula and Corylus, and later Carpinus forest. From the 8th century AD, Carpinus decreases in favour of Quercus which may reflect an anthropogenic clearing. From the 10th to the 14th century AD, croplands expand again with cultivation of hemp

  17. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of ‘modern’ lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences. PMID:21547247

  18. Multiproxy evidence of Holocene climate variability from estuarine sediments, eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Thunell, R.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Mann, M.E.; Vann, C.; Seal, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    We reconstructed paleoclimate patterns from oxygen and carbon isotope records from the fossil estuarine benthic foraminifera Elphidium and Mg/ Ca ratios from the ostracode Loxoconcha from sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay to examine the Holocene evolution of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-type climate variability. Precipitation-driven river discharge and regional temperature variability are the primary influences on Chesapeake Bay salinity and water temperature, respectively. We first calibrated modern ??18 Owater to salinity and applied this relationship to calculate trends in paleosalinity from the ??18 Oforam, correcting for changes in water temperature estimated from ostracode Mg /Ca ratios. The results indicate a much drier early Holocene in which mean paleosalinity was ???28 ppt in the northern bay, falling ???25% to ???20 ppt during the late Holocene. Early Holocene Mg/Ca-derived temperatures varied in a relatively narrow range of 13?? to 16??C with a mean temperature of 14.2??C and excursions above 16??C; the late Holocene was on average cooler (mean temperature of 12.8??C). In addition to the large contrast between early and late Holocene regional climate conditions, multidecadal (20-40 years) salinity and temperature variability is an inherent part of the region's climate during both the early and late Holocene, including the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age. These patterns are similar to those observed during the twentieth century caused by NAO-related processes. Comparison of the midlatitude Chesapeake Bay salinity record with tropical climate records of Intertropical Convergence Zone fluctuations inferred from the Cariaco Basin titanium record suggests an anticorrelation between precipitation in the two regions at both millennial and centennial timescales. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Formation of Barents Sea Branch Water in the north-eastern Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar S. Lien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barents Sea throughflow accounts for approximately half of the Atlantic Water advection to the Arctic Ocean, while the other half flows through Fram Strait. Within the Barents Sea, the Atlantic Water undergoes considerable modifications before entering the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Trough. While the inflow area in the south-western Barents Sea is regularly monitored, oceanographic data from the outflow area to the north-east are very scarce. Here, we use conductivity, temperature and depth data from August/September 2008 to describe in detail the water masses present in the downstream area of the Barents Sea, their spatial distribution and transformations. Both Cold Deep Water, formed locally through winter convection and ice-freezing processes, and Atlantic Water, modified mainly through atmospheric cooling, contribute directly to the Barents Sea Branch Water. As a consequence, it consists of a dense core characterized by a temperature and salinity maximum associated with the Atlantic Water, in addition to the colder, less saline and less dense core commonly referred to as the Barents Sea Branch Water core. The denser core likely constitutes a substantial part of the total flow, and it is more saline and considerably denser than the Fram Strait branch as observed within the St. Anna Trough. Despite the recent warming of the Barents Sea, the Barents Sea Branch Water is denser than observed in the 1990s, and the bottom water observed in the St. Anna Trough matches the potential density at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean.

  20. Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of

  1. Molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite DNA within mosquito blood meals from eastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Joseph O; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-11-01

    To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector

  2. Likelihood Estimation of the Systemic Poison-Induced Morbidity in an Adult North Eastern Romanian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Lionte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute exposure to a systemic poison represents an important segment of medical emergencies. We aimed to estimate the likelihood of systemic poison-induced morbidity in a population admitted in a tertiary referral center from North East Romania, based on the determinant factors. Methodology: This was a prospective observational cohort study on adult poisoned patients. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were recorded in all patients. We analyzed three groups of patients, based on the associated morbidity during hospitalization. We identified significant differences between groups and predictors with significant effects on morbidity using multiple multinomial logistic regressions. ROC analysis proved that a combination of tests could improve diagnostic accuracy of poison-related morbidity. Main findings: Of the 180 patients included, aged 44.7 ± 17.2 years, 51.1% males, 49.4% had no poison-related morbidity, 28.9% developed a mild morbidity, and 21.7% had a severe morbidity, followed by death in 16 patients (8.9%. Multiple complications and deaths were recorded in patients aged 53.4 ± 17.6 years (p .001, with a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score upon admission and a significantly higher heart rate (101 ± 32 beats/min, p .011. Routine laboratory tests were significantly higher in patients with a recorded morbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that a GCS < 8, a high white blood cells count (WBC, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT, myoglobin, glycemia and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP are strongly predictive for in-hospital severe morbidity. Originality: This is the first Romanian prospective study on adult poisoned patients, which identifies the factors responsible for in-hospital morbidity using logistic regression analyses, with resulting receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Conclusion: In acute intoxication with systemic poisons, we identified several clinical and laboratory variables

  3. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Czechowskie Lake is located in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake there are preserved laminated sediments with an excellent Holocene climatic record. The lake has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. It occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the last glaciation. The lake has a history reaching back to Pommeranian phase which is proved by analysis of sedimentary succesions in the vicinity of present-day waterbody. Primarily it come to existence as an very variable ice dammed lake but after dead ice and permafrost desintegration it changed into a stable lake. In the terrestrialised part oft the lake and in its litoral zone there were curried out numerous boreholes within limnic and slope sediments. They have been analysed in respect to lithology and structure. Some of them were also investigated palynologically which along with radiocarbon datings allowed to reconstruct major phases of the water level fluctuations. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. The analysis of limnic sediments revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability mainly in dependance of the area of the water body and water level in time of deposition. In the lake are recorded three distinct phases of lake level decrease. The sedimentary evolution in the isolated minor lake basins showed gradual decrease of mineral and organic deposition in favour for carbonate one although in places separated by

  4. Features of Inner Structure of Placer Gold of the North-Eastern Part Siberian Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Boris; Zhuravlev, Anatolii; Ivanov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Mineral and raw material base of placer and ore gold is based on prognosis evaluation, which allows to define promising areas regarding gold-bearing deposit prospecting. But there are some difficulties in gold primary source predicting and prospecting at the North-east Siberian platform, because the studied area is overlapped by thick cover of the Cenozoic deposits, where traditional methods of gold deposit prospecting are ineffective. In this connection, detailed study of typomorphic features of placer gold is important, because it contains key genetic information, necessary for development of mineralogical criteria of prognosis evaluation of ore gold content. Authors studied mineralogical-geochemical features of placer gold of the Anabar placer area for 15 years, with a view to identify indicators of gold, typical for different formation types of primary sources. This article presents results of these works. In placer regions, where primary sources of gold are not identified, there is need to study typomorphic features of placer gold, because it contains important genetic information, necessary for the development of mineralogical criteria of prognosis evaluation of ore gold content. Inner structures of gold from the Anabar placer region are studied, as one of the diagnostic typomorphic criteria as described in prominent method, developed by N.V. Petrovskaya [1980]. Etching of gold was carried out using reagent: HCl + HNO3 + FeCl3 × 6H2O + CrO3 +thioureat + water. Identified inner structures wer studied in details by means of scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-6480LV. Two types of gold are identified according to the features of inner structure of placer gold of the Anabar region. First type – medium-high karat fine, well processed gold with significantly changed inner structure. This gold is allochthonous, which was redeposited many times from ancient intermediate reservoirs to younger deposits. Second type – low-medium karat, poorly rounded gold with

  5. Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California conducted from 1967-12-18 to 2007-02-22 (NCEI Accession 0138007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  6. [Jörg Hackmann (Hrsg.). Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context] / Rüdi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ritter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Vereinskultur und Zivilgesellschaft in Nordosteuropa : regionale Spezifik und europäische Zusammenhänge = Associational culture and civil society in North Eastern Europe : regional features and the European context. Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2012

  7. Physical, chemical and biological CTD and bottle data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 in eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean from March 19 to April 20, 2012 (NODC Accession 0109846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to...

  8. Short-term impacts of a 4-lane highway on black bears in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Manen, Frank T.; McCollister, Matthew F.; Nicholson, Jeremy M.; Thompson, Laura M.; Kindall, Jason L.; Jones, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous anthropogenic impacts on terrestrial landscapes, expanding transportation networks represent one of the primary challenges to wildlife conservation worldwide. Larger mammals may be particularly vulnerable because of typically low densities, low reproductive rates, and extensive movements. Although numerous studies have been conducted to document impacts of road networks on wildlife, inference has been limited because of experimental design limitations. During the last decade, the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) rerouted and upgraded sections of United States Highway 64 between Raleigh and the Outer Banks to a 4-lane, divided highway. A new route was selected for a 24.1-km section in Washington County. The new section of highway included 3 wildlife underpasses with adjacent wildlife fencing to mitigate the effects of the highway on wildlife, particularly American black bears (Ursus americanus). We assessed the short-term impacts of the new highway on spatial ecology, population size, survival, occupancy, and gene flow of black bears. We tested our research hypotheses using a before-after control-impact (BACI) study design. We collected data during 2000–2001 (preconstruction phase) and 2006–2007 (postconstruction phase) in the highway project area and a nearby control area (each approx. 11,000 ha), resulting in 4 groups of data (i.e., pre- or postconstruction study phase, treatment or control area). We captured and radiocollared 57 bears and collected 5,775 hourly locations and 4,998 daily locations. Using mixed-model analysis of variance and logistic regression, we detected no differences in home ranges, movement characteristics, proximity to the highway alignment, or habitat use between the 2 study phases, although minimum detectable effect sizes were large for several tests. However, after completion of the new highway, bears on the treatment area became less inactive in morning, when highway traffic was low, compared with

  9. Extensive crustal melting during craton destruction: Evidence from the Mesozoic magmatic suite of Junan, eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tang, Li

    2018-05-01

    The cratonic destruction associated with the Pacific plate subduction beneath the eastern North China Craton (NCC) shows a close relationship with the widespread magmatism during the Late Mesozoic. Here we investigate a suite of intrusive and extrusive magmatic rocks from the Junan region of the eastern NCC in order to evaluate the role of extensive crustal melting related to decratonization. We present petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb geochronological and Lu-Hf isotopic data to evaluate the petrogenesis, timing and tectonic significance of the Early Cretaceous magmatism. Zircon grains in the basalt from the extrusive suite of Junan show multiple populations with Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic xenocrystic grains ranging in age from 764 Ma to 495 Ma as well as Jurassic grains with an age range of 189-165 Ma. The dominant population of magmatic zircon grains in the syenite defines three major age peaks of 772 Ma, 132 Ma and 126 Ma. Zircons in the granitoids including alkali syenite, monzonite and granodiorite yield a tightly restricted age range of 124-130 Ma representing their emplacement ages. The Neoproterozoic (841-547 Ma) zircon grains from the basalt and the syenite possess εHf(t) values of -22.9 to -8.4 and from -18.8 to -17.3, respectively. The Early Paleozoic (523-494 Ma) zircons from the basalt and the syenite also show markedly negative εHf(t) values of -22.7 to -18.0. The dominant population of Early Cretaceous (134-121 Ma) zircon grains presented in all the samples also displays negative εHf(t) values range from -31.7 to -21.1, with TDM of 1653-2017 Ma and TDMC in the range of 2193-3187 Ma. Accordingly, the Lu-Hf data suggest that the parent magma was sourced through melting of Mesoarchean to Paleoproterozoic basement rocks. Geochemical data on the Junan magmatic suite display features similar to those associated with the arc magmatic rocks involving subduction-related components, with interaction of fluids and melts in the suprasubduction

  10. Hydrology of the Wibaux-Beach lignite deposit area, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleocene Harmon lignite, the principal commercial bed of the Wihaux-Beach deposit, underlies at least 150 square miles along the Montana-North Dakota border. An estimated 1 billion tons of strippable reserves underlies about 50 square miles. The Harmon lignite bed also is the most consistently occurring shallow aquifer in the area. This study was conducted to determine possible impacts of surface mining on the area's water resources.Two aquifer systems, the lower Tongue River and the upper Ludlow, were identified within about 300 feet below the Harmon lignite aquifer, but none were identified within the overlying 350 feet. The aquifers (systems) are separated by varying thicknesses of interbedded clay and silt. The Harmon lignite aquifer extends uninterrupted for several miles eastward (down dip) from the outcrop. It is from 3 to 34 feet thick and from zero to 350 feet deep. The top of the lower Tongue River aquifer system is from 0 to 115 feet below the Harmon lignite and the system is 13 to 98 feet thick. The upper Ludlow aquifer system is 128 to 214 feet below the Harmon lignite and is 5 to 84 feet thick.Both the lower Tongue River and upper Ludlow aquifer systems consist of discontinuous, vertically stacked, sinuous sand bodies deposited as channel fill in meandering and braided streams. The probability of encountering a sand bed within the aquifer systems at any one location in the study area is about 60 percent for the lower Tongue River aquifer system and 80 percent for the upper Ludlow aquifer system.Water in each aquifer flows toward the northeast and occurs under confined conditions, except in the Harmon lignite aquifer near its outcrop. Recharge occurs directly by precipitation at the outcrops and by downward leakage elsewhere. The major discharge from each aquifer is by downward leakage, although the Harmon lignite aquifer discharges less than 0.20 cubic foot per second to surface drainages within the study area.Differences in chemical quality of

  11. Adjusting central and eastern North America ground‐motion intensity measures between sites with different reference‐rock site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000  m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760  m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760  m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760  m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0 from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.

  12. Adjusting central and eastern North America ground-motion intensity measures between sites with different reference-rock site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.

    2017-01-01

    Adjustment factors are provided for converting ground‐motion intensity measures between central and eastern North America (CENA) sites with different reference‐rock site conditions (VS30=760, 2000, and 3000  m/s) for moment magnitudes ranging from 2 to 8, rupture distances ranging from 2 to 1200 km, Fourier amplitude spectra (FAS) for frequencies ranging from 0.01 to 100 Hz, response spectra for periods ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 s, peak ground acceleration, and peak ground velocity. The adjustment factors are given for a wide range of the site diminution parameters (κ0) for sites with VS30=760  m/s and for a κ0 of 0.006 s for two harder rock sites. Fourteen CENA velocity profiles with VS30 values within a factor of 1.1 of 760  m/s were used to derive average FAS amplification factors as a function of frequency, which were then used in simulations of peak ground‐motion parameters and response spectra to derive the adjustment factors. The amplification function differs from that used in western North America (e.g., Campbell and Boore, 2016) in having a peak near 9 Hz, due to the resonance of motions in the relatively thin low‐velocity material over hard rock that characterizes many CENA sites with VS30 near 760  m/s. We call these B/C sites, because this velocity marks the boundary between National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program site classes B and C (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004). The adjustments for short‐period motions are sensitive to the value of κ0, but there are very few if any determinations of κ0 for CENA B/C sites. For this reason, we determined κ0from multiple recordings at Pinyon Flat Observatory (PFO), California, which has a velocity‐depth profile similar to those of CENA B/C sites. The PFO and other results from the literature suggest that appropriate values of κ0 for CENA B/C sites are expected to lie between 0.01 and 0.03 s.

  13. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.

    2017-02-01

    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  14. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The well-exposed Middle Devonian rocks of the Appalachian foreland basin (Onondaga Formation; Hamilton Group, Tully Formation, and the Genesee Group of New York State) preserve one of the most detailed records of high-order sea-level oscillation cycles for this time period in the world. Detailed examination of coeval units in distal areas of the Appalachian Basin, as well as portions of the Michigan and Illinois basins, has revealed that the pattern of high-order sea-level oscillations documented in the New York-Pennsylvania section can be positively identified in all areas of eastern North America where coeval units are preserved. The persistence of the pattern of high-order sea-level cycles across such a wide geographic area suggests that these cycles are allocyclic in nature with primary control on deposition being eustatic sea-level oscillation, as opposed to autocylic controls, such as sediment supply, which would be more local in their manifestation. There is strong evidence from studies of cyclicity and spectral analysis that these cycles are also related to Milankovitch orbital variations, with the short and long-term eccentricity cycles (100. kyr and 405. kyr) being the dominant oscillations in many settings. Relative sea-level oscillations of tens of meters are likely and raise considerable issues about the driving mechanism, given that the Middle Devonian appears to record a greenhouse phase of Phanerozoic history. These new correlations lend strong support to a revised high-resolution sea-level oscillation curve for the Middle Devonian for the eastern portion of North America. Recognized third-order sequences are: Eif-1 lower Onondaga Formation, Eif-2: upper Onondaga and Union Springs formations; Eif-Giv: Oatka Creek Formation; Giv-1: Skaneateles, Giv-2: Ludlowville, Giv-3: lower Moscow, Giv-4: upper Moscow-lower Tully, and Giv-5: middle Tully-Geneseo formations. Thus, in contrast with the widely cited eustatic curve of Johnson et al. (1985), which

  15. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  16. A study of the Bodrogköz population in north-eastern Hungary by Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamjav, Horolma; Fóthi, Á; Fehér, T; Fóthi, Erzsébet

    2017-08-01

    We have determined the distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in population samples from one of the most important areas in north-eastern Hungary from many villages in the Bodrogköz. The Bodrogköz region was chosen due to its isolated nature, because this area was a moorland encircled by the Tisza, Bodrog, and Latorca Rivers and inhabitants of this part of Hungary escaped from both Tatar and Ottoman invasions, which decimated the post-Hungarian Conquest populations in many parts of the country. Furthermore, in the first half of the tenth century, this region served as the Palatial Centre and burial grounds of the Hungarian tribes. It has thus been assumed that the present population in this area is likely to be more similar to the population that lived in the Conquest period. We analysed male-specific markers, 23 Y-STRs and more than 30 Y-SNPs, that reflect the past and recent genetic history. We found that the general haplogroup distribution of the samples showed high genetic similarity to non-Bodrogköz Hungarians and neighbouring populations, despite its sheltered location and historical record. We were able to classify the Y-chromosomal haplogroups into four large groups based on STR mutation events: pre-Roman/Roman ancient lineage, Finno-Ugric speakers arriving into the Carpathian Basin, Migration period admixture, and post-Hungarian Conquest admixture. It is clear that a significantly larger database with deep haplogroup resolution, including ancient DNA data, is required to strengthen this research.

  17. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  18. Arthropods in trophic-cenosis structure of collared flycatcher consortium in conditions of forest ecosystems of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Chaplygina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on taxonomic and quantitative analysis of feed ration of nestlings and structure of nidikolas of collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis (Temminck, 1815. Ecological features and consortium relations of flycatchers and their specific feeding behavior were analyzed. Materials were collected in May – July 2009–2014 on the transformed territories of North-Eastern Ukraine. Functioning of trophic structure of biogeocenosis with the participation of flycatcher as a heterotrophic core of big autotrophic group was studied. Spatial and trophic relations of flycatcher with the woody vegetation and insect-phytophages (leaf beetles, leafhoppers, and barbels have been described. In the feed ration of flycatcher nestlings the prevalence is given to representatives of Hexapoda (83%, including Lepidoptera (16 families, 24%, Hymenoptera (12 families, 23% and Coleoptera (40 families, 15%. We characterize trophic groups of arthropods in the consortium of flycatchers: phytophages (33%, zoophages (45%, parasites, bloodsuckers, saprophages (16%, necrophages (4%, coprophages, keratophages. Fauna of arthropods of collared flycatcher nests was analyzed. Nests of birds as a heterotrophic consortium is the habitat of invertebrates with 293 taxons belonging to the Hexapoda, Arachnida, Malacostraca and Myriaroda, sometimes Mollusca. In the trophic structure of the population of flycatcher the representatives of Hexapoda dominate (278 species, where the first place is given to zoophages (127 species, 45%, including parasites (Culicidae, Tabanidae, Mallophaga, Hippoboscidae, Aphaniptera. The second are phytophages (78 species, 28%, the third – decomposers (75 species, 27%, and the last presenting detritivores (48 species, 18% and necrophages (27 species, 10%. Constant ectoparasitic species of flycatchers are Ricinus sp. (Mallophaga, Ornithomyia avicularia L. (Diptera, Protocalliphora azurea chrysorrhea Mg. (Diptera, Ceratophyllus sp. (Aphaniptera

  19. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bustins, J. A.; Pla, E.; Nadal, M.; Herralde, F. de; Save, R.

    2014-06-01

    Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on eco physiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO) (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain). We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years), which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume) is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change. (Author)

  20. Characterization of the Vajont landslide (North-Eastern Italy) by means of reflection and surface wave seismics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Lorenzo; Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of the disastrous Vajont rockslide (North-Eastern Italy, October 9, 1963) have been studied in great detail over the past five decades. Nevertheless, the reconstruction of the rockslide dynamics still presents several uncertainties, including those related to the accurate estimation of the actual landslide mass. This work presents the results of a geophysical characterization of the Vajont landslide body in terms of material properties and buried geometry. Both aspects add new information to the existing dataset and will help a better understanding of the rockslide failure mechanisms and dynamics. In addition, some general considerations concerning the intricacies of landslide characterization can be drawn, with due attention to potential pitfalls. The employed techniques are: (i) high resolution P-wave reflection, (ii) high resolution SH-wave reflection, (iii) controlled source surface wave analysis. We adopted as a seismic source a vibrator both for P waves and SH waves, using vertical and horizontal geophones respectively. For the surface wave seismic survey we used a heavy drop-weight source and low frequency receivers. Despite the high noise level caused by the fractured conditions of the large rock body, a common situation in landslide studies, we managed to achieve a satisfying imaging quality of the landslide structure thanks to the large number of active channels, the short receiver interval and the test of appropriate seismic sources. The joint use of different seismic techniques help focus the investigation on the rock mass mechanical properties. Results are in good agreement with the available borehole data, the geological sections and the mechanical properties of the rockmass estimated by other studies. In general the proposed approach is likely to be applicable successfully to similar situations where scattering and other noise sources are a typical bottleneck to geophysical data acquisition on landslide bodies.

  1. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection and colonization in a tertiary hospital and elderly community of North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, N H; Ma, Z F; Besari, A; Siti Asma, H; Rahman, R A; Collins, D A; Hamid, N; Riley, T V; Lee, Y Y

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia. The aims of our study were to explore (i) the prevalence, risk factors and molecular epidemiology of CDI and colonization in a tertiary academic hospital in North-Eastern Peninsular Malaysia; (ii) the rate of carriage of C. difficile among the elderly in the region; (iii) the awareness level of this infection among the hospital staffs and students. For stool samples collected from hospital inpatients with diarrhea (n = 76) and healthy community members (n = 138), C. difficile antigen and toxins were tested by enzyme immunoassay. Stool samples were subsequently analyzed by culture and molecular detection of toxin genes, and PCR ribotyping of isolates. To examine awareness among hospital staff and students, participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. For the hospital and community studies, the prevalence of non-toxigenic C. difficile colonization was 16% and 2%, respectively. The prevalence of CDI among hospital inpatients with diarrhea was 13%. Out of 22 C. difficile strains from hospital inpatients, the toxigenic ribotypes 043 and 017 were most common (both 14%). In univariate analysis, C. difficile colonization in hospital inpatients was significantly associated with greater duration of hospitalization and use of penicillin (both P < 0·05). Absence of these factors was a possible reason for low colonization in the community. Only 3% of 154 respondents answered all questions correctly in the awareness survey. C. difficile colonization is prevalent in a Malaysian hospital setting but not in the elderly community with little or no contact with hospitals. Awareness of CDI is alarmingly poor.

  2. Tracking fluctuations in the intensity of the eastern tropical north Pacific oxygen minimum zone using a multi-proxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tems, C.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are permanent midwater features that are associated with highly productive regions of the ocean, key microbial mediated biogeochemical cycling, and the deposition of organic rich sediments. The intensity of OMZs varies on glacial to interglacial time scales, indicating a relationship between the climate system and the expanse of OMZs, however, high-resolution studies tracking the fluctuations of OMZs on a near annual basis are lacking. In the Gulf of California (Pescadero Slope), the eastern tropical north Pacific OMZ impinges on basin slopes depositing laminated, hemipelagic sediments that record useful proxies of OMZ fluctuations. In an OMZ, low O2 content promotes water column denitrification, imparting an elevated 15N/14N isotopic signature on the residual nitrate in the water column. The elevated 15NO3- is upwelled and incorporated into particulate organic mater (POM) during primary production. The exported POM δ15Nsed then reflects the intensity of the regional OMZ at the time it was deposited. The Pescadero Slope record shows distinct temporal fluctuations in the δ15Nsed with decadal to multi-decadal and centennial cyclicity over the past 1200 years. The record reveals that the OMZ contracts during warmer climatic periods, including the Medieval Climate Optimum and the Industrial Revolution, and expands during cooler climates, specifically the Little Ice Age. The local mechanisms that are influencing fluctuations in the OMZ are investigated through an analysis of productivity proxies, including weight percent organic carbon and weight percent biogenic silica, and indicate OMZ expansion during periods of high productivity. Local productivity is driven by the intensity in the easterly trade winds in the Pacific, and thus the relationship between regional trade wind intensity and fluctuations in the intensity of the OMZ over the past 160 years will be discussed.

  3. Genetic characterization of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz.] landraces of North Eastern Hills of India and conservation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Veerendra Kumar; Pandey, Avinash; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2017-10-01

    Chayote or chow-chow is an underutilized cucurbit vegetable crop, widely cultivated by farmers in the backyards and Jhum lands for its tender leaves, fruits and tuberous root. In order to initiate crop improvement program in this crop, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetic variations in the 74 chow-chow landraces collected from the North Eastern Hill region of India. Wide variations for fruit colors, fruit length (6.5-21.5 cm), fruit width (4.2-10.7 cm), fruit weight (60-560 g), vitamin-C (2.6-13.8 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (0.18-2.77%), total sugar (1.09-2.94%) and phenol content (0.17-3.85 mg/100 g FW) were recorded among the landraces. All the landraces were also characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In RAPD analyses, out of 28 primers a total of 198 reproducible amplicons were formed at an average of 7.01 per primer and an overall polymorphism of 88.38%. Eight fragments were specific to landraces with light green fruits. Four fragments were observed to be specific to RCSC-22 (dark green fruits) and another four specific to a RCSC-30 (pale yellow fruits). Out of 30 ISSR, only 5 primers generated a total of 32 reproducible amplicons with an average of 6.4 per primer and overall polymorphism of 62.5%. The pair wise similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.55 to 0.96. The grouping of landraces in cluster analysis was found to be independent of their respective geographic locations. The cuttings of suckers and shoot top (2 months old) treated with indole-3-butyric acid (200 mg l -1 ) provide an alternative for the conservation of the diverse genetic materials to the researchers.

  4. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L. Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Roy

    Full Text Available The North-eastern (NE India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2 to 0.453 (P2 vs P3. With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  7. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. Approach In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. Local setting In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. Relevant changes By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. Lessons learnt A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines. PMID:23599555

  8. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  9. Strategic development plan for integrated water resources management in Lake Manyara sub-basin, North-Eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngana, J. O.; Mwalyosi, R. B. B.; Yanda, P.; Madulu, N. F.

    This paper reports that the core problem in the water resources management of the Lake Manyara sub-basin in north-eastern Tanzania is unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources. The subsequent effects observed in the sub-basin are natural resource use conflicts, poverty, low productivity, overcrowding, high siltation in rivers and lakes, degraded environment, decreased river flows, polluted water sources, etc. In order to establish strategies to arrest this situation, a strategic planning process has been used as a tool involving key stakeholders in the basin at various levels. Policy making officials at the district level i.e. planning officers, agricultural officers, water engineers and natural resources officers and grass root level experiences of respective wards in the basin were established through involving Ward executive officers. Water users of the key sectors in the basin were equally involved which included hotels, tented camps, irrigators and livestock keepers. Institutions working in natural resources management in the areas also participated including NGOs. The main causes leading to unsustainable utilization and management of natural resources were established as poverty, environment degradation, poor governance, weak enforcement of conservation laws, conflicting policies, inadequate experts at all levels, inadequate information on natural resources, high natural population growth rate, high immigration rates, high livestock population in comparison to land carrying capacity, political interference in implementation, limited water resources and lack of basin wide institution managing the natural resources in the basin. Various strategic objectives were identified by stakeholders and respective strategies, activities and verifiable indicators mapped for implementation. Stakeholders having owned the process and articulated the strategies themselves showed commitment and readiness to cooperate in the implementation of the plan.

  10. THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA FROM THE UPPER PLEISTOCENE VERTEBRATE-BEARING DEPOSITS OF S. TEODORO CAVE (NORTH-EASTERN SICILY

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    DANIELA ESU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with terrestrial, freshwater and marine molluscs collected in the upper Pleistocene deposits of clay, sands and gravels of S. Teodoro Cave (North-eastern Sicily. Beginning from 1998 two trenches have been excavated (1998 and 2002-2004. A highly diversified assemblage of endemic and not endemic vertebrates (elephant, horse, wild ox, deer, wild boar, hyaena, fox, mouse, ground vole, shrew, hedgehog, bats, birds, reptiles, invertebrates (molluscs and vegetal remains have been collected from the two trenches. The molluscan fauna is represented by poor to rich-species assemblages of land and freshwater gastropods and bivalves with Mediterranean-European character. Some species have been found for the first time as fossils in Sicily. The land snails prevail in the 1998 trench showing a persistent arid environment during the time of the sediment deposition. The freshwater species, characteristic of slow-running water, point to the presence of a small water body (stream or spring inside the cave, probably more consistent in the 2002-2004 trench where this fauna prevails. The dispersal of the molluscan fauna of S. Teodoro Cave from the mainland during the low stand sea-level phases of the upper Pleistocene probably belongs to the same dispersal events following the Oxygen Isotope Stage 5e which introduced into the island not endemic faunal elements which are associated with endemic faunal elements in S. Teodoro Cave. Littoral marine reworked molluscs found in the cave deposits probably come from the sedimentary cover of a middle Pleistocene terrace which overlies the roof of the cave. SHORT NOTE

  11. Scale-up of a comprehensive harm reduction programme for people injecting opioids: lessons from north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalmuanpuii, Melody; Biangtung, Langkham; Mishra, Ritu Kumar; Reeve, Matthew J; Tzudier, Sentimoa; Singh, Angom L; Sinate, Rebecca; Sgaier, Sema K

    2013-04-01

    Harm reduction packages for people who inject illicit drugs, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are cost-effective but have not been scaled up globally. In the north-eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland, the epidemic of HIV infection is driven by the injection of illicit drugs, especially opioids. These states needed to scale up harm reduction programmes but faced difficulty doing so. In 2004, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation funded Project ORCHID to scale up a harm reduction programme in Manipur and Nagaland. In 2003, an estimated 10 000 and 16 000 people were injecting drugs in Manipur and Nagaland, respectively. The prevalence of HIV infection among people injecting drugs was 24.5% in Manipur and 8.4% in Nagaland. By 2012, the harm reduction programme had been scaled up to an average of 9011 monthly contacts outside clinics (80% of target); an average of 1709 monthly clinic visits (15% of target, well above the 5% monthly goal) and an average monthly distribution of needles and syringes of 16 each per programme participant. Opioid agonist maintenance treatment coverage was 13.7% and retention 6 months after enrolment was 63%. Antiretroviral treatment coverage for HIV-positive participants was 81%. A harm reduction model consisting of community-owned, locally relevant innovations and business approaches can result in good harm reduction programme scale-up and influence harm reduction policy. Project ORCHID has influenced national harm reduction policy in India and contributed to the development of harm reduction guidelines.

  12. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP on Rift Valley Fever among Pastoralist Communities of Ijara District, North Eastern Kenya.

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    Ismail H Abdi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF, a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis, have previously been associated with unusually heavy rainfall and extensive flooding. The disease is a serious public health problem in Africa and the Middle East, and is a potential global health threat. In Kenya, outbreaks of the disease have disproportionately affected impoverished pastoralist communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding RVF among the pastoralists of North Eastern Kenya, and to establish the determinants of KAP on RVF. A cross-sectional study involving 392 pastoralists living in Ijara district (Masalani and Ijara wards was carried out using an interview questionnaire. All respondents interviewed (100% had heard about RVF disease. They recognized that the disease is dangerous (99%, and had a positive attitude towards vaccination of animals (77%. However, few respondents knew that abortion (11% and high mortality of young animals (10% were key signs of RVF in animals. Very few (4% use any form of protection when handling sick animals to avoid infection. Significant factors associated with knowledge were being in a household with a history of RVF infection (OR = 1.262, 95% CI = 1.099-1.447, having more livestock (OR = 1.285, 95% CI = 1.175-1.404 and the place of residence, Masalani (OR = 0.526, 95% CI = 0.480-0.576. Overall knowledge score on RVF was found to be a significant predictor of good preventive practice of the disease (OR = 1.073, 95% CI = 1.047-1.101. Despite the positive attitude that pastoralist communities have towards the prevention of RVF, there exist gaps in knowledge and good practices on the disease. Therefore there is need for public health education to address these gaps, and to identify and facilitate the removal of barriers to behavioural change related to the prevention of RVF.

  13. The importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L; Nicolas, M; VanderHeijden, G; Probst, A

    2010-11-01

    The trace metal (TM: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, Abies alba Miller) in north-eastern France. Trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess TM partitioning and dynamics in the trees. Inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. Outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. Atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. The estimated dry deposition accounted for about 40% of the total trace metal deposition. The relative importance of leaching (estimated by a lumped parameter water balance model, BILJOU) and net biomass uptake (harvesting) for ecosystem exportation depended on the element. Trace metal distribution between tree compartments (stem wood and bark, branches and needles) indicated that Pb was mainly stored in the stem, whereas Zn and Ni, and to a lesser extent Cd and Cu, were translocated to aerial parts of the trees and cycled in the ecosystem. For Zn and Ni, leaching was the main output flux (>95% of the total output) and the plot budget (input-output) was negative, whereas for Pb the biomass net exportation represented 60% of the outputs and the budget was balanced. Cadmium and Cu had intermediate behaviours, with 18% and 30% of the total output relative to biomass exportation, respectively, and the budgets were negative. The net uptake by biomass was particularly important for Pb budgets, less so for Cd and Cu and not very important for Zn and Ni in such forest stands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of the chlorinated hydrocarbons residues contamination in edible mushrooms from the North-Eastern part of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałgowska, Michalina; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Felkner-Poźniakowska, Barbara

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the content of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in edible mushrooms from the north-eastern part of Poland. Material consisted of two species of fungi: Xerocomus mushrooms (Xerocomus badius), Boletus mushrooms (Boletus edulis). The dried samples (cups and cut-up material) were extracted with Soxhlet method in order to obtain lipid substances. In the fat chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined by Ludwicki et al. (1996) method. The separation and quantitative determination of DDT, DDE, DDD and γ-HCH were conducted with the method of gas chromatography using an electron capture detector - ECD. In all tested samples the presence of γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDE, DDD) was detected. The higher content of γ-HCH was found in Xerocomus mushrooms (average 0.125 μg/kg of mushrooms); in the Boletus mushrooms -0.11 μg/kg of mushrooms. The content of ΣDDT in cups of Xerocomus mushrooms was more than 2-fold higher than in those of Boletus mushrooms (3.78:1.71 mg/kg of mushrooms). The opposite relationship was observed for cut-up material. The higher concentration of ΣDDT was found in Boletus mushrooms (2.26 mg/kg of mushrooms) while in Xerocomus mushrooms this content was 0.91 mg/kg of mushrooms. Despite the fact that chlorinated hydrocarbons were determined in all samples under study, their contents do not exceed acceptable levels indicating that the consumption of mushrooms does not pose a health risk to consumers from the organochlorine compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewayrga, Hailemichael; Sopade, Peter A

    2011-06-28

    Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

  16. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria

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    Faromoju Banji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52% than females (48%. Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19% than females (6% had done so (p Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.

  17. Global change and viticulture in the Mediterranean region: a case of study in north-eastern Spain

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    Joan-Albert Lopez-Bustins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture in the Mediterranean region has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the species and varieties cultivated. Plant growth, yield and quality are highly dependent on climate. Grape sugar content and wine alcohol content are considered as important quality parameters. The objective of our study is to analyse the effects of the current global change on the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV in red wines from vineyards located in the Montsant Designation of Origin (DO (Priorat County, north-eastern Spain. We present an annual series of percentage of ABV in red wines over the 1984-2008 period (25 years, which is one of the longest series of this viticultural variable in Spain. We do not detect any significant trend of alcohol levels in red wines from the Montsant DO along the 1984-2004 subperiod, but a sharp increase about 1% (by volume is observed after 2004; we statistically checked that the last four years constitute an outlier period in the series. We consider climate evolution over the 1984-2004 period in the study area in order to find some relation with alcohol levels in red wines. Agronomic practices and land cover changes are also taken into account. Results show that the interannual variability of the alcohol levels in red wines are partially explained by temperature and precipitation conditions few days before the vintage. The high percentages of ABV since 2005 may be associated with new trends in viticulture techniques rather than with climate change.

  18. Analysis of individual- and time-specific covariate effects on survival of Serinus serinus in north-eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed models for the analysis of recapture data for 2678 serins (Serinus serinus) ringed in north-eastern Spain since 1985. We investigated several time- and individual-specific factors as potential predictors of overall mortality and dispersal patterns, and of gender and age differences in these patterns. Time-specific covariates included minimum daily temperature, days below freezing, and abundance of a strong competitor, siskins (Carduelis spinus) during winter, and maximum temperature and rainfall during summer. Individual covariates included body mass (i.e. body condition), and wing length (i.e. flying ability), and interactions between body mass and environmental factors. We found little support of a predictive relationship between environmental factors and survival, but good evidence of relationships between body mass and survival, especially for juveniles. Juvenile survival appears to vary in a curvilinear manner with increasing mass, suggesting that there may exist an optimal mass beyond which increases are detrimental. The mass-survival relationship does seem to be influenced by at least one environmental factor, namely the abundance of wintering siskins. When siskins are abundant, increases in body mass appear to relate strongly to increasing survival. When siskin numbers are average or low the relationship is largely reversed, suggesting that the presence of strong competition mitigates the otherwise largely negative aspects of greater body mass. Wing length in juveniles also appears to be related positively to survival, perhaps largely due to the influence of a few unusually large juveniles with adult-like survival. Further work is needed to test these relationships, ideally under experimentation.

  19. Investigation of Radon in drinking water from wells of the North-Eastern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, Feriz; Dedic, Amela

    2008-01-01

    Some areas of the Tuzla region (B and H) suffer heavily from the shortage of quality drinking water. The only real long-term water resource in this region is the Lake Modrac, the largest accumulation lake in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to the fact that radon is soluble in water it can be transported by water to long distances. In cases of intake of waters rich in radon the most affected are sensitive cells within the abdomen and other internal organs. In order to satisfy the needs for drinking water, people are forced to excavate and drill wells. In the area of Tuzla region and the entire B and H excavated wells are very frequent, and so are drilled wells lately, due to more developed and cheaper technology for soil drilling. Such activities in this area, and the whole of B and H, are carried out in an unorderly manner and without previously completed chemical and radiological analyses of soil and water samples. The University of Tuzla formed the Laboratory for detection of radon in all environments, and the survey displayed in this paper have been the first investigation of that kind in B and H. Here we presented the results of radon survey of drinking waters from excavated and drilled wells in the area of Tuzla region (North-Eastern region of B and H). The measurements were conducted over the period of one year (2006), so as to make possible monitoring of variations of radon concentrations in dependence of meteorological changes. These investigation works showed that radon concentration at most locations was significantly higher in drilled wells than in excavated wells. Mean values of radon concentration in the tested water samples ranged within the interval of 101-4200 Bq/m 3 . Radon activity concentration was measured with the Alpha GAURD radon system (Genitron instruments-Frankfurt). (author)

  20. Dendrophenology: Inferring the response of North American eastern deciduous forests to an earlier spring from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, A. J.; Nelson, D. M.; Craine, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    There is wide agreement that anthropogenic climate warming has influenced the phenology of forests during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. A critical question for predicting the magnitude of future warming under different emissions scenarios is the degree to which forest productivity responds to longer growing seasons in the face of concurrent changes in other drivers of productivity. Longer growing seasons can lead to increased photosynthesis and productivity, which would represent a negative feedback to rising CO2 and consequently warming. Alternatively, increased demand for soil resources due to a longer photosynthetically active period in conjunction with other global change factors might exacerbate resource limitation, restricting forest productivity response to a longer growing season. In this case, increased spring-time productivity has the potential to increase plant N limitation by increasing plant demand for N more than N supplies, or increasing early-season ecosystem N losses. Long-term direct measurements are not yet available to specifically address this question, but advances in remote sensing and dendroecological methods present opportunities to acquire information retrospectively to advance understanding of how phenological changes and resource availability to trees have been affecting forest productivity. Here we show that for 222 trees representing three species in eastern North America over the past 30 years earlier spring phenology has caused declines in N availability to trees by increasing demand for N relative to supply. The observed decline in N availability is not associated with reduced wood production, suggesting that other environmental changes such as increased atmospheric CO2 and water availability have likely overwhelmed reduced N availability. Given current trajectories of environmental changes, N limitation will likely continue to increase for these forests, possibly further limiting C sequestration potential.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Dunaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. materials and method. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May – June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of [i]B. burgdorferi sl.[/i] PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies ([i]B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing[/i] fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi by RLB. results. [i]Borrelia [/i]genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with [i]Borrelia[/i] ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. conclusions. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in [i]Borrelia[/i] DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of [i]B. afzelii and B. garinii [/i]in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  2. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Baltic Sea, part II. Biological evidence of population mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Clara; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Boje, Jesper; Christensen, Asbjørn; Hüssy, Karin; Sun, Hailu; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe

    2017-02-01

    A multi-disciplinary study was conducted to clarify stock identity and connectivity patterns in the populations of European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat transition area between the Eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Five independent biological studies were carried out in parallel. Genetic markers suggested the existence of different genetic populations in the transition area. Growth backcalculation with otoliths resulted in significant although limited differences in growth rates between North Sea and Skagerrak, indicating weak differentiation or important mixing. Hydrogeographical drift modelling suggested that some North Sea juveniles could settle along the coast line of the Skagerrak and the Kattegat. Tagging data suggested that both juveniles and adult fish from the North Sea perform feeding migrations into Skagerrak in summer/autumn. Finally, survey data suggested that Skagerrak also belongs to the area distribution of North Sea plaice. The outcomes of the individual studies were then combined into an overall synthesis. The existence of some resident components was evidenced, but it was also demonstrated that North Sea plaice migrate for feeding into Skagerrak and might constitute a large share of the catches in this area. The mixing of different populations within a management area has implications for stock assessment and management. Choice must be made to either lump or split the populations, and the feasibility and constraints of both options are discussed. The outcomes of this work have directly influenced the management decisions in 2015.

  3. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  4. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  5. Stratigraphy and chronology of a 15 ka sequence of multi-sourced silicic tephras in a montane peat bog, eastern North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.J.; Newnham, R.M.; Ward, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    We document the stratigraphy, composition, and chronology of a succession of 16 distal, silicic tephra layers interbedded with lateglacial and Holocene peats and muds up to c. 15 000 radiocarbon years (c. 18 000 calendar years) old at a montane site (Kaipo Bog) in eastern North Island, New Zealand. Aged from 665 + or - 15 to 14 700 + or - 95 14 C yr BP, the tephras are derived from six volcanic centres in North Island, three of which are rhyolitic (Okataina, Taupo, Maroa), one peralkaline (Tuhua), and two andesitic (Tongariro, Egmont). Correlations are based on multiple criteria: field properties and stratigraphic interrelationships, ferromagnesian silicate mineral assemblages, glass-shard major element composition (from electron microprobe analysis), and radiocarbon dating. We extend the known distribution of tephras in eastern North Island and provide compositional data that add to their potential usefulness as isochronous markers. The chronostratigraphic framework established for the Kaipo sequence, based on both site-specific and independently derived tephra-based radiocarbon ages, provides the basis for fine-resolution paleoenvironmental studies at a climatically sensitive terrestrial site from the mid latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Tephras identified as especially useful paleoenvironmental markers include Rerewhakaaitu and Waiohau (lateglacial), Konini (late-glacial-early Holocene), Tuhua (middle Holocene), and Taupo and Kaharoa (late Holocene). (author). 102 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Public Schools, Arizona, 2009, Arizona Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Arizona public schools (including charter schools) locations. List of schools with addresses was furnished by the Arizona Department of Education. The US EPA Region...

  7. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  8. A model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Anukul

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the history of secondary school student councils in North-eastern Thailand (Isan, to study the present conditions and problems of secondary school student councils in Isan and to study a model for promoting democracy by using the corporate culture of secondary school student councils in Isan. The study area encompassed Kalasin Province, including Somdetpittayakom School in Somdet District and Yangtaladwittayakarn School in Yangtalat District, Mahasarakham Province, including Sarakhampittayakhom School in Muang District and Kantarawichai School in Kantarawichai District, and Khon Kaen Province, including Kallayanawat School in Muang District and Nampong Suksa School in Nampong District. This research employed interview, observation and focus groups as data collection tools with a purposive sample of student councils in secondary schools in Isan. Data was verified and validated using a triangulation method and analyzed by descriptive analysis. Research results show that the student councils in the secondary schools of Isan were established to promote democracy among youth. Students gained knowledge, understanding of the democratic system, experience in student administration and governance by students for students. It was also found that student council activities in secondary schools give students opportunities to know about their roles, acceptance, respect rights and duties, use intellect to solve problems, have faith in the democratic system, develop morality and ethics and preserve and disseminate traditions and culture according to the principles of Dharma. Current problems with student councils include no student interest in duties and no relationship between the elected leaders and their constituency. Selfishness, dishonesty and ignorance are the causes of non-transparent school councils with no responsibility, no response to student needs, lack of rights, justice and effectiveness, lacking of creative

  9. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  10. Investigation of fluvial landforms in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, using cartographic materials from the XIX-XXI Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, Delia; Niga, Bogdan; Perşoiu, Ioana

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, and covers approximately 3700 km2. Using cartographic materials for the last 155 years, we analyzed and defined river network and relict fluvial morphologies created by the rivers Tur, Someş, Homorod and Crasna. Database extraction from each set of historical maps was performed by field verification and validation, associated to GIS techniques. Relict fluvial morphologies on the Someş alluvial cone comprise a wide variety of channel typologies and sizes, drainage directions and their consequent typology, which indicates a complex fluvial evolution. The dominant category of relict fluvial morphology is represented by the meander loop. Following the quantitative analysis on the successive sets of maps we identified and delimited meander loops and meandering paths formed prior to the reference year 1860. Generally, the post-1860 relict fluvial morphologies are secondary morphologies, as the keynote is given by those formed previous to the reference moment 1860. An analysis of the share of the relict fluvial morphologies on the three sets of reference cartographic materials (the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, Google Earth and orthophotoplans) highlights that most relict fluvial morphologies were identified on the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, followed by those identified in Google Earth and orthophotoplans. The map of fluvial morphologies constructed in this study enables a discussion on drainage directions, based on the observation that a series of abandoned meander loops and segments follow clear directions. We applied several quantitative indices in assessing the relict fluvial morphology (radius of curvature, paleochannel width). Consequently, we identified underfit stream sectors with meander loops larger than the modern ones Someş meanders (on the Racta River), uncharacteristic features such as braided riverbed reaches, a high frequency of meander scrolls present on the

  11. Pattern recognition techniques and neo-deterministic seismic hazard: Time dependent scenarios for North-Eastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.; Zuccolo, E.; Gorshkov, A.

    2009-05-01

    for seismic hazard assessment in the North-Eastern part of the Italian territory, is also discussed. Examples of neo-deterministic scenarios are provided, at regional and local scale and for the cities of Trieste and Nimis (Friuli Venezia Giulia region), where the knowledge of the local geological conditions permitted a detailed evaluation of the expected ground motion. (author)

  12. Fish sharing as a risk factor for Opisthorchis viverrini infection: evidence from two villages in north-eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenna, Parichat; Hurst, Cameron; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce A; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-04-04

    Foodborne trematodiasis (FBT) is a significant global health problem, with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis contributing to half of the global burden of FBT. North-eastern Thailand where O. viverrini is endemic and un-cooked fish dishes remain an integral part of the food culture has the highest reported incidence of opisthorchiasis, including associated cholangiocarcinoma. Both food sharing and eating practices are potentially important factors in FTB, suggesting an important role for the social ecology of disease transmission in these rural communities. Two rural Thai-Lao villages that were part of a 12-village project in Northeastern Thailand were selected for detailed investigation of O. viverrini infection risk associated with sharing of raw fish dishes among households. The project included screening individuals for infection and cholangiocarcinoma, a household questionnaire, and offering treatment options for positive individuals. Social network mapping was used to construct raw fish dish-sharing networks and create a proxy variable capturing variability in the degree of food sharing (DFS), measured as the number of different households with which each household shared fish dishes. Measures of associations between DFS, O. viverrini infection, the frequency of raw fish consumption, and the number of raw fish dishes consumed were generated using binary logistic regression, proportional odds ordinal logistic regression, and Poisson regression. The results showed that the probability that a household has members infected with O. viverrini increased by ~7% (P < 0.01) for each additional household included in its network. Moreover, the frequency and number of types of raw fish dishes consumed increased significantly as the DFS increased. Of the two villages, that with the highest infection prevalence (48% versus 34.6%) had significantly higher social connectivity overall (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that

  13. The ecological significance of juvenile Diplodus sargus as ectoparasite fish cleaners in the north-eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Neto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cleaning behaviour was recently described for the omnivorous species Diplodus sargus. Although previous studies have reported the existence of ectoparasites in the stomach contents of some individuals this commercially important fish was never considered a cleaner species. Here we make the first characterization of this behaviour based on field observations. This behaviour was exclusively performed by juvenile D. sargus and, until now, was only observed in confined or semi-confined areas such as coastal lagoons or harbours. Unexpectedly, cleaning rates and the number of individuals performing this behaviour largely exceeds the ones described for a sympatric cleaner fish (13.98 cleaning events/individual/hour compared to 5.08 in Centrolabrus exoletus. Clients belong to several fish families (e.g. Mugilidae, Sparidae and Labridae that include some of the most common species in coastal habitats. Frequently, clients request cleaning by tilting their body or remaining motionless near the surface while being cleaned (40% however, in most cases, the interaction ends because clients flee (46%. This could mean that D. sargus is also feeding on mucus and/or living tissue. These shifts between exploitation and cooperation have been frequently described for tropical reef species. Our results support cooperative behaviour, with a clear correlation between the number of nips per cleaning event or the number of nips to which the client reacted positively and cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.79, p<0.001; r=0.76, p<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, no correlation was detected between the number of jolts by the client fish and the cleaning event duration (n=552; Spearman correlation r=0.07, p=0.105 meaning that jolting does not increase with increased interaction time. In the future, the evaluation of the ecological importance of D. sargus as a cleaner species in the North-Eastern Atlantic, should proceed with field observations in

  14. Applicability of the Decision Matrix of North Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and connected seas Tsunami Warning System to the Italian tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tinti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami catastrophe, UNESCO through the IOC (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission sponsored the establishment of Intergovernmental Coordination Groups (ICG with the aim to devise and implement Tsunami Warning Systems (TWSs in all the oceans exposed to tsunamis, in addition to the one already in operation in the Pacific (PTWS. In this context, since 2005, efforts have begun for the establishment of TWSs in the Indian Ocean (IOTWS, in the Caribbean area (CARIBE EWS and in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Connected Seas (NEAMTWS.

    In this paper, we focus on a specific tool that was first introduced in the PTWS routine operations, i.e., the Decision Matrix (DM. This is an easy-to-use table establishing a link between the main parameters of an earthquake and the possible ensuing tsunami in order to make quick decision on the type of alert bulletins that a Tsunami Warning Center launches to its recipients. In the process of implementation of a regional TWS for the NEAM area, two distinct DMs were recently proposed by the ICG/NEAMTWS, one for the Atlantic and the other for the entire Mediterranean area.

    This work applies the Mediterranean NEAMTWS DM to the earthquakes recorded in Italy and compares the action predicted by the DM vs. the action that should be appropriate in view of the observed tsunami characteristics with the aim to establish how good the performance of the Italian TWS will be when it uses the DM for future events. To this purpose, we make use of the parametric catalogue of the Italian earthquakes (CPTI04 compiled in 2004 and the most recent compilation of the Italian tsunami, based on the Italian Tsunami Catalogue of 2004 and the subsequent revisions. In order to better compare the TWS actions, we have identified four different kinds of action coding them from 0 to 3 according to the tsunami severity and have further considered three different distance ranges where

  15. Eucalanoid copepod metabolic rates in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical north Pacific: Effects of oxygen and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Christine J.; Daly, Kendra L.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern tropical north Pacific Ocean (ETNP) contains one of the world's most severe oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen concentrations are less than 2 μmol kg-1. OMZs cause habitat compression, whereby species intolerant of low oxygen are restricted to near-surface oxygenated waters. Copepods belonging to the family Eucalanidae are dominant zooplankters in this region and inhabit a variety of vertical habitats within the OMZ. The purpose of this study was to compare the metabolic responses of three species of eucalanoid copepods, Eucalanus inermis, Rhincalanus rostrifrons, and Subeucalanus subtenuis, to changes in temperature and environmental oxygen concentrations. Oxygen consumption and urea, ammonium, and phosphate excretion rates were measured via end-point experiments at three temperatures (10, 17, and 23 °C) and two oxygen concentrations (100% and 15% air saturation). S. subtenuis, which occurred primarily in the upper 50 m of the water column at our study site, inhabiting well-oxygenated to upper oxycline conditions, had the highest metabolic rates per unit weight, while E. inermis, which was found throughout the water column to about 600 m depth in low oxygen waters, typically had the lowest metabolic rates. Rates for R. rostrifrons (found primarily between 200 and 300 m depth) were intermediate between the other two species and more variable. Metabolic ratios suggested that R. rostrifrons relied more heavily on lipids to fuel metabolism than the other two species. S. subtenuis was the only species that demonstrated a decrease in oxygen consumption rates (at intermediate 17 °C temperature treatment) when environmental oxygen concentrations were lowered. The percentage of total measured nitrogen excreted as urea (% urea-N), as well as overall urea excretion rates, responded in a complex manner to changes in temperature and oxygen concentration. R. rostrifrons and E. inermis excreted a significantly higher % of urea-N in low oxygen treatments at

  16. Thermal conditions of the grape growing season within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine (on the example of Kharkiv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Шуліка

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the results of the thermal conditions observations within the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine as one of the most important factors for successful cultivation of grapes, thus providing crop productivity. Considering the effect of thermal factors, it can be noted that the intensity and speed of life processes of plants are well- defined under temperature conditions only in the circumstances where other environmental factors are not limited. The thermal regime was initially taken into account in practice in XVII century. In XIX century the agro-climatic areas to grow grapes were determined in North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine. Detailed studies of agro-climatic conditions of specific areas can more thoroughly to make conclusions and recommendations for the cultivation of grapes as a whole in the territory, and specifically in those areas were given. In studying the thermal balance of the territory the average and extreme temperature should be paid attention to. Characteristic features of the thermal regime are given in this paper based on the study of atmospheric phenomena, geomorphology and territories with radiation influence and water flow regime. Thermal treatment is subjected to anthropogenic influence, and in cultivating tenants can use appropriate agricultural practices (conceal bushes, warm soil and air, and even crops in protective ground, in greenhouses. Characteristically, technology of greenhouses growers is even used in Kherson region. These data can be used in neighborhood and the adjacent areas, especially they are useful for the practice of growing grapes. The possibility of successful cultivation of dozens of grape varieties in the North-Eastern steppe land of Ukraine has been well-grounded.

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  18. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  19. Diet of the eastern mudminnow (Umbra pygmaea DeKay) from two geographically distinct populations within the North American native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank M.; Weis, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    Umbra pygmaea (Eastern Mudminnow) is a freshwater species common in Atlantic slope coastal lowlands from southern New York to northern Florida and is typical of slow-moving, mud-bottomed, and highly vegetated streams, swamps, and small ponds. We examined its seasonal food habits at the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), NJ and at the Croatan National Forest, NC. A total of 147 Eastern Mudminnow from 35–112 mm TL and 190 Eastern Mudminnow from 22–89 mm TL were examined from these sites, respectively. At both locations, we found it to be a bottom-feeding generalist that consumes cladocerans, ostracods, chironomid larvae, coleopteran larvae, and other insects and crustaceans. Ostracods were most common in the diet at the Great Swamp NWR and occurred in 62% ± 2.5% of the stomachs with food. At Croatan National Forest, chironomid larvae were most common and occurred in 66.7% ± 15.8% of the stomachs. There were no statistically significant differences in diet composition between the sites during the winter, summer, and fall. However, when compared on an annual basis, Jaccard’s Index (θJ = 0.636, P = 0.05) suggested that the diet at the two study sites was significantly different. While we identified the same major food groups at both locations, the utilization of these food groups varied seasonally. Detritus was a major stomach content at both locations throughout the year. We also documented cannibalism during the summer season at both locations. The seasonal diet of the Eastern Mudminnow was similar to that of Umbra limi (Central Mudminnow) and Umbra krameri (European Mudminnow). Our findings here are the first quantitative examinations of seasonal differences in the diet of the Eastern Mudminnow within its native North American range.

  20. Variability and connectivity of plaice populations from the Eastern North Sea to the Baltic Sea, part II. Biological evidence of population mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Boje, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in parallel. Genetic markers suggested the existence of different genetic populations in the transition area. Growth backcalculation with otoliths resulted in significant although limited differences in growth rates between North Sea and Skagerrak, indicating weak differentiation or important mixing......A multi-disciplinary study was conducted to clarify stock identity and connectivity patterns in the populations of European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Skagerrak-Kattegat transition area between the Eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Five independent biological studies were carried out...... constitute a large share of the catches in this area. The mixing of different populations within a management area has implications for stock assessment and management. Choice must be made to either lump or split the populations, and the feasibility and constraints of both options are discussed. The outcomes...

  1. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  2. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  3. Trends in seedling growth and carbon-use efficiency vary among broadleaf tree species along a latitudinal transect in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L

    2014-03-01

    Factors constraining the geographic ranges of broadleaf tree species in eastern North America were examined in common gardens along a ~1500 km latitudinal transect travers in grange boundaries of four target species: trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) to the north vs. eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) to the south. In 2006 and 2007, carbon-use efficiency (CUE), the proportion of assimilated carbon retained in biomass, was estimated for seedlings of the four species as the quotient of relative growth rate (RGR) and photosynthesis per unit tree mass (Atree ). In aspen and birch, CUE and RGR declined significantly with increasing growth temperature, which spanned 9 °C across gardens and years. The 37% (relative) CUE decrease from coolest to warmest garden correlated with increases in leaf nighttime respiration (Rleaf ) and the ratio of Rleaf to leaf photosynthesis (R%A ). For cottonwood and sweet gum, however, similar increases in Rleaf and R%A accompanied modest CUE declines, implying that processes other than Rleaf were responsible for species differences in CUE's temperature response. Our findings illustrate marked taxonomic variation, at least among young trees, in the thermal sensitivity of CUE, and point to potentially negative consequences of climate warming for the carbon balance, competitive ability, and persistence of two foundation species in northern temperate and boreal forests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmad Filza; Daud, Aziah; Ismail, Zaliha; Abdullah, Baharudin

    2013-09-01

    Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; phearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

  5. 137Cs and excess 210Pb deposition patterns in estuarine and marine sediment in the central region of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, north-eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfitzner, John; Brunskill, Gregg; Zagorskis, Irena

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the distribution of 137 Cs and 210 Pb xs in 51 estuarine and marine sediment cores collected between the Upstart Bay and Rockingham Bay in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, north-eastern Australia. Historical records of 210 Pb xs and 137 Cs atmospheric deposition and present day terrestrial inventories in north-eastern Australia are presented. 210 Pb xs and 137 Cs fluxes measured on suspended sediments in the Burdekin River are considered to be a source of recent inputs of these nuclides to the nearshore region of this part of the Great Barrier Reef. Direct correlations between sediment nuclide inventories, maximum detectable depths, and sediment mass accumulation rates (MARs), calculated using both 137 Cs and 210 Pb xs , are explored. In relation to inventories of 210 Pb xs , 60% of atmospheric fallout 137 Cs appears to be missing from the sediments. The reasons for these differences in two tracers, primarily of atmospheric origin, are discussed in terms of the geochemical properties of these two nuclides. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the 137 Cs distribution in these cores can be a useful independent tracer which provides confirmation of MARs calculated from the decay of 210 Pb xs

  6. Diagnostic Analysis of Contributions of the North Atlantic Subtropical High to Sub-Seasonal Predictability of Summertime Drought and Flood in the Eastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, E.; Steinschneider, S.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Subtropical High (NASH)—a semi-permanent anticyclone established under the descending branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean—has been identified as a primary driver of summertime precipitation in the Eastern US. Characteristic patterns of precipitation across the region are associated with variations in the location and intensity of the NASH western ridge, and recently these characteristics have been identified as potential sources of predictability for precipitation at sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales. In this work, we show that the location and intensity of the NASH also directly control atmospheric variables that contribute to variability in moisture demand (PET), such as surface wind speed and solar insolation. Using surface climate and NASH characteristics from observational and reanalysis datasets, we will examine the relationship between NASH intensity and the location of its western ridge and both precipitation and PET at various seasonal to sub-seasonal (S2S) timescales. Particular focus will be given to how the strength of these relationships varies across space and through time. The goal is to identify the S2S time-scales where the NASH contributes to maximum predictability of atmospheric drivers of both agricultural drought and regional flooding. Results will help support the development of both drought and flood forecasting tools for different regions in the Eastern United States.

  7. Timing of exhumation of the Ereendavaa metamorphic core complex (north-eastern Mongolia) - U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudene, Yannick; Ruffet, Gilles; Cocherie, Alain; Ledru, Patrick; Gapais, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of numerous NE-SW trending rift basins that locally bound metamorphic core complexes in Transbaikalia, northern Mongolia and north-eastern China indicates that the eastern domain of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt was affected by a large-scale NW-SE extensional tectonic event during late Jurassic to early Cretaceous times. Available geochronological information about the formation of metamorphic core complexes in the region define partly synchronous periods in Transbaikalia (134-121 Ma) and North China (136-110 Ma) suggesting dome exhumation during the early Cretaceous. In north-eastern Mongolia, the Ereendavaa Range, lined by the Onon Shear Zone, was recently interpreted as one of these metamorphic core complexes, of late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age, on the basis of U-Pb zircons data from two synkinematic pegmatite dykes. However, this wide time range remains to be discussed. The present work constrains the tectono-thermal evolution of the range by providing new MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircons ages from pegmatite dykes and metamorphic igneous rocks, and mica and amphibole 40Ar/39Ar laser step-heating ages from metamorphic and magmatic rocks that crop out within the range. The results show that (1) the Ereendavaa range was the locus of a widespread magmatic activity prior to its exhumation from late Jurassic times, (2) cooling of the range began at least at 137.9 ± 0.3 Ma as revealed by a 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages obtained from an hornblende sampled within the range core, and (3) exhumation along the Onon Shear Zone occurred from 130.3 ± 1.9 Ma down to 124.8 ± 0.3 Ma, as shown by ages of most of micas and amphiboles from the Shear zone. These more accurate ages are consistent with metamorphic core complex ages from adjacent areas. Furthermore, they argue for an extensional dynamic paroxysm at the scale of eastern Asia during a narrow time range in the early Cretaceous between ca. 130 Ma and ca. 120 Ma.

  8. The Arizona Migrant Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, J. O. (Rocky)

    Arizona's Migrant Child Education Program was initiated late in 1966 under the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I. The State Plan is designed to provide assistance to improve the instructional, nutritional, and health status of the migrant children in kindergarten through high school. Program components are career education…

  9. Spatial Analysis of Urban Master Plans of Towns in North-Eastern Poland in the Context of Urban Revalorisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek; Klopotowski, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The research subject raised in this study is the urban structure of small towns in Warmia, a region rich in history, situated in the north-eastern Poland. This area, together with the neighbouring region of Mazury, is referred to as the Land of a Thousand Lakes. The historical events, such as the conquest of this territory by the Teutonic Order in 13th century, gave rise to the foundation of twelve towns in Warmia, which have survived until our time. Of these settlements, only one, which is Olsztyn, grew to a larger size over the centuries and eventually became the capital of Warmia. The others are still small towns, with a population from a few to less than twenty thousand inhabitants. The policy and economic goals of the Teutonic Order underlay the spread of a uniform type of urban master plan in the entire region. The establishment of urban centres was dictated by military considerations - all towns had fortified castles and were 15-30 km distant from one another, which stemmed from the organisation of the Teutonic State. The location of new towns in Warmia coincided in time with the general urban planning principles governing urban development in the Middle Ages. The medieval towns, which grew on the foundations of ancient cultures, were developed on a regular grid of streets, delineating land lots for compact town houses and a central square serving as a market place. Within this structure, the town’s most significant spatial dominants, such as a town hall, a church and a fortified castle, were situated. The castle often stood on the outskirts of a town, as it had to be connected to the town’s fortifications. The location of medieval towns in Warmia proceeded according to a similar concept. All these towns are distinguished by characteristically medieval, regular urban layouts, which - while being similar - have certain intrinsic features. Differences can be seen in the design of main streets, the size and proportions of market squares, the ways in which

  10. Geologic map of the Tuba City 30' x 60' quadrangle, Coconino County, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Priest, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    The Tuba City 30’ x 60’ quadrangle encompasses approximately 5,018 km² (1,920 mi²) within Coconino County, northern Arizona. It is characterized by nearly flat lying to gently dipping sequences of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata that overly tilted Precambrian strata or metasedimentary and igneous rocks that are exposed at the bottom of Grand Canyon. The Paleozoic rock sequences from Cambrian to Permian age are exposed in the walls of Grand Canyon, Marble Canyon, and Little Colorado River Gorge. Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are exposed in the eastern half of the quadrangle where resistant sandstone units form cliffs, escarpments, mesas, and local plateaus. A few Miocene volcanic dikes intrude Mesozoic rocks southwest, northwest, and northeast of Tuba City, and Pleistocene volcanic rocks representing the northernmost extent of the San Francisco Volcanic Field are present at the south-central edge of the quadrangle. Quaternary deposits mantle much of the Mesozoic rocks in the eastern half of the quadrangle and are sparsely scattered in the western half. Principal folds are the north-south-trending, east-dipping Echo Cliffs Monocline and the East Kaibab Monocline. The East Kaibab Monocline elevates the Kaibab, Walhalla, and Coconino Plateaus and parts of Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon erosion has exposed the Butte Fault beneath the east Kaibab Monocline, providing a window into the structural complexity of monoclines in this part of the Colorado Plateau. Rocks of Permian and Triassic age form the surface bedrock of Marble Plateau and House Rock Valley between the East Kaibab and Echo Cliffs Monoclines. The Echo Cliffs Monocline forms a structural boundary between the Marble Plateau to the west and the Kaibito and Moenkopi Plateaus to the east. Jurassic rocks of the Kaibito and Moenkopi Plateaus are largely mantled by extensive eolian sand deposits. A small part of the northeast-dipping Red Lake Monocline is present in the northeast corner of the quadrangle. A broad and

  11. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity across the ranges of Pinus monticola and P. strobus: a comparison between eastern and western North American postglacial colonization histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Simon; Godbout, Julie; Lamothe, Manuel; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Isabel, Nathalie; Ritland, Kermit

    2015-08-01

    • Premises of the study: Understanding the influence of recent glacial and postglacial periods on species' distributions is key for predicting the effects of future environmental changes. We investigated the influence of two physiographic landscapes on population structure and postglacial colonization of two white pine species of contrasting habitats: P. monticola, which occurs in the highly mountainous region of western North America, and P. strobus, which occurs in a much less mountainous area in eastern North America.• To characterize the patterns of genetic diversity and population structure across the ranges of both species, 158 and 153 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from expressed genes were genotyped on range-wide samples of 61 P. monticola and 133 P. strobus populations, respectively.• In P. monticola, a steep latitudinal decrease in genetic diversity likely resulted from postglacial colonization involving rare long-distance dispersal (LDD) events. In contrast, no geographic patterns of diversity were detected in P. strobus, suggesting recolonization via a gradually advancing front or frequent LDD events. For each species, structure analyses identified two distinct southern and northern genetic groups that likely originated from two different glacial lineages. At a finer scale, and for the two species, smaller subgroups were detected that could be remnants of cryptic refugia.• During postglacial colonization, the western and eastern North American landscapes had different impacts on genetic signatures in P. monticola compared with P. strobus. We discuss the importance of our findings for conservation programs and predictions of species' response to climate change. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Published by the Botanical Society of America.

  12. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  13. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  14. Changes in distributional patterns of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the central and eastern North Sea; do declining nutrient loadings play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støttrup, Josianne G.; Munk, Peter; Kodama, Masashi; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-09-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a change in the relative distribution of smaller age-classes of plaice Pleuronectes platessa (age 1-3) in the North Sea. The abundances have increased in deeper, more offshore areas, while coastal abundances have been stagnant or declining. For the same time period available time series data on nutrient conditions in the coastal North Sea area show that the freshwater nitrogen loading has decreased by about 50%. While nutrient concentrations in the ambient environment have been shown to influence growth in juvenile plaice through influence on their prey, we here inspect the potential linkage between distributional changes in plaice and the decline in nutrient loading. We compare plaice observations in coastal areas in the eastern North Sea, which have experienced large changes in eutrophication, with observations for the Dogger Bank, a large sandbank in a shallow offshore area of the North Sea. The Dogger Bank, was used as a reference location assuming this area has been less influenced from coastal eutrophication but similar regional climate conditions, and here we found no changes in the abundances of juvenile plaice. The increase in the use of offshore habitats as nursery areas by juvenile plaice in the North Sea appears not related to water depth per se but driven by specific processes dominating in near-shore areas and may be related to changes in nutrient loadings. This point to the importance of separating more general depth-related factors from conditions specific for near-shore areas, such as nutrient loadings in coastal waters and export offshore. The concurrent changes in environment and in distribution of juvenile plaice may have implications for environmental and fisheries management.

  15. Seismological and structural constraints on the 2011-2013, Mmax 4.6 seismic sequence at the south-eastern edge of the Calabrian arc (North-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata, Laura; Catalano, Stefano; Gambino, Salvatore; Palano, Mimmo; Pavano, Francesco; Romagnoli, Gino; Scaltrito, Antonio; Tortorici, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Between June 2011 and September 2013, the Nebrodi Mountains region was affected by a seismic swarm consisting of > 2700 events with local magnitude 1.3 ≤ ML ≤ 4.6 and located in the 5-9 km depth interval. The seismic swarm defines a seismogenetic volume elongated along the E-W direction and encompasses the NW-SE-oriented tectonic boundary between the Calabrian arc (north-eastward) and the Sicilide units (south-westward). By exploring the recent tectonic deformation and the seismic behavior of the region, this study aims at providing additional constraints on the seismogenetic faults at the southern termination of the Calabrian arc. Waveform similarities analysis allowed observing that 45% of the whole dataset can be grouped into six different families of seismic events. Earthquake multiplet families are mainly located in the eastern part of the seismogenetic volume. We suggest that such a feature is responsive to the lateral lithological variations as highlighted by geology (at the surface) and P-wave seismic tomography (at depth of 10 km). Stress tensor inversions performed on FPSs indicate that the investigated region is currently subject to a nearly biaxial stress state in an extensional regime, such that crustal stretching occurs along both NW-SE and NE-SW directions. Accordingly, mesoscale fault geometries and kinematics analyses evidence that a younger normal faulting stress regime led to a tectonic negative inversion by replacing the pre-existing strike-slip one. Based on our results and findings reported in recent literature, we refer such a crustal stretching to mantle upwelling process (as evidenced by diffuse mantle-derived gas emissions) coupled with a tectonic uplift involving north-eastern Sicily since Middle Pleistocene. Moreover, seismic swarms striking the region would be related to the migration of mantle and sub-crustal fluids toward the surface along the complex network of tectonic structures cutting the crust and acting as pathways.

  16. Survey for Armillaria by plant associations in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ W. Hoffman; Robert L. Mathiasen; Richard W. Hofstetter; Mary Lou Fairweather; John D. Shaw; John W. Hanna; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Armillaria are associated with an important disease of deciduous and coniferous trees and shrubs in western North America. This study examined the distribution of Armillaria by forest habitat types on the Kaibab National Forest and northern Coconino National Forest, Arizona. Over 400 trees were examined for Armillaria in 76 Interior West Forest...

  17. Virtual population analysis of two snapper species, Lutjanus analis and Lutjanus chrysurus, caught off Pernambuco State, north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Macedo Gomes de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied steady-state Virtual Population Analysis - VPA to two stocks of snappers (Lutjanus analis and L. chrysurus exploited by artisanal hand-line fleets along the Pernambuco State coast (North-eastern Brazil. We show that even short-data series (1 year of sampling can produce a useful diagnosis of fisheries resources. Both stocks are slightly overexploited by the hand-line fishery and a higher yield-per-recruit would be obtained by a reduction of effort of 16% for L. analis and 43% for L. chrysurus. Given the impracticability of managing the two stocks separately, we propose a 25% decrease of fishing effort for the hand-line fleet. By incorporating the results of VPA into a simulation framework, we can develop a comparison of the likely result of different policy options (effort regulation based on 3 simple indicators (Spawning stock biomass-per-recruit, biomass-perrecruit and yield-per-recruit. We compare the results of effort reduction with those of effort increase (25% through simulation analysis. Allowing for the difficulty of testing assumptions introduced in our model (steady-state, Beverton and Holt recruitment model and using standard fisheries analysis techniques, we show that useful fisheries advice can be produced even in a context of limited data. Providing advice to developing countries coastal fisheries is an urgent issue, given the high dependence of local communities on coastal living resources and the increasing fishing effort applied by a growing population.Foi aplicado a Análise Virtual de População - VPA em estado estacionário a dois estoques de lutjanídeos (Lutjanus analis e L. chrysurus explorados pela frota artesanal de linha de mão ao longo da costa do Estado de Pernambuco (Nordeste do Brasil. Demonstrou-se que mesmo para uma série de dados não-históricos (1 ano de amostragem pode-se produzir um diagnóstico útil dos recursos pesqueiros e que ambos os estoques estão próximo ao estado de sobrexplotação e

  18. Digenean trematode species in the cockle Cerastodema edule: identification key and distribution along the north-eastern Atlantic shoreline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montaudouin, Xavier De; Thieltges, David W.; Gam, Mériame

    2009-01-01

    -scale distributional patterns of digenean species of the common cockle. At least sixteen digenean species, belonging to seven families, use cockles as intermediate host. Among these species two utilize cockles as first intermediate host only, whereas two species utilize cockles as both first and second intermediate......We describe the digenean fauna of one of the dominant intertidal hosts, the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, in terms of biomass, off north-eastern Atlantic shores. Using published and unpublished literature we have prepared an identification key and provide an up-date of the large...... host. The remaining eleven species have cockles as their second intermediate host. Water birds and fish are the definitive hosts to twelve and four species, respectively. Cockles are infected with digeneans along the latitudinal gradient from southern Morocco to the western region of the Barents Sea...

  19. [The variability of vegetation beginning date of greenness period in spring in the north-south transect of eastern China based on NOAA NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Shi-rong; Sun, Peng-sen; Guo, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Lian-di

    2010-10-01

    NDVI based on NOAA/AVHRR from 1982 to 2003 are used to monitor variable rules for the growing season in spring of vegetation in the north-south transect of eastern China (NSTEC). The following, mainly, are included: (1) The changing speed of greenness period in spring of most regions in NSTEC is slow and correlation with the year is not distinct; (2) The regions in which greenness period in spring distinctly change mainly presented an advance; (3) The regions in which inter-annual fluctuation of greenness period in spring is over 10 days were found in 3 kinds of areas: the area covered with agricultural vegetation types; the areas covered with evergreen vegetation types; the areas covered with steppe vegetation types; (4) changes of vegetation greenness period in spring have spatio-temporal patterns.

  20. Challenges of conservation agriculture practices on silty soils. Effects on soil pore and gas transport characteristics in North-eastern Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccoli, Ilaria; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    characteristics. The poor structural stability of Veneto soils, particularly the poor soil organic carbon content, could prevent the exploitation of CA practices firstly on soil structure and in turn on gas exchanges. For these reasons further studies elucidating the mechanisms improving soil structural......Soil air exchange is one of the most important soil functions that directly impacts on crop productivity and environment. Generally, conservation agriculture (CA) practices are expected to provide improved soil aeration but contrasting texture-related effects were found in the literature. The aim...... of this study was to evaluate the effect of CA practices on gas transport characteristics in the silty soils of the Veneto Region (North-Eastern Italy). In 2010, a field experiment comparing CA practices (no-tillage, cover crop and residues retention) to conventional intensive tillage (IT) system...

  1. A laboratory and field study of 210Po depuration by edible winkles (Littorina littorea L.) from the Cumbrian coast (north-eastern Irish Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.J.; Smith, D.L.; Allington, D.J.; Winpenny, K.

    1995-01-01

    Edible winkles from Saltom Bay, Cumbria (north-eastern Irish Sea) had flesh 210 Po concentrations in excess of 200 Bq kg -1 (wet). This came from liquid waste discharged under authorisation from a chemical plant producing phosphoric acid. This labelling of the winkles under natural conditions was exploited to determine the 210 Po depuration rate and biological half-time. Winkles transferred to Lowestoft and depurated in flowing seawater had biological half-times ranging from 82 to 119 days depending on temperature. After the chemical plant was shut, changes in Saltom Bay winkle flesh contents of 210 Po, 210 Pb and cadmium were followed by monthly samples. The biological half-time in the environment for the decrease in 210 Po after the plant closed was estimated at about 92 days. (author)

  2. Emergence of canine distemper virus strains with two amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin protein, detected from vaccinated carnivores in North-Eastern China in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Hailing; Bai, Xue; Martella, Vito; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yangang; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hao; Xu, Shujuan; Shao, Xiqun; Wu, Wei; Yan, Xijun

    2014-04-01

    A total of 16 strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected from vaccinated minks, foxes, and raccoon dogs in four provinces in North-Eastern China between the end of 2011 and 2013. Upon sequence analysis of the haemagglutinin gene and comparison with wild-type CDV from different species in the same geographical areas, two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in 10 CDV strains, which led to amino acid changes at positions 542 (isoleucine to asparagine) and 549 (tyrosine to histidine) of the haemagglutinin protein coding sequence. The change at residue 542 generated a potentially novel N-glycosylation site. Masking of antigenic epitopes by sugar moieties might represent a mechanism for evasion of virus neutralising antibodies and reduced protection by vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex and its possible implications for the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derua, Yahya A; Alifrangis, Michael; Hosea, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    . As part of investigations into possible causes for the change in vector population density, the present study analysed the Anopheles gambiae s.l. sibling species composition in north-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was in two parts. The first compared current species complex composition in freshly...... caught An. gambiae s.l. complex from three villages to the composition reported from previous studies carried out 2-4 decades ago in the same villages. The second took advantage of a sample of archived dried An. gambiae s.l. complex specimens collected regularly from a fourth study village since 2005...... and Anopheles arabiensis were identified as sibling species found in the area. However, both study parts indicated a marked change in sibling species composition over time. From being by far the most abundant in the past An. gambiae s.s. was now the most rare, whereas An. arabiensis had changed from being...

  4. "Una mujer trabaja doble aqui": Vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-01-01

    Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.

  5. Analysing workplace violence towards health care staff in public hospitals using alternative ordered response models: the case of north-eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ali Kemal; Oktay, Erkan; Çebi, Kübranur

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this article is to determine key factors that may have a significant effect on the verbal abuse, emotional abuse and physical assault of health care workers in north-eastern Turkey. A self-administered survey was completed by 450 health care workers in three well-established hospitals in Erzurum, Turkey. Because of the discrete and ordered nature of the dependent variable of the survey, the data were analysed using four distinctive ordered response models. Results revealed that several key variables were found to be a significant determinant of workplace violence, such as the type of health institution, occupational position, weekly working hours, weekly shift hours, number of daily patient contacts, age group of the respondents, experience in the health sector, training against workplace violence and current policies of the hospitals and the Turkish Ministry of Health.

  6. Comparison of visual observation and excavation to quantify density of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus in rivers of north-eastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamand F.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a rapid decline in several protected unionid species, government agencies urgently require a reliable method to estimate population size for the most endangered species. We used a dataset collected from 16 river stations in north-eastern France to compare the efficiency of visual estimation (bathyscope and a manual excavation to estimate numbers of the endangered bivalve Unio crassus. Our investigations indicated that, whereas a visual approach was sufficient to detect unionid presence, only 10% of all individuals were registered compared with manual excavation at the same site. In order to obtain an accurate density estimate (especially as regards the juvenile population, sediment excavation is necessary, despite it being time consuming and damaging to the mussel’s habitat.

  7. The current strain distribution in the North China Basin of eastern China by least-squares collocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. C.; Tang, H. W.; Chen, Y. Q.; Li, Y. X.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the velocities of 154 stations obtained in 2001 and 2003 GPS survey campaigns are applied to formulate a continuous velocity field by the least-squares collocation method. The strain rate field obtained by the least-squares collocation method shows more clear deformation patterns than that of the conventional discrete triangle method. The significant deformation zones obtained are mainly located in three places, to the north of Tangshan, between Tianjing and Shijiazhuang, and to the north of Datong, which agree with the places of the Holocene active deformation zones obtained by geological investigations. The maximum shear strain rate is located at latitude 38.6°N and longitude 116.8°E, with a magnitude of 0.13 ppm/a. The strain rate field obtained can be used for earthquake prediction research in the North China Basin.

  8. Kaljujooniste keskus Arizonas / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Arhitekt William Bruderi projekteeritud kaljujooniste uurimis- ja eksponeerimiskeskus Phoenixis, Arizonas säilitab kivijooniseid, mille autoriteks olid sealset piirkonda kuni 16. sajandini asustanud hohokamid

  9. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2014. The : results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  10. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-25

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2008. : The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  11. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-22

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2010. The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation by ...

  12. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-17

    This publication is an annual statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for the calendar year 2007. : The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation b...

  13. Arizona motor vehicle crash facts, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    This publication is a statistical review of the motor vehicle crashes in the State of Arizona for calendar year 2009. The results are compiled from Arizona Traffic Accident Reports submitted to the Arizona Department of Transportation by state, count...

  14. Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

    2006-06-08

    The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

  15. Dietary patterns and breast or lung cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies in north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusińska, Beata; Hawrysz, Iwona; Słowińska, Małgorzata A; Wądołowska, Lidia; Biernacki, Maciej; Czerwińska, Anna; Gołota, Janusz J

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer in women and lung cancer in men are the most prevalent cancers in Poland and worldwide. Evidence of the impact of food groups and nutrients on the risk of breast and lung cancer is limited and lacking conclusions. Studies on food consumption and breast or lung cancer are limited. Assessment of the association between dietary patterns and the prevalence of breast and lung cancers in adult Poles. The study involved a pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies on 320 subjects aged 50-70 years from north-eastern Poland (160 women, 160 men). Breast cancer cases in 80 women and lung cancer cases in 80 men were diagnosed. The food consumption frequency for 21 selected foods was collected using the Questionnaire of Eating Behaviors (QEB). Principal component analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Three dietary patterns (DPs) were identified: 'Prudent', 'Processed & fast food', and 'Traditional Polish'. In the pooled analysis for both cancers, the ORs were from 0.35 (95% CI: 0.20-0.61; p cancers (OR = 1.00). The ORs of both cancers were 1.83 (95% CI: 1.06-3.16; p cancers for the 'Traditional Polish' DP were insignificant. In the pooled analysis, a strong inverse relation was found between the 'Prudent' dietary pattern, characterized by higher frequency of dairy, fruit, vegetables, wholemeal bread, fish and juices consumption, and breast or lung cancer prevalence, irrespective of age, socioeconomic status, physical activity, smoking, alcohol abuse, and type of cancer in Polish adults from north-eastern Poland.

  16. Predominance of genotype 1.1 and emergence of genotype 2.2 classical swine fever viruses in north-eastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, P; Sarma, D K; Rajkhowa, S; Munir, M; Kuchipudi, S V

    2014-08-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and the most important disease of pigs worldwide.CSF is enzootic in pig herds in India and continues to cause huge economic losses to pig farmers. Nearly 40% of the total pig population of India is present in the north-eastern (NE) states where pig husbandry plays an important role in the socio-economic development. Pigs reared in the backyards are the only source of livelihood for a majority of poor tribal population in the region. Hardly any CSF vaccination is currently being undertaken in the unorganized pig farming in the NE region due to economic reasons and vaccine unavailability. A thorough understanding of the current epidemiological status of CSF is essential for the effective control of the disease in the NE region. Hence, we carried out molecular characterization of CSFV isolates from field outbreaks during 2011-2012 in the entire north-eastern region of India to establish the genetic groups of prevalent CSF viruses in the region. A total of 17 CSFV isolates obtained from different parts of the NE region were characterized by comparing the sequences of three partial genomic regions of the virus, that is 150 nt of 5' UTR, 190 nt of E2 and 409 nt of NS5B. Of the 17 CSFV isolates, 15 isolates belonged to 1.1 (88.2%) and two isolates (11.8%) belonged to 2.2 subgenogroup. The genogroup 2.2 CSFV were associated with outbreaks in Arunachal Pradesh that shares international borders with Bhutan, Myanmar and China. Genogroup 2.2 CSFV isolated in the present study shared high level of sequence similarity with 2.2 viruses form China, raising the possibility of virus incursion from this region. In summary, we found a continued predominance of 1.1 subgroup and an emergence of 2.2 subgroup CSFV in NE region of India. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Carnian Pluvial Event in Western Europe: New data from Iberia and correlation with the Western Neotethys and Eastern North America-NW Africa regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arche, Alfredo; López-Gómez, José

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of the Late Triassic, a period of increased precipitation occurred over large tracts of Central Pangea, the "Carnian Pluvial Event". It was a short-lived event (> 1 Ma), coeval with a marked sea-level fall and active rifting. New and classical sections of Carnian age in the Iberian Peninsula have been studied and a new correlation scheme is proposed for the Iberian domain, integrating field data and subsurface electric log data. This is the first time that the Portuguese and Spanish Late Triassic (Carnian) sediments are correlated. The "Carnian Pluvial Event" is identified in the Iberian Peninsula as a continental clastic wedge (Manuel Fm. and coeval sediments) in between marine evaporite formations during a marked sea-level drop event; its age is considered to be Julian (early Carnian) by palynological and paleogeographic considerations. A new correlation of the Late Triassic sediments of the Iberian Peninsula with coeval sediments of Western Europe, NW Africa and Eastern North America is proposed and a new paleogeographical map of Central Eastern Pangea for this period is presented in order to demonstrate that the geographical extent of the siliciclastic sediments related to the "Carnian Pluvial Event" was much larger than accepted before.

  18. Phylogeography, post-glacial gene flow, and population history of North American goshawks (Accipeter gentilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard De Volo, Shelley; Reynolds, Richard T.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate cycling during the Quaternary played a critical role in the diversification of avian lineages in North America, greatly influencing the genetic characteristics of contemporary populations. To test the hypothesis that North American Northern Goshawks (Accipitergentilis) were historically isolated within multiple Late Pleistocene refugia, we assessed diversity and population genetic structure as well as migration rates and signatures of historical demography using mitochondrial control-region data. On the basis of sampling from 24 locales, we found that Northern Goshawks were genetically structured across a large portion of their North American range. Long-term population stability, combined with strong genetic differentiation, suggests that Northern Goshawks were historically isolated within at least three refugial populations representing two regions: the Pacific (CascadesSierra-Vancouver Island) and the Southwest (Colorado Plateau and Jemez Mountains). By contrast, populations experiencing significant growth were located in the Southeast Alaska-British Columbia, Arizona Sky Islands, Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes, and Appalachian bioregions. In the case of Southeast Alaska-British Columbia, Arizona Sky Islands, and Rocky Mountains, Northern Goshawks likely colonized these regions from surrounding refugia. The near fixation for several endemic haplotypes in the Arizona Sky Island Northern Goshawks (A. g apache) suggests long-term isolation subsequent to colonization. Likewise, Great Lakes and Appalachian Northern Goshawks differed significantly in haplotype frequencies from most Western Northern Goshawks, which suggests that they, too, experienced long-term isolation prior to a more recent recolonization of eastern U.S. forests.

  19. Spatial segregation within the spawning migration of North Eastern Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) as indicated by juvenile growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Campbell, Andrew; Brunel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A comparison of growth data (fish length) with latitude shows that southern juvenile mackerel attain a greater length than those originating from further north before growth ceases during their first winter. A similar significant relationship was found between the growth in the first year (derive...

  20. Spatial segregation within the spawning migration of North Eastern Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus as indicated by juvenile growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teunis Jansen

    Full Text Available A comparison of growth data (fish length with latitude shows that southern juvenile mackerel attain a greater length than those originating from further north before growth ceases during their first winter. A similar significant relationship was found between the growth in the first year (derived from the otolith inner winter ring and latitude for adult mackerel spawning between 44°N (Bay of Biscay and 54°N (west of Ireland. These observations are consistent with spatial segregation of the spawning migration; the further north that the fish were hatched, the further north they will tend to spawn. No such relationship was found in mackerel spawning at more northerly latitudes, possibly as a consequence of increased spatial mixing in a more energetic regime with stronger currents. This study provides previously lacking support for spawning segregation behaviour among North East Atlantic mackerel--an important step towards understanding the migratory behaviour of mackerel and hence the spatiotemporal distribution dynamics around spawning time.

  1. Integrated elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies of Mesozoic mafic dykes from the eastern North China Craton: implications for the dramatic transformation of lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; Feng, Caixia; Santosh, M.; Feng, Guangying; Coulson, Ian M.; Xu, Mengjing; Guo, Zhuang; Guo, Xiaolei; Peng, Hao; Feng, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC) from its Precambrian cratonic architecture until Paleozoic, and the transformation to an oceanic realm during Mesozoic, with implications on the destruction of cratonic root have attracted global attention. Here we present geochemical and isotopic data on a suite of newly identified Mesozoic mafic dyke swarms from the Longwangmiao, Weijiazhuang, Mengjiazhuang, Jiayou, Huangmi, and Xiahonghe areas (Qianhuai Block) along the eastern NCC with an attempt to gain further insights on the lithospheric evolution of the region. The Longwangmiao dykes are alkaline with LILE (Ba and K)- and LREE-enrichment ((La/Yb) N > 4.3) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signature ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.6, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.8, ε Hf (t) 3.7), and display similar EM1-like isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 2.4) and EM1-like isotopic features((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd (t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 3.7) and EM1-like Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic features ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.706; ε Nd(t) 16.7, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.4, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 9.3) and EM1-like isotopic composition ((87Sr/86Sr) i > 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) 0.705; ε Nd (t) 16.9, (207Pb/204Pb) i > 15.5, (208Pb/204Pb) i > 36.9, ε Hf (t) < -8.6). Our data from the various mafic dyke suites suggest that the magmas were derived from EM1-like lithospheric mantle, corresponding to lithospheric mantle modified by the previously foundered lower crust beneath the eastern NCC. Our results suggest contrasting lithospheric evolution from Triassic (212 Ma) to Cretaceous (123 Ma) beneath the NCC. These mafic dykes mark an important phase of lithospheric thinning in the eastern North China Craton.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    channels are also largely controlled by structural features, such as regional joint or fault systems. Precipitation, which shows considerable variability in amount and intensity, recharges the ground-water system along the crest of the Mogollon Rim and to a lesser extent along the crests and flanks of the rim and the Mazatzal Mountains and Sierra Ancha. Flashy runoff in the mainly bedrock stream channels is typical. Springs are distributed throughout the region, typically discharging at or above the contact of variably permeable formations along the face of the Mogollon Rim with a scattering of low-discharge springs in the Proterozoic rocks below the rim. The surface of the Colorado Plateau is the primary recharge area for the C aquifer in which ground-water flows north toward the Little Colorado River and south toward the Mogollon Highlands. Within the study area, flow from the C aquifer primarily discharges from large, stable springs in the upper East Verde River, Tonto Creek, and Canyon Creek Basins along the top of the Mogollon Rim and to the west as base flow in West Clear Creek. On the basis of chemical evidence and the distribution and flow characteristics of springs and perennial streams, the C aquifer is also the source of water for the limestone aquifer that discharges from carbonate rocks near the base of the Mogollon Rim. Vertical flow from the C aquifer, the base of which is in the Schnebly Hill Formation, recharges the limestone aquifer that discharges mainly at Fossil Springs in the western part of the study area and as base flow in Cibecue Creek on the eastern edge of the study area. Local, generally shallow aquifers of variable productivity occur in plateau and mesa-capping basalts in the sedimentary rocks of the Schnebly Hill and Supai Formations, in fractured zones of the Proterozoic Payson granite, and in the alluvium of the lower Tonto Creek Basin. Where time series data exist, such water-bearing zones are shown to be sensitive to short-

  3. Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Survey of Selected Irrigation Canals Within the North Platte River Valley, Western Nebraska and Eastern Wyoming, 2004 and 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Vrabel, Joseph; Imig, Brian H.; Payne, Jason; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to water resources of portions of the North Platte River basin being designated as over-appropriated by the State of Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD), in cooperation with the DNR, is developing an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) for groundwater and surface water in the NPNRD. As part of the IMP, a three-dimensional numerical finite difference groundwater-flow model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using leakage of water from selected irrigation canal systems to manage groundwater recharge. To determine the relative leakage potential of the upper 8 m of the selected irrigation canals within the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, the U.S. Geological Survey performed a land-based capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity survey along nearly 630 km of 13 canals and 2 laterals in 2004 and from 2007 to 2009. These 13 canals were selected from the 27 irrigation canals in the North Platte valley due to their location, size, irrigated area, and relation to the active North Platte valley flood plain and related paleochannels and terrace deposits where most of the saturated thickness in the alluvium exists. The resistivity data were then compared to continuous cores at 62 test holes down to a maximum depth of 8 m. Borehole electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at 36 of those test holes were done to correlate resistivity values with grain sizes in order to determine potential vertical leakage along the canals as recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer. The data acquired in 2004, as well as the 25 test hole cores from 2004, are presented elsewhere. These data were reprocessed using the same updated processing and inversion algorithms used on the 2007 through 2009 datasets, providing a consistent and complete dataset for all collection periods. Thirty-seven test hole cores and borehole electrical conductivity measurements were acquired based on the 2008

  4. Constraints on upper mantle Vp/Vs ratio variations beneath eastern North China from receiver function tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Shaokun; Tian, Xiaobo; Gao, Rui

    2017-05-01

    To detect the thinning, modification, and replacement of the basement of the lithosphere is a key step in understanding the destruction mechanism of the North China lithosphere. The difference of the basement of the lithosphere is mainly displayed by the variation of the peridotite composition and its physical state. Vp/Vs ratio (hereafter referred to as velocity ratio) is more sensitive to this change than Vp or Vs alone. By means of the strong dependence of the travel-time of the wave converted at the 410-km discontinuity (P410s) observed in the receiver function (RF) on the velocity ratio in the upper mantle, we developed a new mapping method to constrain the velocity ratio between the Moho and 410-km discontinuity. Using the RFs extracted from 246 broadband stations beneath the North China Craton (NCC), we obtained a high-resolution velocity ratio image of the upper mantle. The abnormal velocity ratio indicates a strong lateral variation of the mineral composition in the upper mantle beneath North China. Two low-velocity-ratio patches are imaged at the top of the upper mantle and the 410 km depth, respectively. The former may be related to the orthopyroxene enrichment in the lithospheric mantle, and the latter may reflect the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone (MTZ). A prominent high-velocity-ratio anomaly is also imaged in the upper mantle beneath the Shaanxi-Shanxi rift system in the central NCC, with the highest anomaly reaching 10%. We speculate that the high velocity ratio of upper mantle is related to convective flow due to slab dehydration in the MTZ. The dehydration of the retained slab in the MTZ results in partial melting and upwelling of upper mantle materials. Such convective flow and their melting are closely related to the Cenozoic basalt eruption in the northern section of the Shaanxi-Shanxi rift system.

  5. BRCA Genetic Screening in Middle Eastern and North African: Mutational Spectrum and Founder BRCA1 Mutation (c.798_799delTT in North African

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Laraqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. Methods. To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. Results. Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71% patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. Conclusion. The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling.

  6. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  7. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  9. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  10. Hydro-climatic changes since 13.000 years B.P. in eastern Tibet and north of Xinjiang (China). Approach using the study of some lacustrine records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaraj, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to build the chronology of the medium and short term climatic changes that took place during the last glacial and Holocene periods using sedimentological and isotopic data obtained on cores from the Aibi lake (north of Xinjiang, China) and from the Madoi and Donxi lakes (eastern part of the Tibetan plateau). At Aibi, after the chemical, isotopic and physico-chemical characterization of the lake waters, and the sedimentological study of the laminae (granulometry and mineralogy) have been done, the measurements of 18 O and 13 C of the authigenous carbonates and of the thickness variations of laminae have evidenced the seasonal character of the laminae. The spectral analyses of the thickness variations indicate periodicities linked with the quasi-biennial oscillations (2 or 3 years) and with the solar cycles (10-11 years). East of the Tibetan plateau, the sedimentological and isotopic study of the cores from the Madoi and Donxi lakes show more humid and hot climate conditions during the lower and middle Holocene. The sedimentary record of lake Madoi show one or several lacustrine or fluvio-lacustrine phases after 13000-12000 years B.P. A high dryness period took place within the Younger Dryas chrono-zone. Since 10000 year B.P. the 3 lakes are filled with isotopically diluted waters. The last glacial-Holocene transition seems to be very sharp and located around 10000 years B.P. both in northern Xinjiang and eastern Tibet and confirm the results previously obtained in Qinghai and northern-Xinjiang. After the optimum hydrologic phase of the lower and middle Holocene, the come back of dryer conditions started at about 6000 or 5000 years B.P. and hydrological conditions became close to the present day ones since 3000 years B.P. (J.S.)

  11. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  12. A model study of the seasonality of sea surface temperature and circulation in the Atlantic North-Eastern Tropical Upwelling System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou eFaye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The climatological seasonal cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST in the north-eastern tropical Atlantic (7-25°N, 26-12°W is studied using a mixed layer heat budget in a regional ocean general circulation model. The region, which experiences one of the larger SST cycle in the tropics, forms the main part of the Guinea Gyre. It is characterized by a seasonally varying open ocean and coastal upwelling system, driven by the movements of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ. The model annual mean heat budget has two regimes schematically. South of roughly 12°N, advection of equatorial waters, mostly warm, and warming by vertical mixing, is balanced by net air-sea flux. In the rest of the domain, a cooling by vertical mixing, reinforced by advection at the coast, is balanced by the air-sea fluxes. Regarding the seasonal cycle, within a narrow continental band, in zonal mean, the SST early decrease (from September, depending on latitude, until December is driven by upwelling dynamics off Senegal and Mauritania (15°-20°N, and instead by air-sea fluxes north and south of these latitudes. Paradoxically, the later peaks of upwelling intensity (from March to July, with increasing latitude essentially damp the warming phase, driven by air-sea fluxes. The open ocean cycle to the west, is entirely driven by the seasonal net air-sea fluxes. The oceanic processes significantly oppose it, but for winter north of ~18°N. Vertical mixing in summer-autumn tends to cool (warm the surface north (south of the ITCZ, and advective cooling or warming by the geostrophic Guinea Gyre currents and the Ekman drift. This analysis supports previous findings on the importance of air-sea fluxes offshore. It mainly offers quantitative elements on the modulation of the SST seasonal cycle by the ocean circulation, and particularly by the upwelling dynamics.Keywords: SST, upwelling, circulation, heat budget, observations, modeling

  13. Olivine and melt inclusion chemical constraints on the source of intracontinental basalts from the eastern North China Craton: Discrimination of contributions from the subducted Pacific slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Huang, Xiao-Long; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Guo, Hua; Ning, Zhen-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Contributions from fluid and melt inputs from the subducting Pacific slab to the chemical makeup of intraplate basalts erupted on the eastern Eurasian continent have long been suggested but have not thus far been geochemically constrained. To attempt to address this question, we have investigated Cenozoic basaltic rocks from the western Shandong and Bohai Bay Basin, eastern North China Craton (NCC), which preserve coherent relationships among the chemistries of their melt inclusions, their hosting olivines and their bulk rock compositions. Three groups of samples are distinguished: (1) high-Si and (2) moderate-Si basalts (tholeiites, alkali basalts and basanites) which were erupted at ∼23-20 Ma, and (3) low-Si basalts (nephelinites) which were erupted at <9 Ma. The high-Si basalts have lower alkalies, CaO and FeOT contents, lower trace element concentrations, lower La/Yb, Sm/Yb and Ce/Pb but higher Ba/Th ratios, and lower εNd and εHf values than the low-Si basalts. The olivines in the high-Si basalts have higher Ni and lower Mn and Ca at a given Fo value than those crystallizing from peridotite melts, and their corresponding melt inclusions have lower CaO contents than peridotite melts, suggesting a garnet pyroxenitic source. The magmatic olivines from low-Si basalts have lower Ni but higher Mn at a given Fo value than that of the high-Si basalts, suggesting more olivine in its source. The olivine-hosted melt inclusions of the low-Si basalts have major elemental signatures different from melts of normal peridotitic or garnet pyroxenitic mantle sources, pointing to their derivation from a carbonated mantle source consisting of peridotite and garnet pyroxenite. We propose a model involving the differential melting of a subduction-modified mantle source to account for the generation of these three suites of basalts. Asthenospheric mantle beneath the eastern NCC, which entrains garnet pyroxenite with an EM1 isotopic signature, was metasomatized by carbonatitic

  14. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  15. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  16. DICKINSARTELLA FAUNA FROM THE SAIWAN FORMATION (OMAN: A BIVALVE FAUNA TESTIFYING TO THE LATE SAKMARIAN (EARLY PERMIAN CLIMATIC AMELIORATION ALONG THE NORTH-EASTERN GONDWANAN FRINGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANO LARGHI

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The transitional faunas of the Permian Huqf succession of Oman make it one of the key-sections for the intercalibration of Early to Middle Permian biostratigraphical scales. The abundance of fossils improved the knowledge of some marine faunas which populated the North-Eastern Gondwanan fringe during times of climatic changes in the Permian. A Sterlitamakian (upper Sakmarian, Lower Permian bivalve fauna from the Saiwan Formation in the Huqf area, informally named "Dickinsartella Fauna", is described in the present paper. The specimens examined were collected from the "Pachycyrtella Bed" (Auctorum, the basal bed of the Formation in its type locality. The Dickinsartella Fauna can be identified for the presence of the new genus Dickinsartella, which dominates the bivalve thanatocoenosis with D. pistacina sp. n. (type species. The bivalve fauna from the Pachycyrtella Bed includes the new species Stutchburia sangallii and Promytilus  mazzolenii, and also Astartella obliqua Dickins, 1963, Nuculopsis cf. bangarraensis Dickins, 1963, ?Oriocrassatella sp., and indeterminable aviculopectinids. This fauna shows a low taxonomic diversity. Nevertheless, some species are represented by a high number of generally well-preserved specimens, i.e. some specimens of S. sangallii sp. n. and A. obliqua show part of the ligament.  The good preservation of the shells permitted the microstructural analysis of D. pistacina sp. n. and S. sangallii sp. n. The microstructure of S. sangallii sp. n. supports the close phylogenetical link between modiomorphids and crassatelloids recognized by some previous authors.The new genus Dickinsartella includes the more recent species belonging to the important Paleozoic Order Cyrtodontida Scarlato & Starobogatov, 1971. The discovery of Dickinsartella gen. n. and other taxa of the Pachycyrtella Bed, present also in the Sakmarian levels of the Carnarvon and Perth Basins in Western Australia,  indicates a wider distribution of the

  17. The sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic (sparker and Chirp III) information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    The coastal off-shore zone of the northern part of the island of Sylt was investigated by sparker seismics and high-resolution subbottom profiling during the period 2005-2009. The data was acquired in the North Sea sector as well as in the Lister Tief, Lister Ley, Højer Dyb and Rømø Dyb. During...... the various surveys of the RV ‘Mya’ (AWI), fair weather conditions generally prevailed, favouring acquisition of good quality data. The sparker data reveal geological information in the interval of 0-100 msce bsf (below seafloor) and the Chirp III data 0-15 m bsf. The data was processed and interpreted...... on a workstation. Interpretation of the data reveals bedforms, with their internal structures representative of the “present sedimentation regime”. In addition, the sparker data show 2-3 well-defined deeper regional reflectors and pronounced erosion channels at greater subbottom depth. Using various bedform...

  18. The sedimentary regime around northern Sylt, South-eastern North Sea, based on shallow seismic (sparker and Chirp III) information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldreel, Lars Ole; Kuijpers, Antoon; Madsen, Emil B

    2010-01-01

    The coastal off-shore zone of the northern part of the island of Sylt was investigated by sparker seismics and high-resolution subbottom profiling during the period 2005-2009. The data was acquired in the North Sea sector as well as in the Lister Tief, Lister Ley, Højer Dyb and Rømø Dyb. During...... on a workstation. Interpretation of the data reveals bedforms, with their internal structures representative of the “present sedimentation regime”. In addition, the sparker data show 2-3 well-defined deeper regional reflectors and pronounced erosion channels at greater subbottom depth. Using various bedform...... characteristics, the areal distribution of ebb-, flood- and indefinite dunes and erosion scars has been documented. The interpreted data are complementary to information from sidescan sonar data acquired within the framework of our study and by others. In addition, our data set provides new, subbottom information...

  19. The Cretaceous adakitic-basaltic-granitic magma sequence on south-eastern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric thinning mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Ao; Li, Shuguang; Guo, Sushu; Hou, Zhenhui; He, Yongsheng

    2012-03-01

    We present here a combined study of Early Cretaceous granodiorites, granites and mafic rocks from the Bengbu area on south-eastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to provide insights into the thinning mechanism of lithosphere on the cratonic margins. Zircon U-Pb and Ar-Ar dating reveals an adakitic-basaltic-granitic magma sequence with the adakitic intrusions (granodiorites; 123-115 Ma) formed prior to the granites and mafic dykes (both ca.112 Ma). The granodiorites are geochemically similar to low-Mg# adakitic rocks and isotopically have enriched Sr-Nd-Hf compositions, low radiogenic Pb (206Pb/204Pbi = 16.524-17.017), and mantle-like δ18Ozircon (5.8 ± 0.5‰). They were originated from the thickened lower continental crust (LCC) of the NCC. In contrast, the granites have low Sr/Y (generation of granitic and basaltic magmas. Anatexis of the pre-existing thickened LCC at 123-115 Ma that attenuated the LCC itself and left the residues denser as a result of felsic (adakitic) melt extraction is proposed to have resulted in gravitational instability and foundering of the lithosphere. Such a temporal sequence of magma generation and processes of lithospheric thinning also occurred on north margin of the NCC and are quite similar to the mountain-root removal beneath the Dabie Orogen in central China. This manifests that previous melting of the LCC is perhaps an important trigger responsible for lithospheric foundering in orogenic belts and cartonic margins, where the lithosphere underwent pre-thickening by continental collisions and had stabilized over a long time.

  20. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  1. Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Saikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. Material and Methods: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA. Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive for EBER expression. EBER status was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters like age, sex, dietary habits, histological types of NPC, and ethnicity of the patients. Results: The age range of the study group was 25 to 70 years with a mean age of 44.64 years and a male:female ratio of 3:2. Non-keratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC was the most common histological type. EBV was positive in 59% (30/51 of our cases. It showed a statistically significant correlation with the Naga community (P=0.01, with consumption of smoked food (P=0.02, and cigarette smoking (P=0.02. There was no correlation of EBV with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, stage, and histology. Conclusion: Our result indicates that EBV may be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of NPC in this region of India. So apart from lifestyle modification, a future study for a screening test for EBV viral load even in asymptomatic patients may be considered, for determination of disease susceptibility, early diagnosis, and proper management.

  2. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T

    2017-06-01

    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades. © 2016 John

  3. Population status and population genetics of northern leopard frogs in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Drost, Charles A.; O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Mock, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing isolation of populations by habitat fragmentation threatens the persistence of many species, both from stochastic loss of small isolated populations, and from inbreeding effects in populations that have become genetically isolated. In the southwestern United States, amphibian habitat is naturally patchy in occurrence because of the prevailing aridity of the region. Streams, rivers, and other wetlands are important both as habitat and as corridors that connect populations. However, populations of some species have become more fragmented and isolated by habitat degradation and loss. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) have experienced serious declines in the Southwest. We conducted an extensive survey across the known range of northern leopard frogs in Arizona to determine the current distribution and abundance of the species. From a range that once spanned much of the northern and central part of the State, northern leopard frogs have been reduced to three or four widely separated populations, near Lyman Lake in east-central Arizona, in the Stoneman Lake area south of Flagstaff, along Truxton Wash near Peach Springs, and a population of uncertain extent on Navajo Nation lands. The Lyman Lake and Truxton Wash populations are small and extremely isolated. The Stoneman Lake population, however, is an extensive metapopulation spread across several stream drainages, including numerous ponds, wetlands, and artificial tanks. This is the only population in Arizona that is increasing in extent and numbers, but there is concern about the apparent introduction of nonnative genetic stock from eastern North America into this area. We analyzed genetic diversity within and genetic divergence among populations of northern leopard frogs, across both extant and recently extirpated populations in Arizona. We also analyzed mitochondrial DNA to place these populations into a larger phylogenetic framework and to determine whether any populations contained genetic material

  4. Mapping Decadal Land Cover Changes in the Woodlands of North Eastern Namibia from 1975 to 2014 Using the Landsat Satellite Archived Data

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    Vladimir R. Wingate

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Woodlands and savannahs provide essential ecosystem functions and services to communities. On the African continent, they are widely utilized and converted to subsistence and intensive agriculture or urbanized. This study investigates changes in land cover over four administrative regions of North Eastern Namibia within the Kalahari woodland savannah biome, covering a total of 107,994 km2. Land cover is mapped using multi-sensor Landsat imagery at decadal intervals from 1975 to 2014, with a post-classification change detection method. The dominant change observed was a reduction in the area of woodland savannah due to the expansion of agriculture, primarily in the form of small-scale cereal and pastoral production. More specifically, woodland savannah area decreased from 90% of the study area in 1975 to 83% in 2004, and then increased to 86% in 2014, while agricultural land increased from 6% to 12% between 1975 and 2014. We assess land cover changes in relation to towns, villages, rivers and roads and find most changes occurred in proximity to these. In addition, we find that most land cover changes occur within land designated as communally held, followed by state protected land. With widespread changes occurring across the African continent, this study provides important data for understanding drivers of change in the region and their impacts on the distribution of woodland savannahs.

  5. Examining the influence of price and accessibility on willingness to shop at farmers’ markets among low-income eastern North Carolina women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirt, Jared T.; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Ward, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas W.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the influence of farmers’ market pricing and accessibility on willingness to shop at farmers’ markets, among low-income women. Design: Qualitative interviews using scenarios with quantitative assessment of willingness to shop at farmers’ market given certain pricing and accessibility scenarios. Setting: Eastern North Carolina. Participants: Thirty seven low-income women of child-bearing age (18-44 years) receiving family planning services at the health department. Phenomenon of Interest: Willingness to shop at a farmers’ market. Analysis: Fisher’s exact test was used to examine associations between willingness to shop at farmers’ markets by urban/rural residence, race, and employment status. Direct quotations relevant to participants' use of farmers' markets were extracted based upon a positive deviance framework. Results: Participants were increasingly willing to shop at the farmers’ market when price savings increased and when the market was incrementally closer to their residence. Willingness was highest when there was at least a 20% price savings. Participants seemed to be influenced more by a visual representation of a greater quantity of produce received with the price savings rather than the quantitative representation of the money saved by the reduced price. Conclusions and Implications: Future farmers’ market interventions should take into account these consumer level preferences. PMID:24201077