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Sample records for north dakota lignite

  1. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  2. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  3. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  4. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  5. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  6. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.; Wald, J.D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  7. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Remedial Action Plan for stabilization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This remedial action plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and near Bowman (at the former Griffin town site), North Dakota. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the sites. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of North Dakota and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of North Dakota and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement

  10. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [121,100 cubic meters (m 3 )] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat

  12. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  13. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  14. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  15. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  20. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  2. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  3. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  4. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  5. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  7. Environmental Info for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in North Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  8. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  9. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  10. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  11. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  12. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  13. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  14. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  16. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  19. 40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  20. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  1. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  2. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  3. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  4. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas... to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: In June of 2003, the Dakota... Dakota Prairie Grasslands Land and Resource Management Plan, based on the 2001 Northern Great Plains...

  5. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2008-09 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  6. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  7. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2007-08 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  8. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2010-11 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota Wheat Commission and t...

  9. National uranium resource evaluation, Dickinson quadrangle, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Pack, D.D.; Galipeau, J.M.; Lawton, D.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Dickinson Quadrangle, North Dakota, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Criteria used in the evaluation were developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The evaluation primarily consisted of a surface study, subsurface investigation, and an in-house ground-water geochemical study. These studies were augumented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment studies. The evaluation results indicate that the Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation have environments favorable for uraniferous lignite deposits. The Sentinel Butte, Tongue River, and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation are favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits are the remaining Cenozoic rocks and all the rocks of the Cretaceous

  10. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  11. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  12. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  13. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  14. NPDES Permit for Dakota Magic Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit ND-0030813, the Dakota Nation Gaming Enterprise is authorized to discharge from the wastewater treatment facility in Richland County, North Dakota, to a roadside ditch flowing to an unnamed tributary to the Bois de Sioux.

  15. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  16. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  17. 75 FR 6330 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... be consistent with the corresponding Federal regulations and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the North Dakota program and proposed amendment to that program..., contact the person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of...

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. 78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... System (AVS) prior to the approval of permits, renewals and certain revisions. The proposed rule also contains procedures for coal operators to use if they want to submit challenges to information in the AVS... counterpart federal rules regarding the AVS and ownership and control. Additionally, North Dakota is...

  20. 78 FR 35781 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...) Section 69-5.2. The changes regard the use of OSM's Applicant Violator System (AVS) prior to the approval... operators to use if they want to submit challenges to information in the AVS. These changes are being... the AVS and ownership and control. Additionally, North Dakota is submitting a proposed rule change...

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  2. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  3. Technology and use of lignite. Proceedings of the tenth biennial lignite symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kube, W. R.; Gronhovd, G. H. [comps.

    1979-01-01

    The symposium on the technology and use of lignite was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the University of North Dakota, and held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, May 30-31, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings of this tenth biennial lignite symposium have been entered into EDB and ERA and three also into EAPA. The papers discuss lignite deposits in the USA, mining plans, gasification and in-situ gasification, and combustion in fossil-fuel power plants. (LTN)

  4. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  5. 2009 Legislative Session Resource Guide. Investing in North Dakota's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Dakota University System (NDUS) is composed of two doctoral universities, two master's degree-granting universities, two universities that offer bachelor's degrees and five community colleges that offer associate and trade/technical degrees. Each institution is unique in its mission to serve the people of North Dakota. The "2009…

  6. North Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David E. Haugen; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of North Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 7,622 plots were selected and 164 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the North Dakota...

  7. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Milbank NTMS Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey are reported for the Milbank Quadrangle, Minnesota; North Dakota; South Dakota. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 662 groundwater and 319 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting

  9. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  10. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  11. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  12. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from sampling events conducted in Killdeer, North Dakota as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study

  13. Economic Impact of the North Dakota University System in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    The North Dakota University System consists of the North Dakota University System Office and 11 college campuses located throughout the state. In addition to the 11 main campuses, numerous other university facilities, centers, and offices are located throughout the state. Institutions of higher education have an economic effect in their respective areas and across the state as those institutions acquire inputs, purchase services, and provide for payroll and employment at both the local and st...

  14. Investigation of the feasibility of underground coal gasification in North Dakota, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Peng; Nasah, Junior; Solc, Jaroslav; Korom, Scott F.; Laudal, Daniel; Barse, Kirtipal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A four-year feasibility study of underground coal gasification is presented. • A test site was selected for feasibility investigation. • Gasification test, a hydrogeological study and geomechanical study were performed. • Results suggest favorable conditions for UCG development at the selected site. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a promising technology that has the potential to recover currently-unmineable coal resources. The technical feasibility and economic success of a UCG project is highly site specific. Any risks associated with UCG, such as subsidence, groundwater contamination, and syngas quality, should be sufficiently evaluated through a feasibility study. This paper presents a four-year UCG feasibility study utilizing lignite seams in North Dakota, United States. Four wells were drilled through the lignite seams at a selected site, and lignite and strata cores were recovered. A geological model of the formation was built, coal and rock properties were analyzed, and field hydrogeological tests and laboratory gasification tests were performed. This work provided valuable insights in rock mechanics, hydrogeology, and coal properties. The study results show that the selected site is suitable for development of a UCG plant because there are minimal induced subsidence risks, there is hydrological isolation from major aquifers and the coal produces desirable syngas quality for liquid fuel production. Methodologies developed in this study will benefit the design, optimization and management of the UCG process.

  15. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of.... The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota T. 152 N., R. 100 W. The plat, in... lottings, Township 152 North, Range 100 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota, was accepted November...

  16. 78 FR 23952 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... determine Federal Leasable Mineral Lands. The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota... dividing Lot 1 of section 29, Township 148 North, Range 95 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota...

  17. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  18. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  20. Evaluation of Rare Earth Element Extraction from North Dakota Coal-Related Feed Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudal, Daniel A.

    The rare earth elements consist of the lanthanide series of elements with atomic numbers from 57-71 and also include yttrium and scandium. Due to their unique properties, rare earth elements are crucial materials in an incredible array of consumer goods, energy system components and military defense applications. However, the global production and entire value chain for rare earth elements is dominated by China, with the U.S. currently 100% import reliant for these critical materials. Traditional mineral ores including previously mined deposits in the U.S., however, have several challenges. Chief among these is that the content of the most critical and valuable of the rare earths are deficient, making mining uneconomical. Further, the supply of these most critical rare earths is nearly 100% produced in China from a single resource that is only projected to last another 10 to 20 years. The U.S. currently considers the rare earths market an issue of national security. It is imperative that alternative domestic sources of rare earths be identified and methods developed to produce them. Recently, coal and coal byproducts have been identified as one of these promising alternative resources. This dissertation details a study on evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of rare earth element recovery from North Dakota lignite coal and lignite-related feedstocks. There were four major goals of this study: i) identify lignite or lignite-related feedstocks with total rare earth element content above 300 parts per million, a threshold dictated by the agency who funded this research as the minimum for economic viability, ii) determine the geochemistry of the feedstocks and understand the forms and modes of occurrence of the rare earth elements, information necessary to inform the development of extraction and concentration methods, iii) identify processing methods to concentrate the rare earth elements from the feedstocks to a target of two weight percent, a value

  1. Letter from North Dakota: Inviting the People to See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Eve

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive account of the diverse experiences and reactions, both positive and negative, of a resource teacher for a Follow Through Program at an Indian elementary school in Fort Yates, North Dakota, and her attempts to promote teacher cooperation and engender local involvement in the school. (EH)

  2. Legal Liability of Children and Parents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall K.

    Three legal issues are examined: (1) the responsibility of children for breached contracts and the commission of torts; (2) parental liability; and (3) relevant law in North Dakota and other states. The people most affected by the actions of children are parents, merchants, and victims of vandalism. People who enter into contracts with children…

  3. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of North Dakota's Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper captures the progress made by North Dakota in adopting both the common core state standards, subsequent work in ensuring those standards are accompanied by college- and career-ready assessments, and the potential benefits of preparing all students for success in college and a career. (Contains 11 endnotes.)

  4. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of North Dakota. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  5. Electronic Timekeeping: North Dakota State University Improves Payroll Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Ronald J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    North Dakota State University has adopted automated timekeeping to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of payroll processing. The microcomputer-based system accurately records and computes employee time, tracks labor distribution, accommodates complex labor policies and company pay practices, provides automatic data processing and reporting,…

  6. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  7. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1985-01-01

    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  8. Final Oahe Dam/Lake Oahe Master Plan Missouri River, South Dakota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    silty loams with moderate erosion and poor permeability. Normally used for pastureland. Sansarc- Opal : clays with minor erosion and permeability...One active sand and gravel mining area is located on Oahe project lands at Fort Yates, North Dakota. There is also a small amount of sand and...consist of sand and gravel deposits and Pierre Shale. The sand and gravel deposits are mined for road construction materials and concrete aggregate

  9. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  10. 76 FR 58533 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 65 W. The plat, in two sheets, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  11. 76 FR 44946 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION..., Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota and was necessary to determine... Dakota T. 152 N., R. 64 W. The plat, in one sheet, representing the dependent resurvey of a portion of...

  12. Critical systems for public health management of floods, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedrich, Tim W; Sickler, Juli L; Vossler, Brenda L; Pickard, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Availability of emergency preparedness funding between 2002 and 2009 allowed the North Dakota Department of Health to build public health response capabilities. Five of the 15 public health preparedness capability areas identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 have been thoroughly tested by responses to flooding in North Dakota in 2009, 2010, and 2011; those capability areas are information sharing, emergency operations coordination, medical surge, material management and distribution, and volunteer management. Increasing response effectiveness has depended on planning, implementation of new information technology, changes to command and control procedures, containerized response materials, and rapid contract procedures. Continued improvement in response and maintenance of response capabilities is dependent on ongoing funding.

  13. Guide to North Dakota's ground-water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  14. From dry to wet, 1988-97, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1999-01-01

    Unusual climatic and hydrologic conditions continue to affect the people and resources of North Dakota. Above-average precipitation during 1993-97 caused flooding in parts of North Dakota, and damage to crops, roads, and homes led to tremendous economic losses and increased personal stress for the people of the State. However, the above-average precipitation also replenished diminished water supplies, produced bumper crops in some parts of the State, enhanced wildlife and fishery resources, and improved recreational activities such as fishing, camping, and boating. Thus, prolonged periods of above-average precipitation (wet periods) and the resulting hydrologic conditions can be beneficial and prosperous but also can be as disastrous and economically damaging as periods of drought (dry periods).

  15. WHITE WHEAT MARKET AND STRATEGY ANALYSIS FOR NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing interest and a perceived demand for hard white (HW) wheat to satisfy the needs of the growing Asian noodle market which is currently dominated by Australia. The wheat industry is reviewed with attention to U.S. and Australian production and international markets for white wheat. Quality issues and target markets/market development are discussed. Economic issues associated with production of HW wheat in hard red spring (HRS) wheat producing areas, primarily North Dakota, are...

  16. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1992. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1993, and completed and planned report products.

  17. Modeling workforce demand in North Dakota: a System Dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Muminova, Adiba

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dynamics behind the workforce demand and attempts to predict the potential effects of future changes in oil prices on workforce demand in North Dakota. The study attempts to join System Dynamics and Input-Output models in order to overcome shortcomings in both of the approaches and gain a more complete understanding of the issue of workforce demand. A system dynamics simulation of workforce demand within different economic sector...

  18. Tobacco Control Policy Making in North Dakota: A Tradition of Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Jennifer R MPH; Ibrahim, Jennifer K. Ph.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY North Dakota has a long history of tobacco-related legislation dating back to the late 1800's, well before the formal organization of health advocates for tobacco control. Citizens of North Dakota recognized the negative health effects of tobacco smoke before most of the nation and made attempts to regulate the sale and use of tobacco products throughout the early 1900's. In 1913, the North Dakota legislature went as far as prohibiting the use of tobacco products in...

  19. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings directly

  20. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings

  1. Water-quality characteristics in runoff for three discovery farms in North Dakota, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Rowland, Kathleen M.; Wiederholt, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Agriculture Research Extension and in collaboration with North Dakota State Department of Health, North Dakota State Water Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and several agricultural producers, helped organize a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Discharge measurements and water-quality samples collected at the three Farms (Underwood, Dazey, and Embden) were used to describe water-quality characteristics in runoff, and compute estimates of annual loads and yields for selected constituents from spring 2008 through fall 2012.

  2. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  3. Small Numbers and Big Spaces Call for a Team Approach in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pam; Lambert, Bambi

    2016-01-01

    Preparing deaf and hard of hearing students for transition is a unique challenge in North Dakota, a rural state in which the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction has identified only 32 transition-age students as "deaf" or "hearing impaired." Additional students who are deaf or hard of hearing may be being served via…

  4. Community Living for Adults in North Dakota: A Case Study of an Apartment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racino, Julie Ann

    This report describes a 1988 site visit to Pride Industries, a private, nonprofit agency which operates an apartment program for individuals with developmental disabilities in Bismarck, North Dakota, through a contract with a regional office of North Dakota's Department of Developmental Disabilities. Pride Industries supports 34 people living in…

  5. 77 FR 20893 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... initials AVS mean or refer to Antelope Valley Station. The initials BACT mean or refer to Best Available... (AVS) Units 1 and 2. c. North Dakota's reasonable progress goals (RPGs). d. Portions of North Dakota's... AVS Units 1 and 2. d. A five-year deadline to meet the emission limits and monitoring, recordkeeping...

  6. Perceived sustainability of community telepharmacy in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Friesner, Daniel L; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Sem, Kelli; Peterson, Charles D

    To assess the sustainability of the business model underlying the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project (NDTP). Of the 38 community pharmacy organizations (14 central, 24 remote), 27 organizations (11 central and 16 remote sites) in North Dakota provided a useable set of responses (71.1% response rate). A twelfth organization (a community pharmacy) ceased operations over the study's time frame and was not included in the data analysis. Emphasis is placed on NDTP community telepharmacies, because the community telepharmacy business model is more established than hospital telepharmacies. Yet little is known about the long-run financial viability of telepharmacies. Originally funded by a series of federal grants, the goal of the NDTP was to create the infrastructure necessary to support the development of telepharmacy sites. A 48-item questionnaire assessed the self-reported operational, financial, and community impacts of a community telepharmacy. The questionnaire was administered from December 2015 to February 2016 to all NDTP community telepharmacy owners-managers. Thus, 1 participant (owner-manager) addressed both central and remote-site locations served by a pharmacy. Most respondents reported that their telepharmacy sites (especially remote sites) generate small positive financial returns for the organization. Respondents also reported that the closure of their remote sites would significantly harm the communities they serve. NDTP aims of restoration and retention have been achieved via the investment and shared decision making with pharmacy owners in North Dakota. The telepharmacy model is sustainable, even if it does not generate significant economic profit. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings, Bowman Site, Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues from the burning of uranium-bearing lignite at Bowman, North Dakota. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 97,000 tons of ash and contaminated materials at the Bowman site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although windblown ash and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the contaminated materials to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the ashing site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,740,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $3,060,000 for disposal at a distance of about 4 mi. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  8. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dickinson NTMS Quadrangle, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dickinson Quadrangle, North Dakota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 544 groundwater and 554 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Interpretation of the groundwater data indicates that scattered localities in the central portion of the quadrangle appear most promising for uranium mineralization. High values of uranium in this area are usually found in waters of the Sentinel Butte and Tongue River Formations. Uranium is believed to be concentrated in the lignite beds of the Fort Union Group, with concentrations increasing with proximity to the pre-Oligocene unconformity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium values distributed over the central area of the quadrangle. Uranium in stream sediments does not appear to be associated with any particular geologic unit and is perhaps following a structural trend

  9. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes waterresources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1990. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress in fiscal year 1990, plans for fiscal year 1991, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  10. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  11. Monitoring limber pine health in the Rocky Mountains and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Marcus Jackson; Brian Howell; William Jacobi; Anna Schoettle; Anne Marie Casper; Jennifer Klutsch

    2012-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) is an ecologically and culturally important, yet little studied, tree species within the Western United States. Its distribution extends from Alberta and southeastern British Colombia to New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California with isolated populations in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, eastern Oregon...

  12. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martlett, Stephen A., Ed.; Meyer, Jim, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers and six "data squibs" (short research findings) are based on topics and languages under study by students and staff of the linguistics program of the University of North Dakota. The papers are: (1) "Dakota Sioux Objects" (Thomas M. Pinson); (2) "The Tapir: A Yanomami Text" (Irma…

  13. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of North Dakota, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, water supply and quality, infrastructure and construction management, flood risk management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  15. NPDES Draft Permit for Spirit Lake Water Treatment Facility in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES draft permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  16. Hospital Medicine and Fellowship Program in Rural North Dakota - A Multifaceted Success Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, S S; Amundson, Mary

    2017-11-01

    Recruitment of hospitalists and primary care physicians for Critical Access Hospitals and tertiary care hospitals in North Dakota is difficult. To address this challenge, 2 programs were implemented in Bismarck, North Dakota. St. Alexius Medical Center created a hospitalist fellowship training program in collaboration with the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences and physicians willing to work in Critical Access Hospitals were offered a joint appointment to teach hospitalist fellows and obtain a clinical academic appointment at the university. Since it was created in 2012, 84 physicians have applied for 13 fellowships. Of the 11 fellows who have completed the program, 64% (7/11) remained in North Dakota to practice. Physicians are more likely to work in a rural Critical Access Hospital if they spend time working at a tertiary care center and have clinical academic appointments. Where recruitment is challenging, hospitalist fellowship programs are helpful in meeting the health care workforce demand.

  17. The Spirit of North Dakota: Alive in Weatherization; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    North Dakota demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: New Rockford quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Volume II contains the flight path, radiometric multi-parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary parameter stacked profiles, histograms, and anomaly maps for the New Rockford Quadrangle in North Dakota

  19. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  20. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  1. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  2. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  3. Development of Smoking Behavior in Adolescence: the Case of North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes a modeling project, performed by Oleksandr Ivanov, a student enrolled in European Master Program in System Dynamics, in cooperation with assistant professor Arielle Selya (University of North Dakota) and under the supervision of associate professor I. David Wheat (University of Bergen). The fieldwork was conducted in Grand Fork, North Dakota, the USA in April-June 2015. The main problem is devoted to the prevalence in smoking cigarettes a...

  4. North Dakota State University Sunflower Research: A Summary of Selected Research Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Roy M.; Sell, Randall S.; Watt, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Sunflower research in North Dakota focuses on variety testing. Additional research has been conducted on cost-effective cultural practices, possible use to produce a red dye food colorant, and the estimated economic impact of banning an insecticide. Variety testing has been conducted at most state experiment sites in North Dakota, including, Casselton Agronomy Seed Farm, Carrington Research Extension Center, Langdon, Minot, Williston, Dickinson, and Hettinger Experiment Stations. A comparison...

  5. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  6. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized

  7. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  8. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  9. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  10. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  11. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  12. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  13. Climate Change Impacts on North Dakota: Agriculture and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lim, Yeo Howe; Teng, William L.

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed; one of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for multiple locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing.

  14. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  15. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  16. A People Extra: North Dakota and United States Situational Issues Related to and Influences upon--Families (Single Persons, Single Parents, Parent-Child, Married).

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Univ., Fargo. Dept. of Agriculture and Applied Science.

    Situational issues related to families and influences upon families in North Dakota and the United States are briefly outlined in these fact sheets. Contents specifically concern (1) outbound migration from North Dakota and transition of rural families from farming; (2) suicide in North Dakota and the nation; (3) child care issues, such as child…

  17. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  19. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  20. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  1. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. North Dakota's Experience with the Academy Model: A Successful Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tom; Clapper, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In this article, professors share how the district/university partnership model thriving at Kansas State University was successfully replicated in North Dakota, and was adapted to match their own department goals. While teacher leadership has become a theme among Kansas State academies, their model was created out of principal preparation efforts.…

  3. Annual Report of the North Dakota State Advisory Council for Vocational Education (Third), December 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Advisory Council for Vocational Education, Fargo.

    The third annual evaluation report of the North Dakota Advisory Council for Vocational Education is developed in four phases: (1) recommendations incorporating the rationale for resulting recommendations to the State Board for Vocational Education, (2) evaluation of the State goals and priorities (Goal I), (3) serving people and their needs (Goal…

  4. North Dakota University System Five-Year Plan. Daring to Be Great: The NDUS Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the 2017-19 edition of the State Board of Higher Education's strategic narrative. Contents include: (1) North Dakota University System (NDUS) colleges and locations; (2) Board Chair Neset's report; (3) Five-year goals; (4) Deliver degrees that are the best value in the nation; (5) Provide programs people want; (6) Equip…

  5. North Dakota 1991 Close Up--A Legislative Insight. Participant Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    This guide is designed for those who participate in North Dakota's Close Up program, a program that provides the state's young people with the opportunity to experience government firsthand in an innovative and participatory setting. The state's 1991 legislative program offers a broad range of activities for student participants, including:…

  6. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  7. Determinants of Downtown Image and Retail Patronage: A Case of Fargo, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeha; Park, Kwangsoo

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify determinants of downtown image and retail patronage, which contribute to tourism development in small and mid-sized communities. The purpose of our research was twofold: (a) to understand how visitors perceive the business mix, safety, and atmosphere of the Fargo, North Dakota, downtown and (b) to identify what factors…

  8. North Dakota's Centennial Quilt and Problem Solvers: Solutions: The Library Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Quilt investigations, such as the Barn quilt problem in the December 2008/January 2009 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics" and its solutions in last month's issue, can spark interdisciplinary pursuits for teachers and exciting connections for the full range of elementary school students. This month, North Dakota's centennial quilt…

  9. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Program of Studies--Level II. Research Series No. 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck. Research Coordinating Unit.

    This industrial arts program of a studies guide is the product of a research project designed to (1) ascertain programs and curricula trends of senior high school industrial arts in the fifty states, (2) develop a philosophical rationale for senior high schools in North Dakota secondary schools, and (3) develop a master plan and program of study…

  10. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  11. 40 CFR 272.1751 - North Dakota State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EPA effective on October 19, 1984. Subsequent program revision applications were approved effective on... program. However, EPA retains the authority to exercise its inspection and enforcement authorities in... “Department of Health” Section 23-01-04.1, (except (6)). (iii) North Dakota Century Code, Volume 4A, 2002...

  12. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  13. A Survey of the Music Integration Practices of North Dakota Elementary Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, KariJo; Dearden, Katherine Norman; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the nature of North Dakota elementary classroom teachers' (NDECT) music integration in the general classroom. The majority of NDECTs integrated music with: the subjects of Language Arts (62.01%), Mathematics (55.00%), and Physical Education (50.89%); the settings of Group Work Time (64.29%),…

  14. Summer Educational Program for the Children of Migrant Agricultural Workers, 1976. [North Dakota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    During the summer of 1976, North Dakota's 10 migrant centers enrolled more than 2,500 migrant children, ranging from a few days to 18 years of age. All students were entered in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System. A basic remedial program emphasizing instruction in reading, language arts, and math with some time devoted to science and…

  15. 75 FR 31290 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; State of North Dakota; Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... necessary. Finally, 51.166(l) provides for modification or substitution of models in Appendix W on a case-by... North Dakota--that EPA considered as evidence in this action.\\10\\ Furthermore, we do not think that... of analysis advocated by WG could adequately evaluate the issue and support a rational determination...

  16. North Dakota University System Annual Financial Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report provides financial data for the North Dakota University System (the "System") for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2007. The Management Discussion and Analysis; the Statement of Net Assets; the Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Net Assets; and the Statement of Cash Flows provide information on the System as a…

  17. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  18. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River...

  19. National uranium resource evaluation: Lemmon quadrangle, South Dakota and North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, J.M.; Pickering, L.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Lemmon Quadrangle was evaluated to identify and delineate geologic environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface studies included investigation of uranium occurrences, general surface reconnaissance, and detailed rock sampling in selected areas. In addition, followup studies were conducted on carborne spectrometric, aerial radiometric, and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. Subsurface investigations included examination of geophysical well logs and ground-water geochemical data. These investigations indicate environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits in the Upper Cretaceous strata and lignite-type deposits in the Paleocene strata. Environments unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary sandstones and Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, exclusive of the Upper Cretaceous sandstones

  20. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  1. Time-Varying Estimation of Crop Insurance Program in Altering North Dakota Farm Economic Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jane A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how federal farm policies, specifically crop insurance, have affected the farm economic structure of North Dakota’s agriculture sector. The system of derived input demand equations is estimated to quantify the changes in North Dakota farmers’ input use when they purchase crop insurance. Further, the cumulative rolling regression technique is applied to capture the varying effects of the farm policies over time. Empirical results from the system of input demand functions in...

  2. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  3. Summary of Surface-Water Quality, Ground-Water Quality, and Water Withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vinning, Kevin C; Cates, Steven W

    2006-01-01

    .... The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies...

  4. 78 FR 59713 - Notice of Availability of the North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ...)--Areas identified as having the highest conservation value to maintaining sustainable GRSG populations... FR 77008), and ended on March 23, 2012. The BLM held one scoping open house in North Dakota in...

  5. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  6. Graphical user interface for accessing water-quality data for the Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Damschen, William C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota is important for protecting the agricultural resources, fisheries, waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and recreational value of the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies, has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from streams and lakes in the basin since 1957, and the North Dakota Department of Health has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from lakes in the basin since 2001. Because water-quality data for the basin are important for numerous reasons, a graphical user interface was developed to access, view, and download the historical data for the basin. The interface is a web-based application that is available to the public and includes data through water year 2003. The interface will be updated periodically to include data for subsequent years.

  7. An exploratory study of the relation of population density and agricultural activity to hematologic malignancies in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Patricia L; Watkins, John M

    2013-02-01

    Established risk factors for hematologic cancers include exposure to ionizing radiation, organic solvents, and genetic mutation; however, the potential roles of environmental and sociological factors are not well explored. As North Dakota engages in significant agricultural activity, the present investigation seeks to determine whether an association exists between the incidence of hematologic cancers and either population density or agricultural occupation for residents of south central North Dakota. The present study is a retrospective analysis. Cases of hematologic malignancies and associated pre-malignant conditions were collected from the regional Central North Dakota Cancer Registry, and analysis of study-specific demographic factors was performed. Significantly higher incidence of hematologic cancers and pre-malignant disorders was associated with residence in an "urban" county and rural city/town. Within the latter designation, there was a higher rate of self-reported agricultural occupation (40% vs 10%, P Dakota supports the need for more detailed prospective research centered on agricultural exposures.

  8. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations.

  9. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  10. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum utilization and management of the Nation's water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States. This report describes water-resources activities of the Water Resources Division in North Dakota in fiscal year 1994. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1995, and completed and planned report products.

  11. Color variations within glacial till, east-central North Dakota--A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T.E.; Baker, Claud H.

    1966-01-01

    Color variations (orange zones within buff-colored till) in drift in east-central North Dakota are believed to represent two tills of separate origin. Mean size, standard deviation, and number and type of pebbles show greater difference between the two tills than do skewness, kurtosis, and partial chemical analyses. Probably blocks of older till were moved by the last glacier crossing the area and were redeposited in a matrix of younger till.

  12. Pathogenic and genetic diversity of Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Tika B; Gurung, Suraj; Hansen, Jana M; Bonman, J Michael

    2012-04-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, has become more prevalent recently in North Dakota and neighboring states. From five locations in North Dakota, 226 strains of X. translucens pv. undulosa were collected and evaluated for pathogenicity and then selected strains were inoculated on a set of 12 wheat cultivars and other cereal hosts. The genetic diversity of all strains was determined using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and insertion sequence-based (IS)-PCR. Bacterial strains were pathogenic on wheat and barley but symptom severity was greatest on wheat. Strains varied greatly in aggressiveness, and wheat cultivars also showed differential responses to several strains. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of the strains were identical, and distinct from those of the other Xanthomonas pathovars. Combined rep-PCR and IS-PCR data produced 213 haplotypes. Similar haplotypes were detected in more than one location. Although diversity was greatest (≈92%) among individuals within a location, statistically significant (P ≤ 0.001 or 0.05) genetic differentiation among locations was estimated, indicating geographic differentiation between pathogen populations. The results of this study provide information on the pathogen diversity in North Dakota, which will be useful to better identify and characterize resistant germplasm.

  13. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelde, Kristine; Chromy, Barbara; Pankow, Debra

    2008-12-01

    This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market (Singh et al. J Retail Leisure Property 2007, 6(1):61-68). The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble. Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.

  14. Flight feather molt in Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Linz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in central North Dakota undergo prebasic molt or prejuvenile molt during late summer. Nestling Yellow-headed Blackbirds initiate a complete prejuvenile molt, grow their primary and secondary regimes in about 40 days, completing molt after they leave the nest by the first week in August. Remiges are not replaced during the subsequent preformative molt, being retained until the second prebasic molt. Nonlinear (logistic) regression of primary remex growth during definitive prebasic molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds indicated 38 days were required to complete the linear phase of growth (between 10% and 90% of total primary length). Males added 19.5 mm/d and females added 15.7 mm/d to the total length of all primaries during this linear growth phase; an average of 4–5 mm per primary remex per day. Definitive prebasic molting of primary remiges in males and females was initiated in late June, after nesting and brood rearing were completed. Molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds were completed by early September, before birds emigrated from North Dakota during mid-September. Because of their comparatively early completion of molt and emigration from the state, as well as their more diverse diet, agricultural depredation caused by Yellow-headed Blackbirds in North Dakota is likely less than that of Red-winged Blackbirds and Common Grackles.

  15. Assessing urban forest effects and values of the Great Plains: Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine

    2012-01-01

    This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...

  16. The Economic Base of North Dakota: A Measure of the State’s Economy in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    The growth and composition of the North Dakota economy can be measured using economic base analysis. Economic base is defined as the value of goods and services exported from an economic unit. Economic base also can be called a region’s export base because industries (or ‘basic’ sectors) earn income from outside the area. North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities that produce a product or a service purchased by individuals, governments, and businesses located outside of th...

  17. Ethnic food perspective of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat and relevance for health benefits targeting type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ancient grains with ethnic food origins are gaining renewed interest in contemporary food design due to its balanced nutritional profiles and health benefits. The “North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat” (Triticum dicoccum, a tetraploid species, had ethnic origins with German immigrants from Russia migrating to North Dakota in late 19th century. Targeting such grains with ethnic origins that are rich in fibers, amino acids, minerals, and other bioactive compounds has significant merit for advancing health benefits against emerging diet-linked chronic diseases. Based on this rationale, phenolic-linked antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat was compared with those of other commercial wheat cultivars in order to integrate it into a health-targeted food design based on past ethnic food insights. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat (with and without hull and two other commercial wheat varieties, Barlow and Coteau, were analyzed before and after milling. The total soluble phenolic content, phenolic acid profile, protein content, antioxidant activity, type 2 diabetes relevant α-amylase, and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities were determined using in vitro assay models. Results: North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull had highest total soluble phenolic content and associated antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties (before and after milling when compared to the other commercial wheat cultivars. Conclusion: Results indicated that North Dakota Common Emmer Wheat with hull can be integrated into a health-targeted contemporary food design as a part of dietary support against chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress associated with early stages type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Antioxidant, Enzyme inhibitors, Ethnic wheat, North Dakota Common Emmer, Phenolics, Type 2 diabetes

  18. Review of mechanisms, methods, and theory for determining recharge to shallow aquifers in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Effective management of ground-water resources requires knowledge of all components of the water budget for the aquifer of interest. Efforts to simulate ground-water flow prior to development and the effects of proposed pumping in several of North Dakota's shallow glacial aquifers have been hindered by the lack of reliable estimates of ground-water recharge. This study was done to (1) review the methods that have been used to measure recharge, (2) review the theory of unsaturated flow and the methods for characterizing the physical properties of unsaturated media, (3) consider the relative merits of a rigorous data-intensive approach versus an estimation approach to the study of recharge, and (4) review past and current agronomic research in North Dakota for applicability of the research and the data generated to the study of recharge.Direct, quantitative techniques for evaluating recharge are rarely applied. The theory for computing fluxes in unsaturated media is well established and numerous physics-based models that effectively implement the theory are available, but the data required for the models generally are lacking. Many parametric approaches have been developed to avoid the large data requirements of the physics-based approaches for analyzing flow in the unsaturated zone. However, the parametric approaches normally include fitting coefficients that must be calibrated for every study site, thereby detracting from the general utility of the parametric approach. The functional relation of matric potential to moisture content is required for physics-based soil-water models, whether analytic or numeric. Laboratory methods to determine these relations are tedious, costly, and may not give results representative of the soils as they occur in the field. Many models have been proposed to estimate the moisture-characteristic curve and hydraulic-conductivity function from basic soil properties, but none yield results that are universally satisfactory. In situ

  19. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east-west from Virginia to California, and north-south from northern Manitoba to the US-Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba-North Dakota segment of the north-south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  1. Teen driving in rural North Dakota: a qualitative look at parental perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simerpal K; Shults, Ruth A; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J; Freelon, Brandi

    2013-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents' perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13-16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens' daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen's practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Using the North Dakota Immunization Information System to determine adolescent vaccination rates and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMurray, Keith; Sander, Molly

    2011-01-01

    We described the uptake and coverage rates of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4); tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in North Dakota using the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). We analyzed all available MCV4, Tdap, and HPV4 doses given after vaccine licensure and through December 31, 2009, obtained from the NDIIS to identify trends and patterns in vaccine administration. We analyzed all data by administration date, age group, and health-care provider type. We also calculated missed opportunities to complete all recommended vaccines among vaccinated adolescents. For adolescents aged 13-17 years, 69.2% had > or = 1 dose of Tdap and 62.8% had > or = 1 dose of MCV4. Of females aged 13-17 years, 42.8% initiated the HPV4 vaccination series and 24.9% received > or = 3 HPV4 doses. Only 48.7% of males aged 13-17 years received both Tdap and MCV4 at the same visit, and only 11.5% of females aged 13-17 years received Tdap, MCV4, and HPV4 doses at the first visit. The NDIIS is useful in tracking adolescent vaccine uptake. The immunization rates for all three routinely recommended adolescent vaccines are rising in North Dakota, although at different paces. Providers should be educated about the importance of not missing opportunities to vaccinate, and school-based vaccination clinics should be used to reach adolescents who are less likely to have preventive care visits.

  3. Telemedicine Use Decreases Rural Emergency Department Length of Stay for Transferred North Dakota Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Vakkalanka, J Priyanka; Harland, Karisa K; Bell, Amanda; Skow, Brian; Shane, Dan M; Ward, Marcia M

    2018-03-01

    Telemedicine has been proposed as one strategy to improve local trauma care and decrease disparities between rural and urban trauma outcomes. This study was conducted to describe the effect of telemedicine on management and clinical outcomes for trauma patients in North Dakota. Cohort study of adult (age ≥18 years) trauma patients treated in North Dakota Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Emergency Departments (EDs) from 2008 to 2014. Records were linked to a telemedicine network's call records, indicating whether telemedicine was available and/or used at the institution at the time of the care. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were developed to identify associations between telemedicine consultation and availability and outcomes such as transfer, timeliness of care, trauma imaging, and mortality. Of the 7,500 North Dakota trauma patients seen in CAH, telemedicine was consulted for 11% of patients in telemedicine-capable EDs and 4% of total trauma patients. Telemedicine utilization was independently associated with decreased initial ED length of stay (LOS) (30 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-45 min) for transferred patients. Telemedicine availability was associated with an increase in the probability of interhospital transfer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4). Telemedicine availability was associated with increased total ED LOS (15 min, 95% CI 10-21 min), and computed tomography scans (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9). ED-based telemedicine consultation is requested for the most severely injured rural trauma patients. Telemedicine consultation was associated with more rapid interhospital transfer, and telemedicine availability is associated with increased radiography use and transfer. Future work should evaluate how telemedicine could target patients likely to benefit from telemedicine consultation.

  4. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina Hills of northeastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.; Andrew, Jonathan M.

    1983-01-01

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value. During 1981 we studied the avifauna of the upper valley of the Pembina River in the Pembina Hills. Field work extended from 20 April to 23 July; breeding bird censuses were conducted 7 June to 2 July. Of the 120 bird species recorded during the study period, 79 species were recorded during the breeding season. The total breeding population was estimated at nearly 76,000 breeding pairs. The wood warblers (Parulidae) were the most numerous family, accounting for about 28,000 breeding pairs. The yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia) was the most abundant breeding species, making up 19.4% of the population. American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) was second in abundance, accounting for 10.5% of the breeding population. Largest breeding densities occurred in the willow (Salix sp.) shrub community. Although supporting the lowest mean breeding density, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests supported the highest species diversity. First State breeding records were recorded for alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). Records were obtained for 12 species considered rare or unusual in North Dakota during the breeding season. The status of all species known to have occurred in the study area is described in an annotated species list.

  5. Teen driving in rural North Dakota: A qualitative look at parental perceptions☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simerpal K.; Shults, Ruth A.; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Freelon, Brandi

    2017-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents’ perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13–16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens’ daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen’s practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. PMID:23499983

  6. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. North Dakota. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of North Dakota

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States

  8. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  9. Water Use and Management in the Bakken Shale Oil Play in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R M; Harto, C B; Jackson, R B; Lowry, E R; Brandt, A R; Yeskoo, T W; Murphy, D J; Clark, C E

    2016-03-15

    Oil and natural gas development in the Bakken shale play of North Dakota has grown substantially since 2008. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of water quantity and management impacts from this development by (1) estimating water demand for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken from 2008 to 2012; (2) compiling volume estimates for maintenance water, or brine dilution water; (3) calculating water intensities normalized by the amount of oil produced, or estimated ultimate recovery (EUR); (4) estimating domestic water demand associated with the large oil services population; (5) analyzing the change in wastewater volumes from 2005 to 2012; and (6) examining existing water sources used to meet demand. Water use for hydraulic fracturing in the North Dakota Bakken grew 5-fold from 770 million gallons in 2008 to 4.3 billion gallons in 2012. First-year wastewater volumes grew in parallel, from an annual average of 1,135,000 gallons per well in 2008 to 2,905,000 gallons in 2012, exceeding the mean volume of water used in hydraulic fracturing and surpassing typical 4-year wastewater totals for the Barnett, Denver, and Marcellus basins. Surprisingly, domestic water demand from the temporary oilfield services population in the region may be comparable to the regional water demand from hydraulic fracturing activities. Existing groundwater resources are inadequate to meet the demand for hydraulic fracturing, but there appear to be adequate surface water resources, provided that access is available.

  10. Evaluation of the National Weather Service Extreme Cold Warning Experiment in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cindy H; Vagi, Sara J; Wolkin, Amy F; Martin, John Paul; Noe, Rebecca S

    2014-01-01

    Dangerously cold weather threatens life and property. During periods of extreme cold due to wind chill, the National Weather Service (NWS) issues wind chill warnings to prompt the public to take action to mitigate risks. Wind chill warnings are based on ambient temperatures and wind speeds. Since 2010, NWS has piloted a new extreme cold warning issued for cold temperatures in wind and nonwind conditions. The North Dakota Department of Health, NWS, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated in conducting household surveys in Burleigh County, North Dakota, to evaluate this new warning. The objectives of the evaluation were to assess whether residents heard the new warning and to determine if protective behaviors were prompted by the warning. This was a cross-sectional survey design using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology to select a statistically representative sample of households from Burleigh County. From 10 to 11 April 2012, 188 door-to-door household interviews were completed. The CASPER methodology uses probability sampling with weighted analysis to estimate the number and percentage of households with a specific response within Burleigh County. The majority of households reported having heard both the extreme cold and wind chill warnings, and both warnings prompted protective behaviors. These results suggest this community heard the new warning and took protective actions after hearing the warning.

  11. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed material in the Missouri River, North Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, conducted a reconnaissance study to determine the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed sediment within the Missouri River upstream and downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, North Dakota, and upstream from the city of Fort Yates, North Dakota, during September-October 2007. At each site, water samples were collected twice and bed-sediment samples were collected once. Samples were analyzed for more than 200 emerging contaminants grouped into four compound classes - wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Only sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic, was present at a concentration higher than minimum detection limits. It was detected in a water sample collected downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, and in bed-sediment samples collected at the two sites downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan and upstream from Fort Yates. Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic commonly used for treating bacterial infections in humans and animals.

  12. Potential for enhancing nongame bird habitat values on abandoned mine lands of western North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, J.B.; Hopkins, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Throughout western North Dakota the number of unreclaimed surface coal and coal-uranium mines might total over 1100. We examined the potential for enhancing the nongame bird habitat values of unreclaimed mine lands in the arid, western region of North Dakota. Generally, the greatest variety of birds occurred in natural and planted woodlands, while fewer birds occurred in unreclaimed mine lands, grasslands, shrublands and croplands. Deciduous woodland types supported more species of birds than coniferous types. Planted woodlands supported about the same number of bird species as some natural deciduous woodland types and more species than coniferous woods. Unreclaimed mine lands supported more species than grasslands and croplands, and about the same number of species as native shrublands. The highest bird densities were in planted woodlands. Bird diversity varied positively with habitat diversity. The bird fauna of unreclaimed mine lands can be enhanced by creating more diverse habitats. Seventeen guidelines to enhance unreclaimed mine lands for nongame birds are presented. These guidelines can be used in preserving habitats threatened by surface mining and reclaiming previously mined lands

  13. The anatomical diaspora: evidence of early American anatomical traditions in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Phoebe R

    2011-09-01

    The current focus in forensic anthropology on increasing scientific certainty in ancestry determination reinforces the need to examine the ancestry of skeletal remains used for osteology instruction. Human skeletal remains were discovered on the University of North Dakota campus in 2007. After recovery, the osteological examination resulted in a profile for a 33- to 46-year-old woman of African descent with stature ranging from 56.3 to 61.0 in. The pattern of postmortem damage indicated that the remains had been prepared for use as an anatomical teaching specimen. Review of the American history of anatomical teaching revealed a preference for Black subjects, which apparently extended to states like North Dakota despite extremely low resident populations of people of African descent. This study emphasizes the need to examine the ancestry of older teaching specimens that lack provenience, rather than assuming they are derived from typical (i.e., Indian) sources of anatomical material. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  15. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  16. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    for generating precipitation, evaporation, and inflow indicates that the upper lake-level exceedance levels from the water mass-balance model are particularly sensitive to parameter uncertainty. The sensitivity in the upper exceedance levels was caused almost entirely by uncertainty in the fitted probability distributions of the quarterly inflows. A method was developed for using long-term streamflow data for the Red River of the North at Grand Forks to reduce the variance in the estimated mean.Comparison of the annual lake-volume model and the water mass-balance model indicates the upper exceedance levels of the water mass-balance model increase much more rapidly than those of the annual lake-volume model. As an example, for simulation year 5, the 99-percent exceedance for the lake level is 1,417.6 feet above sea level for the annual lake-volume model and 1,423.2 feet above sea level for the water mass-balance model. The rapid increase is caused largely by the record precipitation and inflow in the summer and fall of 1993. Because the water mass-balance model produces lake-level traces that closely match the hydrology of Devils Lake, the water mass-balance model is superior to the annual lake-volume model for computing exceedance levels for the 50-year planning horizon.

  17. No More "Magic Aprons": Longitudinal Assessment and Continuous Improvement of Customer Service at the University of North Dakota Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karlene T.; Walker, Stephanie R.

    2017-01-01

    The University of North Dakota (UND) Libraries have developed a multi-award winning Customer Service Program (CSP) involving longitudinal assessment and continuous improvement. The CSP consists of iterative training modules; constant reinforcement of Customer Service Principles with multiple communication strategies and tools, and incentives that…

  18. Congressman Usher Burdick of North Dakota and the "Ungodly Menace": Anti-United Nations Rhetoric, 1950-1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Representative Usher Burdick, who sat between 1949-1959, contributed to the isolationist label given to North Dakota. This Republican politician, not enthusiastic about U.S. participation in the Korean War, eagerly lambasted foreign aid during the Truman-Eisenhower years. Above all, the congressman attracted attention during the postwar period for…

  19. Predictors of Registered Nurses' Intention To Quit: Implications for the Management of Health Care Human Resources in North Dakota Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooyan, Abdullah; And Others

    Turnover rates for nurses are among the highest for all professional employees. This study investigated the potential predictors of registered nurses' intention to quit. Survey questionnaires were mailed to a population of 779 registered nurses from two hospitals in North Dakota. Approximately 4 weeks later, usable responses were received from 353…

  20. 76 FR 47593 - Award of Replacement Grant for Preventive Health to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Award of Replacement Grant for Preventive Health to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota, Fargo, ND AGENCY: Office.... Amount of Award: $66,000. SUMMARY: In Fiscal Year 2006, in an effort to assist States and local health...

  1. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  2. Using Genre to Bridge Research, Professional Writing, and Public Writing at University of North Dakota: A Program Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgier, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    To illustrate how genre pedagogy and public writing pedagogy can inform one another, this program profile describes the second-semester composition course at University of North Dakota, ENGL 130: College Composition II: Writing for Public Audiences. In this course, genre works as a rhetorical bridge across an interlinked sequence of research,…

  3. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-51-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 267--Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, (Construction and Agricultural Equipment..., submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of...

  4. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  5. 78 FR 33052 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...%) for the foreign status inputs noted below and in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties also... Agricultural Equipment Production); Fargo, North Dakota The Fargo Municipal Airport Authority, grantee of FTZ... within Site 2 of FTZ 267. The facilities currently have FTZ authority to produce tractors, wheel loaders...

  6. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  7. Climatology and potential effects of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Osborne, Leon; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    The Devils Lake Basin is a 3,810-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin.  At an elevation of about 1,447 feet above sea level, Devils Lake begins to spill into Stump Lake; and at an elevation of about 1,459 feet above sea level, the combined lakes begin to spill through Tolna Coulee into the Sheyenne River. Since the end of glaciation about 10,000 years ago, Devils Lake has fluctuated between spilling and being dry.  Research by the North Dakota Geological Survey indicates Devils Lake has overflowed into the Sheyenne River at least twice during the past 4,000 years and has spilled into the Stump Lakes several times (Bluemle, 1991; Murphy and others, 1997).  John Bluemle, North Dakota State Geologist, concluded the natural condition for Devils Lake is either rising or falling, and the lake should not be expected to remain at any elevation for a long period of time. Recent conditions indicate the lake is in a rising phase.  The lake rose 24.7 feet from February 1993 to August 1999, and flood damages in the Devils Lake Basin have exceeded $300 million.  These damages, and the potential for additional damages, have led to an effort to develop an outlet to help control lake levels.  Therefore, current and accurate climatologic and hydrologic data are needed to assess the viability of the various options to reduce flood damages at Devils Lake.

  8. Lignite; Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Erwin; Maassen, Uwe [Debriv e.V., Berlin und Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The domestic lignite is the most important and in the foreseeable future, the only domestic energy resource that is available in large quantities and economically. It makes an essential contribution to secure and competitive energy supply and has a high regional as macroeconomic importance. The required guarantied capacity for the development of renewable energy, the lignite provides under competition conditions. The flexibility of the lignite power plants is in addition to security of supply and competitiveness, a strategic added value for a reliable power supply. [German] Die heimische Braunkohle ist die wichtigste und in ueberschaubarer Zukunft auch die einzige heimische Energieressource, die in grossen Mengen und wirtschaftlich zur Verfuegung steht. Sie leistet einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur sicheren und wettbewerbsfaehigen Energieversorgung und hat eine hohe regional- wie gesamtwirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Die fuer den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien notwendige gesicherte Leistung stellt die Braunkohle unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen zur Verfuegung. Die Flexibilitaet des Braunkohlenkraftwerksparks ist neben Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ein strategischer Zusatznutzen fuer eine sichere Stromversorgung.

  9. The High School Physics Curriculum and the University of North Dakota Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolby, C.; Hardersen, P.

    2013-04-01

    As astronomy is a subject largely absent in the secondary classroom for many reasons, the research presented here attempts to make astronomy education an option for high school students across the state of North Dakota. Through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS), two class periods totaling nineteen physics students (fourteen in the first class period and five in the second class period) were given the opportunity to learn material that would have otherwise been unavailable to them. Four of these students were female and fifteen of these students were male. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and activities regarding the course content. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public “star party” where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and other research equipment. During class time on April 25, 2012, students took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour both Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND. The lesson plan for the course also included a group project utilizing the telescopes at the UND Observatory for remote observing to complete research on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the two-week course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two-week course. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the astronomy course. This research identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners as well as the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy in a short

  10. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  11. Impact of the Red River catastrophic flood on women giving birth in North Dakota, 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Zotti, Marianne E; Hsia, Jason

    2011-04-01

    To document changes in birth rates, birth outcomes, and pregnancy risk factors among women giving birth after the 1997 Red River flood in North Dakota. We analyzed detailed county-level birth files pre-disaster (1994-1996) and post-disaster (1997-2000) in North Dakota. Crude birth rates and adjusted fertility rates were calculated. The demographic and pregnancy risk factors were described among women delivering singleton births. Logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between the disaster and low birth weight (Dakota. The proportion of women giving birth who were older, non-white, unmarried, and had a higher education increased. Compared to pre-disaster, there were significant increases in the following maternal measures after the disaster: any medical risks (5.1-7.1%), anemia (0.7-1.1%), acute or chronic lung disease (0.4-0.5%), eclampsia (0.3-2.1%), and uterine bleeding (0.3-0.4%). In addition, there was a significant increase in births that were low birth weight (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.21) and preterm (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) after adjusting for maternal characteristics and smoking. Following the flood, there was an increase in medical risks, low birth weight, and preterm delivery among women giving birth in North Dakota. Further research that examines birth outcomes of women following a catastrophic disaster is warranted.

  12. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume VII: A Dakota-English dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Stephen Return; Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    This volume consists of a Dakota-English dictionary. The Dakota, commonly known as the Sioux, forms the leading and best known division of the Siouan linguistic family. The Dakota language now consists of three well defined dialects, the Santee, Yankton and Teton.

  13. Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Jeremy W

    2011-12-01

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  15. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination.  For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less

  16. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  17. Radon contamination problems in North Dakota. Hearing before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, August 20, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    From tests of 200 homes in North Dakota in over 25 cities and towns, the Department of Health estimates that as many as 50% of all homes in the state may have radon levels above the EPA-recommended safety level, at this hearing in Fargo, ten witnesses included university professors, state and local health authorities, and the North Dakota Association of Realtors. US Sen. Quentin N. Burdick of North Dakota, who chaired the hearing, pointed out that the recently passed Radon Program Development Act (1) provide seed money to help states get radon programs up and running; (2) requires EPA to conduct surveys in Federal buildings; and (3) requires EPA to determine the extent of radon contamination in the Nation's schools. He recommends that North Dakota take advantage of this Federal assistance

  18. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  19. Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L

    2005-10-01

    Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the potential for impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site caused by the burning of coal containing uranium to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities and not for those constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Because background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking, any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background. The incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination and disposing of the contaminated soils in an engineered disposal cell. The UMTRA Ground Water Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under the UMTRA Ground Water Project, results of this risk assessment will help determine what ground water compliance strategy may be applied at the site

  1. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  2. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  3. Challenges of hepatitis C treatment in Native Americans in two North Dakota medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S; Jalil, S; Guerrero, D M; Sahmoun, A E

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) in the Aboriginal North American population is disproportionately higher than that of the non-indigenous population. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second leading cause of CLD in American Indians or Alaska Natives (AIANs). This study described the experience of two teaching community medical centers in North Dakota in treating HCV infection among AIANs and compared treatment outcomes to a cohort of Caucasian patients. The retrospective study described the characteristics and proportion of AIAN patients with HCV who received treatment. Documented reasons for not receiving treatment were analyzed. For those AIAN patients treated for HCV infection, responses to treatment, including rapid, early and sustained virological responses (SVRs), were compared with those of Caucasians. Only 22 (18%) of 124 AIANs with HCV infection received treatment. Common reasons for not receiving treatment include lack of access to specialists, concomitant or decompensated liver disease, alcohol and drug abuse and cost. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and key predictors of SVR in AIANs compared to Caucasian controls. Most AIAN patients with HCV infection do not receive treatment despite comparable treatment response rates to Caucasians. Further population-based studies, addressing access to specialized hepatitis C treatment and public health concerns are warranted, as it is crucial to treat chronic HCV infection to decrease the burden of disease in the AIAN community.

  4. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Scott T.; Belden, Jason B.; Smith, Loren M.; Morrison, Shane A.; Daniel, Dale W.; Euliss, Betty R.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Kensinger, Bart J.; Tangen, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program.

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Grand Forks quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Grand Forks 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Seventy-eight (78) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  6. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Fargo quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Fargo 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Eighty-two (82) groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly in this report. None of them are considered significant

  8. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls quadrangle of Minnesota/North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Thief River Falls 1:250,000 scale quadrangle of Minnesota and North Dakota is almost everywhere covered with Wisconsin age glacial deposits (drift, lake sediments, etc.) of variable thickness. Where exposed, bedrock is Late Cretaceous age marine deposits. There are no uranium deposits (or occurrences) known within the quadrangle. Sixty-six groups of uranium samples were defined as anomalies and are discussed briefly. None of them are considered significant

  9. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  10. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  11. Archeological and Historic Cultural Resources Inventory for a Proposed Flood Control Project at Grafton, Walsh County, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    10,000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.) subsistence was based primarily on exploitation of herds of big game animals, popularly referred to as megafauna. Much of this...Alkire Mound (32SI200), and Porcupine Creek Component (32SI6, an occupation site) , all located on the Missouri River and north of the North Dakota...attempting to form any idea of the numerous herds of buffalo which must have passed here" (Harold Printing Co. 1909). It is likely that such a region would

  12. Influence of flow variability on floodplain formation and destruction, Little Missouri River, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.R.; Friedman, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Resolving observations of channel change into separate planimetric measurements of floodplain formation and destruction reveals distinct relations between these processes and the flow regime. We analyzed a time sequence of eight bottomland images from 1939 to 2003 along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota, to relate geomorphic floodplain change to flow along this largely unregulated river. At the decadal scale, floodplain formation and destruction varied independently. Destruction was strongly positively correlated with the magnitude of infrequent high flows that recur every 5-10 yr, whereas floodplain formation was negatively correlated with the magnitude of frequent low flows exceeded 80% of the time. At the century scale, however, a climatically induced decrease in peak flows has reduced the destruction rate, limiting the area made available for floodplain formation. The rate of destruction was not uniform across the floodplain. Younger surfaces were consistently destroyed at a higher rate than older surfaces, suggesting that throughput of contaminants would have occurred more rapidly than predicted by models that assume uniform residence time of sediment across the floodplain. Maps of floodplain ages produced by analysis of sequential floodplain images are similar to maps of forest ages produced through dendrochronology, confirming the assumption of dendrogeomorphic studies that riparian tree establishment in this system is limited to recent channel locations. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  13. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  14. Perceived risks of produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material content in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-07-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development using hydraulic fracturing has caused conflict and controversy across the globe including the U.S. where some States banned the practice. Nevertheless, North Dakota (ND) has supported the practice because the State perceives the risks to be acceptable and because it has brought growth and opportunities to small communities. However, social acceptance of new technology is based on a number of factors and not contingent on economic benefits. To date, no research has been conducted to understand public risk perception of hazards associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing in ND. This study focuses on understanding the risk perception of select ND stakeholder groups regarding produced water management and naturally occurring radioactive material. The software Qualtrics was used to create an online survey, collect data, and perform statistical analysis. The most important variables that seem to influence risk perception are the images and thoughts associated with produced water, level of knowledge about produced water handling and content, and knowing how to proceed in case of a spill of produced water. Overall, social risk perception could be in alignment with actual technical risk if availability of objective information is improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The decision to receive influenza vaccination among nurses in North and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Laurie Jo; Stenvig, Thomas; Wey, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships between factors (intention, habit, facilitating conditions, and social, cognitive, and affective factors) and nurses' decisions about influenza vaccinations to understand why some get vaccinated while others do not. In a descriptive correlational design, the Triandis model of interpersonal behavior was used to examine the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. Participants were a random sample (N=193) of registered nurses in North and South Dakota drawn from the respective state nursing licensing board lists. Instrument construction and mail survey procedures followed Dillman's tailored design method. The response rate exceeded 80%. The findings revealed significant, positive correlations among all model variables. Item analysis showed that false beliefs about influenza disease and vaccinations were prevalent and that there was a wide variation in employer support for nurses getting vaccinated. Educational and social marketing strategies may improve nurse's knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine and increase vaccine uptake. Employers should be encouraged to promote and improve influenza vaccine accessibility in the workplace. Additional study is needed to understand how best to strengthen the influence of intention and habit on the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of wind speed distribution models: A case study for North Dakota sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junyi; Erdem, Ergin; Li Gong; Shi Jing

    2010-01-01

    Accurate analysis of long term wind data is critical to the estimation of wind energy potential for a candidate location and its nearby area. Investigating the wind speed distribution is one critical task for this purpose. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation on probability density functions for the wind speed data from five representative sites in North Dakota. Besides the popular Weibull and Rayleigh distributions, we also include other distributions such as gamma, lognormal, inverse Gaussian, and maximum entropy principle (MEP) derived probability density functions (PDFs). Six goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics are used to determine the appropriate distributions for the wind speed data for each site. It is found that no particular distribution outperforms others for all five sites, while Rayleigh distribution performs poorly for most of the sites. Similar to other models, the performances of MEP-derived PDFs in fitting wind speed data varies from site to site. Also, the results demonstrate that MEP-derived PDFs are flexible and have the potential to capture other possible distribution patterns of wind speed data. Meanwhile, different GOF statistics may generate inconsistent ranking orders of fit performance among the candidate PDFs. In addition, one comprehensive metric that combines all individual statistics is proposed to rank the overall performance for the chosen statistical distributions.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of North Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  19. Methane, Black Carbon, and Ethane Emissions from Natural Gas Flares in the Bakken Shale, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvakharia, Alexander; Kort, Eric A; Brandt, Adam; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B; Schwarz, Joshua P; Smith, Mackenzie L; Sweeney, Colm

    2017-05-02

    Incomplete combustion during flaring can lead to production of black carbon (BC) and loss of methane and other pollutants to the atmosphere, impacting climate and air quality. However, few studies have measured flare efficiency in a real-world setting. We use airborne data of plume samples from 37 unique flares in the Bakken region of North Dakota in May 2014 to calculate emission factors for BC, methane, ethane, and combustion efficiency for methane and ethane. We find no clear relationship between emission factors and aircraft-level wind speed or between methane and BC emission factors. Observed median combustion efficiencies for methane and ethane are close to expected values for typical flares according to the US EPA (98%). However, we find that the efficiency distribution is skewed, exhibiting log-normal behavior. This suggests incomplete combustion from flares contributes almost 1/5 of the total field emissions of methane and ethane measured in the Bakken shale, more than double the expected value if 98% efficiency was representative. BC emission factors also have a skewed distribution, but we find lower emission values than previous studies. The direct observation for the first time of a heavy-tail emissions distribution from flares suggests the need to consider skewed distributions when assessing flare impacts globally.

  20. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  1. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  2. Runoff and water-quality characteristics of three Discovery Farms in North Dakota, 2008–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2017-12-21

    Agricultural producers in North Dakota are aware of concerns about degrading water quality, and many of the producers are interested in implementing conservation practices to reduce the export of nutrients from their farms. Producers often implement conservation practices without knowledge of the water quality of the runoff from their farm or if conservation practices they may implement have any effect on water quality. In response to this lack of information, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with North Dakota State University Extension Service and in coordination with an advisory group consisting of State agencies, agricultural producers, and commodity groups, implemented a monitoring study as part of a Discovery Farms program in North Dakota in 2007. Three data-collection sites were established at each of three farms near Underwood, Embden, and Dazey, North Dakota. The purpose of this report is to describe runoff and water-quality characteristics using data collected at the three Discovery Farms during 2008–16. Runoff and water-quality data were used to help describe the implications of agricultural conservation practices on runoff and water-quality patterns.Runoff characteristics of monitoring sites at the three farms were determined by measuring flow volume and precipitation. Runoff at the Underwood farm monitoring sites generally was controlled by precipitation in the area, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and, after 2012, possibly by the diversion ditch constructed by the producer. Most of the annual runoff was in March and April each year during spring snowmelt. Runoff characteristics at the Embden farm are complex because of the mix of surface runoff and flow through two separate drainage tile systems. Annual flow volumes for the drainage tiles sites (sites E2 and E3) were several orders of magnitude greater than measured at the surface water site E1. Site E1 generally only had runoff briefly in March and April during spring snowmelt and

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Rural North Dakota's oil boom and its impact on social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bret A; Geigle, Julia; Barkdull, Carenlee

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five years, North Dakota has experienced an oil boom based on high oil prices and hydraulic fracturing technologies. This has brought economic expansion and population growth to rural communities that had previously experienced decades of depopulation and economic struggle. Although the state has enjoyed many benefits--especially in juxtaposition to a sluggish national economy--the boom has also meant the arrival of economic refugees and dramatic impacts on largely rural social service systems. In the midst of a rapidly changing situation, available information tends to swing between euphoria over economic success and hysteria about rising crime and shifting cultures. In response, the authors used a primary focus group with county social service directors from across the state and a followup focus group with social workers operating on the edge of oil activity. Grounded in resilience theory, qualitative analysis of the primary focus group, and triangulation of data from other sources, this study provides a more objective report of the housing and social challenges, the benefits of the boom, and the challenges to solutions.

  5. Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Island-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha island in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on Island A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the island's vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. Island A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.

  6. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  7. 77 FR 51560 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to...: 43 U.S.C. Chap. 3. Josh Alexander, Acting Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. [FR Doc...

  8. Evapotranspiration and the water budget of prairie potholes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shjeflo, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    The mass-transfer method was used to study the hydrologic behavior of 10 prairie potholes in central North Dakota during the 5-year period 1960-64. Many of the potholes went dry when precipitation was low. The average evapotranspiration during the May to October period each year was 2.11 feet, and the average seepage was 0.60 foot. These averages remained nearly constant for both wet and dry years. The greatest source of water for the potholes was the direct rainfall on the pond surface; this supplied 1.21 feet per year. Spring snowmelt supplied 0.79 foot of water and runoff from the land surface during the summer supplied 0.53 foot. Even though the water received from snowmelt was only 31 percent of the total, it was probably the most vital part of the annual water supply. This water was available in the spring, when waterfowl were nesting, and generally lasted until about July 1, even with no additional direct rainfall on the pond or runoff from the drainage basin. The average runoff from the land surface into pothole 3 was found to be 1.2 inches per year- 1 inch from snowmelt and 0.2 inch from rainfall.'The presence of growing aquatic plants, such as bulrushes and cattails, was a complicating factor in making measurements. New computation procedures had to be devised to define the variable mass-transfer coefficient. Rating periods were divided into 6-hour units for the vegetated potholes. The instruments had to be carefully maintained, as water levels had to be recorded with such accuracy that changes of 0.001 foot could be detected. In any research project involving the measurements of physical quantities, the results are dependent upon the accuracy and dependability of the instruments used; this was especially true during this project.

  9. A small Internet controllable observatory for research and education at the University of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.; de Silva, S.; Reddy, V.; Cui, P.; Kumar, S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    One of the challenges in astronomy education today is to introduce college students to the real-world practice and science of observational astronomy. Along with a good theoretical background, college students can gain an earlier, deeper understanding of the astronomy profession through direct observational and data reduction experience. However, building and managing a modest observatory is still too costly for many colleges and universities. Fortunately, advances in commercial astronomical hardware and software now allow universities to build and operate small Internet controllable observatories for a modest investment. The advantages of an Internet observatory include: 1) remote operation from a comfortable location, 2) immediate data access, 3) telescope control via a web browser, and 4) allowing both on-campus and distance education students the ability to conduct a variety of observing projects. Internet capabilities vastly expand the number of students who will be able to use the observatory, thus exposing them to astronomy as a science and as a potential career. In September 2005, the University of North Dakota (UND) Department of Space Studies began operating a small, recently renovated Internet controllable observatory. Housed within a roll-off roof 10 miles west of UND, the observatory includes a Meade 16-inch, f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, an SBIG STL-6303e CCD with broadband filters, ACP observatory control software, focuser, and associated equipment. The observatory cost \\25,000 to build in 1996; 2005 renovation costs total \\28,000. An observatory operator prepares the telescope for use each night. Through remote operation, the roof is opened and the telescope/CCD power is turned on. The telescope is then aligned and focused before allowing students to access the observatory. Students communicate with the observatory operator via an online chat room and via telephone, if necessary, to answer questions and resolve any problems. Additional

  10. Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of

  11. Molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite DNA within mosquito blood meals from eastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Joseph O; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-11-01

    To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector

  12. Challenges of Communicating Climate Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.

    2012-12-01

    In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about climate change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of climate change in webcasts that would be later used in middle school classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about climate change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of climate change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle school educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward climate change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the

  13. Progressing science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in North Dakota with near-space ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marissa Elizabeth

    The United States must provide quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in order to maintain a leading role in the global economy. Numerous initiatives have been established across the United States that promote and encourage STEM education within the middle school curriculum. Integrating active learning pedagogy into instructors' lesson plans will prepare the students to think critically - a necessary skill for the twenty first century. This study integrated a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into six eighth grade Earth Science classes from Valley Middle School in Grand Forks, North Dakota. It was hypothesized that after the students designed, constructed, launched, and analyzed their payload experiments, they would have an increased affinity for high school science and math classes. A pre- and post-survey was distributed to the students (n=124), before and after the project to analyze how effective this engineering and space mission was regarding high school STEM interests. The surveys were statistically analyzed, comparing means by the Student's t-Test, specifically the Welch-Satterthwaite test. Female students displayed a 57.1% increase in math and a 63.6% increase in science; male students displayed a 46.6% increase in science and 0% increase in math. Most Likert-scale survey questions experienced no statistically significant change, supporting the null hypothesis. The only survey question that supported the hypothesis was, "I Think Engineers Work Alone," which experienced a 0.24% decrease in student understanding. The results suggest that integrating a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into middle school curricula will not directly influence the students' excitement to pursue STEM subjects and careers. An extensive, yearlong ballooning mission is recommended so that it can be integrated with multiple core subjects. Using such an innovative pedagogy method as with this balloon launch will help students master the

  14. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  15. Hydrographic surveys of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers at selected bridges and through Bismarck, North Dakota, during the 2011 flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed hydrographic surveys at six Missouri River bridges and one Yellowstone River bridge during the 2011 flood of the Missouri River system. Bridges surveyed are located near the cities of Cartwright, Buford, Williston, Washburn, and Bismarck, N. Dak. The river in the vicinity of the bridges and the channel through the city of Bismarck, N. Dak., were surveyed. The hydrographic surveys were conducted using a high-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES), the RESON SeaBatTM 7125, during June 6–9 and June 28–July 9, 2011. The surveyed area at each bridge site extended 820 feet upstream from the bridge to 820 feet downstream from the bridge. The surveyed reach through Bismarck consisted of 18 miles of the main channel wherever depth was sufficient. Results from these emergency surveys aided the North Dakota Department of Transportation in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during high-flow conditions. In addition, the sustained high flows made feasible the surveying of a large section of the normally shallow channel with the MBES. In general, results from sequential bridge surveys showed that as discharge increased between the first and second surveys at a given site, there was a general trend of channel scour. Locally, complex responses of scour in some areas and deposition in other areas of the channel were identified. Similarly, scour around bridge piers also showed complex responses to the increase in flow between the two surveys. Results for the survey area of the river channel through Bismarck show that, in general, scour occurred around river structures or where the river has tight bends and channel narrowing. The data collected during the surveys are provided electronically in two different file formats: comma delimited text and CARIS Spatial ArchiveTM (CSARTM) format.

  16. Sharp-Tailed Grouse Nest Survival and Nest Predator Habitat Use in North Dakota's Bakken Oil Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Burr

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in extraction technologies have resulted in rapid increases of gas and oil development across the United States and specifically in western North Dakota. This expansion of energy development has unknown influences on local wildlife populations and the ecological interactions within and among species. Our objectives for this study were to evaluate nest success and nest predator dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus in two study sites that represented areas of high and low energy development intensities in North Dakota. During the summers of 2012 and 2013, we monitored 163 grouse nests using radio telemetry. Of these, 90 nests also were monitored using miniature cameras to accurately determine nest fates and identify nest predators. We simultaneously conducted predator surveys using camera scent stations and occupancy modeling to estimate nest predator occurrence at each site. American badgers (Taxidea taxus and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis were the primary nest predators, accounting for 56.7% of all video recorded nest depredations. Nests in our high intensity gas and oil area were 1.95 times more likely to succeed compared to our minimal intensity area. Camera monitored nests were 2.03 times more likely to succeed than non-camera monitored nests. Occupancy of mammalian nest predators was 6.9 times more likely in our study area of minimal gas and oil intensity compared to the high intensity area. Although only a correlative study, our results suggest energy development may alter the predator community, thereby increasing nest success for sharp-tailed grouse in areas of intense development, while adjacent areas may have increased predator occurrence and reduced nest success. Our study illustrates the potential influences of energy development on the nest predator-prey dynamics of sharp-tailed grouse in western North Dakota and the complexity of evaluating such impacts on wildlife.

  17. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  18. Auxiliary mechanisms for work to dry stripping sections of the north Cheshskiy lignite basin of the CSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandek, J

    1979-01-01

    A brief examination is made of the employed methods for drying fields of lignite open pits: removal of water on water pumping channels, pumping out of water by mobile pump units, pumping out of water through wells (diameter 300 mm). Certain parameters of hydraulic excavators used for drying operations which are divided into three groups according to drive power are presented: 1) drive power over 100 kW (DN 101, aDN 103); 2 group drive power 50-100 kW (K 606, TMR 71, TEZM, Satur 051k, UDS 110a, UDS 113 and UDS 119 p, as well as the trench digger ER 7 am); third group drive power less than 50 kW (CASTOR 602, Poclain TY 45 and trench digger ETU 354). The expediency is indicated of unifying the hydraulic excavators based on the UDS 110 p excavator.

  19. Assessment of pharmacists' delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.

  20. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356

  1. Recent formation of arroyos in the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, the channels of ephemeral streams are incised 2 to 10 m or more into mid-to-late Holocene alluvium. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing and cause(s) of the most recent episodes of fluvial incision and to develop a process-response model that illustrates the formation and evolution of arroyos in this region. The purpose was to distinguish natural from anthropogenic changes to the landscape and to discriminate allogenic from autogenic causes of incision, thereby gaining a greater sense of how steep, relatively small, ephemeral streams evolve. Dendrochronologic and dendrogeomorphic analyses of riparian cottonwoods provide an inexpensive, high-resolution dating method to constrain the time of incision, thereby permitting determination of the cause(s) of incision by evaluating environmental conditions prior to and at the onset of fluvial incision. An examination of seven small (10 to 100 km2) drainage basins indicated ephemeral streams have undergone a four-stage cycle of change within the past 200 years, comprising(i) an initial period of relative geomorphic stability with pedogenesis on the flood plain and low rates of lateral channel migration, (ii) a period of channel incision with subsequent widening of the flood plain through lateral corrasion along middle and upstream reaches, (iii) a concomitant period of aggradation along downstream reaches and, finally, (iv) a period of downstream incision. Dendrochronologic data and dendrogeomorphic relations indicate there have been three distinct periods of fluvial incision in the past 200 years. The first period of incision began in the 1860s and 1870s prior to the onset of European settlement and intensive grazing by domesticated cattle in the area. This period of incision occurred along the middle reaches of all seven of the streams examined and coincided with a severe, protracted drought, suggesting an allogenic cause. The second period

  2. Preliminary report on the geology of the Red River Valley drilling project, eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-two wells, 26 of which penetrated the Precambrian, were drilled along the eastern edge of the Williston Basin in the eastern tier of counties in North Dakota and in nearby counties in northwestern Minnesota. These tests, along the Red River Valley of the North, were drilled to study the stratigraphy and uranium potential of this area. The drilling program was unsuccessful in finding either significant amounts of uranium or apparently important shows of uranium. It did, however, demonstrate the occurrence of thick elastic sections in the Ordovician, Jurassic and Cretaceous Systems, within the Red River Valley, along the eastern margins of the Williston Basin which could serve as host rocks for uranium ore bodies

  3. Climate simulation and flood risk analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    Devils Lake and Stump Lake in northeastern North Dakota receive surface runoff from a 3,810-square-mile drainage basin, and evaporation provides the only major water loss unless the lakes are above their natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River. In September 2007, flow from Devils Lake to Stump Lake had filled Stump Lake and the two lakes consisted of essentially one water body with an elevation of 1,447.1 feet, about 3 feet below the existing base flood elevation (1,450 feet) and about 12 feet below the natural outlet elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,459 feet).Devils Lake could continue to rise, causing extensive additional flood damages in the basin and, in the event of an uncontrolled natural spill, downstream in the Red River of the North Basin. This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to evaluate future flood risk for Devils Lake and provide information for developing updated flood-insurance rate maps and planning flood-mitigation activities such as raising levees or roads.In about 1980, a large, abrupt, and highly significant increase in precipitation occurred in the Devils Lake Basin and elsewhere in the Northern Great Plains, and wetter-than-normal conditions have persisted through the present (2007). Although future precipitation is impossible to predict, paleoclimatic evidence and recent research on climate dynamics indicate the current wet conditions are not likely to end anytime soon. For example, there is about a 72-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 10 more years and about a 37-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 30 more years.A stochastic simulation model for Devils Lake and Stump Lake developed in a previous study was updated and used to generate 10,000 potential future realizations, or traces, of precipitation, evaporation, inflow, and lake levels given existing conditions on September 30, 2007, and randomly

  4. Simulation of wastewater effects on dissolved oxygen during low streamflow in the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Edwin A.

    1996-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, both North Dakota and Minnesota identified part of the Red River of the North (Red River) as water-quality limited. The states are required to determine the total maximum daily load (TMDL) that can be discharged to a water-quality limited reach from various pollution sources without contravening water-quality standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). A work group consisting of local, State, and Federal agency representatives that was organized in June 1994 decided that a TMDL should be developed in phases for a subreach of the Red River at Fargo, N. Dak., and Moorhead, Minn. (fig. 1). In the first phase, which is the basis for this report, the focus is on attainment of the instream dissolved-oxygen (DO) standard during low streamflows, and only Fargo and Moorhead wastewater-treatment-plant discharges and Sheyenne River inflow are considered. The study reach begins about 0.1 mile (mi) downstream (north) of the 12th Avenue North bridge in Fargo and extends 30.8 mi downstream to a site 0.8 mi upstream of the confluence of the Buffalo and Red Rivers (fig. 1). Nitrification of total ammonia (ammonia) from Fargo and Moorhead wastewater consumes most of the DO in the study reach (Wesolowski, 1994). Because the new (1995) Fargo plant already is nitrifying its wastewater, the work group needed to determine the maximum ammonia concentration for wastewater from the nonnitrifying Moorhead plant. To accomplish this task, the Red River at Fargo Water-Quality (RRatFGO QW) model (Wesolowski, 1994, 1996b) was used to simulate the effects of various wastewater-management alternatives during low streamflow. This report presents the results of those simulations to determine the usefulness of the model for management decisions. The simulations and report were completed in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health.

  5. Task 50 - deposition of lignites in the Fort Union Group and related strata of the northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, J.H.; Roth, B.; Kihm, A.J.

    1997-08-11

    Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early Eocene geologic and paleontologic studies were undertaken in western North Dakota, eastern and south-central Montana, and northwestern and northeastern Wyoming. These study areas comprise the Williston, Bighorn, and Powder River Basins, all of which contain significant lignite resources. Research was undertaken in these basins because they have the best geologic sections and fossil record for the development of a chronostratigraphic (time-rock) framework for the correlation of lignite beds and other economic resources. A thorough understanding of the precise geologic age of the deposition of sediments permits a powerful means of interpreting the record of geologic events across the northern Great Plains. Such an understanding allows for rigorous interpretation of paleoenviromnents and estimates of resource potential and quality in this area of economically significant deposits. This work is part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of molluscan fossil faunas to provide a paleoenvironmentally sensitive independent means of interpreting time intervals of brief duration during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene. This study focuses on the record of mollusks and, to a lesser extent, mammals in the (1) Hell Creek-Tullock Formations, which include the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary, in the western portion of the Williston Basin, Montana; (2) uppermost Cretaceous, Paleocene, and lowermost Eocene strata in western North Dakota, which -includes the last interior seaway in North Dakota; (3) upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene of the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin of south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming; and (4) Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The geologic record provides different physical and paleontological information to aid in interpreting the geologic record through the study interval.

  6. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy J.; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  7. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  8. Mineralized soft-tissue structure and chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur from the Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Morris, Peter M; McMahon, Adam; Jones, Emrys; Gize, Andy; Macquaker, Joe H S; Wolff, George; Thompson, Anu; Marshall, Jim; Taylor, Kevin G; Lyson, Tyler; Gaskell, Simon; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sellers, William I; van Dongen, Bart E; Buckley, Mike; Wogelius, Roy A

    2009-10-07

    An extremely well-preserved dinosaur (Cf. Edmontosaurus sp.) found in the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous, North Dakota) retains soft-tissue replacement structures and associated organic compounds. Mineral cements precipitated in the skin apparently follow original cell boundaries, partially preserving epidermis microstructure. Infrared and electron microprobe images of ossified tendon clearly show preserved mineral zonation, with silica and trapped carbon dioxide forming thin linings on Haversian canals within apatite. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of materials recovered from the skin and terminal ungual phalanx suggests the presence of compounds containing amide groups. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix; however, intact proteins could not be obtained using protein mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), indicating survival and presence of macromolecules that were in part aliphatic (see the electronic supplementary material).

  9. Seasonal variations of natural radionuclides, minor and trace elements in lake sediments and water in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2018-05-01

    The radiological and chemical pollution of a cluster of four lakes in a lignite mining area of North-Western Greece was investigated using a variety of analytical techniques. Alpha spectrometry was applied to measure the activity concentrations of the uranium radioisotopes (U-234, U-235, and U-238) in waters. The mass activities of U-238, Th-232, and K-40 in sediments were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Furthermore, the determination of the minor and trace elements was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in both water and sediments samples, respectively. Pollution levels were also evaluated by calculating enrichment factors (EFs), contamination factors (CFs) and pollution load index (PLI). The data were discussed taking into account several parameters such as the distance from the pollution source, temperature, and location and showed that the environmental impact in this region could not be considered as negligible. The deviation of the isotopic ratio of U-234/U-238 from the equilibrium value indicated waters with intensive dissolution of uranium. The activity values in both waters and sediments found to be low in cool periods and increased in warm periods. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements U, Zn, and Fe were raised in water samples indicating possible pollution as well as the CFs and PLI denoted accumulation in the sediments and moderate to severe contamination for Zn and Cr in some cases.

  10. Introducing astronomy into high school physics curriculum through the use of the University of North Dakota Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolby, Caitlin Marie

    Astronomy education is currently lacking in the secondary level classroom. Many programs have been created to remedy this, including research opportunities for students and training workshops for educators. These reach only a small fraction of the population however, while remaining students still lack the opportunity to learn astronomy at the secondary level. This research addresses the creation of a program that will make astronomy education a recurring option for students across North Dakota through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS) in a class of 19 physics students. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and in-class activities. Original lesson plans also included a group research project on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public "star party" where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and research equipment. Students also took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND on April 25, 2012. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two weeks. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the course. The research also identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners and the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy. This analysis has been used to make improvements in future installments of the course and it is now available online to educators for use in the classroom.

  11. Merging Land Use Change Trends and Insecticide Application to Understand Multiple Threats to Honey Bees in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D.; Zheng, H.; Otto, C.

    2017-12-01

    US beekeepers have historically relied on North Dakota for its rich floral grasslands and mild climate to harvest honey and maintain colony growth from May to September. Over 40% of registered apiaries used for crop pollination across the United States pass through the Northern Great Plains region for this reason. However, increased land use change from grassland to row crops has decreased available forage for honey bees and shrunken the already finite landscape suitable for apiary sites. Alongside the introduction of cropland followed the application of insecticides known to impact colony health. While landscape composition is one of the driving factors influencing honey bee productivity and overall health, the further application of insecticides adds an additional threat layer to the changing landscape. USGS E-pest estimates suggest an increasing application per cropland area over the past 10 years for harmful insecticidees including neonicotinoids, organophosphates and pyrethroids. This research aims to capture these trends by utilizing a spatially explicit habitat quality model from InVEST to integrate the following annual data in North Dakota from 2006-2014: (1) habitat suitability basemaps derived from the Cropland Data Layer (CDL); and (2) assign stacked layers of weighted values to those land covers based on estimated insecticide applications on individual crop types within each county year combination. We aim to utilize model outputs to learn where in time and space registered apiaries have experienced this double sided threat of decreased foraged and increased exposure to insecticides, but also ask further questions about how to improve the landscape with different scenarios.

  12. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  13. An observational study of compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law among retail stores that sell electronic smoking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Miller, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine were compliant with North Dakota's smoke-free law. During June 2015, retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine (n=16), but not legally required to be licensed to sell tobacco products, were assessed for compliance with North Dakota's smoke-free law by observing for smoking or e-smoking, or evidence of such, in prohibited areas and for the presence of required no-smoking signs. Use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, was observed inside 8 (50%) stores required to be smoke-free. On the basis of all indicators of compliance assessed, compliance with the state's smoke-free law was low, with only 6% and 44% of stores compliant with all indoor and outdoor requirements, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first U.S. study assessing retail stores selling electronic smoking devices or liquid nicotine for compliance with the smoke-free law. The use of e-cigarettes, or evidence of use, occurred in the stores where it is prohibited by law. Overall compliance with the smoke-free law was low. These stores should be licensed by the state, as are other tobacco retailers, because this may assist in education, enforcement and compliance with the law and increase public health protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  15. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  16. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  17. Geology of the Fox Hills Formation (late Cretaceous) in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, with reference to uranium potential. Report of investigation No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvancara, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The Fox Hills Formation is a marine and brackish sequence of primarily medium and fine clastics within the Late Cretaceous Montana Group. In the Williston basin of North Dakota, four members (in ascending order) are recognized: Trail City, Timber Lake, Iron Lightning (with Bullhead and Colgate lithofacies), and Linton. The Fox Hills conformably overlies the Pierre Shale and conformably and disconformably underlies and interfingers with the Hell Creek Formation; it occurs in about the western two-thirds of the state. The geology of the Fox Hills Formation in North Dakota, and the stratigraphy of which is based on previous surface information and recent subsurface data, are summarized, and its potential for uranium is evaluated

  18. Detailed facies analyses within the Bluell and Sherwood Members, Mission Canyon Formation, North Dakota, USA - Facies stacking patterns, sequence stratigraphy and porosity relationship, consequences for reservoir distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstedt, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Detailed core analysis from seven wells with cores cut within the overall carbonate succession that makes up the Bluell and Sherwood Members of the Mission Canyon Formation located in Renville County, North Dakota, resulted in the identification of eleven depositional facies. These facies that reflect a range in depositional conditions from inner to back ramp, that is shallow fair-weather to uppermost intertidal and supratidal conditions. Systematic core analysis using a highly detailed digit...

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    southwest border and assisted in 3,065 apprehensions and the seizure of 14,240 pounds of marijuana . Four Predator B UASs now operate out of Sierra Vista...Sustainable design concepts emphasize state-of-the-art strategies for site development, efficient water and energy use and improved indoor environmental...improved indoor environmental quality. EA for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at GFAFB, North Dakota Final 6-1 August

  20. Calibration of a water-quality model for low-flow conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  2. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U 3 O 8 content

  3. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  5. Seasonal Alterations in Park Visitation, Amenity Use, and Physical Activity — Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, LuAnn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Park amenities promote visitation and physical activity during summer. Physical activity declines during winter. Identifying park amenities that promote visitation during winter would increase year-round activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how park visitation, amenity choice, and physical activity intensity change across seasons. Methods Physical activity intensity of children and adults was assessed at 16 parks in Grand Forks, North Dakota, during summer and fall of 2012, and winter and spring of 2013. Results Park visitation was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Amenity use varied by season. Parks with water splash pads were visited more during summer, and playgrounds and open spaces were visited more during spring. Ice rinks were visited most in winter. Physical activity intensity was lowest in summer and highest in winter for each age group. The activity intensity observed for all young age groups ranged from 2.7 to 2.9 metabolic equivalents in summer and greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in all other seasons. Adults’ mean activity intensity was greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in winter. Conclusion Information on park visitation, amenity use, and activity intensity across seasons is valuable; it can be used when designing or redesigning parks in order to promote year-round physical activity. Redesigning parks in cold climates to include ice rinks, sledding hills, cross-country skiing, and indoor areas for physical activity would increase winter visitation and allow the park to serve as a year-round resource for physical activity. PMID:25211503

  6. Seasonal alterations in park visitation, amenity use, and physical activity--Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Johnson, LuAnn

    2014-09-11

    Park amenities promote visitation and physical activity during summer. Physical activity declines during winter. Identifying park amenities that promote visitation during winter would increase year-round activity. The purpose of this study was to determine how park visitation, amenity choice, and physical activity intensity change across seasons. Physical activity intensity of children and adults was assessed at 16 parks in Grand Forks, North Dakota, during summer and fall of 2012, and winter and spring of 2013. Park visitation was highest in spring and lowest in winter. Amenity use varied by season. Parks with water splash pads were visited more during summer, and playgrounds and open spaces were visited more during spring. Ice rinks were visited most in winter. Physical activity intensity was lowest in summer and highest in winter for each age group. The activity intensity observed for all young age groups ranged from 2.7 to 2.9 metabolic equivalents in summer and greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in all other seasons. Adults' mean activity intensity was greater than 3 metabolic equivalents in winter. Information on park visitation, amenity use, and activity intensity across seasons is valuable; it can be used when designing or redesigning parks in order to promote year-round physical activity. Redesigning parks in cold climates to include ice rinks, sledding hills, cross-country skiing, and indoor areas for physical activity would increase winter visitation and allow the park to serve as a year-round resource for physical activity.

  7. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An Evaluation of Transportation Needs of the Disadvantaged in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Hegland, Gary; Hough, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The disadvantaged population have barriers to a normal lifestyle. Mobility is one of these barriers. Approximately 15.4 percent of North Dakota’s population is disadvantaged. These individuals live in the metropolitan areas and in the rural, low-population-density counties, which have limited transportation. The Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute (UGPTI) developed a survey to identify the transportation needs of the disadvantaged population and measure how those needs are being met. ...

  9. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  10. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  11. An Agent-based Model for Groundwater Allocation and Management at the Bakken Shale in Western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Lin, Z.; Lim, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present an integrated modeling framework to simulate groundwater level change under the dramatic increase of hydraulic fracturing water use in the Bakken Shale oil production area. The framework combines the agent-based model (ABM) with the Fox Hills-Hell Creek (FH-HC) groundwater model. In development of the ABM, institution theory is used to model the regulation policies from the North Dakota State Water Commission, while evolutionary programming and cognitive maps are used to model the social structure that emerges from the behavior of competing individual water businesses. Evolutionary programming allows individuals to select an appropriate strategy when annually applying for potential water use permits; whereas cognitive maps endow agent's ability and willingness to compete for more water sales. All agents have their own influence boundaries that inhibit their competitive behavior toward their neighbors but not to non-neighbors. The decision-making process is constructed and parameterized with both quantitative and qualitative information, i.e., empirical water use data and knowledge gained from surveys with stakeholders. By linking institution theory, evolutionary programming, and cognitive maps, our approach addresses a higher complexity of the real decision making process. Furthermore, this approach is a new exploration for modeling the dynamics of Coupled Human and Natural System. After integrating ABM with the FH-HC model, drought and limited water accessibility scenarios are simulated to predict FH-HC ground water level changes in the future. The integrated modeling framework of ABM and FH-HC model can be used to support making scientifically sound policies in water allocation and management.

  12. Assessment of water-quality data from Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota--2008 through 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    ong Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central North Dakota, is an important habitat for numerous migratory birds and waterfowl, including several threatened or endangered species. The refuge is distinguished by Long Lake, which is approximately 65 square kilometers and consists of four primary water management units. Water levels in the Long Lake units are maintained by low-level dikes and water-control structures, which after construction during the 1930s increased the water-storage capacity of Long Lake and reduced the frequency and volume of flushing flows downstream. The altered water regime, along with the negative precipitation:evaporation ratio of the region, may be contributing to the accumulation of water-borne chemical constituents such as salts, trace metals, and other constituents, which at certain threshold concentrations may impair aquatic plant, invertebrate, and bird communities of the refuge. The refuge’s comprehensive conservation planning process identified the need for water-quality monitoring to assess current (2013) conditions, establish comparative baselines, evaluate changes over time (trends), and support adaptive management of the wetland units. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Department of Health began a water-quality monitoring program at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge to address these needs. Biweekly water-quality samples were collected for ions, trace metals, and nutrients; and in situ sensors and data loggers were installed for the continuous measurement of specific conductance and water depth. Long Lake was characterized primarily by sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions. Overall results for total alkalinity and hardness were 580 and 329 milligrams per liter, respectively; thus, Long Lake is considered alkaline and classified as very hard. The mean pH and sodium adsorption ratio for Long Lake were 8.8 and 10, respectively. Total dissolved solids concentrations

  13. Neyveli lignite - a status overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-14

    The lignite mines of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation in Tamil Nadu in India are described: characteristics of the deposit; choice of mining method (surface mining); groundwater control; storm water control; overburden removal; mining equipment (bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors and spreaders); generation of electric power; production of fertilizer; production of lignite briquettes and tar products. A second mine and thermal power plant are planned.

  14. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.; Rieke, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  15. Discover Health Services Near You! The North Dakota Story: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Rieke, Judith L.; Safratowich, Michael; Markland, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003 launch of NC Health Info, the National Library of Medicine has encouraged the development of Go Local databases. A team of Go Local enthusiasts at North Dakota’s only medical school library wanted to obtain NLM funding and build a resource for their rural state. Although short on staff, money, and time, the team found a way to realize a Go Local database that serves the state’s residents and helps them “Discover Health Services Near You!” A team approach and collaboration with ...

  16. Assessment of water and proppant quantities associated with petroleum production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth; Varela, Brian A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Engle, Mark A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Kinney, Scott A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Martinez, Cericia D.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of water and proppant requirements and water production associated with the possible future production of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Three Forks and Bakken Formations (Late Devonian to Early Mississippian) of the Williston Basin Province in Montana and North Dakota. This water and proppant assessment is directly linked to the geology-based assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources that is described in USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3013.

  17. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  18. Ground-water quality in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of water quality in surficial, buried glacial, and Cretaceous aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin during 1991-95 showed that some major-ion, nutrient, pesticide, and radioactive-element concentrations differed by physiographic area and differed among these aquifer types. Waters in surficial aquifers in the Drift Prairie (west) and Lake Plain (central) physiographic areas were similar to each other but significantly higher than those in the Moraine (east) area in dissolved solids, sodium, potassium, sulfate, fluoride, silica, and uranium concentrations. Radium, iron, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations were also significantly different among these areas. Pesticides were detected in 12 percent of waters in surficial aquifers in the Drift Prairie area, 20 percent of those in the Lake Plain area, and 52 percent of those in the Moraine area. Triazines and bentazon accounted for 98 percent of summed pesticide concentrations in waters in surficial aquifers. Waters in buried glacial aquifers in the central one-third of the basin had significantly higher concentrations of dissolved solids, sodium, potassium, chloride, fluoride, and iron than did waters in surficial aquifers. No pesticides were detected in five samples from buried glacial aquifers or six samples from Cretaceous aquifers. Waters in all sampled aquifers had a calcium-magnesium ratio of about 1.75 ± 0.75 across the basin regardless of anionic composition.

  19. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Shell Valley Aquifer, Rolette County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Shell Valley aquifer is the sole source of water for the city of Belcourt and the primary source of water for most of the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. The Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians is concerned about the quantity and quality of water in the Shell Valley aquifer, which underlies about 56 square miles in central Rolette County and has an average saturated thickness of about 35 feet. Water levels across most of the Shell Valley aquifer fluctuate with variations in precipitation but generally are stable. Withdrawals from the north well field decreased slightly during 1976-95, but withdrawals from the south well field increased during 1983-95. Water levels in the south well field declined as withdrawals increased. The average decline during the last 8 years was about 1.75 feet per year. The water level has reached the well screen in at least one of the production wells. Most of the water in the aquifer is a bicarbonate type and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 479 to 1,510 milligrams per liter. None of the samples analyzed had detectable concentrations of pesticides, but hydrocarbons were detected in both ground- and surfacewater samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were the most frequently detected hydrocarbons. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) also were detected.Generally, the Shell Valley aquifer is an adequate source of water for current needs, but evaluation of withdrawals in relation to a knowledge of aquifer hydrology would be important in quantifying sustainable water supplies. Water quality in the aquifer generally is good; the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians filters the water to reduce concentrations of dissolved constituents. Hydrocarbons, although present in the aquifer, have not been quantified and may not pose a general health risk. Further analysis of the quantity and distribution of the hydrocarbons would be useful

  20. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Shaffer, Terry L.

    2002-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment is potentially an important tool for conservation efforts in the northern Great Plains of North America, but it has received little rigorous evaluation. Floristic quality assessments rely on coefficients assigned to each plant species of a region’s flora based on the conservatism of each species relative to others in the region. These “coefficients of conservatism” (C values) are assigned by a panel of experts familiar with a region’s flora. The floristic quality assessment method has faced some criticism due to the subjective nature of these assignments. To evaluate the effect of this subjectivity on floristic quality assessments, we performed separate evaluations of the native plant communities in a natural wetland complex and three restored wetland complexes. In our first assessment, we used C values assigned “subjectively” by the Northern Great Plains Floristic Quality Assessment Panel. We then performed an independent assessment using the observed distributions of species among a group of wetlands that ranged from highly disturbed to largely undisturbed (data-generated C values). Using the panel-assigned C values, mean C values (C¯">C¯C¯) of the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 3.4 and never exceeded 3.9, with the highest values occurring in the oldest restored complex; all but two wetlands in the natural wetland complex had a C¯">C¯C¯ greater than 3.9. Floristic quality indices (FQI) for the restored wetlands rarely exceeded 22 and usually reached maximums closer to 19, with higher values occurring again in the oldest restored complex; only two wetlands in the natural complex had an FQI less than 22. We observed that 95% confidence limits for species richness and percent natives overlapped greatly among wetland complexes, whereas confidence limits for both C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI overlapped little. C¯">C¯C¯ and FQI values were consistently greater when we used the datagenerated C values than when we used the

  2. Comparing CMIP-3 and CMIP-5 climate projections on flooding estimation of Devils Lake of North Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehendra Kharel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada. Despite these drawbacks, running outlets would result in low overspill risks in the next 30 years. Methods In this study we evaluated the efficacy of this outlet-based mitigation strategy under scenarios based on the latest IPCC future climate projections. We used the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMIP-5 weather patterns from 17 general circulation models (GCMs obtained under four representative concentration pathways (RCP scenarios and downscaled to the DL region. Then, we simulated the changes in lake water levels using the soil and water assessment tool based hydrological model of the watershed. We estimated the probability of future flood risks under those scenarios and compared those with previously estimated overspill risks under the CMIP-3 climate. Results The CMIP-5 ensemble projected a mean annual temperature of 5.78 °C and mean daily precipitation of 1.42 mm/day; both are higher than the existing CMIP-3 future estimates of 4.98 °C and 1.40 mm/day, respectively. The increased precipitation and higher temperature resulted in a significant increase of DL’s overspill risks: 24.4–47.1% without release from outlets and 3.5–14.4% even if the outlets are operated at their combined full 17 m3/s capacity. Discussion The modeled increases in overspill risks indicate a greater frequency of water releases through the artificial outlets. Future

  3. A Holistic Assessment of Energy Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in Williams County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdeo, J.; Ravikumar, A. P.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional oil and natural gas production in the U.S. has increased tenfold between 2005 and 2014 due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology. Prior studies of hydraulic fracturing activity have mainly focused on two themes: the environmental impacts related to air and water pollution or the direct and spillover economic benefits resulting from oil booms at the state and local level. However, the impacts of hydraulic fracturing extend beyond these effects. Oil-boom counties have experienced environmental changes in land-use and water supply and witnessed social changes in demographics, crime, and health, factors that are not typically evaluated in regard to hydraulic fracturing. Hence, there is a need to consider the holistic effects of oil production on communities. This study examines the environmental, economic, and social impacts of oil and gas activity in Williams County, North Dakota by comparing its pre-boom ( 2005) and post-boom ( 2014) conditions. Annual oil production in Williams County increased from 3.4 million barrels in 2005 to 56 million barrels in 2014, providing an ideal test-case to study the impact of energy development on surrounding communities. We compared changes in multiple impact categories, attributed directly or indirectly to hydraulic fracturing activity, to trends at the national level. For example, between 2005 and 2014, CO2 and CH4 emissions primarily from oil and gas activity increased by 360 thousand metric tons CO2e, corresponding to a 20-fold increase. Concurrently, national emissions decreased by 10.5%. Over twenty indicators were analyzed across environmental, social and economic impact categories, including land-use change, median household income, and crime rates. The datasets were normalized using federal regulations for upper and lower bounds, or calibrated against national averages. Normalized indicators are then aggregated to provide a single-value `impact-factor'. Such `impact-factor' maps will provide a

  4. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Skalak, Katherine; Kent, D.B.; Engle, Mark A.; Benthem, Adam J.; Mumford, Adam; Haase, Karl B.; Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David; Nagel, S. C.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Orem, William H.; Akob, Denise M.; Jaeschke, Jeanne B.; Galloway, Joel M.; Kohler, Matthias; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Jolly, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4 M L (million liters) of wastewater (300 g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030 mg/L) and bromide (7.8 mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11 mg/L and < 0.4 mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25 mg/L), boron (1.75 mg/L) and strontium (7.1 mg/L) were present downstream at 5–10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1 km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that

  5. Environmental signatures and effects of an oil and gas wastewater spill in the Williston Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I M; Skalak, K J; Kent, D B; Engle, M A; Benthem, A; Mumford, A C; Haase, K; Farag, A; Harper, D; Nagel, S C; Iwanowicz, L R; Orem, W H; Akob, D M; Jaeschke, J B; Galloway, J; Kohler, M; Stoliker, D L; Jolly, G D

    2017-02-01

    Wastewaters from oil and gas development pose largely unknown risks to environmental resources. In January 2015, 11.4ML (million liters) of wastewater (300g/L TDS) from oil production in the Williston Basin was reported to have leaked from a pipeline, spilling into Blacktail Creek, North Dakota. Geochemical and biological samples were collected in February and June 2015 to identify geochemical signatures of spilled wastewaters as well as biological responses along a 44-km river reach. February water samples had elevated chloride (1030mg/L) and bromide (7.8mg/L) downstream from the spill, compared to upstream levels (11mg/L and <0.4mg/L, respectively). Lithium (0.25mg/L), boron (1.75mg/L) and strontium (7.1mg/L) were present downstream at 5-10 times upstream concentrations. Light hydrocarbon measurements indicated a persistent thermogenic source of methane in the stream. Semi-volatile hydrocarbons indicative of oil were not detected in filtered samples but low levels, including tetramethylbenzenes and di-methylnaphthalenes, were detected in unfiltered water samples downstream from the spill. Labile sediment-bound barium and strontium concentrations (June 2015) were higher downstream from the Spill Site. Radium activities in sediment downstream from the Spill Site were up to 15 times the upstream activities and, combined with Sr isotope ratios, suggest contributions from the pipeline fluid and support the conclusion that elevated concentrations in Blacktail Creek water are from the leaking pipeline. Results from June 2015 demonstrate the persistence of wastewater effects in Blacktail Creek several months after remediation efforts started. Aquatic health effects were observed in June 2015; fish bioassays showed only 2.5% survival at 7.1km downstream from the spill compared to 89% at the upstream reference site. Additional potential biological impacts were indicated by estrogenic inhibition in downstream waters. Our findings demonstrate that environmental signatures

  6. 75 FR 60004 - Relocation of Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of North Dakota: Mercer County

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Dakota have had an interesting and varied history. Beginning in 1883, mountain time was observed in the... Mercer County. Residents go to the Bismarck/Mandan area to catch planes, trains, and buses. The main... comments noted that Mercer County had been on mountain time throughout its history, and that the...

  7. Simulation of a proposed emergency outlet from Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2002-01-01

    From 1993 to 2001, Devils Lake rose more than 25 feet, flooding farmland, roads, and structures around the lake and causing more than $400 million in damages in the Devils Lake Basin. In July 2001, the level of Devils Lake was at 1,448.0 feet above sea level1, which was the highest lake level in more than 160 years. The lake could continue to rise to several feet above its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,459 feet above sea level) in future years, causing extensive additional flooding in the basin and, in the event of an uncontrolled natural spill, downstream in the Red River of the North Basin as well. The outlet simulation model described in this report was developed to determine the potential effects of various outlet alternatives on the future lake levels and water quality of Devils Lake.Lake levels of Devils Lake are controlled largely by precipitation on the lake surface, evaporation from the lake surface, and surface inflow. For this study, a monthly water-balance model was developed to compute the change in total volume of Devils Lake, and a regression model was used to estimate monthly water-balance data on the basis of limited recorded data. Estimated coefficients for the regression model indicated fitted precipitation on the lake surface was greater than measured precipitation in most months, fitted evaporation from the lake surface was less than estimated evaporation in most months, and ungaged inflow was about 2 percent of gaged inflow in most months. Dissolved sulfate was considered to be the key water-quality constituent for evaluating the effects of a proposed outlet on downstream water quality. Because large differences in sulfate concentrations existed among the various bays of Devils Lake, monthly water-balance data were used to develop detailed water and sulfate mass-balance models to compute changes in sulfate load for each of six major storage compartments in response to precipitation, evaporation, inflow, and outflow from

  8. Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calles-Torrez, Veronica; Knodel, Janet J; Boetel, Mark A; Doetkott, Curt D; Podliska, Kellie K; Ransom, Joel K; Beauzay, Patrick; French, B Wade; Fuller, Billy W

    2018-02-09

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and western, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), corn rootworms are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. in North America. We measured the impacts of corn hybrids incorporated with Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35Ab1, and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins, tefluthrin soil insecticide, and clothianidin insecticidal seed treatment on beetle emergence, larval feeding injury, and corn yield at five locations from 2013 to 2015 in eastern North Dakota. In most cases, emergence was significantly lower in Bt-protected corn than in non-Bt corn hybrids. Exceptions included Wyndmere, ND (2013), where D. barberi emergence from Cry34/35Ab1 plots was not different from that in the non-Bt hybrid, and Arthur, ND (2013), where D. v. virgifera emergence from Cry3Bb1 plots did not differ from that in the non-Bt hybrid. Bt hybrids generally produced increased grain yield compared with non-Bt corn where rootworm densities were high, and larval root-feeding injury was consistently lower in Bt-protected plots than in non-Bt corn. The lowest overall feeding injury and emergence levels occurred in plots planted with the Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid. Time to 50% cumulative emergence of both species was 5-7 d later in Bt-protected than in non-Bt hybrids. Tefluthrin and clothianidin were mostly inconsequential in relation to beetle emergence and larval root injury. Our findings could suggest that some North Dakota populations could be in early stages of increased tolerance to some Bt toxins; however, Bt corn hybrids currently provide effective protection against rootworm injury in eastern North Dakota. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessment of sediments in the riverine impoundments of national wildlife refuges in the Souris River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Gleason, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated sedimentation of reservoirs and riverine impoundments is a major concern throughout the United States. Sediments not only fill impoundments and reduce their effective life span, but they can reduce water quality by increasing turbidity and introducing harmful chemical constituents such as heavy metals, toxic elements, and nutrients. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service national wildlife refuges in the north-central part of the United States have documented high amounts of sediment accretion in some wetlands that could negatively affect important aquatic habitats for migratory birds and other wetland-dependent wildlife. Therefore, information pertaining to sediment accumulation in refuge impoundments potentially is important to guide conservation planning, including future management actions of individual impoundments. Lands comprising Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges, collectively known as the Souris River Basin refuges, encompass reaches of the Des Lacs and Souris Rivers of northwestern North Dakota. The riverine impoundments of the Souris River Basin refuges are vulnerable to sedimentation because of the construction of in-stream dams that interrupt and slow river flows and because of post-European settlement land-use changes that have increased the potential for soil erosion and transport to rivers. Information regarding sediments does not exist for these refuges, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service personnel have expressed interest in assessing refuge impoundments to support refuge management decisions. Sediment cores and surface sediment samples were collected from impoundments within Des Lacs, Upper Souris, and J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuges during 2004–05. Cores were used to estimate sediment accretion rates using radioisotope (cesium-137 [137Cs], lead-210 [210Pb]) dating techniques. Sediment cores and surface samples were analyzed for a suite of elements and agrichemicals, respectively. Examination of

  10. History and Acculturation of the Dakota Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlee, James L.; Malan, Vernon D.

    Relating the history of the Dakota Indians from their origins to the present time, this document also examines the effects of acculturation on these Sioux people. Beginning with the Paleo-Indians of North America, it details the structure of the Dakota culture and attempts to acculturate the Indians into white society. Historical and current…

  11. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications.

  12. Front versus rear seat placement of children aged 12 or younger within vehicles: a rural/urban comparison in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseth-Zosel, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that rear-seated children are 36 to 40 percent safer than front-seated children. Because of the substantial differences in traffic safety culture that appear to exist in rural areas and the limited research regarding seat placement and rurality, this study seeks to contribute to the safety literature by determining at what rate children are riding in the front seat and whether differences exist between rural and urban areas in regards to child front seat placement. Current child placement frequencies within vehicles were ascertained through direct observations of morning child drop-offs at randomly selected urban and rural elementary schools in eastern North Dakota during November and December of 2009, with a focus on children aged 12 or younger. Two observers wearing orange safety vests and carrying observation sheets were stationed at each elementary school a minimum of 45 min prior to each school's designated start time. Based on the vehicles that entered the school's parking lot/drop-off circle and from which a minimum of one child exited, observers were instructed to record vehicle type, presence of children in the front seat appearing to be younger than 13 years old, availability of room in the back seat, and placement of other children in the vehicle. During November and December of 2009 a total of 537 vehicles were observed at urban schools and 150 vehicles were observed at rural schools. Of the 537 vehicles observed at urban schools, 28.7 percent had children seated in the front seat, whereas 41.3 percent of the 150 vehicles observed at rural schools had front-seated children. Significant urban/rural differences exist in child seat placement, with vehicles in rural areas much more likely to be carrying front-seated children than vehicles in urban areas. Based on a sample of vehicles observed at urban and rural elementary schools in North Dakota, the results of this study indicate that there are significant rural/urban differences in

  13. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  14. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-11-02

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms.

  15. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  16. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  17. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  18. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 1300 0 C and utilizing the released SO 2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  19. Overview of Neyveli lignite complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The growth and development of the Neyveli lignite complex in Tamil Nadu, India are discussed. A second lignite mine is being developed together with a second thermal power station and erection of transmission lines between Neyveli-Salem and Neyveli-Red Hills is under way. The contribution of power to Tamil Nadu has grown into an extremely valuable asset; exports have risen by 71% in the four years leading up to 1984 and company turn-over has increased 164% over the same period. Performance during 1983-84 is analysed in terms of production figures, productivity and capacity utilisation.

  20. A Cultural Resources Inventory of Proposed Recreation Areas, Lake Oahe: Emmons, Morton, and Sioux Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    of field mice (Peromyscus sp.), white- tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii), cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), weasels (Mustela frenata...expeditions to locate the western sea did not detract from their importance to the Montreal-based fur trade, which would monopolize the Assiniboine... monopolize the Montreal-based trade, however, and many independent traders offered competition to the two major companies. In 1785 the North West

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2% MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2% isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  2. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S; Stepan, Ryan M; Koslofsky, Ryan J; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  3. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  4. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-01-01

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill(trademark). The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  5. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable

  6. Expansion of Neyveli lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes activities at Neyveli lignite mines in the Tamil Nadu region of India. The equipment used, in mining and materials handling is described. Problems encountered in the conveyor transport system are described, and the solutions finally adopted are presented.

  7. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musich, Mark A.; Young, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  8. The Dakota or Sioux. Gopher Historian Leaflet Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

    The Dakota or Sioux people may well be the best known of all the nations which first lived in North America. Tribal members gave themselves the name Dakota, meaning friends. Their Minnesota neighbors called them by a long name meaning enemy. French traders in the 1600s took the last part of the name and wrote it down as Sioux. Since then, they…

  9. Powerful boost for Indian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) of India has begun the first phase of an expansion program that will open a second mine and boost lignite production in Tamil Nadu to nearly five times its present level within the next 15 years. Mining conditions at Neyveli are particularly difficult. The harsh abrasive overburden strata present severe and strenuous conditions; sticky and marshy surface clays, the presence of groundwater aquifers, the cyclonic and monsoonal climate and high stripping ratios are other problems. The overburden is drilled and blasted; in areas of sticky topsoil, non-stick liners for the buckets etc. are used. Adequate safeguards and infrastructure are being developed to deal with differing strata conditions. The conveyor transport system features slow, wider belt conveyors, changeover from fixed type roller to freely hanging garland type, interlinking of benches and specially designed drive heads. The groundwater aquifers are continuously depressurized by grid pumping from a series of pumps; boreholes have been sunk to 120 m.

  10. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in North Dakota. Preliminary background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01

    The North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is a constitutional body responsible for the regulation of all public utilities. The PSC is composed of three elected commissioners who serve for six year terms. Section 83 of the state's Constitution gives the legislature the power to prescribe the powers and duties of the PCS. Pursuant to this authorization, the legislature adopted Title 49 of the North Dakota Century Code prescribing the jurisdiction as well as the powers and duties of the PSC. It also prescribes various rules and regulations pertaining to electric, gas, and other public utilities. All authority over public utilities is vested in the PSC. Local governments, except for the powers inherent in their franchising and zoning authority, are not given any control over utility regulation. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  11. Lignite mining in India - technology highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-01-01

    Figures for lignite production and its role in the Indian energy scene are presented. Lignite mining at Neyveli is described in detail, including: advance preparation of the overburden strata; modifications to bucket wheel excavators; tackling the sticky surface clays; ground water management; storm water control; tackling higher overburden-to-lignite ratios; materials handling; communications within the mine; the development of indigenous mining equipment; and ecology and environmental control.

  12. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  13. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Kipp, Gregory G.; Mott, Henry V.; Stone, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (As pw ) 5× and increasing U pw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  14. The influence of local- and landscape-level factors on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Lawrence D.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between local- (wetland) and landscape-level factors and breeding bird abundances on 1,190 depressional wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North and South Dakota during the breeding seasons in 1995–97. The surveyed wetlands were selected from five wetland classes (alkali, permanent, semipermanent, seasonal, or temporary), two wetland types (natural or restored), and two landowner groups (private or Federal). We recorded 133 species of birds in the surveyed wetlands during the 3 years. We analyzed the nine most common (or focal) species (that is, species that were present in 25 percent or more of the 1,190 wetlands): the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American Coot (Fulica americana), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), and Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Our results emphasize the ecological value of all wetland classes, natural and restored wetlands, and publicly and privately owned wetlands in this region, including wetlands that are generally smaller and shallower (that is, temporary and seasonal wetlands) and thus most vulnerable to drainage. Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Gadwall, Common Yellowthroat, and Red-winged Blackbird had higher abundances on Federal than on private wetlands. Abundances differed among wetland classes for seven of the nine focal species: Blue-winged Teal, Northern Shoveler, Mallard, American Coot, Common Yellowthroat, Yellow-headed Blackbird, Red-winged Blackbird. American Coot had higher abundances on restored wetlands than on natural wetlands overall, and Gadwall and Common Yellowthroat had higher abundances on private restored wetlands than on private natural wetlands. The Common Yellowthroat was the only species that had higher abundances on restored private wetlands than on

  15. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  16. Zinc Fertilization Effects on Seed Cadmium Accumulation in Oilseed and Grain Crops Grown on North Dakota Soils Efecto de la Fertilización con Zinc en la Acumulación de Cadmio en Semillas Oleaginosas y Cereales producidos en Suelos de Dakota del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo A Rojas-Cifuentes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cd concentration in the seed of crops depends on various soil factors including parent material, texture, pH, soil redox, and salinity. Cadmium accumulation also varies among crop species and cultivars within a species. Cadmium and Zn may have either an antagonistic or a synergistic effect on plant uptake that can be influenced by the soil Cd and Zn concentrations. The objective was to determine the effect of Zn fertilizer additions on the seed Cd of nine crops commonly grown in North Dakota, USA. Studies were conducted at five North Dakota locations representing different soil series during 1994 and 1995. In Experiment 1, nine crops common in North Dakota were grown with and without the addition of 25 kg ha-1 Zn fertilizer. Among crops evaluated, the greatest seed Cd accumulation occurred in flax (Linum usitatissimum L. followed by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum. In Experiment 2, two durum wheats and one flax cultivar were grown under three Zn treatments of 0, 5, and 25 kg ha-1. In Experiment again flax had the higher seed Cd level compared with the two durum varieties. Based on the results from both studies, addition of Zn fertilizer did not consistently reduce seed Cd content, and even when statistically significant, the level of reduction was small and not likely to impact marketability of Cd accumulating crops such as flax, sunflower, soybean, and durum.La concentración de Cd en semillas depende de varios factores, tanto del suelo como de la planta. Cadmio y Zn pueden tener efectos antagónicos o sinérgicos en la absorción de la planta dependiendo de las concentraciones de Cd y Zn existentes en el suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la fertilización con Zn en la acumulación de Cd en la semilla de diversos cultivos comúnmente producidos en Dakota del Norte, EE.UU. Dos estudios fueron realizados en cinco localidades en

  17. Biotechnological lignite conversion - a large-scale concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich-Walber, M.; Meyrahn, H.; Felgener, G.W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Fuel Technology and Lab. Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Concerning the research on biotechnological lignite upgrading, Rheinbraun`s overall objective is the large-scale production of liquid and gaseous products for the energy and chemical/refinery sectors. The presentation outlines Rheinbraun`s technical concept for electricity production on the basis of biotechnologically solubilized lignite. A first rough cost estimate based on the assumptions described in the paper in detail and compared with the latest power plant generation shows the general cost efficiency of this technology despite the additional costs in respect of coal solubilization. The main reasons are low-cost process techniques for coal conversion on the one hand and cost reductions mainly in power plant technology (more efficient combustion processes and simplified gas clean-up) but also in coal transport (easy fuel handling) on the other hand. Moreover, it is hoped that an extended range of products will make it possible to widen the fields of lignite application. The presentation also points out that there is still a huge gap between this scenario and reality by limited microbiological knowledge. To close this gap Rheinbraun started a research project supported by the North-Rhine Westphalian government in 1995. Several leading biotechnological companies and institutes in Germany and the United States are involved in the project. The latest results of the current project will be presented in the paper. This includes fundamental research activities in the field of microbial coal conversion as well as investigations into bioreactor design and product treatment (dewatering, deashing and desulphurization). (orig.)

  18. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  19. The Accountability Illusion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The intent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 is to hold schools accountable for ensuring that all their students achieve mastery in reading and math, with a particular focus on groups that have traditionally been left behind. Under NCLB, states submit accountability plans to the U.S. Department of Education detailing the rules and…

  20. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Minnesota Project, Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm and St. Cloud quadrangles of North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    During the months of August and September 1979, geoMetrics, Inc., collected 12,415 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in adjoining portions of South Dakota and Minnesota over seven 1 by 2 degree NTMS quadrangles (Thief River Falls, Grand Forks, Fargo, Milbank, Watertown, New Ulm, and St. Cloud) as part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully corrected and interpreted by geoMetrics and are presented as eight volumes (one Volume I and seven Volume II's). Regional geology for these seven quadrangles can be divided into two logical sections. The first comprises the surficial glacial deposits, which mantle most of the area and can be up to hundreds of feet thick. The second section consists of the underlying bedrock which is exposed in small scattered outcrops, generally along major drainages. No sedimentary structures exist within the quadrangles. As of this writing, no known uranium deposits exist within the seven quadrangles

  1. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  2. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  3. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  4. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  5. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  6. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  7. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  8. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  9. A status report on weather modification research in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul L.; Orville, Harold D.; Boe, Bruce A.; Stith, Jeffrey L.

    An overview of the status of weather modification research in North and South Dakota (USA) is presented. The operational North Dakota Cloud Modification Projects has, since 1976, been seeding summer convective clouds for the dual objectives of hail suppression and rainfall enhancement. Research being carried out as part of a Federal/State cooperative program, in coordination with the operational activities, has included physical and statistical evaluation studies as well as numerical cloud modeling investigations. The statistical analyses provide some indications that the intended seeding effects are being obtained. The physical studies involve aircraft and radar observations and emphasize tracer experiments to study the transport and dispersion of seeding agents and the activation of ice nuclei. The modeling studies simulate the experiments and aid in investigation of the process involved and the effects of seeding. The 1989 North Dakota Thunderstorm Project, a major field study emphasizing physical and numerical modeling studies, is described briefly.

  10. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Kordas

    2006-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electr...

  12. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  13. Combustion of uraniferous lignites in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, G.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a description of the continuous fluid bed combustion pilot plant unit, installed in the Junta de Energia Nuclear facilities, is presented. Besides, this paper deals with some of the studies carried out in the pilot plant aimed at the recovery of uranium from lignites, high in sulfur and ashes, coming from Calaf basin (Barcelona). These studies include the recovery of the heating value of these lignites and the reduction of environmental effect of SO 2 . Based on these studies an application exercise is presented. 9 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  14. Function of a deltaic silt deposit as a repository and long-term source of sulfate and related weathering products in a glaciofluvial aquifer derived from organic-rich shale (North Dakota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, W. M.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    A shallow unconfined glaciofluvial aquifer in North Dakota (USA) has largest groundwater sulfate concentrations near the bottom boundary. A deltaic silt layer underlying the aquifer, at >16 m, is the modern proximate sulfate source for the aquifer. The original sulfate source was pyrite in the organic-rich shale component of the aquifer and silt grain matrix. An oxidizing event occurred during which grain-matrix pyrite sulfur was oxidized to sulfate. Thereafter the silt served as a "conserving" layer, slowly feeding sulfate into the lower part of the aquifer and the underlying till. A method was developed for estimating the approximate initial sulfate concentration in the source layer and the redistribution time since the oxidizing event, using a semi-generic convection-dispersion model. The convection-dispersion model and a model for the evolution of modern sulfate δ 34S in silt-layer pore water from the initial grain-matrix pyrite δ 34S, both estimated that the oxidizing event occurred several thousand years ago, and was likely related to the dry conditions of the Hypsithermal Interval. The silt layer also serves as an arsenic source. Results indicate that deltaic silts derived from organic-rich shale parent materials in a glacial environment can provide long-term sources for sulfate and arsenic and possibly other related oxidative weathering products.

  15. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  16. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  17. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  18. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  19. Sustainable Mining Land Use for Lignite Based Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Krysa, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to discuss complex lignite based energy projects economic viability and its impact on sustainable land use with respect to project risk and uncertainty, economics, optimisation (e.g. Lerchs and Grossmann) and importance of lignite as fuel that may be expressed in situ as deposit of energy. Sensitivity analysis and simulation consist of estimated variable land acquisition costs, geostatistics, 3D deposit block modelling, electricity price considered as project product price, power station efficiency and power station lignite processing unit cost, CO2 allowance costs, mining unit cost and also lignite availability treated as lignite reserves kriging estimation error. Investigated parameters have nonlinear influence on results so that economically viable amount of lignite in optimal pit varies having also nonlinear impact on land area required for mining operation.

  20. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  1. Radioactivity of Yatagan lignites and their ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, F.; Mustafaev, I.; Aliyev, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of harmful factor of Environmental impact of coal combustion is radiation pollution of Environment. The natural radioisotopes - uranium, thorium and potassium and products of their radioactive destruction contains of radionuclides. These radionuclides in composition of fly ash are thrown to atmosphere from coal combustion furnaces. The concentration of radioisotopes in composition of coals changes in the wide ranges: from 3 up to 520 Becquerel per kilogram (Bq/kg) for Uranium-238 and from 3 up to 320 Bq/kg for thorium-232. The radioactive pollution degree of environment depends on radioisotopes content of initial fuels. In this connection at the estimation of outlook and exploitation of coal mines it is necessary to determine of radioisotopes concentration in coals. That is why investigation of radioisotopes concentration of Turkish lignites has great importance. In this work the radionuclide content of Yatagan lignites and their ash, taken from Gekova thermal Electro station have been studied. The total radiation background generated by these samples was investigated by using of dosimeters 8P-5, CRP-88H, PYB-OIP. Radionuclides content of samples was determined in the Institute of Geology Azerbaijan national Academy of Sciences by using of highly sensitivity gamma-spectrometer CAPU-2, designed by Special Constructor Buro G eophysika . The plant allows to determine the radioisotopes content of solid and liquid samples with highly reliability. It has been established that in sample of lignite uranium content (on the radium equivalent) is 68 Bq/kg, potassium-149 Bq/kg and thorium is absent. The total radioactivity of lignite sample is 79,7 Bq/kg. In the ash sample uranium content is 266 Bq/kg, potassium-188 Bq/kg, and total activity reach to 300 Bq/kg. The possibility of application of purification erection for radionuclides from smoke gases of coal combustion is discussed

  2. Stoichiometric calculations of combustion of Lakhra lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lakhra coal field is largest productive coal field of Pakistan. About 1.5 millions tonne of this coal is, annually, mined and transported daily to various parts of the country in 500 trucks each of 10 tonnes of coal. The major consumers of this coal are brick kilns located in Sindh and Punjab. It is available at Rs. 500/- per tonne at mine head. A number of attempts were made for the production of power (electricity) by foreign companies. Feasibility studies were undertaken but no one set up power plant. It may be due to inferior quality of coal as it is lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur contents. This coal is also, very sensitive to spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is the auto-ignition of coal at ambient conditions. Hence there are storage problems. In spite of these drawbacks, a 3(50) Mega Watt (3 units of each 50 mega watt power generation capacity) power plant, based on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal technology (AFBC), was setup in early nineties. The performance of this plant remained poor. The main reasons might be poor quality of coal and limestone. Limestone is used with high sulfur Lakhra lignite, in fluidized bed combustor, to arrest sulfur of the coal, fixing sulfur as calcium sulfate to minimize hazardous emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Spontaneous combustion of Lakhra lignite is responsible for each fire of coal and conveyor belt etc. (author)

  3. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  4. Modifications of imaging spectroscopy methods for increases spatial and temporal consistency: A case study of change in leafy spurge distribution between 1999 and 2001 in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Kathleen Burke

    The noxious weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has spread throughout the northern Great Plains of North America since it was introduced in the early 1800s, and it is currently a significant management concern. Accurate, rapid location and repeatable measurements are critical for successful temporal monitoring of infestations. Imaging spectroscopy is well suited for identification of spurge; however, the development and dissemination of standardized hyperspectral mapping procedures that produce consistent multi-temporal maps has been absent. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, collected in 1999 and 2001 over Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, were used to locate leafy spurge. Published image-processing methods were tested to determine the most successful for consistent maps. Best results were obtained using: (1) NDVI masking; (2) cross-track illumination correction; (3) image-derived spectral libraries; and (4) mixture-tuned matched filtering algorithm. Application of the algorithm was modified to standardize processing and eliminate threshold decisions; the image-derived library was refined to eliminate additional variability. Primary (spurge dominant), secondary (spurge non-dominant), abundance, and area-wide vegetation maps were produced. Map accuracies were analyzed with point, polygon, and grid reference sets, using confusion matrices and regression between field-measured and image-derived abundances. Accuracies were recalculated after applying a majority filter, and buffers ranging from 1-5 pixels wide around classified pixels, to accommodate poor reference-image alignment. Overall accuracy varied from 39% to 82%, however, regression analyses yielded r2 = 0.725, indicating a strong relationship between field and image-derived densities. Accuracy was sensitive to: (1) registration offsets between field and image locations; (2) modification of analytical methods; and (3) reference data quality. Sensor viewing angle

  5. Forests of South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  6. Forests of South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  7. Forests of South Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data collected...

  8. Petrographic Composition of Lignite from the Lake Somerville Spillway (East-central Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Sandra; Bielowicz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    In the presented paper, the macroscopic and microscopic composition of lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway has been examined. The study area is the upper part of the Manning Formation, located north-west of Somerville in the central-eastern part of Texas. There are three exposures: NE, SW and MC (Main Central) with visible parts of late-Eocene lignite seams belonging to the Jackson Group. The Manning section is divided into four marine dominated parasequences (P1 through P4). Lignite samples outlining the P1 parasequence from the MC and NE outcrops and the argillate sample from the lower part of the P2 parasequence, NE outcrop. Macroscopic characterization was carried out based on lithological classifications of humic coal. On this basis, it has been shown that the main lithotype occurring in the deposit is detritic (matrix) coal with a high share of mineral matter. The maceral composition of coal was determined according to the ICCP guidelines. The macerals from liptinite group were determined under fluorescent light. The maceral group content analysis was performed with use of 500-600 equally spaced points on the surface of the polished sections. It has been found that the examined coal is dominated by macerals from the huminite group, with a share ranging from 20.8 to 65.3% volume, including atrinite (9.8-22.8% volume, 17.5% volume on average). In the examined coal, macerals from the inertinite group (10.1 to 44.8%), especially semifusinite (max. 13.9%), fusinite (max. 9.3%) and funginite (max. 6.3 %) are of particularly large share. In the liptinite group, particular attention was paid to the content of alginite (max. 4.5%) and bituminite (max. 1.3 %), which indicate the paralic sedimentation environment of the examined coal. Additionally, the variability of macerals and maceral groups within the exposures and levels of the P1 parasequence was examined. The last step was to compare lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway with other lignites belonging to the

  9. γ-ray activity in bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.; Giorgio, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens of three different types of coal from four different geographical locations (Montana, North Dakota, Illinois and Pennsylvania) were examined by γ-ray spectrometry. Some samples were ashed in a muffle furnace. Other samples included pulverized coal, slag and fly ash from an electric power generating station. Activity from the 232 Th and 238 U series was present in all samples. Activity varied widely depending upon the source of the coal. The results indicate a need for additional examination of activity in coal to: (1) establish more precisely the relative environmental impact of coal-fired power stations compared with nuclear ones, (2) indicate the degree of sophistication required in environmental surveillance programs involving areas where both nuclear and coal-fired power stations are operational, and (3) determine the occupational exposure risks in mining operations. (author)

  10. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  11. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  12. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  13. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  14. Environmental Info for South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in South Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  15. The application of Airborne Laser Scaning for identifying old lignite workings - case study: the mine "Borussia" near Ośno Lubuskie (Western Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontaszewska-Piekarz, Agnieszka; Mrówczyńska, Maria

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents the possibilities of using data obtained by airborne laser scanning for identifying areas where lignite used to be mined. The technology of airborne laser scanning presented in the paper as and its results have a vast potential in terms of identifying local terrain deformations. The paper also presents the history of lignite mining in the region of Ośno Lubuskie (the north-west of Ziemia Lubuska - western Poland). It describes underground mining in complicated geological conditions (glaciotectonic deformations). The paper is supplemented with historical maps showing the locations of the mines

  16. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploration of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by the opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, spreaders and high-speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  17. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploitation of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, headers and high speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  18. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F.; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  19. Level III Ecoregions of North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  20. 2015 State Geodatabase for North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  1. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  2. 77 FR 24661 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... agency rather than submit a balance sheet that is certified by a certified public accountant (CPA... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; public comment period and opportunity for public hearing on proposed amendment. SUMMARY: We are announcing receipt of a proposed...

  3. Level IV Ecoregions of North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  4. 50 CFR 32.53 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applies. D. Sport Fishing. [Reserved] Lostwood Wetland Management District A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting... hunt on the refuge any time the State bow season is open. 13. Youth deer hunters (14 years of age) may... Youth Deer Season except in designated closed areas around refuge headquarters, the wildlife observation...

  5. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2001-12-01

    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  6. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  7. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  8. Role of Neyveli lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    For more than two decades, about 35% of the energy demand of Tamil Nadu, a region of southern India, has been provided by Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC). NLC was founded as a company by the Indian government in 1956 and it comprises a lignite mine, a thermal power station, a briquetting and carbonisation plant; a fertilizer plant, a process steam plant, and a clay washing plant. The extent of the Neyveli lignite field, the production capacity of the three mines, and the linkage and utilisation of lignite are all considered. Future perspective plans beyond the seventh five year plan are reviewed. The use of coke and fertilizer by the chemical industries is outlined, and ecology and environmental control are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... under conservation protection. The area's strong and vibrant rural lifestyle, of which agriculture is the dominant land use, is one of the key components to ensuring habitat integrity and wildlife... conservation area are to protect 240,000 acres of wetland and 1.7 million acres of critical grassland habitat...

  10. Role of Neyveli Lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a government undertaking, has played an important role in power generation in the southern region of India by contributing about 35% of the energy consumed in Tamil Nadu for over two decades. Performance at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station demonstrates that it is more advantageous to make additions to thermal generating capacity at Neyvili using lignite. Exploration and development of the mines can support this expansion and make the southern region a nucleus for industrial development. 2 tables.

  11. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  12. Angler satisfaction in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kjetil R.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Many industries use satisfaction measures to evaluate performance. The South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks identified satisfaction as one of their performance measures for evaluating fishing in South Dakota. In fisheries management, the perspectives’ of license buyers are valuable to determine if management activities are providing the benefits anticipated by biologists. Surveys of South Dakota anglers are conducted to better understand licensees in order to promote satisfying angling experiences. Internet surveys were distributed to all license buyers providing email addresses in 2011 and 2012. Angler satisfaction was analyzed by angler type (demographics and fishing characteristics) to further clarify performance measures. Most anglers (> 70%) were satisfied with their angling experiences. Nonresidents expressed higher levels of satisfaction with fishing in South Dakota in 2011 and 2012 than residents. Anglers’ rating of fishing quality was more strongly correlated with satisfaction than their reported number of fish harvested, which suggests that strategies to influence angler perceptions and expectations can also be employed to influence satisfaction (in addition to techniques influencing fish populations). This research further integrates sociological data into South Dakota fisheries management processes.

  13. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. [USA - Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffney, B.H. (University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    The Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont contains the northernmost megafossil flora of Cenozoic angiosperms, and one of the most diverse Cenozoic pollen floras in northeastern North America. While the floristic composition clearly indicates deposition of the Brandon sediments in the warmer parts of the Cenozoic, previous attempts at a more precise stratigraphic placement have been inconclusive, ranging from Cretaceous to Miocene. Re-evaluation of existing and new fruit, seed and wood data from the Brandon flora in the context of other floras in the Northern Hemisphere leads to the conservative conclusion that the deposit could range from earliest Oligocene to Early Miocene. Several lines of potentially weak evidence favor an Early Miocene age, in agreement with recent biostratigraphic data from the associated pollen flora. It is concluded that the Brandon Lignite is Early Miocene.

  14. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  15. Selective coal mining of intercalated lignite deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, R [Kolubara-Projekt, Lazarevac (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-01

    Describes selective coal mining in the Tamnava-Istocno Polje coal surface coal mine (Yugoslavia), designed for an annual coal production of 11.4 Mt. Until 1991, this mine exploited one thick lignite seam, without spoil intercalations, using a bucket wheel excavator-conveyor-spreader system both for coal mining and removal of overburden. In the future, several spoil intercalations of up to 1.0 m and thicker will appear with a total volume of 22 million m{sup 3}. These intercalations have to be selectively excavated in order to guarantee the calorific value of coal for the Nikola Tesla power plant. Computer calculations were carried out to determine the decrease in excavator coal production due to selective mining of spoil strata. Calculations found that the annual surface mine capacity will be lower by at most 9%, depending on thickness of spoil intercalations. The useful operation time of excavators will be reduced by 98 hours per year. The planned annual coal production will nevertheless be fulfilled. 3 refs.

  16. South Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  17. South Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  18. South Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  19. South Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  20. South Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Andrew J. Lister; Douglas Haugan

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  1. South Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  2. Use of INAA for investigation of emission of elements in combustion of Polish lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Pohorecki, W.; Wagner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of trace elements content in samples of Polish lignite and its ash. Pairs of results, for lignite and ash, and respective ash contents were used for calculation of the percentage of element remaining in ash after the lignite combustion. (author)

  3. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  4. The thar lignite project in the Sindh province, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, L. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mining Dept., Koeln (Germany); Dittrich, W. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mechanical and Electrical Dept., Koeln (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    A prospective area of the known lignite deposit located in the Thar region was investigated with regard to the future development of an opencast mine. For this purpose, a bankable feasibility study was prepared that evaluates all relevant facts and additional exploration activities. The study includes among others: Geological report; Opencast mine planning; Equipment and infrastructure planning; Assessment of staff requirements; Conceptual design of the power station; Anticipation of environmental aspects; Bankable costing for lignite mining and power generation. In conclusion, the development of an opencast mine and the construction of a 1000 MW power station are feasible in technical and economic terms. For the mine, the shovel/truck method was proposed since it offers cost advantages. For the power station, a closed cooling circuit and pre-drying of the lignite was recommended due to water shortage in the Thar desert. The resulting prices for power generation are usual market costs in Pakistan. (orig.)

  5. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  6. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  7. The Evaluation Of Waste Plastic Burned With Lignite And Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    DURANAY, Neslihan; YILGIN, Melek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the combustion behavior of pellets prepared from binary and triple blends of waste plastic, biomass and lignite was investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system. Market bags as plastic waste and the furniture factory waste powder as a source of biomass and Bingöl Karlıova coal as a lignite were used. The effect of process temperature and the plastic mixing ratio on the combustion behavior of pellets was studied. Combustion data obtained from varied bed temperature...

  8. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Aberdeen quadrangle, South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Aberdeen, South Dakota map area. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  10. Lignite mining and electricity generation in Poland: The current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, Marek; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Ptak, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper presents the current state and future scenarios of Polish lignite mining. For many years, over 1/3 of domestic electricity, that is about 53–55 TWh, has been generated by lignite-fired power plants. Currently, with 63–66 million tons of extraction, Poland is the fourth lignite producer worldwide and the second in the European Union. There are three possible scenarios for the development of lignite mining in Poland by 2050. Unfortunately, despite the huge lignite resources, amounting to more than 23.5 billion tons, and great potential of the mining industry, the future of Polish lignite mining does not look optimistic from the economic point of view. This is associated with social and environmental problems, including the European Union's climate and energy policy. However, this may change in the event of a global economic crisis and unstable geopolitical conditions. Therefore, a new energy doctrine for Poland at least by 2050 is urgently needed. - Highlights: •Poland is one of the leaders in lignite production in the European Union. •Energy policy in Poland assumes a key role of lignite in energy mix. •Almost one-third of Polish electricity is currently generated from lignite. •For Polish lignite mining exist pessimistic, realistic and optimistic scenarios. •Extraction of lignite in Poland will gradually decrease in the coming decades.

  11. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Alangium became abundant, swamp forest ..... lagoons. 5.3.2 Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone. Type section: .... swamp and water edge, mangrove and coastal ele- ..... cysts in bottom sediments from the north Atlantic ocean.

  12. Structural insights from boron tribromide ether cleavage into lignites and low maturity coals from the New Zealand Coal Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2011-01-01

    structure, boron tribromide (BBr3) ether cleavage was applied to a series of lignite and coal samples of different maturity (R0 0.27–0.80%) obtained from coal mines and natural outcrops from the North and South Island of New Zealand. Terminal ether-bound alcohols rapidly decrease during diagenesis and occur...... over geological time scales. Polyether compounds were detected with chain length up to five carbon atoms. After a small decrease during the diagenetic phase these compounds occur in relatively high concentrations, even in the main catagenetic stage. This suggests that these linkage structures represent...

  13. Determination of ash-forming elements in lignite coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, C.; Werner, G.; Vogt, J.; Just, G.

    1990-01-01

    The most important methods are discussed suitable for the determination of ash-forming elements in coal. In this connection questions of the concentrations of elements in lignites, of the sample preparation, and of the selection of methods for the determination of ash-forming elements are addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different analysis techniques are shown using concrete examples. (author)

  14. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light

  15. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  16. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  17. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Radon measurements concerning engineering-geological problems in lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinicke, J

    1986-07-01

    Radon measurements have been carried out by the aid of solid-state track detectors at the highwall of a lignite mine in order to forecast the eventual course of a landslide. The measured radon distributions and their changes as a function of time indicated that the slope was geodynamically active, but it was not possible to forecast the rate of sliding.

  19. 40 CFR 81.427 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Dakota. 81.427 Section 81.427 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.427 South Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  20. South Dakota Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Matt; Outka, Janeen; McCorkle, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Student growth is one of two essential components of South Dakota's Teacher and Principal Effectiveness Systems. In the state systems, student growth is defined as a positive change in student achievement between two or more points in time. "The South Dakota SLO Handbook" provides support and guidance to public schools and school…

  1. South Dakota ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report defines an ITS/CVO program for the State of South Dakota. It is a Business Plan to guide the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technology for improving commercial vehicle operations (CVO) in South Dakota. This ITS/CVO...

  2. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouridis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO 2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  3. Organic petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical features of the Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits, NW Macedonia, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Ave. 357-359, GR-15231 Halandri, Athens (Greece); Kalaitzidis, Stavros P. [Geological Services, BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance, Central Queensland Office, Peak Downs Mine, Moranbah, QLD 4744 (Australia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-09-01

    The Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits in northern Greece provide the main coal source for the next generation of Greek power plants. A comparative characterization of these two lignite deposits is presented, covering the coal rank and the features of the maceral components, based on detailed coal petrography, and the mineralogical and geochemical features of the coals and their ashes, based on XRF and XRD analyses. The data are used to interpret the palaeoenvironments of the lignite beds, as well as factors that may affect their burnout behavior. Both deposits have a lignite C rank. The Mavropigi lignite is mainly a matrix lignite lithotype, whereas the Achlada deposit consists both of matrix and xylite-rich lithotypes. The Achlada lignite was formed in a fluviatile environment, mainly in the abandoned channels of a meandering river system during flooding periods; hence it is enriched in inorganic matter, with ash values > 30 wt.%. The Mavropigi lignite formed in a reed-marsh environment under limno-telmatic conditions, and displays ash values < 30 wt.%. The inorganic matter of the two deposits is different in composition due to the contrasting environments, and these differences should be taken into account in optimizing their utilization for power production. A preliminary assessment indicates that the Achlada lignite may have more favorable slagging and fouling properties than the Mavropigi lignite, although experimental studies are required for more solid conclusions to be reached. (author)

  4. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  5. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  6. Studies on Factors affecting the Evolution of Agroecosystems in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gaurav

    This dissertation combines remote sensing and applied economics tools to study land use conversions in North Dakota and South Dakota that are tied to this region's overall socio-economic welfare. Specifically, the region's corn and soybeans cultivation expanded significantly over the past decade replacing the region's grasslands and grain crops. In paper I, we estimate the localized impacts of the advent of corn-based ethanol plants on the Dakotas' corn acreage. We implement a Difference-in-Difference framework through more flexible assumptions as the Parallel Paths assumption of the standard model fails to hold. We find strong trends in the Dakotas' corn acreage over the past decade, but surprisingly some ethanol plants were found to have a negative impact on local corn acreage. In paper II, we evaluate crop competitiveness due to heterogeneous weather impacts on crop yields, and then test whether annual weather fluctuations explain land allocations among the Dakotas' major land uses. Our integrated framework suggests that annual weather variability is an important determinant of regional land use decisions. Under the A1B emissions scenario of climate change, we find that the yields of all of the Dakotas' major crops will decline by 2031-2060 relative to 1981-2010, leading to lower (higher) spring wheat (alfalfa) acres in Eastern (Western) Dakotas. In paper III, we develop and implement a satellite image-processing algorithm to estimate historical land use acres using raw Landsat sensor data, thereby extending the existing Cropland Data Layers back to 1984 in eastern Dakotas. We demonstrate that the availability of a longer time-series is useful as the rate of land use change may differ among different time-spans. In paper IV, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of grassland conservation easements when spatial spillovers are present among private landowners. We first develop a conceptual model to incorporate social spillovers in evaluating the role of easements in

  7. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Australian opencast-lignite mine Yallourn; Der australische Braunkohlentagebau Yallourn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscierski, Marcin; Goerlich, Michael [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I

    2009-01-15

    This article is about the open pit lignite mine Yallourn, located 150 km southeast of Melbourne (Figure 1). It focuses on the history, the geology and the environment. Furthermore, it describes the new mining method using large carry dozers. The open pit and the power plant are owned by TruEnergy (part of the CLP Group) and the mining activities are carried out in an Alliance with Roche Thiess Linfox (RTL). (orig.)

  9. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  10. Radiation doses of inhaled ash from the lignite power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Chaushevski, Anton

    1997-01-01

    The coal-fired thermal power plants in Macedonia use lignite obtained by surface mining. The lignite contains traces of thorium-232, uranium-238 and uranium-235, which are long-lived natural radioactive isotopes. After lignite combustion, the concentration of these isotopes in the ash is increased. Due to the long life of fossil materials, the decay products are basically grouped in three radioactive chains that are in a semi-steady state, resulting in equal activity of all isotopes from the chain. Among the members of each chain there are α and β emitters followed by γ quanta emitters. The energies of the α and β particles are important for determining the effective dose. The γ quanta provide information about the chain activity and isotope types. Gamma-spectroscopy studies of the ash samples from the power plants in the City of Bitola in Macedonia have confirmed the presence of several radioactive decay products from the uranium and thorium radioactive chains. Using measurements of the radioactivity of the ash in the Bitola region, the total dose from ash inhalation for the population in the Bitola region was calculated and presented in this paper. Also, analysis of the procedure for determining the maximum allowable dose from radioactive contamination of the environment, is described in this paper. (Original)

  11. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  12. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  13. Thermal dewatering of lignite: Phase III - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J; Kybett, B D

    1981-01-01

    Phase III of this project extended the investigation of thermal dewatering on several lignite and peat samples at the temperature range up to 400 degrees C and investigated variables such as retention time, increased rates of heating and cooling, extent of trace element removal, effect of particle size and effect of dewatering under heavy and light oils. Lignites from three areas of Canada (Estevan and Coronach, Saskatchewan, and Onakawana, Ontario) and one peat sample (Garrick, Saskatchewan) were thermally dewatered. The equilibrium moisture values obtained for the dewatered products were as low as, or lower than those obtained in Phases I and II of this project (350 degrees C). However, the measured moisture contents of the thermally dewatered Saskatchewan lignites were somewhat higher than those measured in Phases I and II. The equilibrium moisture values and the moisture contents decreased with increasing temperature. An optimum balance between extent of dewatering and resulting steam pressures is obtained for a dewatering temperature between 300 and 350 degrees C. At these temperatures, residence times in the order of 15 minutes are required. (35 refs.)

  14. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  15. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  16. Ameliorative properties of lignite fly ash in reclaiming saline and alkali soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, P K

    1973-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the yield of rice grain and straw reveals that there is a significant increase in the yield of grain and straw due to the application of lignite fly ash over controls and application of lignite fly ash either at 5 tons or 10 tons per acre was on par with gypsum application at 5 tons/acre. Maximum yield was recorded in treatment with 5 tons of daincha plus 5 tons of lignite fly ash per acre. This is due to the combined effect of green manure and lignite fly ash. 4 references, 3 tables.

  17. Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2014; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias; Milojcic, George [DEBRIV, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear energy and gradually realign the electricity system towards more renewables in the future required some extensive changes to electricity generation transmission. One of the issues to be considered is what role lignite can play in the transformation of the electricity system and what application is offered to Germany and its regions. However, lignite has some stable factors and their development is fairly predictable. Domestic lignite is one such example. Beyond its familiar attributes, 'secure, competitive and economically important for the regions', 'flexibility' is a key word that indicates a new dimension for the German lignite industry.

  18. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  19. Integration of Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes a NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) project focused on integrating Dakota into the NEAMS Workbench. The NEAMS Workbench, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new software framework that provides a graphical user interface, input file creation, parsing, validation, job execution, workflow management, and output processing for a variety of nuclear codes. Dakota is a tool developed at Sandia National Laboratories that provides a suite of uncertainty quantification and optimization algorithms. Providing Dakota within the NEAMS Workbench allows users of nuclear simulation codes to perform uncertainty and optimization studies on their nuclear codes from within a common, integrated environment. Details of the integration and parsing are provided, along with an example of Dakota running a sampling study on the fuels performance code, BISON, from within the NEAMS Workbench.

  20. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  1. Distribution and correlation of the natural radionuclides in a coal mine of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzis, L I; Fotakis, M; Tzimkas, N; Kolovos, N; Tsikritzi, R

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and correlation of six natural nuclides in the West Macedonia Lignite Center, Northern Greece were studied. Fifty-five samples of lignite, aged from 1.8 to 5 million years, and corresponding steriles, beds of marls, clays and sands alternating with the lignite, were collected perpendicular to the mine benches and measured spectroscopically. The mean concentrations of (238)U and (226)Ra in lignites were found to be higher than that in steriles since these nuclides are associated with the organic material of lignite, whereas (238)U/(226)Ra equilibrium was not observed in either lignites or steriles. Finally, the ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra in lignites was approximately double of that in steriles, confirming the affinity of the (238)U series with the coal matrix in contrast to the (232)Th series. No correlation was found between radionuclide concentrations and the depth of the sample, nor with the ash content of lignite.

  2. Biodegradation of photo-oxidized lignite and characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Liu, Xiangrong; Yue, Zilin; Zhang, Yaowen

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of photo-oxidized Inner Mongolia lignite by pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied and the degradation percentage reached 56.27%, while the corresponding degradation percentage of the strain degrading raw Inner Mongolia lignite is only 23.16%. The degradation products were characterized. Proximate and ultimate analyses show that the higher oxygen content increased by photo-oxidation pretreatment maybe promoted the degradation process. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis of the liquid product reveals that it contains unsaturated structures and aromatic rings are the main structure units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicates that the main components of the ethyl acetate extracts are low molecular weight organic compounds, such as ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, esters and alcohols. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis of raw lignite, photo-oxidized lignite and residual lignite demonstrates that the absorption peaks of functional groups in residual lignite disappeared or weakened obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis manifests that small holes appear in photo-oxidized lignite surface, which may be promote the degradation process and this is only from the physical morphology aspects, so it can be inferred from the tests and analyses results that the more important reason of the high degradation percentage is mostly that the photo-oxidation pretreatment changes the chemical structures of lignite.

  3. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  4. Sedimentologic and palynologic significance of finding tertiary lignites in an ancient rift zone lake (Chingla, Ethiopia). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedamawit, Y.; Bonnefille, R.; Faure, H.; Taieb, M.

    1984-01-01

    Oligocene-Pleistocene deposits at Chingla apparently lie atop Miocene basalts. The upper cross-section shows numerous lignite interlayers. This paper discusses mineral composition of lignites and enclosing rock. Palynologic analysis of the lignite cross-sections determined 23 layers.

  5. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  6. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  7. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE DRYING ON THE GRINDABILITY OF LIGNITE COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Güngören, Can; Özkan, Şafak Gökhan; Hacıfazlıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the representative lignite coal samples supplied from Kastamonu-Tosya region were dried in a conventional drying oven and a microwave oven, and then they were ground by a laboratory rod mill. The particle size analyses of the ground samples at various grinding times (10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes) were carried out, and the results were compared. As a result, the d80 particle sizes of the samples, dried in the conventional drying oven, were determined as 350, 183, 180, and 100 µm a...

  8. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  9. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K 2 SO 4 , CuF 2 , Sb 2 S 3 and Bi 2 S 3 have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF 2 a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%. Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs

  10. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  11. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  12. Synfuels from low-rank coals at the Great Plains Gasification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the use of low rank coals to form synfuels. A worldwide abundance of low rank coals exists. Large deposits in the United States are located in Texas and North Dakota. Low rank coal deposits are also found in Europe, India and Australia. Because of the high moisture content of lignite ranging from 30% to 60% or higher, it is usually utilized in mine mouth applications. Lignite is generally very reactive and contains varying amounts of ash and sulfur. Typical uses for lignite are listed. A commercial application using lignite as feedstock to a synfuels plant, Dakota Gasification Company's Great Plains Gasification Plant, is discussed

  13. Pathway To Low-Carbon Lignite Utilization; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FE0024233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Stanislowski, Joshua [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Tolbert, Scott [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Fiala, Nathan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Patel, Nikhil [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Laumb, Jason [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-05-31

    typically used. Their performance was good, and they may be good candidates for medium-pressure gasifiers, but much more scale-up work is needed. Next-generation power cycles are currently being developed and show promise for high efficiency, and the utilization of supercritical CO2 to drive a turbine could significantly increase cycle efficiency over traditional steam cycles. The EERC evaluated pressurized oxy-combustion technology from the standpoint of CO2 purification. If impurities can be removed, the costs for CO2 capture can be lowered significantly over postcombustion capture systems. Impurity removal consisted of a simple water scrubber referred to as the DeSNOx process. The process worked well, but corrosion management is crucial to its success. A model of this process was constructed. Finally, an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system model, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was modified to allow for the modeling of membrane systems in the IGCC process. This modified model was used to provide an assessment of the costs of membrane use at full scale. An economic estimation indicated a 14% reduction in cost for CO2 separation over the SELEXOL™ process. This subtask was funded through the EERC–DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FE0024233. Nonfederal sponsors for this project were the North Dakota Industrial Commission, Basin Electric Power Cooperative, and Allete, Inc. (including BNI Coal and Minnesota Power).

  14. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    .... FEMA-1938-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23... South Dakota resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 21-30, 2010, is of...

  15. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  16. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  17. 75 FR 47612 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    .... FEMA-1929-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1929-DR), dated July 29, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from...

  18. 75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FEMA-1947-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR), dated November 2, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  19. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  20. 78 FR 72093 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... FEMA-4155-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4155-DR), dated November 8, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  1. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  2. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  3. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  4. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  5. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  6. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthiphong Tara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the Aplan’s formula. The approximate work indices were determined by running a batch dry-grinding testusing a laboratory ball mill. Finally, the work indices obtained from both methods were compared. It was found that allsamples could be ranked as lignite B, using the heating value as criteria, if the content of mineral matter is neglected. Similarly,all samples can be classified as lignite with the Hargrove grindability indices ranging from about 40 to 50. However, there isa significant difference in the work indices derived from Hardgrove and simplified Bond grindability tests. This may be due todifference in variability of lignite properties and the test procedures. To obtain more accurate values of the lignite workindex, the time-consuming Bond procedure should be performed with a number of corrections for different milling conditions.With Hardgrove grindability indices and the work indices calculated from Aplan’s formula, capacity of the roller-racepulverizer and grindability of the Mae Moh lignite should be investigated in detail further.

  7. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  8. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraniotis Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water and ash content. The combustion of Greek predried lignite has been investigated experimentally and via numerical simulations in our previous research. This study focuses on the potential integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing Greek power plant with dry lignite co-firing thermal share of up to 30%. The radiative and convective heat fluxes to the boiler and the overall boiler heat balance is calculated for reference and dry lignite co-firing conditions by an in-house calculation code. The overall plant’s thermal cycle is then simulated using commercial thermal cycle calculation software. The net plant efficiency is in this way determined for reference and dry coal co-firing conditions. According to the simulation results the integration of a pre-drying system and the implementation of dry lignite co-firing may bring an efficiency increase of about 1.5 percentage points in existing Greek boilers. It is therefore considered as an important measure towards improving plant efficiency and reducing specific CO2 emissions in existing plants.

  9. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  10. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  11. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  12. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  14. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  15. Foreseen development of mining of lignite; Przewidywany rozwoj gornictwa wegla brunatnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Geo-engineering, Mining and Geology

    2004-07-01

    The future of activity in Poland's lignite sector will be determined by the demand for this fuel, which will in turn result from mining possibilities and economic competitiveness of the fuel in relation to other sources of electrical energy. The paper discusses all these factors and presents a framework programme for the development of Poland's lignite sector until 2040 (in detail) and further ahead to 2075, called the 'Agreement of manufacturers of lignite'. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  17. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Sparte Tagebaue

    2012-09-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mini ng in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equ ally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in powe r generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  18. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Opencast Mines Div.

    2012-03-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mining in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in power generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  19. Bucket wheel excavator performances at Neyveli lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, S; Mozumdar, B K

    1987-03-01

    Bucket-wheel excavators have been in use at the Neyveli Lignite Mine in the State of Tamil Nadu, India, since the early nineteen-sixties. The mining environment has been particularly harsh for BWE application. The adverse influencing factors are the hardness of the over-burden formation, high abrasivity of rock and artesian ground water conditions. In this paper, the performances of the BWEs at Neyveli have been statistically analysed to determine the effects of physico-mechanical properties of overburden, blasting and rainfall on machine productivity, availability, wear-and-tear of bucket teeth, power consumption, production efficiency and cost of mining. An empirical relationship between the production efficiency, defined as the ratio of actual production rate to the theoretical one, and the bench height and width, height of slices, specific cutting resistance of the overburden material and its clay content, consumption of explosives, and conveyor length has been established.

  20. PFBC development for lignite-fired CC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Meier, H.J.; Smuda, J.V.; Stuhlmueller, F. [VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A power station design based on pressurised combustion in a circulating fluid-bed is used to illustrate the principle, layout and potential of a lignite-fired combined power station. The fundamental reasons for concentrating on the circulating pressurised fluid-bed consist in its improved emission values, the possibility of separating heat source and heat sink, and better operating performance (part-load). This design has been developed as part of a feasibility study supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Tehcnology. The paper describes the design of the power plant components. Combustion trials carried out at the pilot plant in Friedrichsfield are reported and the cost-effectiveness of the innovatory design discussed. 10 figs.

  1. Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Frances

    1977-01-01

    A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending…

  2. A Profile of Homeschooling in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschee, Bonni F.; Boschee, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a statewide study to determine which factors influenced parents' decision making in electing to homeschool their children rather than send them to public school education in South Dakota. Analysis of data, using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations revealed that the most prevalent reasons for homeschooling…

  3. 40 CFR 81.342 - South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.342 South Dakota... McCook County McPherson County Meade County Mellette County Miner County Minnehaha County Moody County... Lyman County Marshall County McCook County McPherson County Meade County Mellette County Miner County...

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by South Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  5. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  6. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Lars; Voigt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  7. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  8. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    OpenAIRE

    Wutthiphong Tara; Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the A...

  9. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  10. Epidemiology of diphtheria in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaz, A; Lance-Parker, S; Welty, T; Schaefer, L; Volmer, L; LaFromboise, C; Dixon, J; Haase, T; Kim, C; Popovic, T; Bisgard, K; Strebel, P; Wharton, M

    2000-07-01

    Respiratory diphtheria was one of the most common causes of death among children in the pre-vaccine era. Since the introduction of diphtheria toxoid vaccine in 1920s, and its widespread use by the late 1940s, diphtheria became increasingly rare in the United States. However, through the 1970s diphtheria remained endemic in some states, with reported incidence rates > 1.0 per million population in six states (Alaska, Arizona, Montana, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Washington). Starting in 1980, less than five cases have been reported each year in the United States. The majority of culture-confirmed cases have been associated with importation from other countries. Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the organism causing diphtheria, was thought to have become rare or even have disappeared from previously endemic areas such as South Dakota. However, during four months in 1996, 11 persons (one index case, six patients and four household contacts) in an American Indian community in South Dakota were found to be infected by C. diphtheriae; six of these isolates were toxigenic. The findings in this report indicate that despite 20 years without reported respiratory diphtheria cases, toxigenic C. diphtheriae is still present in South Dakota. The continuous circulation of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need for health care providers throughout South Dakota to promote timely vaccination against diphtheria among persons of all ages and ethnic groups, to be aware of the clinical signs and symptoms of diphtheria so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease.

  11. 76 FR 38013 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of... Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City, South Dakota to the confluence of the Missouri River and... Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge in North Sioux City, SD at 42.52 degrees North, 096.48...

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Employment Nondiscrimination Legislation in South Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Naomi G; Badgett, M V Lee; Ramos, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the issue of employment discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) citizens of South Dakota. We used the best available data from government sources and from recent research to examine the impact of employment discrimination on LGBT people and on South Dakota businesses. Specifically this report concludes that as many as 12,400 gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals live in South Dakota, and estimates suggest that 2,000 transgender individuals l...

  14. Coefficients of conservatism for the vascular flora of the Dakotas and adjacent grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Floristic quality assessment can be used to identity natural areas, to facilitate comparisons among different sites, to provide long-term monitoring of natural area quality, and to evaluate habitat management and restoration efforts. To facilitate the use of floristic quality assessment in North Dakota, South Dakota (excluding the Black Hills), and adjacent grasslands, we developed a species list and assigned coefficients of conservatism (C values; range 0 to 10) to each plant species in the region's flora. The C values we assigned represented our collective knowledge of the patterns of occurrence of each plant species in the Dakotas and our confidence that a particular taxon is natural-area dependent. Because state boundaries usually do not follow ecological boundaries, the C values we assigned should be equally valid in nearby areas with the same vegetation types. Of the 1,584 taxa we recognized in this effort, 275 (17%) were determined to be nonnative to the region. We assigned C values of 4 or higher to 77% of our taxa, and the entire native flora had a mean C value (C) of 6.l. A floristic quality index (FQI) can be calculated to rank sites in order of their floristic quality. By applying the coefficients of conservatism supplied here and calculating C and FQI, an effective means of evaluating the quality of plant communities can be obtained. Additionally, by repeating plant surveys and calculations of C and FQI over time, temporal changes in floristic quality can be identified.

  15. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  16. A study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-06-01

    The purpose is to provide technology for upgrading lignite to a cleaner fuel that is capable of improving utility plant operation and is more acceptable to the non-utility sector. Beneficiated lignite can provide a middle alternative between low-grade and high-grade fuels. The results for phase IV include a conceptual design for a lignite beneficiation plant and a marketing study for the product. The beneficiated lignite is cheaper to transport, easier to handle, cleaner, allows better plant operation with higher availability, reduced slagging and fouling, reduced sulphur, and lower operating and maintenance costs. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Salamander colonization of Chase Lake, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; McLean, Kyle I.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Salt concentrations in lakes are dynamic. In the western United States, water diversions have caused significant declines in lake levels resulting in increased salinity, placing many aquatic species at risk (Galat and Robinson 1983, Beutel et al. 2001). Severe droughts can have similar effects on salt concentrations and aquatic communities (Swanson et al. 2003). Conversely, large inputs of water can dilute salt concentrations and contribute to community shifts (Euliss et al. 2004).

  18. Flood Control at Grafton, North Dakota, Park River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    expected to occur, in the escarpment forest include mice, shrews , voles, bats, rabbits, squirrels, muskrat, woodchuck, beaver, pocket gopher, ground...although short-grass prairie would probably eventually be invaded by either taller tame grasses, such as brome, or taller native grasses). 2. The ...grass prairie would eventually be invaded by either taller tame grasses (brome) or taller natives in this area. Thus, the statement that "there would

  19. Online Learning: Addressing Challenges and Seizing Opportunities. North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    America's K-12 education system faces three significant challenges: (1) increased global demands for skilled workers, (2) significant financial shortfalls, and (3) a looming teacher shortage. Independently, these factors present significant challenges for U.S. schools. In combination, they create a national imperative for swift action to create a…

  20. Elevation - LiDAR Survey - Sheyenne River, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Airborne laser terrain mapping utilizing dual-frequency airborne GPS control and conventional control is conducted along the Sheyenne River, from the area where the...