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Sample records for north cheshire oro-facial

  1. Prevalence of Oro-Facial Lesions in Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Oro-facial lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of HIV infection. These were commonly observed in HIV infected Nigerian women. Oral candidiasis the most common oral lesion observed in the series may therefore be used as a clinical indicator of early immunodeficiency associated with HIV.

  2. Oro-facial carcinoma in kaduna | Adeola | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient and Method A 5-years retrospective study of 211 patients with Oro-facial cancers in the maxillo-facial unit of Ahmadu Bello University Kaduna, was carried out. The demographic pattern, clinical features, Histopathological findings and treatments modalities as obtained from the patients' folder were studied.

  3. Oro-facial-digital syndrome Type 1: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Singh Dhull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oro-Facial Digital Syndrome (OFDS is a generic term for group of apparently distinctive genetic diseases that affect the development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. One of these is OFDS type I (OFDS-I which has rarely been reported in Asian countries. This is the case report of a 13 year old patient with OFDS type I who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, with the complaint of discolored upper front teeth.

  4. Oro-facial evaluation of women with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyuela, C P S; Furtado, R N V; Chiari, A; Natour, J

    2015-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an aggressive articular autoimmune disease that causes deformities and disability. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) might be affected by this disease. Few controlled studies have evaluated bite force (BF) and oro-facial manifestations of this disease. To characterise oro-facial alterations in patients with RA, correlate these results with clinical and disease activity parameters and correlate BF with hand strength (HS). A cross-sectional study of 150 women was performed, (75 RA patients (RA group) and 75 healthy individuals (control group). The presence of articular sounds, pain on palpation of masseter, temporal and TMJ lateral pole, changes in occlusion, range of mandibular motion, measurement of BF in the incisor and molar regions and assessment of HS were evaluated. In relation to oro-facial evaluation there were statistical differences between the groups. There was correlation between BF and HS, in the RA group, this correlation was consistent in patients with natural teeth. Patients with RA had lower scores (P < 0·05) in the HAQ, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires than the control group. Inverse correlations were found between BF and HAQ, but not between BF and DAS-28, DASH and OHIP-14 questionnaires in the RA group. The women with RA presented more signs and symptoms in the oro-facial region and had a lower BF than the women in the control group. BF was inversely correlated with the overall function (evaluated by the HAQ) in the patients with RA, and there were correlations between BF and HS in the RA patients and in the control group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Oro-facial injuries and mouth guard use in sports: Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coaches in Nigeria claimed to recognise the importance of mouth guards in prevention of oro-facial injuries during sports but need more information in this regard. Key Words: Oro-facial injuries; mouth guard; sports; knowledge and attitude; Nigerian Coaches. Nig. J Health and Biomed. Sciences Vol.2(2) 2003: 68-72 ...

  6. Team approach to management of oro.facial cleft among African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An interdisciplinary team approach concept has been proposed for management of oro.facial cleft in the last two decades. Our objective was to evaluate the practice of the team approach concept and practices of the specialists involved in oro.facial cleft care in Africa. Materials and Methods: A snapshot survey ...

  7. Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwonwu, C O; Falkler, W A; Idigbe, E O

    2000-01-01

    Cancrum oris (Noma) is a devastating infectious disease which destroys the soft and hard tissues of the oral and para-oral structures. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency in some communities varies from 1 to 7 cases per 1000 population. The risk factors are poverty, malnutrition, poor oral hygiene, residential proximity to livestock in unsanitary environments, and infectious diseases, particularly measles and those due to the herpesviridae. Infections and malnutrition impair the immune system, and this is the common denominator for the occurrence of noma. Acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG) and oral herpetic ulcers are considered the antecedent lesions, and ongoing studies suggest that the rapid progression of these precursor lesions to noma requires infection by a consortium of micro-organisms, with Fusobacterium necrophorum (Fn) and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) as the suspected key players. Additional to production of a growth-stimulating factor for Pi, Fn displays a classic endotoxin, a dermonecrotic toxin, a cytoplasmic toxin, and a hemolysin. Without appropriate treatment, the mortality rate from noma is 70-90%. Survivors suffer the two-fold afflictions of oro-facial mutilation and functional impairment, which require a time-consuming, financially prohibitive surgical reconstruction.

  8. Electronic cigarette devices and oro-facial trauma (Literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. F.; Ismail, A. F.; Daud, A.

    2017-08-01

    Detrimental effects of cigarette smoking have been well described and recognized globally. With recent advancement of technology, electronic cigarette has been introduced and gained its popularity and became a global trend, especially among young adults. However, the safety of the electronic devices remains debatable. This paper aimed to compile and review the reported cases of oro-facial trauma related to the usage of electronic cigarette devices. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline in December 2016. The search terms used were a combination of “oral trauma”, “dental trauma”, “oral injury” and “electronic cigarette”. The search included all abstract published from the inception of the database until December 2016. Abstract that was written in English, case report, letter to editors, clinical and human studies were included for analysis. All selected abstract were searched for full articles. A total of 8 articles were included for review. All of the articles were published in 2016 with mostly case reports. The sample size of the studies ranged from 1 to 15 patients. Seven of the included articles are from United States of America and one from Mexico. Our review concluded that the use of electronic cigarette devices posed not only a safety concern but also that the devices were mostly unregulated. There should be a recognized authority body to regulate the safety and standard of the electronic devices.

  9. A Survey of Patients with Oro-Facial tumours in two Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... oro-facial tumours with the aim of utilizing the information therein for early detection of the disease entities. One hundred and forty two individuals completed a 39 item written questionnaire that focused on socio-demographics, knowledge of oral tumor risk factors, signs and symptoms of disease and care seeking behavior ...

  10. An update on pathophysiological mechanisms related to idiopathic oro-facial pain conditions with implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssell, H; Jääskeläinen, S; List, T; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2015-04-01

    Chronic oro-facial pain conditions such as persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), atypical odontalgia (AO) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), usually grouped together under the concept of idiopathic oro-facial pain, remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Lack of understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of these pain conditions is one of the important reasons behind the problems in diagnostic and management. During the last two decades, neurophysiological, psychophysical, brain imaging and neuropathological methods have been systematically applied to study the trigeminal system in idiopathic oro-facial pain. The findings in these studies have provided evidence for neuropathic involvement in the pathophysiology of PIFP, AO and BMS. The present qualitative review is a joint effort of a group of oro-facial pain specialists and researchers to appraise the literature on idiopathic oro-facial pain with special focus on the currently available studies on their pathophysiological mechanisms. The implications of the findings of these studies for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic oro-facial pain conditions are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dentists' Preferences for Diagnosis, Management and Referral of Chronic Oro-Facial Pain: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vishal R.; Joughin, Amy; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Appelbe, Priscilla; Tickle, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the diagnosis, treatment and referral patterns of chronic oro-facial pain patients by generalist primary care dentists (GDPs) in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a non-stratified random sample of 500 GDPs who were selected from the General Dental Council register. A self-complete postal questionnaire…

  12. Invasive cervical resorption and the oro-facial cleft patient: a review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, A; McNamara, C; Ireland, A; Sandy, J; Puryer, J

    2017-05-12

    Introduction Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) has an unknown aetiology, yet it exhibits very aggressive behaviour compared with typical external root resorption, posing a high risk of tooth loss.Aim To investigate the number of patients at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department with an oro-facial cleft who experienced ICR and to identify any possible aetiological factors.Materials and method A retrospective investigation of all oro-facial cleft patients treated at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department, St James's Hospital, Dublin. All patients' clinical and radiological records were reviewed. Patients where tooth loss became inevitable due to Class 4 ICR were analysed.Results From 588 oro-facial cleft patients, 14 (2.38%) patients with ICR were identified. Of these eight (57%) were female and six (43%) were male. Mean age at diagnosis was 28 years (range = 16-49 years). Cleft type: six (42.1%) unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight (57.9%) bilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventeen ICR affected teeth in total, with eleven (65%) maxillary central incisors, two (12%) maxillary lateral incisors, four (23%) maxillary canines, and one (7%) central, lateral and canine affected. Some, (N = 10, 71.4%) presented with ICR resulting in immediate tooth loss. Other patients (N = 4, 28.6%) developed ICR during or following prosthodontic treatment at the Cleft Centre. Tooth loss for this cohort, though not immediate, was inevitable. All had undergone fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and twelve had received dento-alveolar bone grafts. A number (N = 7, 50%) had undergone osteotomy, two (14%) had received night guard vital dental whitening and one had a history of trauma.Conclusions ICR, given its aggressive nature and ill-understood aetiology, poses significant treatment challenges. The most severe form of ICR (Class 4) leads inevitably to tooth loss. The slow-moderate progression of ICR may explain the late presentation found in this study, reinforcing the importance

  13. Oro-facial pain and temporomandibular disorders classification systems: A critical appraisal and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasser, G D; Manfredini, D; Goulet, J-P; De Laat, A

    2018-03-01

    It is a difficult undertaking to design a classification system for any disease entity, let alone for oro-facial pain (OFP) and more specifically for temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A further complication of this task is that both physical and psychosocial variables must be included. To augment this process, a two-step systematic review, adhering to PRISMA guidelines, of the classification systems published during the last 20 years for OFP and TMD was performed. The first search step identified 190 potential citations which ultimately resulted in only 17 articles being included for in-depth analysis and review. The second step resulted in only 5 articles being selected for inclusion in this review. Five additional articles and four classification guidelines/criteria were also included due to expansion of the search criteria. Thus, in total, 14 documents comprising articles and guidelines/criteria (8 proposals of classification systems for OFP; 6 for TMD) were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. For each, a discussion as to their advantages, strengths and limitations was provided. Suggestions regarding the future direction for improving the classification process with the use of ontological principles rather than taxonomy are discussed. Furthermore, the potential for expanding the scope of axes included in existing classification systems, to include genetic, epigenetic and neurobiological variables, is explored. It is therefore recommended that future classification system proposals be based on combined approaches aiming to provide archetypal treatment-oriented classifications. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Isolation and molecular identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum from Nigerian patients with oro-facial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaokorie, F O; Coker, A O; Ogunsola, F T; Avika-Campos, M J; Gaetti-Jardim, E; Ayanbadejo, P O; Umeizudike, K A; Abdurrazaq, O T

    2011-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most common anaerobic bacteria present in the oral cavity and is often isolated from infections involving other body sites. To characterise F. nucleatum strains from patients attending a teaching hospital in Nigeria in order to provide information on the methods for accurate identification of anaerobes in clinical specimen. Fusobacterium nucleatum specie from 50 patients presenting with oro-facial infections were studied by culture on Fusobacterium selective agar and fastidious anaerobe agar. The isolates were characterised based on colonial morphology, microscopy, lipase production, susceptibility to kanamycin and colistin and resistance to vancomycin. Biochemical tests were performed using a commercial test kit. The identity of the isolates was confirmed based on molecular characterization performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Forty-eight (96%) F. nucleatum isolates were obtained from the 50 patients by culture and all the isolates were identified by colonial appearance and microscopy based on their unique spindle shape with tapered ends. Only 26 (54.2%) of the 48 isolates were identified by commercial API 20A test kit while PCR confirmed the identity of all the isolates. Anaerobes are involved in human infections and their study is quite cumbersome due to tedious nature and high cost of the techniques involved. Cultural method is reliable in the isolation and identification of F. nucleatum species. PCR is a rapid and simple method that can complement the phenotypic identification of anaerobes and would assist in their full identification.

  15. Long-term side effects on the temporomandibular joints and oro-facial function in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with a mandibular advancement device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe, S W; Bakke, M; Svanholt, P

    2017-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the oro-facial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim was to inv......Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the oro-facial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim...

  16. A propósito de un caso: terapia oro-facial como tratamiento complementario de la espasticidad en niños con PCI

    OpenAIRE

    González Alberdi, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Debido a la prevalencia de niños con PCI espástica y buscando el avance en esta patología, siempre será de utilidad la búsqueda de otras alternativas de tratamiento, en este caso en fisioterapia, para poder valernos de un mayor número de herramientas. En este caso, se valorará la eficacia del tratamiento fisioterápico oro-facial en la espasticidad. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia de la terapia oro-facial en la disminución de la espasticidad en un paciente con PCI. Metodo...

  17. Distinctive Skeletal Abnormalities With No Microdeletions or Microduplications on Array-CGH in a Boy With Mohr Syndrome (Oro-Facial-Digital Type II)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Pospischill, Renata; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    We describe a constellation of distinctive skeletal abnormalities in an 8-year-old boy who presented with the full clinical criteria of oro-facial-digital (OFD) type II (Mohr syndrome): bony changes of obtuse mandibular angle, bimanual hexadactyly and unilateral synostosis of the metacarpo-phalanges of 3-4, bilateral coxa valga associated with moderate hip subluxation, over-tubulation of the long bones, vertical talus of the left foot and talipes equinovarus of the right foot respectively. In...

  18. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  19. The Cheshire Cat principle for hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Cheshire Cat point of view where the bag in the chiral bag model has no physical significance, but only a notational one is argued for. It is explained how a fermion - in, say, a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model - escapes the bag by means of an anomaly. The possibility to construct sophisticated hybrid bag models is suggested which use the lack of physical significance of the bag to fix the many parameters so as to anyway give hope of a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  20. The Cheshire Cat principle applied to hybrid bag models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Wirzba, A.

    1987-05-01

    Here is argued for the Cheshire Cat point of view according to which the bag (itself) has only notational, but no physical significance. It is explained in a 1+1 dimensional exact Cheshire Cat model how a fermion can escape from the bag by means of an anomaly. We also suggest that suitably constructed hybrid bag models may be used to fix such parameters of effective Lagrangians that can otherwise be obtained from experiments only. This idea is illustrated in a calculation of the mass of the pseudoscalar η' meson in 1+1 dimension. Thus there is hope to find a construction principle for a phenomenologically sensible model. (orig.)

  1. ORO-FACIAL CARCINOMA IN KADUNA, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Adeola DS

    the country but a significant majority 144 (68.25%) patients group are ... the majority 136. (64.45%) were Hausas a dominant tribal group in the. Northern Nigeria. House wives and farmers were also significantly affected. When tumour histology was ... Institute commission on oral Health Research and. Epidemiology held ...

  2. The Quantum Cheshire Cat effect: Theoretical basis and observational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Q.; Kanjilal, S.; Sinha, U.; Home, D.; Matzkin, A.

    2018-04-01

    The Quantum Cheshire Cat (QCC) is an effect introduced recently within the Weak Measurements framework. The main feature of the QCC effect is that a property of a quantum particle appears to be spatially separated from its position. The status of this effect has however remained unclear, as claims of experimental observation of the QCC have been disputed by strong criticism of the experimental as well as the theoretical aspects of the effect. In this paper we clarify in what precise sense the QCC can be regarded as an unambiguous consequence of the standard quantum mechanical formalism applied to describe quantum pointers weakly coupled to a system. In light of this clarification, the raised criticisms of the QCC effect are rebutted. We further point out that the limitations of the experiments performed to date imply that a loophole-free experimental demonstration of the QCC has not yet been achieved.

  3. The grin of Cheshire cat resurgence from supersymmetric localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Dorigoni, Philip Glass

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available First we compute the $\\mbox{S}^2$ partition function of the supersymmetric $\\mathbb{CP}^{N-1}$ model via localization and as a check we show that the chiral ring structure can be correctly reproduced. For the $\\mathbb{CP}^1$ case we provide a concrete realisation of this ring in terms of Bessel functions. We consider a weak coupling expansion in each topological sector and write it as a finite number of perturbative corrections plus an infinite series of instanton-anti-instanton contributions. To be able to apply resurgent analysis we then consider a non-supersymmetric deformation of the localized model by introducing a small unbalance between the number of bosons and fermions. The perturbative expansion of the deformed model becomes asymptotic and we analyse it within the framework of resurgence theory. Although the perturbative series truncates when we send the deformation parameter to zero we can still reconstruct non-perturbative physics out of the perturbative data in a nice example of Cheshire cat resurgence in quantum field theory. We also show that the same type of resurgence takes place when we consider an analytic continuation in the number of chiral fields from $N$ to $r\\in\\mathbb{R}$. Although for generic real $r$ supersymmetry is still formally preserved, we find that the perturbative expansion of the supersymmetric partition function becomes asymptotic so that we can use resurgent analysis and only at the end take the limit of integer $r$ to recover the undeformed model.

  4. A gilded cage is still a cage: Cheshire West widens 'deprivation of liberty'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Catherine; Exworthy, Tim

    2015-02-01

    The Supreme Court's recent judgment in Cheshire West has clarified, and broadened, the legal definition of deprivation of liberty, with the new definition reflecting the fact that human rights apply to everyone in the same way. The widely criticised Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards need to be replaced: recommendations for reform are set out. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  5. A Ten Year Retrospective Survey of Childhood Oro-facial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Reports in the literature on childhood orofacial neoplasms do not seem to agree on a prevalent pathology, with several authors expressing a divide on the prevalence of orofacial malignancies. Objective To review the relevant clinico-pathologic features of neoplasms of the orofacial region amongst children in a ...

  6. The impact of the Supreme Court judgment in Cheshire West v P on the human rights of vulnerable patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The UK Supreme Court's judgment in Cheshire West and Chester Council v P [2014] has had a huge impact on the promotion of human rights of vulnerable patients. The ruling emphasises the positive duty on the state and its organisations, such as the NHS, to have in place procedures that independently confirm that the human rights of those vulnerable patients are being applied in the same way as any other human being. This article discusses the background and basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Cheshire West and its impact on vulnerable patients.

  7. Color anomaly and flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton in the chiral bag: the Cheshire Cat revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.; Vento, V.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. We show that the presence of this surface term first discovered several years ago allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. This has relevance to what is referred to as the ''proton spin problem'' on the one hand and to the Cheshire-Cat phenomenon in hadron structure on the other. We show that when calculated to the leading order in the color gauge coupling and for a specific color electric monopole configuration in the bag, one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge. (orig.)

  8. Geohydrology and conceptual model of a ground-water-flow system near a Superfund site in Cheshire, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J.R.; Barlow, P.M.; Starn, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation of ground-water quality has been identified in an area of the north-central part of the town of Cheshire, Connecticut. An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was done during 1994-95 to characterize the unconsolidated glacial deposits and the sedimentary bedrock, integrate the local geohydrologic conditions with the regional geohydrologic system, and develop a conceptual understanding of ground-water flow in the study area. A regional ground-water-flow model developed for the region near the study area indicates that perennial streams, including Judd Brook and the Tenmile River, form hydrologic divides that separate the larger region into hydraulically independent flow systems. In the local study area, synoptic water-level measurements made in June 1995 indicate that ground water near the water table flows west and southwestward from the low hill on the eastern side of the area toward the pond and wetlands along Judd Brook. Water-level data indicate that there is good hydraulic connection between the unconsolidated materials and underlying fractured bedrock. Unconsolidated materials in the study area consist principally of glacial stratified deposits that are fine sand, silt, and clay of glaci- olacustrine origin; locally these overlie thin glacial till. The glacial sediments range in thickness from a few feet to about 25 ft in the eastern part of the study area and are as much as 100 ft thick in the western and southern part of the study area beneath the Judd Brook and Tenmile River valleys. Fluvial redbeds of the New Haven Arkose underlie the glacial deposits in the region; in the study area, the redbeds consist of (1) channel sandstone units, which are coarse sandstone to fine conglomerate, generally in 6- to 15-ft- thick sequences; and (2) overbank mudstone units, which are siltstone and silty sandstone with some fine sandstone, generally in 6- to 50-ft-thick sequences. Thin

  9. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  10. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, A.

    1997-01-01

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell's oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs

  12. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Mordecai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV; a double stranded DNA (dsDNA virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  13. A prospective audit of early stoma complications in colorectal cancer treatment throughout the Greater Manchester and Cheshire colorectal cancer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, K L; Zammit, M; Smith, A; Kenyon, D; Lees, N P

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the incidence of early stoma problems after surgery for colorectal cancer to identify predisposing factors and to assess the effect on discharge from hospital and the greater need for community stoma care. A prospective study of 192 patients was carried out over a six-month period in the 13 units of the Greater Manchester and Cheshire Cancer Network. Stoma problems were categorized into fistula, leakage, pancaking, necrosis, retraction, separation, stenosis, skin problems, parastomal hernia, suboptimal stoma site and need for resiting or refashioning. Differences in incidence between units (anonymized) were analysed, and the effect of stoma complications on length of hospital stay and the need for additional community stoma care was determined. One hundred and ninety-two patients with stomas were included, of which 52 (27.1%) were identified as being problematic (range 0-66.7% between units). Significant risk factors included stoma type (colostomy) (P stoma length (P = 0.006), higher BMI (P = 0.043), emergency surgery (P = 0.002) and lack of preoperative site marking (P stomas were associated with longer hospital stay (P care (P Stoma type, stoma length, body mass index, emergency surgery and lack of preoperative marking were significant risk factors. Overall complication rates compare favourably with other studies. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Laser therapy in the management of dental and oro-facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbar, Arun A.

    2007-02-01

    This is a clinical presentation demonstrating the efficacy of laser therapy in the treatment of patients presenting with trauma to both the hard and soft tissue in the orofacial region. The use of laser therapy aids the management of these cases where the patients often present with anxiety and a low pain threshold. The outcomes in these cases indicate good patient acceptance of the treatment, enhanced repair and tissue response suggesting that this form of treatment can be indicated for these patients. A combination of hard and soft lasers are used for the comprehensive dental management and treatment of these cases. The lasers used are a 810nm diode and an Er.CrYSGG.

  15. Facial, nasal, maxillary, mandibular, and oro-facial heights of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each perameter was measured several times with a vernier sliding caliper until three consistent values were obtained. Results: The results obtained indicate a sexual dimorphism, with a significantly higher value of all the perameters in males compared to females (p<0.05). Conclusion: The mean values of these perameters ...

  16. Management of an oro-facial soft tissue defect: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Plastic Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Antenatal determinants of oro-facial clefts in Southern Nigeria | Omo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate, is the most common serious congenital anomaly that affects the orofacial regions. The management and care of the cleft patient constitutes a substantial proportion of the workload of the Nigerian maxillofacial surgeon and allied specialties. Yet, there are no specific ...

  18. Civilian Gunshot injuries to the Oro-facial region in Calabar, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period and highlights the rising trend in the occurrence of gun shot injuries to the orofacial region as experienced in the south-south region of Nigeria ... The focus was on the patient\\'s age, gender, type of weapons used, the surrounding circumstances (accidental or intentional), the time of occurrence and management.

  19. Cysts of the Oro-Facial region: A clinico-pathologic review of 403 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The treatment modalities included marsupialisation, enucleation, enucleation with peripheral osteotomy and surgical excision of non-epithelial cyst of the jaws. The follow-up period ranged from a minimum of six month to five years. Such follow-up consisted of examination and periapical or panoramic radiographs.

  20. Oro-facial trauma in child abuse fatalities | Phillips | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many children die as a result of abuse and neglect each year. Early recognition and effective intervention are crucial factors in the fight against this. Child mortality rates increased in South Africa between 1998 and 2004, with child abuse deaths constituting part of these statistics. Autopsies on children who have died of ...

  1. Antibiotic Prescribing for Oro-Facial Infections in the Paediatric Outpatient: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Dar-Odeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports on the complications associated with antibiotics abuse during the treatment of paediatric patients, particularly those related to antimicrobial resistance. The dental profession is no exception; there is growing evidence that dental practitioners are misusing antibiotics in the treatment of their paediatric patients. This review is directed to dental practitioners who provide oral healthcare to children. It is also directed to medical practitioners, particularly those working in emergency departments and encountering children with acute orofacial infections. A systematic search of literature was conducted to explore the clinical indications and recommended antibiotic regimens for orofacial infections in paediatric outpatients. The main indications included cellulitis, aggressive periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and pericoronitis. Amoxicillin was found to be the most commonly recommended antibiotic for short durations of 3–5 days, with metronidazole or azithromycin being the alternative antibiotics in penicillin-sensitive patients.

  2. Agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing of changes in oro-facial somatosensory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, J; De Laat, A; Constantinus, P; Svensson, P; Baad-Hansen, L

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative somatosensory testing (QualST) is a simple chairside test. It can be used to roughly assess the presence or absence of altered somatosensory function. To use QualST clinically, it is important to assess its agreement with quantitative sensory testing (QST). The aims of this study were to assess the agreement between QST and QualST when testing the modulation of facial sensitivity by capsaicin in healthy participants and to explore the agreement between QST and QualST in assessing the intraoral sensory function in clinical atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. Eighteen healthy pain-free adults and data from 27 AO patients were included in the study. Thirteen QST and three QualST parameters were evaluated at each site. Z-scores were computed for healthy participants, and Loss-Gain scores were created. The agreement observed between QST and QualST in participants with no alterations in facial sensation (placebo) was good, that is ranging from 89% to 94%. A poorer agreement was seen after capsaicin application in all test modalities with agreement ranging from 50% to 72%. The commonest misclassification observed was participants classified as normal according to QST, but hyper- or hyposensitive according to QualST after capsaicin application, especially for cold and pinprick. A similar trend was observed in AO patients where patients classified as normal using QST were misclassified as hypersensitive and in few patients as hyposensitive by QualST. In conclusion, the study showed that QualST may be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting, especially to show that subjects have normal sensory function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An assessment of the impact of home safety assessments on fires and fire-related injuries: a case study of Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, B N; Thurston, M N

    2013-06-01

    Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2007/08 versus 2008/09-2010/11] and associated injuries (IRR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.39-0.60, P < 0.001, 2002/03-2006/07 versus 2007/08-2010/11), but not in the proportion of fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.

  4. Functional and Aesthetic Outcome of Reconstruction of Large Oro-Facial Defects Involving the Lip after Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denewer, A.D.; Setie, A.E.; Hussein, O.A.; Aly, O.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a challenging disease to both surgeons and radiation oncologists due to proximity of many important anatomical structures. Surgery could be curative as these cancers usually metastasize very late by blood stream. Aim of the Work: This work addresses the oncologic, functional and aesthetic factors affecting reconstruction of large orofacial defects involving the lip following tumor resection. Patients and Methods: The study reviews the surgical outcome of one hundred and twelve patients with invasive tumors at. or extending to, the lip(s). treated at the Mansoura University - Surgical Oncology Department, from January 2000 to January 2005. Tumor stage were T 2 (43), T 3 (56) and T 4 (13). Nodal state was N 0 in 80, N 1 in 29 and N 2 in three cases. AJCC stage grouping was II (T 2 N 0 ) in 33 patients. stage III (T 3 N 0 orT 1-3 N 1 ) in 64 cases and stage IV (T 4 due to bone erosion or N 2 ) in 15 cases. The technique used for lip reconstruction was unilateral or bilateral myocutaneous depressor anguli oris flap (MCDAOF) for isolated lip defect (n=63). Bilateral myocutaneous depressor anguli oris (MCDAOF) plus local cervical rotational flap chin defects (n=3). pectorals major myocutaneous pedicled flap for cheek defects involving the lip together with a tongue flap for mucosal reconstruction (n=35). sternocleidomastoid clavicular myo-osseous flap for concomitant mandibular defects (n=] 2). Results: esthetic and functional results are evaluated regarding appearance, oral incompetence, disabling microstomia and eating difficulties. depressor anguli oris reconstruction allowed functioning static and dynamic oral function in all cases in contrast to the Pectorals major flap. there were 18 cases of oral incompetence (46.1%), nine cases of speech difficulty (23%) and five patients with poor cosmetic appearance within the second group total flap loss was not encountered, Partial nap loss affected thirteen depressor anguli oris flaps (21.3%) and ix pectoral flaps (15.3%)

  5. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Quyen Bach; Vandan Kasar; Francesco Chiappelli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP) was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent b...

  6. Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quyen Bach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.

  7. Oro-facial pain perception and barriers to assess oral health care among the children with intellectual disability: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Radha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting children invariably across the world; a toothache is one of the common outcomes found to be associated with dental caries as pain perception is a subjective phenomenon reporting of pain may vary among different individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the difference in oral health status and pain perception related to oral health status among the children with intellectual disability (ID and their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 school children of 9-14 years with or without ID in Bangalore City, ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained. The study involved 50 children with ID and 50 children with non-ID (NID, of age group 9-14 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess participant′s demographic profile, self-assessed medical and dental conditions. Clinical assessment was done for recording dental caries and gingival status. Dental pain was measured using the "Dental Discomfort Questionnaire +" given by Versloot et al. Results: It was found that children with ID had a higher score for D(T, and M(T compared to NID control. This difference was statistically significant. Children with ID showed higher discomfort due to pain. Except for chewing on one side all other questions showed a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: It was found that children with ID had a higher caries experience compared to NID control and showed significantly higher pain experience than children with NID.

  8. Dental care of patients after surgical therapy of inborn oro-facial clefts 3D technologies in diagnostics and therapy of cleft patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Magdaléna

    2015-01-01

    Patients with orofacial defects, inborn or acquired, isolated or in combination with other handicaps in syndroms, suffer from various problems including psychological problems. Morphological changes within these handicaps burden not only the patients themselves, but also their families. Among the main problems are difficulties with feeding, speech or breathing. Anomalies in number or position of deciduous and permanent teeth, development of jaws and dental arches are often present. Multidisci...

  9. [North] Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the population of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) stood at 20 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate was 30/1000 live births and life expectancy was 66 years. The gross national product (GNP) was US$23 billion in 1984, with a per capita GNP of $1175. Both North Korea's labor force and natural resources have been concentrated in recent years on an effort to achieve rapid economic development. During the early 1970s, a large-scale modernization program involving the importation of Western technology, primarily in the heavy industiral sectors of the economy, was attempted and resulted in a massive foreign debt. North Korea has a strongly centralized government under the control of the communist Korean Workers' Party. Literacy in the country is at the 99% level. Medical treatment is free. There is 1 physician/600 population and 1 hospital bed/350 inhabitants.

  10. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Cheshire Foundation in Ireland (t/a Cheshire Ireland) Carlow

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Mark E

    2017-08-04

    Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major international health problem. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, specifically targeting patients with poorly controlled T2DM, which seek to improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in primary care settings.

  12. The North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Westley, K.; Erkens, G.; Hijma, M.P.; Weerts, H.J.T.

    Chapter 7 in the 'SPLASHCOS Taphonomy book', on the landscape-archaeological inventory of the North Sea as a regional sea (covering British, Dutch, Belgian, German and Danish sectors of the southern and central North Sea). Abstract: This chapter gives a general overview of knowledge regarding the

  13. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every

  14. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  15. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  16. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samore, G.

    2002-01-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  17. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  18. I-15 North Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    Goals of this project were as follows: (1) Conduct a comprehensive evaluation study on Nevada's I-15 North Design Build Project; (2) Analyze project implementation with respect to construction zone rules by which the contractor had to abide; (3) Anal...

  19. Census in North Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1960-01-01

    This population census decree aims at collecting the most fundamental and accurate data on the population situation of North Vietnam to lay the foundation for all plans and public administration policies...

  20. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  1. Western North America dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.

    2009-12-01

    Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.

  2. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  3. North America [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; Fred Clark; Patrica Gerez-Fernandez; Frank Lake; Deborah McGregor; Charles M. Peters; Silvia Purata; Teresa Ryan; Alan Thomson; Alan E. Watson; Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The colonial history of North America presents a contrast between Mexico and the two predominantly English-speaking countries, the United States and Canada. In Mexico, indigenous and other local communities own considerable forested lands, a consequence of the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. In the United States, forest land is now primarily in...

  4. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  5. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...

  6. Library Programs in North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Count of programs offered and program attendance numbers at public libraries in North CarolinaData is from the 2014-15 NC Statistical Report of NC Public Libraries:...

  7. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niksch, Larry A

    2005-01-01

    .... North Korea's actions follow the reported disclosure in October 2002 that North Korea is operating a secret nuclear program based on uranium enrichment and the decision by the Korean Peninsula Energy...

  8. Meanwhile, North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    The progress regarding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programmes in North Korea and the instability on the Korean Peninsula have taken a back seat in the international community's analysis and perhaps its concerns for more than a year. The last event to provoke a wave of protest and tangible renewed interest occurred on 12 February 2013 when Pyongyang carried out its third nuclear test with an estimated yield of 6 to 8 kilo-tonnes. The United Nations Security Council condemned the test on 7 March (Resolution 2094). With the exception of several recent Security Council declarations, it is clear that activity on the part of the international community has been sparse. The same can be said with regard to the European Union and the United States. This state of affairs is not surprising. The analysis takes note of it by ceasing, there or thereabouts, to produce new material. Firstly, the North Korean crisis is a long-term one and the diplomatic process that is meant to lead to its resolution has been interrupted; the Six-Party Talks have been at a standstill since the end of 2008. A agreement between the United States and North Korea, concluded on 29 February 2012 under which the North Korean regime accepted the principle of a moratorium on long-range missile tests, nuclear tests, and all activity at the Yongbyon nuclear complex lastly barely a few days. Many actors involved in the management of this crisis are suffering from a weariness whose acknowledgement is politically incorrect: with regard to Pyongyang's launch of missiles and rockets last spring, the U.S. admiral Samuel Locklear told the Associated Press in July 'you become somewhat numb, you start to say, well, it's not so much of a big deal'. Moreover, since 2013, the focus of international security with regard to WMD and beyond has also largely shifted from North-East Asia to the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Pell-mell, the worsening and broadening of the war in Syria, the

  9. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    to negotiate the program away for a guarantee of security and sovereignty; 3) North Korean leaders will hedge on giving up the nuclear program by...il exposed politically. Thus, he would likely settle for a hedging or a cheating strategy, which leaves room for ambiguity and, therefore, creates...21, 2003, the Cheongdan Basic Food Factory producing soy sauce and soybean paste, opened on May 31, 2003, the Taedonggang Beer Brewery opened on

  10. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  11. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  12. North America: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.

  13. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  14. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28. Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history. The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs. The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on the east side of a much

  15. Orofacial Sports – Related Injuries In A Sports Festival In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiology, prevalence and types of oro-facial injuries in a sports festival in Nigeria Materials and Methods: A data form was designed to collect among others, information on age, gender, state of origin, sporting event and types of injury. All consecutive patients who sustained oro-facial sports- ...

  16. The North Field Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Qatar Europe LNG Company's activities include gas production, gathering, treatment, liquefaction, shipping and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and by-products. The (LNG) project to be developed by the Company shall be initially capable of processing 1200 mmscfd of raw gas and associated quantities of condensate from the North Field. Hydrocarbons produced will be delivered to shore in the industrial area (Ras Laffan) via a sub sea pipeline system. Raw gas is used as a feedstock into the liquefaction plant which is initially capable of producing 6.1 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MTPA) of (LNG). The initial quantity of (LNG) will be exported from (Ras Laffan) loading terminal to a receiving terminal located on the North East coast of Italy via a dedicated fleet of (LNG) carriers. The whole project (Upstream, Downstream and Shipping) shall be executed on an integrated scheme basis under the the direct control of the Qatar Europe LNG Company and in accordance with the overall Master Schedule in order to ensure a delivery of first shipment of (LNG) in the 2 nd half of 1997. 3 figs

  17. Estimating North Dakota's Economic Base

    OpenAIRE

    Coon, Randal C.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2009-01-01

    North Dakota’s economic base is comprised of those activities producing a product paid for by nonresidents, or products exported from the state. North Dakota’s economic base activities include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and federal government payments for construction and to individuals. Development of the North Dakota economic base data is important because it provides the information to quantify the state’s economic growth, and it creates the final demand sectors for the N...

  18. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  19. Consumption Of Indigenous Fruits In Uluguru North And Ruvu North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted between 1998 and 2000 to compare the number, types and consumption of indigenous fruit species by sex and age classes in the Uluguru North Forest Reserve (UNFR) and Ruvu North Forest Reserve (RNFR). Data were collected through household interviews and forest inventory. A total of 120 ...

  20. Propane: North American opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO 2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  1. French Expansion in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  2. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  3. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  4. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  5. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  7. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  8. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  9. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean, North... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  10. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  11. North Atlantic Energy Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Derradji, A. [National Research Council of Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Inst. for Ocean Technology

    2005-07-01

    North Atlantic Energy Structures Inc. is in the process of designing a tidal fence for a site near the Straits of Belle Isle. This presentation provided details of both the design and the location in which the wave energy plant will be installed. Design constraints included a short seasonal work window, and a harsh but pristine environment. Design specifications of the paddlewheels and caissons were presented. The paddlewheel is iceberg and slab ice resistant, and has portals below the wheel axis, a water-free upper chamber, and bi-directional power generation. The planned installation sequence was presented, as well as details of a hydrodynamic simulation examining torque on the turbines in the tidal energy chamber. Results of the study indicated that 20 paddlewheels per caisson provided the equivalent of 12 MW of energy. A tidal fence of 70 to 80 caissons provided the equivalent of 1.2 GW of energy. A slab ice simulation study was outlined, and details of the pumping station, inlet and hydro-generation station were provided. A map of the proposed siting of the tidal fence was presented. It was concluded that financing for the pilot project has been granted. However, further financing for research and development is required. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  13. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  14. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  15. Environmental Info for North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains information about air and water in North Dakota, including state implementation programs (SIPs), air permitting, underground injection control (UIC) and National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  16. Language policies in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    KUMATANI, Akiyasu

    2009-01-01

    The examination of Korean language problems under the two different political systems (Republic of Korea or South Korea,and Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea) shows a pattern of divergence of national language by political system. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of current language policies in North Korea as they have evolved since the division of the Korean Peninsula.

  17. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  18. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  19. North Dakota Dance Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa

    Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

  20. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  1. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  2. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  4. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. North American natural gas vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app.

  7. North American natural gas vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) is a three country working group that includes Canada, the United States and Mexico and is chaired jointly by Natural Resources Canada, the Mexican Secretariat of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This report examines how North America can achieve its goals for natural gas by exploring what has been done in each nation in the past and what can be done in the future to ensure that projected gas demand will be met. The report examines the role, supply and demand of natural gas, including restructuring and regulatory changes in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Impacts on infrastructure development are discussed. The report discusses progress on meeting the goals of a more environmentally aware, transparent and streamlined, natural gas industry. The report details the amount of trade among the three countries and examines how provisions of the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regulate energy trade in North America. refs., 5 tabs., 67 figs., 1 app

  8. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  9. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    .... The Six-Party Talks include the United States, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and North Korea, and were begun in August 2003 to attempt to resolve the current crisis over North Korean nuclear weapons...

  10. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  11. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  12. 40 CFR 81.335 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.335 Section 81.335... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.335 North Dakota. North Dakota—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary standards...

  13. Heart Failure in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...

  14. North America's wood pellet sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter; Daniel Toth

    2009-01-01

    The North American wood pellet sector is profiled in this paper. A small pellet industry has existed since the 1930s, but its main growth occurred in the wake of the energy crisis in the 1970s. Its current spurt is even greater, growing from is set to reach 6.2 million in 2009. Most plants are small, relying on sawmill residues for fiber and thus are limited to 100,000...

  15. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvoyiannis, Miltiadis; Khromachou, Tamim; Byers, Norman; Hargreaves, James; Murray, Henry W

    2014-09-01

    In the United States, autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by infection with Leishmania mexicana has been reported from Texas and Oklahoma. Here, we describe a child with 2 new features: cutaneous infection acquired outside of the south-central United States (in North Dakota) and infection caused by Leishmania donovani species complex. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Gas deregulation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, Judith

    1998-04-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: The North American gas industry; Upstream deregulation in the US and Canada; Retail regulation in the US and Canada; Customer choice in Pennsylvania and Ohio; Customer choice in Massachusetts; Deregulation legislation in Georgia; US pilot programme results; The Canadian experience; Market centres, hubs and storage; Marketers and trading companies; New roles for pipelines; Mergers and Joint ventures; Opportunities in Mexico; Conclusions - the pros and cons of deregulation. (Author)

  17. Nursing advocacy in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Acomb, Tracy K; Schneider, Susan M; Clough, Robert W; Veenstra, Brittney A

    2007-09-01

    To identify the ways oncology nurses in one state advocate for patients, as well as the resources they use to do so. Descriptive, cross-sectional survey. North Carolina. 141 RNs in North Carolina who were members of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS). Subjects completed a two-page, self-administered questionnaire comprised of fixed-choice and open-ended questions. Demographics, frequency of advocating for patient services, and awareness of ONS resources. Nurses in North Carolina advocate for patients in a variety of ways. A need exists to develop ongoing methods to keep nurses up to date on advocacy issues, as well as to establish mentoring opportunities for them. Nurses believe that they are most challenged in addressing patients' financial and insurance concerns. Oncology nurses frequently advocate for patients' needs. The findings provide direction for future initiatives to educate nurses about their role in patient advocacy and available resources. Ongoing education and research are needed to enhance the role of oncology nurses as patient advocates.

  18. The Economic Contribution of North Dakota Cooperatives to the North Dakota State Economy

    OpenAIRE

    McKee, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperatives are a vital component of the North Dakota economy. Owned by their customers or by privately-held firms, cooperatives provide a variety of goods and services to North Dakota. Based on data provided by the North Dakota Secretary of State, 332 businesses operating in North Dakota identified themselves as cooperatives in 2010; 256 are headquartered in the state. The economic contribution of the North Dakota cooperatives reaches beyond the local communities where they are headquartere...

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Mayo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2011-06-24

    Abstract This analysis reports on Irish regulatory policies for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) from 2004-2009, in the context of membership changes within the Medical Council of Ireland. To achieve this, the current (2009) edition of the Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics was compared with the immediately preceding version (2004). The statutory composition of the Medical Council from 2004-2009 was also studied. Content analysis of the two editions identified the following differences: 1) The 2004 guide states that IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has failed to reveal a treatable cause of the infertility", while the 2009 guide indicates IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective"; 2) The 2004 stipulation stating that fertilized ovum (embryo) "must be used for normal implantation and must not be deliberately destroyed" is absent from the 2009 guidelines; 3) The option to donate "unused fertilised ova" (embryos) is omitted from the 2009 guidelines; 4) The 2009 guidelines state that ART should be offered only by "suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to the international best practice"; 5) The 2009 guidelines introduce criteria that donations as part of a donor programme should be "altruistic and non-commercial". These last two points represent original regulatory efforts not appearing in the 2004 edition. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 reduced the number of physicians on the Medical Council to 6 (of 25) members. The ethical guidelines from 2004 preceded this change, while the reconstituted Medical Council published the 2009 version. Between 2004 and 2009, substantial modifications in reproductive health policy were incorporated into the Medical Council\\'s ethical guidelines. The absence of controlling Irish legislation means that patients and IVF providers in Ireland must rely upon these guidelines by default. Our critique traces the evolution of public policy on IVF during a time when the membership of the Medical Council changed radically; reduced physician contribution to decision-making was associated with diminished protection for IVF-derived embryos in Ireland. Considerable uncertainty on IVF practice in Ireland remains.

  20. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2015-06-01

    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Mayo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chadwick, Liam

    2012-03-01

    In an effort to improve patient safety and reduce adverse events, there has been a rapid growth in the utilisation of health information technology (HIT). However, little work has examined the safety of the HIT systems themselves, the methods used in their development or the potential errors they may introduce into existing systems. This article introduces the conventional safety-related systems development standard IEC 61508 to the medical domain. It is proposed that the techniques used in conventional safety-related systems development should be utilised by regulation bodies, healthcare organisations and HIT developers to provide an assurance of safety for HIT systems. In adopting the IEC 61508 methodology for HIT development and integration, inherent problems in the new systems can be identified and corrected during their development. Also, IEC 61508 should be used to develop a healthcare-specific standard to allow stakeholders to provide an assurance of a system\\'s safety.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2011-06-24

    Abstract This analysis reports on Irish regulatory policies for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) from 2004-2009, in the context of membership changes within the Medical Council of Ireland. To achieve this, the current (2009) edition of the Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics was compared with the immediately preceding version (2004). The statutory composition of the Medical Council from 2004-2009 was also studied. Content analysis of the two editions identified the following differences: 1) The 2004 guide states that IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has failed to reveal a treatable cause of the infertility", while the 2009 guide indicates IVF "should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective"; 2) The 2004 stipulation stating that fertilized ovum (embryo) "must be used for normal implantation and must not be deliberately destroyed" is absent from the 2009 guidelines; 3) The option to donate "unused fertilised ova" (embryos) is omitted from the 2009 guidelines; 4) The 2009 guidelines state that ART should be offered only by "suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to the international best practice"; 5) The 2009 guidelines introduce criteria that donations as part of a donor programme should be "altruistic and non-commercial". These last two points represent original regulatory efforts not appearing in the 2004 edition. The Medical Practitioners Act 2007 reduced the number of physicians on the Medical Council to 6 (of 25) members. The ethical guidelines from 2004 preceded this change, while the reconstituted Medical Council published the 2009 version. Between 2004 and 2009, substantial modifications in reproductive health policy were incorporated into the Medical Council\\'s ethical guidelines. The absence of controlling Irish legislation means that patients and IVF providers in Ireland must rely upon these guidelines by default. Our critique traces the evolution of public policy on IVF during a time when the membership of the Medical Council changed radically; reduced physician contribution to decision-making was associated with diminished protection for IVF-derived embryos in Ireland. Considerable uncertainty on IVF practice in Ireland remains.

  3. The Cheshire Cat Enigma: Emotion Recognition Abilities of Preschool Boys with and without Hyperactivity and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the emotion recognition abilities of preschoolers with and without hyperactivity and aggression. Previous research identified that school age children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have more difficulty understanding facial expressions associated with emotions, take longer than their age-matched peers…

  4. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Mark E

    2017-08-04

    Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major international health problem. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, specifically targeting patients with poorly controlled T2DM, which seek to improve glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk in primary care settings.

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Co. Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Nichola

    2014-05-26

    We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dardis, Christopher

    2015-12-21

    Epidural anesthesia is the most commonly used method of pain relief during labor in the USA. It is not classically associated with alterations in level of alertness. Coma during the procedure is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.3%.

  7. The Cheshire Jet: Harnessing Metamaterials to Achieve an Optical Stealth Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    bands will allow persistent intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) and rapid attack opera- tions against a wide range of air defense...Once a beautiful maiden, Medusa enraged the goddess Athena, who transformed her hair into serpents and made her face so terrible to behold that the...gigahertz HPM high power microwave IADS integrated air defense system IR infrared radiation ISR intelligence , surveillance, and reconnaissance km

  8. Patients' perspective of financial benefits following head and neck cancer in Merseyside and Cheshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, S N; Harvey-Woodworth, C N; Lowe, D

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this interview study was to ask patients with head and neck cancer in the Mersey region about their need for financial benefits, the advice they were given about benefits and financial matters, and the financial burden of the disease. Stratified quota sampling was by employment status, whether work had been affected by the cancer, and by sex. Of 51 interviewees (mean (SD) age 61(8) years) 20 were retired, 11 were unemployed, 13 worked full-time, and 7 worked part-time. Cancer had affected the work status of 24. Since diagnosis 57% had suffered financially; this was particularly high in those who had retired (65%), and in those whose work had been affected by cancer (79%). Quality of life had decreased in 53% as a result of the financial impact of the disease. This was most common in the unemployed (64%), and in those whose work was affected by cancer (83%). Only a quarter had been given adequate help and information about finance; this was lowest in the unemployed (18%) and highest in those who were fully employed (39%). One third (17/51) had never claimed benefits. The most common benefits were Disability Living Allowance and Incapacity Benefit. Two-thirds (21/31) had applied for benefits after diagnosis, 18 of these were directly as a result of the disease. The median (IQR) weekly income from benefits was £88 (£60-170). Patients and carers need better access to financial advice. We suggest that each multidisciplinary team should have a designated benefits or financial advisor who is readily available to patients in the clinic and on the ward. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Cheshire Foundation in Ireland, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Cian

    2017-11-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a well-established complication of anti-resorptive and, more recently, anti-angiogenic therapy. The dental profession has a pivotal role to play in the prevention and management of this debilitating condition, and all dentists have a responsibility to remain cognisant of national and international best practice guidelines in the prevention of this disease process. The management of patients in the Dublin Dental University Hospital at risk of MRONJ when carrying out dental interventions was audited against nationally- and internationally-published guidelines. The results of the audit showed compliance with the national and international guidance in 5% and 0% of cases, respectively. The most common measures implemented in the management of patients at risk of MRONJ were: preoperative antibiotics in 49% of cases; preoperative chlorhexidine mouthwash in 76%; plain local anaesthetic in 51%; and, post-operative antibiotics in 80%.

  10. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  11. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  12. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  13. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  16. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  17. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preteft Emiliani, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  18. North Africa oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms

  19. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  20. UAB HRFD Core Center: Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Disease; Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; Joubert Syndrome; Bardet Biedl Syndrome; Meckel-Gruber Syndrome; Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis; Caroli Syndrome; Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I; Nephronophthisis; Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

  1. North-South Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Hellier

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the globalization-inequality relationship, we extend the North-South HOS model by assuming (i) that the size of the South (emerging countries) increases over time and that the North (advanced countries) and the South never stand simultaneously inside the diversification cone, (ii) several northern and southern countries with different skill endowments, and (iii) North-South technological differences, productivity catching up and technological transfers. The model generates three ph...

  2. THE ROLE OF RELIGION IN NORTH OSSETIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kozenova Diana Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a summary information of the republic of North Ossetia, and some overview of the role of religion in North Ossetia where in the opinion of our respondents, religion acts as a spiritual force. North Ossetia - one of the oldest cradles of Christianity. The ancestors of Ossetians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans were among the first who heard the good news Good News. The teaching of Christ to Alans earth brought the apostles Andrew and Simon the Zealot. However the Muslim religio...

  3. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  4. Growth Comparison of Red Jabon in North Bolaang Mongondow and North Minahasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arif irawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Jabon is priority species that projected to be developed in plantation forests of North Minahasa Regency. Red Jabon is can adapt well various environmental conditions. The natural habitat of the red Jabon in North Sulawesi region was known in North Bolaang Mongondow. This study aimed to compare the growth of red jabon at the age of 1 year in North Minahasa Regency and North Bolaang Mongondow. The experiment was conducted in two (2 locations i.e. in Talawaan Village (North Minahasa Regency and Nunuka Village (North Bolaang Mongondow. Two independent samples t test was conducted to determine the differences in height and diameter growth parameters at two test sites.The results showed that there was no difference in the growth of red Jabon between North Minahasa and North Bolaang Mongondow. The average height and diameter of red Jabon in North Minahasa Regency is at 215.84 cm and 4.34 cm, while the same parameters of North Bolaang Mongondow amounted to 231.79 cm and 4.14 cm. The development efforts on the plantations of red Jabon North Minahasa Regency need to be improved because of the environmental conditions in this region is very suitable for the growth of red Jabon.

  5. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...... nurses and two senior doctors. Direct observations of the clinical processes revealed problems of coordination, complex disease trajectories that did not fit with the pneumonia pathway, unclear guidelines and variation in their interpretation. Intervention We designed a measurement system to monitor...... with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...

  6. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  7. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  8. Neo-Latin in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The Neo-Latin poetry and prose from North America have already been well surveyed. Drawing on recent historical work, I propose instead to study the place of Neo-Latin writing in the broader history of attitudes toward Latin and the classics in North America (excluding Mexico, which follows the pattern of Spanish cultural assimilation best treated alongside Latin America).

  9. International University Will Open in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  10. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Malaria prevalence studies had been undertaken in many parts of Nigeria but there is probably no data available from the far North Western region. This research study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, monthly distribution of malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria in order to generate base-.

  11. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  12. 40 CFR 81.423 - North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Dakota. 81.423 Section 81.423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.423 North Dakota. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  13. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  14. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  15. 78 FR 35781 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... support of mining. This document gives the times and locations that the North Dakota program and proposed... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 934... SS08011000 SX066A00 33F 13XS501520] North Dakota Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining...

  16. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  17. Modelling teleconnections between the North Atlantic and North Pacific during the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Crowley, Thomas J.; Schiller, Andreas; Voss, Reinhard

    1997-05-01

    Evidence for a cooling event synchronous with the Younger Dryas (12,000 calendar years before present) has been found in the North Pacific Ocean north of 30° N in records of surface1-5 and subsurface water properties6,7. These changes may be related to a temporary shut-down of North Atlantic Deep Water formation and associated surface cooling over the North Atlantic. It has remained unclear, however, whether this North Atlantic cooling was communicated to the North Pacific Ocean through the atmosphere or the ocean. Here we report results of a sensitivity experiment with a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model that support a primarily atmospheric forcing of North Pacific climate variations. Changes in wind strongly affect coastal upwelling at the North American west coast, and surface cooling by the atmosphere causes better ventilation of the thermocline waters of the northeast Pacific. This effect is amplified by oceanic progagation to the Pacific of the signal arising from collapse of North Atlantic Deep Water formation. These teleconnections may also explain earlier North Pacific and western North American millenial-scale cooling events of a similar nature8-12.

  18. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  19. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  20. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  1. The pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the North Sea and its rivers; the uses of the North Sea (shipping; exploitation of oil and gas; fishing; recreation; land reclamation; industrial islands; waste dumping); the nature of the dumping problem (nuclear waste; organic chemicals; inorganic chemicals; oil; sewage; rubble and dredged spoils; ash); pollution legislation; Greenpeace activities in the North Sea (the nuclear campaigns (Windscale; Cap de la Hague; Atlantic waste dumping); the chemical campaigns); what is needed in the future; references; the Oslo Convention. (U.K.)

  2. Magnesium in North America: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan

    The changing landscape of North American manufacturing in the context of global competition is impacting the market of all raw materials, including magnesium. Current automotive fuel economy legislation and pending legislation on the emissions of greenhouse gases are impacting magnesium's largest consuming industries, such as aluminum, automotive components, steel and transition metals. These industries are all considering innovative ways to efficiently incorporate the needed raw materials into their processes. The North American magnesium market differs from other regions based on maturity, supply streams, changing manufacturing capabilities and trade cases, combined with the transformation of North American manufacturing.

  3. Quantifying deformation in North Borneo with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafar, Mohamad Asrul; Simons, Wim J. F.; Tongkul, Felix; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Omar, Kamaludin Mohd; Visser, Pieter N. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of intra-plate deformation of the Sundaland platelet along its eastern edge in North Borneo, South-East Asia, makes it an interesting area that still is relatively understudied. In addition, the motion of the coastal area of North-West Borneo is directed toward a frontal fold-and-thrust belt and has been fueling a long debate on the possible geophysical sources behind it. At present this fold-and-thrust belt is not generating significant seismic activity and may also not be entirely active due to a decreasing shelfal extension from south to north. Two sets of Global Positioning System (GPS) data have been used in this study; the first covering a time period from 1999 until 2004 (ending just before the Giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake) to determine the continuous Sundaland tectonic plate motion, and the second from 2009 until 2011 to investigate the current deformations of North Borneo. Both absolute and relative positioning methods were carried out to investigate horizontal and vertical displacements. Analysis of the GPS results indicates a clear trend of extension along coastal regions of Sarawak and Brunei in North Borneo. On the contrary strain rate tensors in Sabah reveal that only insignificant and inconsistent extension and compression occurs throughout North-West Borneo. Moreover, station velocities and rotation rate tensors on the northern part of North Borneo suggest a clockwise (micro-block) rotation. The first analysis of vertical displacements recorded by GPS in North-West Borneo points to low subsidence rates along the western coastal regions of Sabah and inconsistent trends between the Crocker and Trusmadi mountain ranges. These results have not been able to either confirm or reject the hypothesis that gravity sliding is the main driving force behind the local motions in North Borneo. The ongoing Sundaland-Philippine Sea plate convergence may also still play an active role in the present-day deformation (crustal shortening) in North

  4. North American amphibians: Distribution and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David M.; Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution.This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation.Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  5. The North American electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, I.

    1999-01-01

    The wide ranging changes that will drive the evolution of the North American electricity industry in the future are discussed. Deregulation and the advent of competition in both the United States and Canada are the principal forces that will change the shape of the electricity market, bringing new players and new forms of doing business into the marketplace. A review of the current state of the business shows that especially in the United States where deregulation began earlier than in Canada, independent generators already constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Non-utility generation capacity is about seven per cent of total U.S. capacity and accounts for about 10 per cent of total U. S. electricity supply, including imports. Examples from other industries clearly show that restructuring and the breakup of vertically integrated industries could be accomplished much faster than anticipated, that a decrease in prices followed rapidly as products became more like commodities, and that decreasing prices fostered product differentiation and competition. Major legislation affecting the electric power industry in the U.S. and Canada (U.S. National Energy Policy Act 1992, Alberta Electric Utilities Act 1995, Ontario Energy Competition Act 1998) decreeing open access transmission, unbundling of generation, transmission and ancillary services, and promoting competition, and the impacts of these legislative actions are also reviewed. The most visible impact is the explosion that can be seen in power marketing and energy trading on a scale unimaginable only a few short years ago, where the total volume of trade may be worth multiples of the value of the underlying commodity. At the same time, there is concern about the reliability of the system, and thus making it imperative to find new ways to manage reliability. Various suggestions are made as to how increased reliability of supply could be achieved by better management, new standards and better enforcement of

  6. North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Latest Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes what is known from open sources about the North Korean nuclear weapons program including weapons-usable fissile material and warhead estimates and assesses current developments...

  7. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  8. North America Initiatives: Safety; Environment; Trade; Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has increased its level of involvement in projects that support free trade through transportation infrastructure improvements, especially along ...

  9. A Comprehensive Approach to North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armitage, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Since the Agreed Framework (AF) was signed by the United States and North Korea on October 21, 1994, the security situation on the Korean peninsula and in Northeast Asia has changed qualitatively for the worse...

  10. Another Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Marta J

    2003-01-01

    At the conclusion of the six-nation talks in Beijing last August, North Korea announced there was no reason for further negotiations and their only option was to continue their nuclear weapons development program...

  11. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  12. Boletus durhamensis sp. nov. from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Alan E. Bessette; Owen L. McConnell

    2016-01-01

    A new bolete with cinnamon-brown pores, Boletus durhamensis, is described. Collected in northern North Carolina, it is possibly mycorrhizal with Quercus spp. Morphological and molecular characters support this taxon as a new species.

  13. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  14. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Southern Pacific in Suisun City; (9) Then north in a straight line for approximately 5.5 miles to...); (22) Then southwest in a straight line for approximately 17.6 miles to the confluence of Redwood Creek...

  15. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  16. North Region ROW tool implementation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    Welcome to the North Region ROW Tool Workshop. This workshop is funded under an implementation project sponsored by TxDOTs Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI). This is the second of four regional workshops being planned for this summ...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  18. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  19. Have North-South Growth Linkages Changed?

    OpenAIRE

    Willy W. Hoffmaister; Mahmood Pradhan; Hossein Samiei

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides preliminary econometric evidence suggesting that the traditional trade-based business cycle linkages between the North and the South have changed. Many countries in the South, in particular in Asia, appear to have become more resilient to cyclical movements in the North, and to have come to play a more significant role in sustaining global activity, in particular during the 1991-93 slowdown. A number of factors may have contributed to these changes: improved domestic polic...

  20. The lived travel experience to North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wassler, P.; Schuckert, M.

    2017-01-01

    Tourism in North Korea is limited by entry bans, visa restrictions, and stringently controlled itineraries. As a consequence, the experience of visiting the country is still poorly understood by academics and practitioners alike. In order to fill this research void, this study aims to describe the essence of the lived experience of travelling to North Korea, following an approach embedded in the philosophical underpinnings of transcendental phenomenology. Based on eight narratives by tourists...

  1. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  2. North America - The Energy Picture II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    13 PGCA refers to the Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados. that Pemex and the permit holders must submit to the CRE. Directive on...international and domestic commercialization). Energy Regulatory Commission Act In October 1995, the Energy Regulatory Commission Act (Ley de la ...on st an t 20 00 U .S . D ol la r North America World • North American energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product was about three

  3. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna...... invasion of migrants from Baltica that arrived later during the Hirnantian. The offshore migration of this atypical Hiscobeccus fauna likely demonstrates the path of warm-water currents as the Centrum SO locality was located at the equator during the Late Ordovician....

  4. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  5. The mystery of the "North of the North" in Ibsen's works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Nygaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an exaggeration to claim that several of the protagonists in Ibsen’s dramatic works are from the north, or have lived there. The few characters in Ibsen’s drama related to the North are, however, given a special emphasis in his works. They are, like the landscape and the light of the North, mysterious, strange, strong and untamed. Or they have been exiled, suppressed or forgotten – and then suddenly arrive unexpectedly and challenge the established order and open new tension and ambition. Ibsen only visited Northern Norway once, on a trip to North Cape in 1891. His only experience of the “North” before that was actually of Central Norway, Trondheim and Molde. The North in Ibsen’s dramas is accordingly just fiction, imagination – and an expression of the general Southern Norwegian understanding of the “others” living in the North and the “otherness” of the North. Especially people from the North of the North, such as Finnmark, who represent a mysterious, bewitching and magic power, like Rebekka West in Rosmersholm and the foreign sailor in Lady from the Sea. This is explained by the magic nature of the North, such as the midnight sun, the Polar light or the overwhelming and irresistible winter storms over the sea.  But Ibsen has also given other clues for the understanding of the mysterious characters from Finnmark, the North of the North. These clues are related to the cultural otherness of the characters as Sami and Kvääni.

  6. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  7. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  8. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  9. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...

  10. Economic Impact of Higher Education in North Dakota. North Dakota Economic Studies, No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Larry J.; Henry, Mark S.

    Besides their primary mission of providing education to the students of North Dakota, the 11 colleges and universities in the state represent an important "industry" which generates substantial income to the businesses and people of the state. Total college-related spending in North Dakota was $76 million during the 1973-1974 school…

  11. Divergent biogeography of native and introduced soil macroinvertebrates in North America north of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; William J. Mattson; Andrew J. Storer

    2008-01-01

    To improve understanding of the biogeographical consequences of species introduction, we examined whether introduced soil macroinvertebrates differ from natives in the relationship between species richness and key environmental predictors, and whether such differences affect the relationship between native and introduced species richness. For North America north of...

  12. North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their impact on North America since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J. M.; Mitchell, J.; Risi, C.; Tripati, A.

    2017-12-01

    Using climate models and reanalysis data, we investigate the climatology of North Pacific atmospheric rivers, as well as the influence of the Last Glacial Maximum conditions on the circulation and moisture budget of the eastern North Pacific and western North America. Atmospheric transport of water vapor from the North Pacific is the primary source of moisture for most of western North America. Wintertime precipitation accounts for upwards of 75% of the total along the west coast of the United States, and atmospheric rivers in particular deliver large fractions of this precipitation in high-intensity events. Proxy records from western North America indicate a much wetter environment in Nevada and southern California at the Last Glacial Maximum, which has been interpreted as evidence for a southward shift of the mid-latitude jet stream, which steers extratropical storms, in the eastern North Pacific. Our results show that a southeastward shift and intensification of the atmospheric river ``track'' into the continent, resulting from a reorganized atmospheric circulation in response to the North American ice sheets, can explain the inferred hydroclimate changes. We also examine the relative contributions of the mean flow and transient systems to these changes, and diagnose the relative importance of thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms.

  13. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  14. Winter chemistry of North Slope lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, M. K.; White, D. M.; Lilly, M. R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Hilton, K. M.; Busey, R.

    2006-12-01

    Lakes are important water resources on the North Slope of Alaska. Oilfield exploration and production requires water for facility use as well as transportation. Ice road construction requires winter extraction of fresh water. Since most North Slope lakes are relatively shallow, the quantity and quality of the water remaining under the ice by the end of the winter are important environmental management issues. Currently permits are based on the presence of overwintering fish populations and their sensitivity to low oxygen. Sampling during the winter of 2004 2005 sheds light on the winter chemistry of several pumped lakes and one unpumped lake on the North Slope. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature profiles were taken along with ice thickness and water depth measurements. Water samples were extracted and analyzed for Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, DOC, and alkalinity in the laboratory. Lake properties, rather than pumping activities, were the best predictors of oxygen depletion, with the highest levels of dissolved oxygen maintained in the lake with the least dissolved constituents. As would be expected, specific conductance increased with depth in the lake while dissolved oxygen decreased with depth. Dissolved oxygen and specific conductance data suggested that the lakes began to refresh in May. The summarized data provides a view of North Slope lake chemistry trends, while continued studies investigate the chemical impacts of pumping North Slope lakes through continued sampling and modeling efforts.

  15. Seasonal predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

  16. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  17. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies.......This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  18. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  19. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  20. Coherent changes of wintertime surface air temperatures over North Asia and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, Hai

    2018-03-29

    The surface temperature variance and its potential change with global warming are most prominent in winter over Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes. Consistent wintertime surface temperature variability has been observed over large areas in Eurasia and North America on a broad range of time scales. However, it remains a challenge to quantify where and how the coherent change of temperature anomalies occur over the two continents. Here we demonstrate the coherent change of wintertime surface temperature anomalies over North Asia and the central-eastern parts of North America for the period from 1951 to 2015. This is supported by the results from the empirical orthogonal function analysis of surface temperature and temperature trend anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere extratropical lands and the timeseries analysis of the regional averaged temperature anomalies over North Asia and the Great Plains and Great Lakes. The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection provides a pathway to connect the regional temperature anomalies over the two continents. The ABNA is also responsible for the decadal variation of the temperature relationship between North Asia and North America.

  1. The Asian-Bering-North American teleconnection: seasonality, maintenance, and climate impact on North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Lin, H.; Wu, Z. W.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Asian-Bering-North American (ABNA) teleconnection index is constructed from the normalized 500-hPa geopotential field by excluding the Pacific-North American pattern contribution. The ABNA pattern features a zonally elongated wavetrain originating from North Asia and flowing downstream across Bering Sea and Strait towards North America. The large-scale teleconnection is a year-round phenomenon that displays strong seasonality with the peak variability in winter. North American surface temperature and temperature extremes, including warm days and nights as well as cold days and nights, are significantly controlled by this teleconnection. The ABNA pattern has an equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere and is supported by synoptic-scale eddy forcing in the upper troposphere. Its associated sea surface temperature anomalies exhibit a horseshoe-shaped structure in the North Pacific, most prominent in winter, which is driven by atmospheric circulation anomalies. The snow cover anomalies over the West Siberian plain and Central Siberian Plateau in autumn and spring and over southern Siberia in winter may act as a forcing influence on the ABNA pattern. The snow forcing influence in winter and spring can be traced back to the preceding season, which provides a predictability source for this teleconnection and for North American temperature variability. The ABNA associated energy budget is dominated by surface longwave radiation anomalies year-round, with the temperature anomalies supported by anomalous downward longwave radiation and damped by upward longwave radiation at the surface.

  2. Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M.; Barnett, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    The cause of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America is investigated by analyzing data from a multi-decadal integration with a state of the art coupled ocean-atmosphere model and observations. About one third of the low-frequency climate variability in the region of interest can be attributed to a cycle involving unstable air-sea interactions between the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Pacific and the Aleutian low pressure system. The existence of this cycle provides a basis for long-range climate forecasting over the western United States at decadal time scales. (orig.)

  3. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    [1] High biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system...... of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive...... to a strengthened north-south biogeochemical divide. The limited mixing between the north and south leads to a steeper gradient in pH and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) between the two regions in the productive period. This is exacerbated further when coinciding with higher sea surface temperature, which...

  4. North American trade growth continued in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Trade between the United States and its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partnersCanada and Mexicohas more than doubled in dollar value since the inception of NAFTA in 1994. In 2007, U.S. trade with Canada and Mexico reached $909 bil...

  5. THE ROLE OF RELIGION IN NORTH OSSETIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozenova Diana Vladimirovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a summary information of the republic of North Ossetia, and some overview of the role of religion in North Ossetia where in the opinion of our respondents, religion acts as a spiritual force. North Ossetia - one of the oldest cradles of Christianity. The ancestors of Ossetians, Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans were among the first who heard the good news Good News. The teaching of Christ to Alans earth brought the apostles Andrew and Simon the Zealot. However the Muslim religion was known ancestors of Ossetians are the Mongolian era. Although the Ossetians are registered Christians and Muslims, but still they keep religion of their ancestors, according to which believe in one God, the Creator of the World, in the existence of a soul and the dead, and in the spirit world, submission to God The purpose of this work is to determine the role of religion in North Ossetia. The methodology of the work: is the processing and analysis of personal data. Results: Today it is obvious that religion plays a significant role in the life of the Republic contributes to spiritual development. The scope of the results: The material presented can be used in training courses sociology and the sociology of religion for students of humanitarian specialties.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Carolina single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by North Dakota single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  8. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    play basketball and reportedly was a fan of the NBA and Michael Jordan. He returned to Pyongyang in his late teens. Goals and Means These...semiconductor mold components), JCCOM ( communication components), and Yongin Electronics (transformers, coils).92... communication , a method of defusing tensions, and a way to expose North Koreans to outside ideas and ways of doing business. Economically, the KIC

  9. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  10. Interviewrapport om Business Region North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Wilgaard; Pedersen, Anne Grethe Julius

    2017-01-01

    Rapporten er skrevet til sekretariat og bestyrelse i Business Region North Denmark som en tilbagemelding på ca. 25 interviews lavet med borgmestre, kommunaldirektører og andre centrale aktører i BRN. Rapporten indeholder sammenfatning, analyse og anbefalinger....

  11. Education in North Yemen: Problems and Hopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Philip S.

    The background of the educational system in North Yemen is reviewed and some of the problems facing the system are described. The findings from examining documents and on-site visitations are summarized as follows: (1) the view is confirmed that developing countries with long history and cultural heritage are torn between keeping their traditions…

  12. Woody plants of North America [product review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Hope A. Bragg

    2001-01-01

    The authors review a 2-CD set created to aid in identifying woody plants. The product is intended to supplement (rather than replace) field instruction for identifying 470 of the most common native and introduced trees and shrubs in North America.

  13. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  14. Opportunities for suppliers in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ancona, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    If European suppliers to the offshore industry are to prosper, it has to be on the basis of a single internationally competitive North Sea market. If we continue to talk and think in terms of a British sector, a Norwegian sector, Dutch and Danish sectors, then we will inhibit the full development of contractors and suppliers. The long term future in oilfield supplies lies in a mixed portfolio of international projects. Oil and gas exploration and development, particularly offshore, is notoriously cyclical. To survive the downturns in one market supply, companies need to have access to the upswing in others. The significance of a single North Sea market is that it presents an international arena for the best companies to demonstrate their technical and commercial abilities. Individual national sectors do not - cannot - provide that opportunity to anything like the same extent. Taking then the North Sea as a single competitive market, it represents the most important offshore area in the world at the present time, and this is likely to continue during the 1990s. The prospects of achieving a single North Sea market are discussed. (author)

  15. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  16. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... property and property interest include, but are not limited to, money, checks, drafts, bullion, bank... otherwise alter or affect property or interests in property blocked pursuant to Sec. 510.201 is prohibited... Part 510 Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Blocking of assets, Credit, North Korea...

  17. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions are grappling for power and wealth. Beside the powerful Kim clan there exist other families in North Korea whose loyalty must be secured with bribes. If the loyalty of the influential families is eroded, the power base of Kim Jong Un is likely to soon diminish. As a result, the North Korean government is searching for sources of money. Illicit drugs may be one solution the ruling regime find attractive to this problem, but there appears to be a twist: struggling ordinary citizens are showing signs that they too are taking part in this illegal enterprise. This is manifested by their willingness to become involved in crime in the same way as the corrupt regime.

  18. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  19. North Carolina speed management recommendations for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nearly 5,000 people lost their lives in speeding-related crashes in North Carolina over the past : 10 years. Nearly twice as many individuals suffered disabling injuries. Among those killed were : 131 children younger than age 14, 85 teens aged 14 to...

  20. Draft Memorandum for the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    In the National Water Plan it is described which measures must be taken to keep the Netherlands safe and livable for future generations and to make use of the chances offered by water. This memorandum serves as a document by means of which political choices for the North Sea policy, as formulated in the National Water Plan, are made more transparent [nl

  1. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 ...

  2. Subpolar North Atlantic glider observations for OSNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C.; Hodges, B.; Bower, A. S.; Yang, J.; Lin, X.

    2016-02-01

    OSNAP is an international program designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water-column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The observational efforts of this program are focused largely along lines connecting Labrador to Greenland, and Greenland to Scotland. The OSNAP experimental plan includes continuous sampling by Slocum G2 gliders along the latter (easternmost) of these two sections, specifically across the northeastward-flowing North Atlantic Current in the Iceland Basin. The glider observations, a collaboration between the Ocean University of China and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, provide higher spatial resolution of water properties than is possible from moorings alone. These observations commenced in June 2015 with a mission to fly back and forth along a section between two OSNAP moorings, profiling from the surface to 1000-m depth. As of September 2015, five sections (including over 240 profiles) have been recorded. As expected, the data indicates energetic intraseasonal variability at smaller scales than can be captured by the OSNAP mooring array. We are investigating how this variability may impact calculated fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater. The glider repeatedly crossed a cyclonic eddy between the two moorings, enabling study of fine thermohaline structure during the development and dissipation of mesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic. With additional sensors measuring fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and multispectral light, the dataset also has the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies in the subpolar North Atlantic.

  3. Anchovy population expansion in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petitgas, P.; Alheit, J.; Peck, A.; Raab, K.E.; Irigoien, X.; Huret, M.; Kooij, van J.; Pohlmann, T.; Wagner, C.; Zarraonaindia, I.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance and spatial occupation of European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus have increased in the North Sea since the mid-1990s. We use a cross-disciplinary approach combining genetics, transport modelling, survey time series analyses and physical oceanographic modelling to investigate 3

  4. North Atlantic SST Patterns and NAO Flavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousi, E.; Rahmstorf, S.; Coumou, D.

    2017-12-01

    North Atlantic SST variability results from the interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) drives changes in SST patterns but is also driven by them on certain time-scales. These interactions are not very well understood and might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. Paleo reconstructions indicate a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in recent decades leading to a pronounced cold anomaly ("cold blob") in the North Atlantic (Rahmstorf et al., 2015). The latter may favor NAO to be in its negative mode. In this work, sea surface temperature (SST) patterns are studied in relation to NAO variations, with the aim of discovering preferred states and understanding their interactions. SST patterns are analyzed with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), a clustering technique that helps identify different spatial patterns and their temporal evolution. NAO flavors refer to different longitudinal positions and tilts of the NAO action centers, also defined with SOMs. This way the limitations of the basic, index-based, NAO-definition are overcome, and the method handles different spatially shapes associated with NAO. Preliminary results show the existence of preferred combinations of SSTs and NAO flavors, which in turn affect weather and climate of Europe and North America. The possible influence of the cold blob on European weather is discussed.

  5. Prescribed burning in the North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Donoghue; Von J. Johnson

    1975-01-01

    Describes 5 years of prescribed burning in the North Central States from 1968 through 1972. Provides information concerning participating agencies, burned-acreage, purpose-of-burn, fuels, and weather. Also examines other aspects such as ignition and burning techniques, hours-to-complete, time of fire start, and cost-per-acre.

  6. A Profile of Anson County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, M. Gaston; And Others

    Since 1950 Anson County, North Carolina, has had major contributions to economic development, a source of great concern to residents of the almost entirely rural area. The increased capacity of the Blewitt Falls Dam power output and the county-wide water filtration system (one of only a few in the United States today) are attractive to industry.…

  7. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  8. Forest health conditions in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution

  9. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad

    1987-01-01

    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  10. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  11. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    obliquity. Also it was found that the distribution of longshore currents was not similar at all stations along the study region. The annual net sediment transport was 0.069 x 10 sup(6)/year towards north at Arge beach and 0.040 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3)/year...

  12. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the impact...

  13. Forest disturbance and North American carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. N. Goward; J. G. Masek; W. Cohen; G. Moisen; G. J. Collatz; S. Healey; R. A. Houghton; C. Huang; R. Kennedy; B. Law; S. Powell; D. Turner; M. A. Wulder

    2008-01-01

    North America's forests are thought to be a significant sink for atmospheric carbon. Currently, the rate of sequestration by forests on the continent has been estimated at 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year, though the uncertainty about this estimate is nearly 50%. This offsets about 13% of the fossil fuel emissions from the continent [Pacala et al., 2007]. However...

  14. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entertainment software and equipment; recreational sports equipment; tobacco; wine and other alcoholic beverages... goods as described in this section to North Korea. (4) TSU for operation technology and software for lawfully exported commodities as set forth in § 740.13(a) and sales technology as set forth in § 740.13 (b...

  15. Forest statistics for North Mississippi counties - 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne L. Faulkner; Patrick E. Miller; Andrew J. Hartsell; Jack D. London

    1993-01-01

    Tabulated results were derived from data obtained during a 1994 forest inventory of north Mississippi counties (fig. 1). Field work was conducted from December 1992 to May 1993. Core tables 1 through 25 were compatible among Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) units in the Eastern United States, Supplemental tables 26 through 44 provide information beyond that provided...

  16. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  17. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Bruce G; Wagner, Warren L

    2010-06-01

    Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with 'sky islands' of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high

  18. Red pandas (Mammalia, Carnivora: Parailurus) in the biomes of North Eurasia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of the Pliocene red panda ( Parailurus) in the West Transbaikal area, as well as Asian raccoons in North Eurasia and North America, indicates that forested areas with bamboo bushes were wide-spread in the Holarctic during the Neogene. During the Late Pliocene, due to a gradual cooling of the climate, altiplanation, and other factors, their habitat started disintegrating, and red pandas began dying out, surviving only in China.

  19. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2015 Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  20. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  2. 2015 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 3)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest, covering approximately 7,197 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina LiDAR project called for the...

  3. 78 FR 54239 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC845 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  4. 78 FR 54240 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC844 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery...

  5. 77 FR 67633 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC349 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  6. 77 FR 65535 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC314 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  8. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  9. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2008-09 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  10. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2007-08 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Grain Dealers Asso...

  11. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2010-11 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota Wheat Commission and t...

  12. Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Annual North Dakota Elevator Marketing Report for 2009-10 was prepared by Kimberly Vachal and Laurel Benson, : Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the North Dakota : Wheat Commission a...

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  18. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  19. How attractive is the North Sea to the financial community?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, R.

    1992-01-01

    How attractive is the North Sea to the financial community? This question is answered by discussing the type of investment opportunity that the North Sea offers the investor. It is shown how North Sea investments have performed and some of the methods used to measure that performance are discussed. Finally, some thoughts on the future importance of the North Sea to the financial community reach the conclusion that it will remain important for some years to come. (author)

  20. Globalisation and Education: The Case of North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gay Garland

    1997-01-01

    Looks at North Korean education in terms of the tension that exists between globalization and educational sovereignty. Offers a brief historical background to North Korean education and provides a baseline for developing three possible scenarios for its future. Illustrates the impact of domestic and international forces on North Korean education.…

  1. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  2. 75 FR 75721 - Environmental Impact Statement: Billings County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...: Billings County, North Dakota AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Revised Notice of...- of-Way Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 1471 Interstate Loop, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, Telephone: (701) 250-4343 Extension 111. Bryon Fuchs, Local Government Division, North Dakota Department of...

  3. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  4. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  5. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  6. 78 FR 45547 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    .... FEMA-4128-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4128-DR), dated July 12, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from severe storms and...

  7. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    .... FEMA-4118-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4118-DR), dated May 29, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from flooding during the...

  8. Hydrography and biogeochemistry of the north western Bay of Bengal and the north eastern Arabian Sea during winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Laluraj, C.M.; Jyothibabu, R.; Madhu, N.V.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Vijay, J.G.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Ashraf, T.T.M.; Nair, K.K.C.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    The north eastern Arabian Sea and the north western Bay of Bengal within the Indian exclusive economic zone were explored for their environmental characteristics during the winter monsoons of 2000 and 2001 respectively. The two regions were found...

  9. Celebrity Humanitarianism and North-South Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...... is an effective lens for viewing the multiple and diverse relationships that constitute the links between North and South. New empirical findings on celebrity humanitarianism on the ground in Thailand, Malawi, Bangladesh, South Africa, China, Haiti, Congo, US, Denmark and Australia illustrate the impact...... of celebrity humanitarianism in the Global South and celebritization, participation and democratization in the donor North. By investigating one of the most mediatized and distant representations of humanitarianism (the celebrity intervention) from a perspective of contextualization, the book underscores...

  10. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzo, D.; McKenzie, B.

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. A tax reprieve for the North Sea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.

    1998-01-01

    The United Kingdom government has for the time being put to one side its intended review of the fiscal regime in the North Sea. Consistently low oil prices over the last year and the consequent effect on production have given rise to this decision. The ongoing debate on oil taxation in the UK over the past 18 months since the advent of a new government is examined. It has its roots in the last major changes to the oil tax regime which were made in 1993. It has been made clear by the government that the taxation review has not been abandoned and could come to the fore again should there be a substantial increase in oil and gas prices or if companies sought premature decommissioning of North Sea fields. (UK)

  12. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. Isabel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Alastuey, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over ˜ 5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at ˜ 2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands) under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10) carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m-3 (20th and 80th percentiles). The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st-50th percentiles = 0.15-2.54 µg m-3) are North American dust (53 %), non-sea-salt sulfate (14 %) and organic matter (18 %). High PM10 events (75th-95th percentiles ≈ 4.0-9.0 µg m-3) are prompted by dust (56 %), organic matter (24 %) and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %). These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i) their spatial distribution in North America and (ii) the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (˜ 32° N, January-March) to high latitudes in summer (˜ 52° N, August-September). The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March-May), of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February-May) and of elemental carbon in summer (August-September). Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic); further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter) in North America.

  13. The North Caucasus Insurgency: Dead or Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    has spread to embrace virtually all of the North Caucasus, as Mos- cow fights a self-proclaimed jihadi organization, the Caucasus Emirate (CE). In...crowded subway stations in Mos- cow were targeted by suicide bombers, resulting in 3 the deaths of 40 civilians. In January 2011, a bomb ex- ploded in...sibly even thousands of individuals have later joined local Salafi-jihadist groups. This, in turn, has created 24 a vicious cycle of retaliation and

  14. Translations on North Korea No. 539

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-15

    Arlington, Virginia 22201. II JPRS-69 429 15 July 19 77 TRANSLATIONS ON NORTH KOREA No. 539 .- BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET 1. Report No. JPRS...their power and gave the aggressors and the traitors a special lesson. [Interspersed with martial music ] When the cease-fire was realized on this land...the stage curtain be made more elaborate. Then, noticing that there was 25 no piano in the list of required fixtures, the Party Center added a

  15. Unstable ground in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Unstable ground in western North Dakota is mainly the result of mass-wasting processes. The units most affected are mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Fort Union Formation. Ground instability generally is indicated by landslides, soil slides, or subsidence. Landslides are mostly of the slump-earthflow type and are localized along the flanks of the high buttes in southwestern North Dakota, including HT (Black) Butte, Chalky Buttes, Sentinel Butte, and East and West Rainy Buttes, and along parts of the valleys of the Des Lacs, Missouri, Little Missouri, and Heart Rivers. Landslides are sparse elsewhere. Soil slides are common in the areas south and southwest of the maximum position of the Pleistocene glacial ice margin on slopes of 15 degrees or more, and have taken place on some slopes as gentle as five degrees. The weathered, exposed surface of the Fort Union Formation seems to be especially susceptible to soil slides. Soil slides constitute the major type of ground instability in southwestern North Dakota. Subsidence is of two types: (1) subsidence over old underground mine workings, and (2) subsidence over naturally ignited and burned underground coal beds. Major subsidence has taken place over old, underground workings near Beulah, Wilton, Lehigh, Haynes, and Belfield, and lesser subsidence near Scranton, and west and north of Bowman. Thickness of overburden above the coal in all these areas is believed to be less than 30 m (100 ft). Subsidence has not taken place over old underground workings along the Des Lacs and-Souris valleys northwest of Minot, where the thickness of overburden is more than 60 m (200 ft). Spectacular subsidence has occurred over a burning underground coal bed at Burning Coal Vein Park near the Little Missouri River, northwest of Amidon.

  16. North America and Asia Pacific LNG markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirie, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  17. The North American Josephson Voltage Interlaboratory Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, Harold V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tang, Yi-hua [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Reese, Paul [Bionetics Corporation, Patrick Air Force Base, Brevard County, FL (United States); Gust, Jeff [Fluke Corporation, Everett, WA (United States); Novak, James J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The ninth North American Josephson voltage standard (JVS) interlaboratory comparison (ILC) at 10 V was completed in 2011. An on-site comparison was conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology compact JVS and the pivot laboratory system. A set of four traveling Zener voltage standards was then shipped from the pivot laboratory to the other participants. Here, we give the results from the 2011 ILC and review recent comparisons which have used the same traveling standards and similar procedures.

  18. Climate change compounding risks in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Drine, Imed

    2011-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture and poor groups' livelihoods are one of the greatest potential threats to development and a key challenge in climate change agenda. The North Africa region is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to geographic and ecological features. The situation is aggravated by the interaction of multiple economic and social sources of stress and further compounded by low adaptive capacity. This paper describes the interaction between climate change, ec...

  19. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  20. Bathymetric Atlas of the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    of volcanic ash layers and turbidito% ini 1956. Clipperton fracture zone in the northeastern equa- the north Pacific, Gal. Soc. Amer. Bull., v. 80, p...1964. Galapagos Rise in the southeastern Pacific, Deep- 1961. Geology of the sea floor east of Guadalupe Island, Sea Research, v. 11, p. 233.242.I...charts. 52 p. Richards, A.F. Monard, H.W. 1959. Geology of the Islas Revillagigedo, Mexico, Volcan . 1955. Deformation of the northeastern Pacific

  1. North American natural gas price outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future natural gas prices for North America were discussed. Various aspects of the issue including the relationship between storage, weather and prices, received attention. It was noted that strong demand-growth will be needed to support near-term Canadian export increases without price declines. The issue of Gulf Coast production was also discussed. Power generation using natural gas as fuel is expected to support strong growth in the demand for natural gas. tabs., figs

  2. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Rape of Nanking,” Japanese soldiers butchered hundreds of thousands of unarmed Chinese men, women, and children . Often the ingrained hatred and...prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The

  3. Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus complex (EG) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Northern cervid Echinococcus was previously suggested to be the ancestor of the entire EG. During the last century, it was regarded to have three (or four) different, but often overlapping, transmission cycles in the circumpolar North: the original wolf wild cervid (reindeer or elk)-cycle; the semi-synanthropic cycle involving sled and hunting dogs and wild cervids; and the synanthropic cycle involv...

  4. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windingstad, Ronald M.; Kartch, Fred X.; Stroud, Richard K.; Smith, Milton R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  5. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  6. THE ECONOMICAL INTEGRATION IN NORTH AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Valentin Popescu

    2011-01-01

    The present work presents a view in the relatively recent history of the North American relationships, thing that underline in a way that NAFTA, according to the strong faith in the commerce and free investments. Here there are presented the stages of NAFTA formation, that is an agreement of free trade between USA, Canada and Mexico, that decided the total elimination of customs taxes in the mutual relationships. There are presented the effects upon the countries that participate as well as t...

  7. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of North...

  8. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...... a certain class of conditions can be found. Here, the HHT is applied to create conditional spectra which demonstrate patterns in the occurrence of severe wind variability. It is shown that wind fluctuations over the North Sea are more severe for westerly flow than for easterly flow, and that severe...... fluctuations are often observed in the vicinity of precipitation. The most severe wind fluctuations occur in the autumn and winter seasons, and are slightly more common when the pressure tendency is rising. Further, it is found that the wind is more variable for atmospherically unstable conditions than...

  9. Legal improvements brighten North Africa production outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    North Africa's three main oil producing countries soon will reap benefits of past moves by their governments to encourage investment by international companies. Production of crude oil and natural gas in Algeria, Egypt, and Libya is ready to increase from suppressed levels of the recent past, says International Energy Agency, Paris. The gains are possible despite political risks, total reserves accounting for only 4% of the world's crude reserves, and oil prices well below levels of the 1980s, when the countries' flow rates peaked. The reason: producing oil in North Africa is profitable. In a recent study entitled North Africa Oil and Gas, IEA attributes the bright production outlook to improvements that the countries' governments have made in the past decade to hydrocarbon laws and the fiscal terms they offer international investors. According to announced plans, the three countries' combined capacity to produce crude oil will rise 18% by the year 2000 to 3.65 million b/d, and a further gain of 700,000 b/d is possible. IEA expects production capacity for natural gas to increase 50% from its 1995 level by 2000 to a combined 139.4 billion cu m/year. This paper discusses production capacities, Algeria's record, improvements in Egypt, and Libya's changes

  10. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  11. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. North-South cooperation for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyaki, M

    1989-12-01

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.

  13. Uranium resources and geology of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    Since about the mid seventies, the International Atomic Energy Agency has held meetings on the geology and uranium resources of different geographic regions of the world. As a continuation of this series the Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Resources and Geology of North America was held between 1-3 September 1987 in Saskatoon, Canada. The meeting took place in the University of Saskatchewan, hosted by the Department of Geological Sciences in cooperation with the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Thirty-six technical papers were presented to a group of over 85 participants from seven countries. These papers provided an excellent coverage of uranium occurrences and deposits and their geological framework in Canada and the USA, with analogies from other parts of the world. North America, the region dealt with in this meeting, is of eminent significance for the world's uranium production and the nuclear industry. Total WOCA U-resources according to the classification developed by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD are periodically collected by these two organisations for their report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand. Currently total WOCA known U resources recoverable at costs of less than $130/kg U or $50/lb U 3 O 8 ) amount to 3.5 million t U, of which about 25% are located in North America, while the remainder is equally divided among Africa, Australia and the rest of WOCA (Asia, Europe, South America). Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Killdeer population trends in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzenbacher, Peter M.; Haig, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus) are considered a common species that inhabits a wide range of wetland and upland habitats throughout much of North America, yet recent information suggests that they may be declining regionally, if not throughout much of their range. To address this issue, we examined population trends of this species at multiple spatial and temporal scales using data from two major avian survey efforts, the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC). A summary of BBS trends indicates significant long-term (1966a??1996) declines in breeding populations across North America. Geographic regions driving this decline were Canada, western survey regions of the continent, and select southeastern states. In contrast, over the same time period, Killdeer populations increased in some midwestern states, particularly those in the Great Lakes region. Recent BBS trends (1986a??1996) indicate highly significant declines across most areas of North America surveyed. Trends from CBC data (1959a??1988) indicate declines at a smaller spatial scale. While the ability of current major avian survey efforts to detect population trends for Killdeer and other shorebird species warrants further examination, significant negative trends in Killdeer populations indicates the need to further investigate the status of this species.

  15. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  16. Role of genes in oro-dental diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In oral cavity, the spectrum of diseases due to genetic alterations ranges from developmental disturbances of teeth to the pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions. Of late, significant progress has been made in the molecular analysis of tumors. With molecular genetic testing emerging as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approach, a review of genetic alterations ranging from the development of oro-facial structures to the tumors in the head and neck region are addressed in this article. The functional regulatory aspect of genes in relation to oro-facial structures are discussed separately, i.e., in relation to tooth genesis, tooth agenesis (non-syndromic, syndromic, tooth structural alterations, syndromic oro-facial defects, bone diseases, skin diseases (genodermatoses, and malignant tumors. In this literature, various genes involved in the development of the oro-facial structures and tooth in particular are discussed. The genetic basis of disorders in the tooth development (agenesis, hypodontia, tooth structural defects like amelogenesis imperfecta (AI, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI, and oro-facial structural alterations (various syndromes are explained.

  17. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  18. North Atlantic climate model bias influence on multiyear predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Park, T.; Park, W.; Latif, M.

    2018-01-01

    The influences of North Atlantic biases on multiyear predictability of unforced surface air temperature (SAT) variability are examined in the Kiel Climate Model (KCM). By employing a freshwater flux correction over the North Atlantic to the model, which strongly alleviates both North Atlantic sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) biases, the freshwater flux-corrected integration depicts significantly enhanced multiyear SAT predictability in the North Atlantic sector in comparison to the uncorrected one. The enhanced SAT predictability in the corrected integration is due to a stronger and more variable Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and its enhanced influence on North Atlantic SST. Results obtained from preindustrial control integrations of models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) support the findings obtained from the KCM: models with large North Atlantic biases tend to have a weak AMOC influence on SAT and exhibit a smaller SAT predictability over the North Atlantic sector.

  19. The Energy Cooperative Scheme between South and North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-08-01

    The leaders of South and North announced the South-North Joint Declaration, which stood for the basic principle of the South-North Cooperation, in June 2000, after 55 years since the division of the country. The joint declaration was to suggest the basic principles on the relation of South-North. Two leaders declared as follows: The first was that the South and North have agreed to resolve the question of reunification independently; The second was that South and North agreed to promote reunification as the formulae of a confederation; The third was that South and North have agreed to promptly resolve humanitarian issues such as exchange visits by separated family members and relatives and the questions of unswerving long-term prisoners and the war prisoners; The forth was that the South and North have agreed to consolidate mutual trust by promoting balanced development of the national economy through economic cooperation and by stimulating cooperation and exchanges in civic, cultural, sports, public health, environmental and all other fields. As adopted in the Joint Declaration, the consolidation of the economic cooperation between South and North is not an important factor only for improving the economic power of the both Korea but also for peacefully unifying the both political systems. The union of South's capital and technology and North's labor will consolidate the mutual benefit and contribute to the balanced development of the national economy. Through the cooperation of South and North, the companies of the South can enhance their competitiveness in the world market, and the North can promote the transfer of the technology in industry. Even more, if the downstream - a railroad, a high way, a harbor, a communication, and electricity -of the North is improved through expanding the cooperation of South and North, the effect from the scale of economy will be expanded as growing the economy of Korean peninsular. 1 fig. 3 tabs.

  20. The North Sea field development guide. V.1: Northern North Sea. V.2: Southern North Sea. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The 1997/8, sixth edition is the first to be divided into two volumes. Volume 1 covers the central and northern North Sea areas; volume 2 contains the southern North Sea as well as the Irish and German sectors. The pages are numbered consecutively over the two volumes, with page numbers greater than 702 contained in the second volume. There are three index sections. Main index. Arranged by national sector (UK, Norway etc.) Within each sector the entries are alphabetical by operator name. This index contains page numbers for the book entries: the other two index sections should be used with the main index to find the exact location of an entry; Index by field. If the reader knows a field name (e.g. Kittiwake) but not the operator or the national sector, this index will reference them; Index by installation. Each installation (''Fulmar SALM'', ''Togi'') is named, giving the operator, field and national sector where it is located. This index is also useful for locating particular kinds of installations, such as subsea completions; The book is intended to provide a factual overview of field development activity in the North Sea (a term loosely used to include the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea). The aim is therefore to provide some background, specifications and history on every offshore installation in that area. Speculative or evaluative commentary is avoided where possible. No attempt has been made to forecast the form or probability of future developments, except in those few instances where announcements have been made by the oil company itself, and these are, clearly indicated. (UK)

  1. Third North Korean nuclear test: what is the state of the North's programme?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    Two months ago, following North Korea's Unha-3 launch, which put a small satellite into orbit, this publication discussed the possibility of a third North Korean nuclear test. As expected, Pyongyang remained true to its traditional policy of provocation. With carefully calculated timing, it carried out a third nuclear test on 12 February, just hours after Barack Obama's State of the Union address, four days before former leader Kim Jong-il's birthday, and on the eve of the investiture of the new South Korean president on the 25 February. Moreover, the North Korean regime is billing this test as a riposte to the new round of sanctions adopted on by the Security Council on 22 January following the Unha-3 launch in December, as it announced on the 24 January. Yet, aside from the associated posturing, this test confirms, if more confirmation were needed, the North's determination to develop an effective nuclear deterrent. The use of the term miniaturisation is certainly in part a propaganda exercise (can actual miniaturisation be achieved after three nuclear tests, one or two of whose success is highly doubtful?). Nonetheless, North Korea has clearly made progress in developing a nuclear weapon and an intercontinental ballistic missile derived from the Taepodong-2, and has promised to carry out further ballistic launches. Without a doubt, even if the North is a long way from possessing what we would consider an operational nuclear capability, its determination has helped it to make progress, and the country shows no signs of wanting to change course. In light of this fact, what can the international community do beyond existing and future sanctions regimes? Doubtless very little. China, which continues to support the North and which has been known in the past to exert influence on Pyongyang, has expressed its firm displeasure as to the North's activities but appears to have no leverage over Kim Jong-un. The Six-Party talks have little chance of

  2. Seasonal Climate Associated with Major Shipping Routes in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major shipping routes in the North Pacific (NP and North Atlantic (NA are analyzed via ship-reported records compiled by the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS. The shipping route seasonal characteristics and associated climatic features are also examined. In the NP, the dominant cross-basin route takes a great-circle path between East Asia and North America along 54°N north of the Aleutian Islands throughout the year. This route penetrates the Aleutian low center where ocean waves and winds are relatively weaker than those in the low¡¦s southern section south of 50°N. Moreover, the Earth¡¦s spherical shape makes a higher-latitude route shorter in navigational distance across the NP than a lower-latitude route. Two additional mid-latitude routes through the 40° - 50°N region appear in summer when the Aleutian low vanishes. In the NA, the major shipping routes form an X-shaped pattern in the oceans south of 40°N to connect North America/the Panama Canal and the Mediterranean Sea/the British Isles and Europe. These major shipping routes are far from the influence of the Icelandic low and thus are used throughout the year due to the stability in marine conditions and their general efficiency. A third and more zonal route appears to the north of the X-shaped routes in the 40° - 50°N region. Weak influence from the Icelandic low on marine conditions during summer and spring means that more ships take this route in summer and spring than in winter and fall.

  3. Modeling Mitigation Activities in North Carolina Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient enrichment and excessive sediment loadings have contributed to the degradation of rivers, lakes and estuaries in North Carolina. The North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality (NCDEQ) has implemented several basin-wide nutrient and sediment management strategies, yet gaps remain in understanding the impact of these strategies given the complexities in quantifying the processes that govern the transport of nutrient and sediment. In particular, improved assessment of the status of nutrient and sediment loadings to lakes and estuaries throughout the state is needed, including characterizing their sources and describing the relative contributions of different areas. The NCDEQ Division of Mitigation Services (DMS) uses watershed planning to identify and prioritize the best locations to implement stream, wetland, and riparian-buffer restoration to improve water quality. To support better decision-making for watershed restoration activities we are developing a SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model framework specifically for North Carolina. The SPARROW analysis (developed by the U.S. Geological Survey) relates water-quality monitoring data to better understand the effects of human activities and natural processes on surface-water quality. The core of the model consists of using a nonlinear-regression equation to describe the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and nonpoint sources on land to rivers, lakes and estuaries through the stream and river network. In this presentation, preliminary total Nitrogen, total Phosphorus, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) NC-SPARROW models are described that illustrate the SPARROW modeling framework incorporating specific restoration datasets and activity metrics, such as extent of riparian buffer and easements.

  4. North Atlantic, ITCZ, and Monsoonal Climate Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Deplazes, G.; Peterson, L. C.; Brauer, A.; Mingram, J.; Dulski, P.; Sigman, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    Major element chemistry and color data from sediment cores in the anoxic Cariaco Basin off Venezuela record with (sub)annual resolution large and abrupt shifts in the hydrologic cycle of the tropical Atlantic during the last 80 ka. These data suggest a direct connection between the position of the ITCZ over northern South America, the strength of trade winds, and the temperature gradient to the high northern latitudes, ENSO, and monsoonal climate in Asia. The mechanisms behind these decadal-scale ITCZ-monsoon swings can be further explored at major climate transitions such as the onset of Younger Dryas cooling at ~12.7 ka, one of the most abrupt climate changes observed in ice core, lake and marine records in the North Atlantic realm and much of the Northern Hemisphere. Annually laminated sediments from ideally record the dynamics of abrupt climate changes since seasonal deposition immediately responds to climate and varve counts accurately estimate the time of change. We compare sub-annual geochemical data from a lake in Western Germany, which provides one of the best-dated records currently available for this climate transition, with the new the Cariaco Basin record and a new and higher resolution record from Lake Huguang Maar in China, and the Greenland ice core record. The Lake Meerfelder Maar record indicates an abrupt increase in storminess, occurring from one year to the next at 12,678 ka BP, coincident with other observed climate changes in the region. We interpret this shift of the wintertime winds to signify an abrupt change in the North Atlantic westerlies to a stronger and more zonal jet. The observed wind shift provides the atmospheric mechanism for the strong temporal link between North Atlantic overturning and European climate during the last deglaciation, tightly coupled to ITCZ migrations observed in the Cariaco Basin sediments, and a stronger east Asian Monsoon winter monsoon as seen in lake Huguang Maar, when cave stalagmite oxygen isotope data

  5. North Sea oil and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This book, which is arranged in five sections, provides an historical record of the development of North Sea oil and gas over the past twenty years and records the lessons learnt from this experience. This first section provides an introductory framework to the three main themes, namely resources, environment and development. Section 2 is primarily concerned with the economic and social consequences of oil related development at two levels; firstly on the national economy and secondly the impact on local communities. Section 3 deals with impacts upon the physical environment and introduces the statutory land use planning system in Scotland. The Scottish approach to environmental assessment is reviewed and the need for mitigation by design explored. Section 4 examines specific field developments, and reviews the statutory controls and international initiatives regulating the extent of environmental disturbance and pollution from offshore operations. The effects of oil spillage and submarine pipelines on the environment and their impact on the fishing industry is followed by a discussion on the decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations. Section 5 deals with the role and value of hazard and risk analysis in the siting, layout and safety zoning of onshore facilities and develops a case study on a major fractionation facility. The means of mitigating acute and chronic environmental risks are considered. A postscript provides a range of past comments and criticisms and finally draws some conclusions on the performance of environmental management and North Sea oil development. The North Sea oil and gas development experience proves that with wisdom, forethought and goodwill, industrial exploiters of natural resources can operate economically within legislative, policy, scientific, technical and design parameters without causing long-term irreversible environmental damage. (author)

  6. Integration of the North American energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapointe, A.

    2002-07-01

    The US energy policy of President Bush administration proposes to develop a North American energy framework with a greater energy integration between Canada, the USA and Mexico in the respect of the sovereignty of each country. This article tries to evaluate the integration status of the energy sector in Northern America with respect to the North American free-exchange agreement and to the deregulation process observed in the natural gas and electric power sectors. The commercial energy fluxes between Canada, Mexico and the US show that the integration is a reality and that it is in constant progress. This integration is particularly important in the case of Canada and the USA while major constraints remain in Mexico where the property and exploitation of natural resources is a government monopoly. For this reason, Mexico could never exploit the full potentialities of its resources and suffers from a chronical under-investment in its energy infrastructures which limits the energy trade. Despite this, there is a strong will from the Mexican authorities to ensure the modernization of its energy sector and to contribute more to the integration process of the north American energy market. A series of reforms, and in particular the fiscal reform started by the government should reduce the excessive dependence of the government incomes with the dividends from the energy sector. This should allow the different government companies to reinvest more its benefits in order to improve the existing infrastructures and to increase the capacities (in particular in the gas and electricity sectors). Finally, the recent will of the government to open the gas sector should allow the development of this energy source. (J.S.)

  7. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  8. Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Antti

    2015-10-30

    The Echinococcus granulosus complex (EG) is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Northern cervid Echinococcus was previously suggested to be the ancestor of the entire EG. During the last century, it was regarded to have three (or four) different, but often overlapping, transmission cycles in the circumpolar North: the original wolf-wild cervid (reindeer or elk)-cycle; the semi-synanthropic cycle involving sled and hunting dogs and wild cervids; and the synanthropic cycle involving herding dogs and semi-domesticated reindeer. Human infections mainly derived from the latter two cycles. In Fennoscandia, the synanthropic cycle has been eliminated during the last 50 years due to changes in reindeer husbandry methods; machinery making herding dogs largely redundant. Typical to human CE in the North has been the relatively benign nature of the disease compared with CE caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto. The metacestodes in humans and in the natural cervid hosts predominantly appear in the lungs. The causative agents have been identified as EG mitochondrial genotypes G8 and G10, now together with G6 (camel), G7 (pig) and G9 genotypes constituting the Echinococcus canadensis species. Based on recent findings in reindeer in Yakutia, G6 might also be recognised among cervid genotypes. The geographical distribution of both G8 and G10 is circumpolar, with G10 currently apparently more prevalent both in the Palearctic and Nearctic. Because of the disappearance of the working dog, E. canadensis in Fennoscandia is again highly dependent on the wolf, as it was before domestication of the dog. Pet and sled dogs, if their number further increases, may to a minor part participate in the life cycle. Human CE in the North was mostly diagnosed by mass chest tuberculosis radiography campaigns, which have been discontinued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. North American ultra-distal tephrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; Hughes, P.; Mallon, G.; Amesbury, M.; Charman, D.; Street-Perrott, A.; Loader, N.; Woodman-Ralph, J.; Mauquoy, D.; Daley, T.; Booth, R.

    2011-12-01

    PRECIP (Palaeo-REconstruction of ocean-atmosphere Coupling In Peat) is a multi-proxy project examining the influences of Gulf Stream and Labrador Current variations on Holocene raised bogs along the Atlantic seaboard of North America. The project aims to reconstruct the influences of such climate drivers at multi-decadal timescales, thus enabling the testing of hypotheses relating to ocean-atmosphere coupling of Thermohaline Circulation (THC) and terrestrial responses (e.g. the '8.2 ka' event). A valuable geochronological tool for this task is tephrochronology which utilises far-travelled volcanic ash (microtephra: 600 shards/cm3) are estimated by the age model to occur at ca. 7500 14C cal. yrs BP and ca. 1200 14C cal. yrs BP (ca. AD 800), and are the correct period and geochemistry for correlation with the widespread Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) (7627±150 Greenland GISP2 ice core yrs BP) and White River Ash (Mount Churchill, Alaska) eruptions respectively. Other sources for prominent sequence isochrons are Mount St Helens (Washington), Mount Augustine (Alaska) and Mount Aniakchak (Alaska). The tephrochronological potential of other sites in the region is anticipated to be just as promising and should therefore provide the opportunity for the development of a new Holocene tephrostratigraphic framework for north-eastern North America, enabling highly precise correlations with equivalent tephrostratigraphic records, such as occurs in the Greenland ice cores. The development of a framework in this region should be additionally valid throughout much of the continent, with additional applications in the fields of archaeology, faunal/floral shifts and extinctions and volcanic hazard assessment.

  10. Gender Inequality in North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, Bidisha; Nayak, Purusottam

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of gender inequality in North East India using various indicators based on secondary data. The study reveals that the northeast is better off than that of the nation as a whole in terms of gender equality. However inequality between women and men exists in the region in spite of the predominance of various ethnic groups who by and large do not believe in sex discrimination. The study reveals that women are relatively disempowered and enjoy...

  11. 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Paul; Martos, Perry; Barrett, Brad

    2015-06-03

    Manuscripts collected in this 51st North American Chemical Residue Workshop (NACRW) Symposium issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (JAFC) were originally presented at the 51st NACRW meeting. The 2014 NACRW JAFC symposium collects 14 publications representing the broad range of topics in chemical analyses presented at the 2014 meeting. These include the analysis of chemical residues and contaminants in food, environment, feed, botanical, and bee samples as well as the application of quality control/quality assurance protocols in routine and method development.

  12. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Political and Economic Trends in North Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Faithful: the Moro cnn Politica] Elite (Nc’¢ York, Coluibia University Press, 1970) , Dassirl. 4. Abdel Aziz Belal, L’lnvestis.went au Maroc (Paris, Mouton...mismanagement, some measure of success sees assured , but it is’not clear what class of people will emerge to lead the country and operate the economy, or with...cooperation. BY_ IUTUION/ARAMMAY AU M&T~ii and/a WK Ii. .11 O OC CO Among the four North African states Morocco possesses the most compl2m society and the

  14. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  15. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  16. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  17. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Joe; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2003-07-25

    It is well known that hunting dramatically reduced all baleen whale populations, yet reliable estimates of former whale abundances are elusive. Based on coalescent models for mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, the genetic diversity of North Atlantic whales suggests population sizes of approximately 240,000 humpback, 360,000 fin, and 265,000 minke whales. Estimates for fin and humpback whales are far greater than those previously calculated for prewhaling populations and 6 to 20 times higher than present-day population estimates. Such discrepancies suggest the need for a quantitative reevaluation of historical whale populations and a fundamental revision in our conception of the natural state of the oceans.

  18. The North Atlantic Oscillation, Surface Current Velocities, and SST Changes in the Subpolar North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatau, Maria K.; Talley, Lynne; Niiler, Pearn P.

    2003-07-01

    Changes in surface circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic are documented for the recent interannual switch in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index from positive values in the early 1990s to negative values in 1995/96. Data from Lagrangian drifters, which were deployed in the North Atlantic from 1992 to 1998, were used to compute the mean and varying surface currents. NCEP winds were used to calculate the Ekman component, allowing isolation of the geostrophic currents. The mean Ekman velocities are considerably smaller than the mean total velocities that resemble historical analyses. The northeastward flow of the North Atlantic Current is organized into three strong cores associated with topography: along the eastern boundary in Rockall Trough, in the Iceland Basin (the subpolar front), and on the western flank of the Reykjanes Ridge (Irminger Current). The last is isolated in this Eulerian mean from the rest of the North Atlantic Current by a region of weak velocities on the east side of the Reykjanes Ridge.The drifter results during the two different NAO periods are compared with geostrophic flow changes calculated from the NASA/Pathfinder monthly gridded sea surface height (SSH) variability products and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) SST data. During the positive NAO years the northeastward flow in the North Atlantic Current appeared stronger and the circulation in the cyclonic gyre in the Irminger Basin became more intense. This was consistent with the geostrophic velocities calculated from altimetry data and surface temperature changes from AVHRR SST data, which show that during the positive NAO years, with stronger westerlies, the subpolar front was sharper and located farther east. SST gradients intensified in the North Atlantic Current, Irminger Basin, and east of the Shetland Islands during the positive NAO phase, associated with stronger currents. SST differences between positive and negative NAO years were consistent with

  19. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  20. Precision Rescue Behavior in North American Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behavior, in which one individual provides aid to another at some cost to itself, is well documented. However, some species engage in a form of altruism, called rescue, that places the altruist in immediate danger. Here we investigate one such example, namely rescuing victims captured by predators. In a field experiment with two North American ant species, Tetramorium sp. E and Prenolepis imparis, individuals were held in artificial snares simulating capture. T. sp. E, but not P. imparis, exhibited digging, pulling, and snare biting, the latter precisely targeted to the object binding the victim. These results are the first to document precision rescue in a North American ant species; moreover, unlike rescue in other ants, T. sp. E rescues conspecifics from different colonies, mirroring their atypical social behavior, namely the lack of aggression between non-nestmate (heterocolonial conspecifics. In a second, observational study designed to demonstrate rescue from an actual predator, T. sp. E victims were dropped into an antlion's pit and the behavior of a single rescuer was observed. Results showed that T. sp. E not only attempted to release the victim, but also risked attacking the predator, suggesting that precision rescue may play an important role in this species' antipredator behavior.

  1. The bentonite industry in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Walker, B.T.

    1992-11-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is studying a concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface in stable crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The waste containers would be surrounded by a clay-based buffer material, composed of equal proportions of bentonite clay and silica sand. In the reference disposal concept, some 1.9 x 10 5 Mg of used fuel would be emplaced. This would require 2.5 x 10 6 Mg of bentonite. A review of the bentonite industry in North America was carried out to establish the availability of sufficient high-quality material. There are proven reserves of sodium bentonite clay in excess of 1.5 x 10 8 Mg, and vast supplies are known to exist but not yet proven. The Canadian conceptual disposal vault would require 6 x 10 4 Mg of sodium bentonite each year for 40 years. The bentonite industry of North America has an installed annual production capacity of 2 x 10 7 Mg. A disposal vault would therefore require approximately 2% of the industry capacity. A number of commercial products have been screened for potential suitability for use as a component of the buffer. Ten currently marketed bentonite products have been identified as meeting the initial quality standards for the buffer, and two non-commercial bentonites have been identified as having the potential for use in a disposal vault. (Author) (14 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs.)

  2. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  3. North Sea focus on radwaste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, D.

    1990-01-01

    At the recent North Sea Conference in the Netherlands possible future strategies for managing radioactive waste (radwaste) proved to be a contentious issue. Several of its North Sea littoral neighbours sought a categorical assurance that the UK would forego the option of constructing a subterranean radwaste repository which though accessed from land, extends under the coastline, or a sub-seabed facility reached from an offshore structure. It was pointed out that the UK has no present plans for such a radwaste repository. However, sub-seabed designs as a possibility for future repositories were not ruled out. NIREX has decided to concentrate its exploration work at two sites -Sellafield and Dounreay. Both sites are coastal locations and the government is aware that detailed geological exploration may favour extension of a radwaste repository beyond the shoreline, even if initially developed entirely on land. The design of such a radioactive waste repository is outlined. The position of NIREX and the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee is discussed. (author)

  4. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  5. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  6. Historical genomics of North American maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-07-31

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density SNP genotyping to characterize a set of North American maize lines spanning the history of modern breeding. We provide a unique analysis of genome-wide developments in genetic diversity, ancestry, and selection. The genomic history of maize is marked by a steady increase in genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, whereas allele frequencies in the total population have remained relatively constant. These changes are associated with increasing genetic separation of breeding pools and decreased diversity in the ancestry of individual lines. We confirm that modern heterotic groups are the product of ongoing divergence from a relatively homogeneous landrace population, but show that differential landrace ancestry remains evident. Using a recent association approach, we characterize signals of directional selection throughout the genome, identifying a number of candidate genes of potential agronomic relevance. However, overall we find that selection has had limited impact on genome-wide patterns of diversity and ancestry, with little evidence for individual lines contributing disproportionately to the accumulation of favorable alleles in today's elite germplasm. Our data suggest breeding progress has mainly involved selection and recombination of relatively common alleles, contributed by a representative but limited set of ancestral lines.

  7. Creating the virtual Eiger North Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchroithner, Manfred

    The described activities aim at combining the potentials of photogrammetry, remote sensing, digital cartography and virtual reality/photorealism with the needs of modern spatial information systems for tourism and for alpinism in particular (the latter aspect is, however, not covered in the paper). Since for slopes steeper than 45°, a digital relief model in nadir projection cannot adequately depict the terrain even in low-angle views, digital Steep Slope Models (SSMs) with a rather vertical reference plane are desirable. This condition very much applies to the Eiger North Face which has been chosen as a testbed for the realisation of a virtual rock face and which shall later be embedded into a lower resolution synthetic landscape of the Eiger-Moench-Jungfrau Region generated from a DTM and satellite imagery. Our "SSM approach" seems justified by the fact that except for the visualisation, commercial software was used which is very limited both in DTM modelling and texture mapping. For the creation of the actual SSM, a pair of oblique coloured air photos has been used, resulting in both a digital face model of 3.7 m grid size and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.25 m. To demonstrate the alpinistic potential of the product, climbing routes have been inserted into the face model, thus enabling even non-experienced individuals to enjoy the "virtual reality conquest" of the Eiger North Face and potential climbing candidates to prepare themselves for the actual "real world" enterprise.

  8. The North Cyprus Conference Sector: Establishing a Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Oral, J.; Whitfield, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    North Cyprus had recently positioned itself as a conference destination. Given external and internal factors such as political isolation and the over dependency on casino tourism, policymakers have recognised the importance of the conference sector in creating sustainable growth for North Cyprus’s tourism driven economy. Increasingly, Turkish conference organisers are choosing North Cyprus as a destination to host conferences. As such, Turkish conference organisers were questioned via an inte...

  9. First record of giant anteater (xenarthra, myrmecophagidae) in north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G

    1987-04-10

    A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.

  10. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year...Subsequent reports to the South Korean National Assembly in the same year and in 1999 are cited in the media as stating that North Korea operates

  11. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  12. Fish fertilizer: a native north american practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, L

    1975-04-04

    The belief that the use of fish fertilizers originated among North American Indians, and was communicated as such by Squanto to the Plymouth settlers, has achieved the status of folklore and is therefore difficult to challenge. However, examination of the documentary evidence of Squanto's history and of native cultivation practices, and a cultural analysis of the implications of the use of fish fertilizer, have produced complementary lines of evidence. This evidence indicates that widely held beliefs about the "manner of the Indians" should be revised: Squanto's advice at Plymouth is probably best viewed as an interesting example of culture contact, one in which a native "culture-bearer" conveyed a technological idea from one group of Europeans to another.

  13. Postcolonial Perspectives on the European High North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book approaches the Arctic from a postcolonial perspective, taking into account both its historical status as a colonised region and new, economically driven forms of colonialism. One catchphrase currently being used to describe these new colonialisms is 'the scramble for the Arctic'. This c......This book approaches the Arctic from a postcolonial perspective, taking into account both its historical status as a colonised region and new, economically driven forms of colonialism. One catchphrase currently being used to describe these new colonialisms is 'the scramble for the Arctic......'. This cross-disciplinary study, featuring contributions from an international team of experts in the field, offers a set of broadly postcolonial perspectives on the European Arctic, which is taken here as ranging from Greenland and Iceland in the North Atlantic to the upper regions of Norway and Sweden...

  14. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  15. Life around the North Water ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Grønnow, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    The formation of the North Water in Smith Sound about 4500 years ago, as evidenced by the establishment of bird colonies and human presence, also initiated a long-term anthropogenic agent as part of this High Arctic ecosystem. Different epochs have influenced the human occupation in the area...... drivers in terms of weather and climate affecting the northern hemisphere also impact accessibility and productivity of the ecosystem, with cascading effects on social drivers, again acting back on the natural ecologies. Despite its apparent isolation, the ecosystem had and still has wide ranging spatial...... ramifications that extend beyond the High Arctic, and include human activity. The challenge is to determine what is internal and what is external to an ecosystem....

  16. Anthropometry of the Medan - North Sumatera Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Muchtar, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted on 780 students at a university in Medan, North Sumatra. The taken data is divided into two sub-groups, namely men and women, where the data of 343 men and women as many as 437 people. Taken anthropometry data is standing position, sitting position, hands, feet and body weight. This study presents statistical data in the form of standard deviation, average and percentiles. This research needs to be done because the population of the city of Medan is around 2,497,183 people, and Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia. The objectives this study is to collect the anthropometry data for ergonomics application and design product base on the customer need in Medan territory. Data retrieval is necessary because with this data is expected to be applied in the application of science of ergonomics, work station design, equipment design; tooling makes it convenient in everyday use.

  17. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3...... on experimental results and small-scale model studies. In particular, effects of the aerosol size distribution on the nitrogen deposition are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... and Harwich/Newcastle. These measurements provided data for sensitivity studies of a variety of problems associated with the coastal region that are not easily evaluated with larger scale models, to constrain models and to test model results. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds over the North Sea...

  18. North Atlantic Oscillation: Concept and an Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Peter J.; Peppler, Randy A.

    1987-10-01

    An outline of the concept of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), along with some of its history is presented. This is followed by a brief presentation of the results and implications of an encouraging new application of the NAO to a regional climate problem-the interannual variation of Moroccan winter-semester precipitation. That precipitation is shown to be inversely related to the concurrent state of the NAO, and the relationship is relatively strong by the standards of recent research into the mechanisms of tropical and subtropical precipitation fluctuations. It is suggested that the NAO is of particular significance for the important issue of the long-range prediction of Moroccan (and probably also Spanish, Portuguese, and Algerian) winter precipitation, and that further research on this subject is warranted. Several specific recommendations in the latter regard are made.

  19. Compositional Analysis of North Sea Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    fluids, in addition to the compositional data, physical properties of the pseudo fractions, i.e. density and molecular weight are required. A major drawback of the TBP distillation is the fact that the fractions contain typically 20 - 30% of the material outside the defined boiling range. Another...... on the paraffin-naphthene-aromatic distribution and its geographic origin. In this work we have performed the true TBP distillation of 7 stabilized North Sea oil samples. All the oils were distilled from carbon number 6 to 19 and the distillation was terminated at C20+, which was termed as the residue. We have...... performed analysis of the Clo fraction of each oil by gas chromatography. Subsequently, the specific gravity and molecular weights of the TBP fractions were determined and compared with the generalized values, which indicated major differences. In addition, the superiority of the PVT calculations...

  20. Tourism Profile Danish North Sea Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hergesell, Anja; Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling

    2007-01-01

    observations, the Germans continue to account for most of all overnights and remain the dominant segment in the southern parts of the peninsula, while the domestic demand prevails in the north. Despite the above described changes and the differences among origin markets regarding their preferred type...... is not important. Instead, the interviews indicate that while sustainability is not an issue in a Danish context to the same extent as in other countries, its principles have been integrated in tourism development. There are numerous networks shaping tourism development in the Danish NSR. Next to permanent...... of new ideas and the implementation of innovative concepts. However, their attitude towards change may differ: some individuals actively encourage innovative behaviour while others resist change until inevitable. Thus, investments into human resources are needed in addition to financial resources...

  1. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  2. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. A 15-year-long effort funded research on sea duck habitats through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and the Endangered or Threatened Species programs of the United States and Canada. Nevertheless, important gaps remain in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered by anthropogenic activities. The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, we examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Last, we evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for sea ducks.

  3. USArray Imaging of North American Continental Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofei

    The layered structure and bulk composition of continental crust contains important clues about its history of mountain-building, about its magmatic evolution, and about dynamical processes that continue to happen now. Geophysical and geological features such as gravity anomalies, surface topography, lithospheric strength and the deformation that drives the earthquake cycle are all directly related to deep crustal chemistry and the movement of materials through the crust that alter that chemistry. The North American continental crust records billions of years of history of tectonic and dynamical changes. The western U.S. is currently experiencing a diverse array of dynamical processes including modification by the Yellowstone hotspot, shortening and extension related to Pacific coast subduction and transform boundary shear, and plate interior seismicity driven by flow of the lower crust and upper mantle. The midcontinent and eastern U.S. is mostly stable but records a history of ancient continental collision and rifting. EarthScope's USArray seismic deployment has collected massive amounts of data across the entire United States that illuminates the deep continental crust, lithosphere and deeper mantle. This study uses EarthScope data to investigate the thickness and composition of the continental crust, including properties of its upper and lower layers. One-layer and two-layer models of crustal properties exhibit interesting relationships to the history of North American continental formation and recent tectonic activities that promise to significantly improve our understanding of the deep processes that shape the Earth's surface. Model results show that seismic velocity ratios are unusually low in the lower crust under the western U.S. Cordillera. Further modeling of how chemistry affects the seismic velocity ratio at temperatures and pressures found in the lower crust suggests that low seismic velocity ratios occur when water is mixed into the mineral matrix

  4. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  5. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilal Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child′s penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14 to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student′s t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children.

  6. North American Integration after 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Kostyunina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA among the three countries - the U.S., Canada and Mexico is the most striking example of successful development of integration processes in the Western Hemisphere. This year NAFTA marks the 20th anniversary of its foundation (1994. NAFTA covers trade in goods, services and movement of capital, intellectual property rights, environmental cooperation and labor cooperation. Its main advantages for member countries related to the dynamic growth of regional trade and investments, promoting the growth of industrial production (capital-intensive and high-tech industries in the U.S. and Canada, and labor-intensive industries in Mexico, increase the investment attractiveness of the economies of member countries and the promotion of employment. But there are costs, both general and specific to the individual member countries. Common costs are primarily asymmetrical level of economic interdependence, where mutual economic relations are the most developed between the U.S. and Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, and the least developed between Mexico and Canada due to historical conditions. Other costs are the differentiation in the levels of economic development, in volumes of overall GDP and per capita, population and size of the territory. But despite the costs, integration processes are successfully developed and repeatedly raised the issue of deepening economic integration between the U.S., Canada and Mexico. So, in 2000, there was put forward the concept of creating the North American community as an economic and security community by 2010, and in 2005 proposed the idea of a common currency called the Amero. But these proposals did not come true. On the agenda - the possibility of signing a new, more expanded NAFTA+, and even in the last year - the possibility to form a customs union under NAFTA.

  7. Upper temperature tolerance of North Atlantic and North Pacific geographical isolates of Chondrus species (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, K.; Guiry, M. D.; Masuda, M.

    1987-09-01

    The upper survival temperature for most isolates of Chondrus crispus from localities ranging from northern Norway and Iceland to Spain, and for an isolate from Nova Scotia, was 28 °C after 2 weeks of exposure to temperatures of 20 31 °C at intervals of 1 °C. An upper survival limit of 29 °C was exhibited by a few European isolates from the English Channel, the North Sea, and one Irish isolate from the upper intertidal. The warm-temperate Japanese species C. nipponicus and C. giganteus forma flabellatus survived 30 °C, whereas 29 °C was the upper survival limit for the coldtemperature C. pinnulatus forma pinnulatus from northern Japan. A possible origin of C. crispus in the north Pacific is discussed.

  8. Soluble and colloidal iron in the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Boyle, E; Sunda, W; Wen, L S

    2001-08-03

    In the oligotrophic North Atlantic and North Pacific, ultrafiltration studies show that concentrations of soluble iron and soluble iron-binding organic ligands are much lower than previously presumed "dissolved" concentrations, which were operationally defined as that passing through a 0.4-micrometer pore filter. Our studies indicate that substantial portions of the previously presumed "dissolved" iron (and probably also iron-binding ligands) are present in colloidal size range. The soluble iron and iron-binding organic ligands are depleted at the surface and enriched at depth, similar to distributions of major nutrients. By contrast, colloidal iron shows a maximum at the surface and a minimum in the upper nutricline. Our results suggest that "dissolved" iron may be less bioavailable to phytoplankton than previously thought and that iron removal through colloid aggregation and settling should be considered in models of the oceanic iron cycle.

  9. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Toxorhynchites rutilis septentrionalis in tires in Ohio. Mosq. News 40:107-109. (New county records.) Goyette, D. and A. Maire. 1980. Les sentiers de...North America. Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA. (Keys to adults, larvae and pupae.) * Nielsen, L. T. 1982. Aedes euedes H. D. & K. - A report...for recognizing second and third instar larvae of five Canadian mosquito genera (Diptera: Culicidae). Can. Entomol. 113:13-20. Shroyer, D. A., R. F

  10. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park. (a...

  11. Program and Institutional Support : North-South Institute | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program and Institutional Support : North-South Institute. The North-South ... IDRC has a long history of collaboration with the NSI, most recently through an institutional support grant covering the period 2003-2006 (102129). The NSI ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals. IDRC and the ...

  12. Achievements in emergency medical care service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse the performance of the Emergency Medical Rescue Service (EMRS) in North-West province. Design. A prospective study of the activity of the EMRS. Setting. North-West province, 2002 - 2004. Results. During this period the EMRS response time tended to decrease (reduction of 8 minutes for rural and ...

  13. North Dakota's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David E. Haugen; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of North Dakota's forests was completed in 2005 after 7,622 plots were selected and 164 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of the North Dakota...

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of North Atlantic tropical cyclones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month of genesis and their lifecycles and to study the role of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) in North Atlantic cyclogenesis. Between 1980 and 2004, 269 tropical cyclones (TCs) were formed over the North Atlantic, 77% of which occurred during the August-October period and 95% of major hurricanes (TCs in which the ...

  15. Imaging North Korea : Exploring its Visual Representation in International Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David; Nabers, Dirk

    North Korea puzzles many observers. Mostly, it is referred to as the most isolated country in the world, being a timeless mystery, enigma, or terra incognita. While these characterizations reveal the presupposition of a genuine void of knowledge concerning the assessment of North Korean state

  16. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  17. Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Salary Bonuses in North Carolina"--a paper presented at the February 2008 National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference--Jacob Vigdor of Duke University reviews a teacher salary bonus program operating in North Carolina. Known officially as the ABC's of Public Education, the program awards teachers…

  18. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  19. Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Robert Cook; Scott Denning; Peter Griffith; Beverly Law; Jeffrey Masek; Anna Michalak; Stephen Ogle; Dennis Ojima; Yude Pan; Christopher Sabine; Edwin Sheffner; Eric Sundquist

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. North American Carbon Program (NACP) sponsored an "all-scientist" meeting to review progress in understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle of North American and adjacent oceans, and to chart a course for improved integration across scientifi c disciplines, scales, and Earth system boundaries. The meeting participants also addressed the need for...

  20. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  1. Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria | Otoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary head and neck cancers in north eastern Nigeria. EC Otoh, NW Johnson, IS Danfillo, OA Adeleke, HA Olasoji. Abstract. Background:To document the pattern of primary head and neck cancers in North Eastern Nigeria. Study DesignA record-based study of primary head and neck cancers histologically diagnosed at ...

  2. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  3. Constitutionalism and conflict in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Allegedly the oldest in Indonesia, and to some even beyond, the constitution treasured in the Kedaton (traditional palace) of the Sultan of Ternate (North Maluku, Indonesia) constitutes a dividing line between North and South Ternate in terms of government, ethnicity, and, spirituality. Moreover, it

  4. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A..., Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A..., Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND 58502. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  6. 2009 Legislative Session Resource Guide. Investing in North Dakota's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Dakota University System (NDUS) is composed of two doctoral universities, two master's degree-granting universities, two universities that offer bachelor's degrees and five community colleges that offer associate and trade/technical degrees. Each institution is unique in its mission to serve the people of North Dakota. The "2009…

  7. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  8. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers at Endoscopy in Kano, North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer registration in Nigeria is poorly done, this is even so in North-Western Nigeria. It is only of recent that attempts are being made to know the profile of cancers seen in clinical practice in our environment. This study was done to establish the pattern of upper gastrointestinal cancers at Kano, North-Western Nigeria.

  9. Seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclogenesis over the North Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over the northwest Pacific having significant and stable relationship with CDs over BoB in subsequent. OND season are used in PCR model for a ..... move in north-eastwards and cross Bangladesh and north-eastern parts of India. As seen from ...... and the South China Sea; Wea. Forecasting 13 997–1004. Chan J C, Shi ...

  10. Entrepreneurial Networking in the Middle East and North Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Entrepreneurial Networking in the Middle East and North Africa. Social networks are important sources of advice and contribute to entrepreneurs' success in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). New research will encourage collaboration among Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) researchers and generate ...

  11. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Grizelle Gonzalez; Cynthia M Hale; Liam Henegham; Sharon L. Lachnicht; Xiaoming Zou

    2006-01-01

    The introduction, establishment and spread of non-native earthworm species in North America have been ongoing for centuries. These introductions have occurred across the continent and in some ecosystems have resulted in considerable modifications to ecosystem processes and functions associated with above- and belowground foodwebs. However, many areas of North America...

  12. North Dakota Early Childhood Tracking System - Background Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota State Legislative Council, Bismarck.

    This report responds to a North Dakota legislative mandate to study the state's early childhood tracking system for children who are at risk for developmental delays. Introductory sections summarize critical definitions and relevant federal legislation (specifically Part H of Public Law 99-457). The North Dakota program is then reviewed. Nineteen…

  13. Earliest occupation of north-west Europe: A coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  14. 76 FR 61728 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... North Carolina resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on August 25, 2011, and continuing, is of... section 310(a), Priority to Certain Applications for Public Facility and Public Housing Assistance, 42 U.S... North Carolina have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Beaufort, Carteret...

  15. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  16. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  17. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  18. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost...... the North Sea are expected to change the priority in favour of utilising wave energy from the North Sea. The paper describes the opportunities for power production in the North Sea considering the competition for space and the synergy with offshore wind. Two approaches are used: a traditional national...... approach using very modest assumptions about how to establish a first generation of wave energy producing devices connected at a national level; and a trans-national cooperation approach taking into account the existence of a grid connecting several wind farms in the North Sea area. The former approach...

  19. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The North Sea Basin contains an almost complete record of Cenozoic sedimentation, separated by clear regional unconformities. The changes in sediment characteristics, rate and source, and expression of the unconformities reflect the tectonic, eustatic and climatic changes that the North Sea and its...... margins have undergone. While the North Sea has been mapped locally, we present the first regional mapping of the Cenozoic sedimentary strata. Our study provides a new regional sub-division of the main seismic units in the North Sea together with maps of depocentres, influx direction and source areas. Our...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  20. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    markets, which serves as a proxy for market activity, and investigates the correlation of this market activity with the number of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea. The hypothesis is that increased market activity, including cross border trade with China, will result in more North...... Koreans crossing the border into China, and eventually more North Koreans reaching South Korea. Findings - The findings of this paper are that there is a statistical significant correlation of the number of women that arrive in South Korea and the night-time lights emitted by a black market in Sinuiju......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...

  1. Interdecadal changes in the storm track activity over the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Seon; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Heo, Ki-Young [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin; Jin, Fei-Fei [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Straus, David M.; Shukla, Jagadish [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Analysis of NCEP-NCAR I reanalysis data of 1948-2009 and ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis data of 1958-2001 reveals several significant interdecadal changes in the storm track activity and mean flow-transient eddy interaction in the extratropics of Northern Hemisphere. First, the most remarkable transition in the North Pacific storm track (PST) and the North Atlantic storm track (AST) activities during the boreal cold season (from November to March) occurred around early-to-mid 1970s with the characteristics of global intensification that has been noticed in previous studies. Second, the PST activity in midwinter underwent decadal change from a weak regime in the early 1980s to a strong regime in the late 1980s. Third, during recent decade, the PST intensity has been enhanced in early spring whereas the AST intensity has been weakened in midwinter. Finally, interdecadal change has been also noted in the relationship between the PST and AST activities and between the storm track activity and climate indices. The variability of storm track activity is well correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation prior to the early 1980s, but this relationship has disappeared afterward and a significant linkage between the PST and AST activity has also been decoupled. For a better understanding of the mid-1970s' shift in storm track activity and mean flow-transient eddy interaction, further investigation is made by analyzing local barotropic and baroclinic energetics. The intensification of global storm track activity after the mid-1970s is mainly associated with the enhancement of mean meridional temperature gradient resulting in favorable condition for baroclinic eddy growth. Consistent with the change in storm track activity, the baroclinic energy conversion is significantly increased in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The intensification of the PST and AST activity, in turn, helps to reinforce the changes in the middle-to-upper tropospheric

  2. Surface Wind Observational Database in North Eastern North America: Quality Control Procedure and Climatological Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Hidalgo, Ángela; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. It also presents some insights of the long-term climatological variability over the region. The database consists of 527 sites (487 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions. The records span from 1940 to 2010 and cover an approximate spatial extension of 2.2 × 106 km2. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. Due to the size of the data set, a great effort has been made on the automation of the procedures. A number of problems are associated with data management and data conventions: unification of measurement units and recording times due to the variety of institutional sources; detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; and detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. From the other hand there is a variety of treated instrumental errors: problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; high variability related erroneous records; wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Around 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected. The already quality controlled database allows for subsequent climatological analyses. The intra and inter decadal variability of the monthly surface wind field in such a vast and orographically complex region as the North Eastern North America is explored. Several decades of quality

  3. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  4. GROWTH AND FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ULTRAPLANKTON ON A NORTH SOUTH TRANSECT IN THE EASTERN NORTH-ATLANTIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDHUIS, MJW; KRAAY, GW; GIESKES, WWC

    1993-01-01

    In the summer of 1989 vertical profiles of chlorophyll a were taken in the North Atlantic. Stations were located along a transect following longitude 20-degrees-W, between 60 and 33-degrees-N. Maximum chlorophyll a levels were located near the surface in the north (2 mugl-1) but became gradually

  5. Esthetic dentistry in North American dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Abu-Hanna, Amer; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-04-01

    Esthetic dentistry is among the most dynamic areas of contemporary clinical dentistry. Teaching programs in dental schools have a strong effect on the practice of dentistry, not only for recent graduates, but also for established clinicians, especially with respect to new techniques and concepts. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess the frequency and extent of the teaching of esthetic dentistry in North American dental schools and to report how it differs among the various schools. A 19-question survey was mailed to 64 North American dental schools. The questions inquired about the priority given to the teaching of esthetic dentistry in the school; how the subject was taught (through regular curricular courses; through a multidisciplinary approach or through elective classes); the duration of the esthetic dentistry course; the nature of the course content (theoretical or practical); the esthetic procedures taught to undergraduate students; the level of interaction among different disciplines in the teaching of esthetic dentistry; and the techniques and commercial materials used. The responses were summarized as percentages based on the number of schools that responded to each question. Fifty-two (81%) of the 64 dental schools completed and returned the questionnaire. Twenty-five of these schools (48%; designated group A) reported having a course exclusively for the teaching of esthetic dentistry. Twenty-seven schools (52%; designated group B) reported that esthetic dentistry was addressed in multiple courses, i.e., no specific course was available. Four schools in group B (15%) were in the process of developing a separate course for esthetic dentistry. In group A schools, esthetic dentistry was taught mainly in the operative dentistry department or division. The most frequent course duration was 4 to 6 months, but there were marked variations. Thirteen (52%) of these 25 schools had didactic and practical teaching at both the preclinical and the

  6. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  7. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  8. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Ricelands have become an indispensable component of waterbird habitat and a leading example of integrating agricultural and natural resource management in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Gulf Coast, and Central California. Residual rice, weed seeds, and invertebrates provide food for many avian species during fall and winter. In North America, considerable information exists on the use of ricefields by wintering waterbirds, the value of ricelands as breeding habitat for birds, and the effects of organic chemicals on birds that- feed in ricefields. Recent research has also examined the influence of field management practices, such as winter flooding and post-harvest straw manipulation, on the suitability of ricefields for wildlife. Whereas early studies focused on detrimental effects of wildlife on rice production (e.g., crop depredation), it has become apparent that waterbirds may benefit producers by enhancing straw decomposition, reducing weed and pest pressure, and providing additional income through hunting and wildlife viewing opportunities. A comprehensive evaluation of agronomic and environmental issues is needed to meet the challenges of producing food and sustaining wildlife in twenty-first-century rice lands. Changes in agricultural markets, pressures of increased urban development, conflicting needs for limited resources such as water, endangered species constraints, and concerns over water quality must be addressed in developing a sustainable, mutually beneficial partnership among the rice industry, wildlife, and environmental interests. Research is also needed to evaluate potential reductions in the wildlife carrying capacity of ricelands resulting from new harvest and field management techniques, crop conversion, or loss of rice acreage. Key uncertainties include: (1) changes in waste grain abundance and availability due to various harvest and post-harvest management practices; (2) evaluating food depletion by birds feeding in rice6elds and

  9. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Hoon; Jun, Eunju; Kim, Mi Jin

    2013-01-01

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime

  10. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  11. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  12. Infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Lee, Hyojung; Yuan, Baoyin; Endo, Akira; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Chowell, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    The characteristics of disease in North Korea, including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks, have not been openly and widely analyzed. This study was performed to estimate the risks of infectious diseases among refugees from North Korea. A literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted to statistically estimate the risks of infectious diseases among North Korean subjects. A total of six groups of data from five publications covering the years 2004 to 2014 were identified. Tuberculosis and viral hepatitis appeared to be the two most common infectious diseases, especially among adult refugees. When comparing the risks of infectious diseases between North Korean and Syrian refugees, it is critical to remember that Plasmodium vivax malaria has been endemic in North Korea, while cutaneous leishmaniasis has frequently been seen among Syrian migrants. Valuable datasets from health surveys of defectors were reviewed. In addition to tuberculosis and viral hepatitis, which were found to be the two most common infectious diseases, a special characteristic of North Korean defectors was Plasmodium vivax malaria. This needs to be added to the list of differential diagnoses for pyretic patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood urolithiasis in North-Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ben Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001 and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%, gross hematuria (22%, associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%, and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05. Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%, hydronephrosis (34%, systemic hypertension (8%, and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%, uric acid (10%, carbapatite (7%, and cystine (3.5%. Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  14. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  15. Proceedings of the EkoNorth forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.

    2004-01-01

    EkoNorth refers to Northern Construction/Infrastructure Innovation Cluster Devoted to Sustainable Northern Communities. The focus of this workshop was on developing links between various institutions, private industry and government. Participants were assembled from Labrador, Nunavik, Nunavut, the Northwest Territories and the Yukon, representing private industry, governments, post-secondary institutions and research institutes. Issues concerning sustainable development and linkages between educational institutions, economic opportunities and the preservation of the environment were discussed. Demands and opportunities for construction solutions in Northern Canada were explored. Remote and cold regions design and construction issues were also discussed. Export potentials in a circumpolar market were reviewed. Community-based innovation, and business incentive policies were examined along with issues concerning housing needs, energy consumption issues and cost. The development of new types of energy sources was considered, as well as partnerships with industry, energy efficiency audits, and funding for energy efficiency upgrades. Funding to implement a virtual cluster and the issues concerning the development of roads using cold applied chip seal were also discussed. National and international markets were considered in relation to small and medium-sized northern enterprises. Municipal infrastructure requirements were reviewed, along with investment opportunities, wastewater treatment, technology transfer and the development of knowledge-based industries. A review of regulations and policies concerning human resources and training issues was presented. Financing approaches and risk capital were discussed, as well as research and development. Various initiatives for pilot projects and feasibility studies were also presented. 2 figs.

  16. Coexistence, North American style: regulation and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Globally, biotech crops have left a legacy of success and some notable failures due to regulatory and litigious barriers to entry, with a pipeline of potentially beneficial biotech agricultural products lined up and awaiting approval. Compared with traditional agriculture, these crops provide significant health benefits to environmental and human health benefits, including organic systems. While the rest of the world has increased acreage of biotech crops at a steady annual rate of 10%, North America-the birthplace of most biotech crops-has reached a critical turning point in its regulatory evolution. Biotech crops can play a major role in creating a more sustainable agricultural landscape, which is increasingly well-documented, but future commercial use may be hampered by regulation and litigation that place organic and non-GMO agriculture on a pedestal, which could force many biotech crops into containment. If producers of biotech crops are required to prevent their crops from contaminating these other, high premium specialty crops through migration, innovation in agricultural biotechnology will suffer (as the European experience with agricultural biotechnology clearly demonstrates).

  17. Circum-North Pacific tectonostratigraphic terrane map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Baranov, Boris B.; Byalobzhesky, Stanislav G.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Feeney, Tracey D.; Fujita, Kazuya; Gordey, Steven P.; Grantz, Arthur; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Natal'in, Boris A.; Natapov, Lev M.; Norton, Ian O.; Patton, William W.; Plafker, George; Scholl, David W.; Sokolov, Sergei D.; Sosunov, Gleb M.; Stone, David B.; Tabor, Rowland W.; Tsukanov, Nickolai V.; Vallier, Tracy L.; Wakita, Koji

    1994-01-01

    The companion tectonostratigraphic terrane and overlap assemblage of map the Circum-North Pacific presents a modern description of the major geologic and tectonic units of the region. The map illustrates both the onshore terranes and overlap volcanic assemblages of the region, and the major offshore geologic features. The map is the first collaborative compilation of the geology of the region at a scale of 1:5,000,000 by geologists of the Russian Far East, Japanese, Alaskan, Canadian, and U.S.A. Pacific Northwest. The map is designed to be a source of geologic information for all scientists interested in the region, and is designed to be used for several purposes, including regional tectonic analyses, mineral resource and metallogenic analyses (Nokleberg and others, 1993, 1994a), petroleum analyses, neotectonic analyses, and analyses of seismic hazards and volcanic hazards. This text contains an introduction, tectonic definitions, acknowledgments, descriptions of postaccretion stratified rock units, descriptions and stratigraphic columns for tectonostratigraphic terranes in onshore areas, and references for the companion map (Sheets 1 to 5). This map is the result of extensive geologic mapping and associated tectonic studies in the Russian Far East, Hokkaido Island of Japan, Alaska, the Canadian Cordillera, and the U.S.A. Pacific Northwest in the last few decades. Geologic mapping suggests that most of this region can be interpreted as a collage of fault-bounded tectonostratigraphic terranes that were accreted onto continental margins around the Circum-

  18. Thermal Properties of Alaskan North Slope Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, P. P.; Kane, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    Climatic processes important to permafrost formation, maintenance and degradation have an annual to millennial timescale. The thin active layer, vegetation and snow above the permafrost can exert considerable influence on permafrost stability and react more rapidly than permafrost to climatic shifts. The thermal properties of this layer are thus important for the interpretation of permafrost data. We seek to predict bulk properties of a porous multiphase media based on state variables, bulk material properties and spatial phase densities. In this study, our objectives are: 1) to test thermal diffusivity probes in the field for the assessment of phase density, in particular of volumetric ice content and 2) to corroborate field studies with laboratory determinations of phase density and thermal diffusivity. We measure thermal properties and phase densities of a range of soils from the Alaskan North Slope, including high organic content and fine-grained mineral soils. Liquid water content is measured using time domain reflectometry to constrain the composition of the multiphase soil. Additional measurements of the soil's state are made using thermistors, heat flux plates and radial heat dissipation probes. The latter are thin films with embedded heat pulse wire and thermopiles to measure the radial thermal gradient response to temperature change. We report changes in thermal conductivity and diffusivity during freezing and thawing, and at different moisture contents and temperatures. The results for thermal conductivity and diffusivity as a function of phase density under field conditions are compared to those measured in the lab and to those calculated using empirical models.

  19. Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Jeanne D

    2015-06-01

    Bioluminescence is widely recognized among white-spored species of Basidiomycota. Most reports of fungal bioluminescence are based upon visual light perception. When instruments such as photomultipliers have been used to measure fungal luminescence, more taxa have been discovered to produce light, albeit at a range of magnitudes. The present studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of bioluminescence among North American Armillaria species. Consistent, constitutive bioluminescence was detected for the first time for mycelia of Armillaria calvescens, Armillaria cepistipes, Armillaria gemina, Armillaria nabsnona, and Armillaria sinapina and confirmed for mycelia of Armillaria gallica, Armillaria mellea, Armillaria ostoyae, and Armillaria tabescens. Emission spectra of mycelia representing all species had maximum intensity in the range 515-525 nm confirming that emitted light was the result of bioluminescence rather than chemiluminescence. Time series analysis of 1000 consecutive luminescence measurements revealed a highly significant departure from random variation. Mycelial luminescence of eight species exhibited significant, stable shifts in magnitude in response to a series of mechanical disturbance treatments, providing one mechanism for generating observed luminescence variation. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New roads toward North-South cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpstra, E G

    1989-12-01

    A Netherlands Parliament member gives a European Perspective on population and development, problems in urban development, and methods of cooperation between industrialized and developing countries. On population and development, the relationship between population explosion and poverty, underdevelopment, environment, social infrastructure, and food shortages is pointed out. Most population growth in the years ahead will be in developing countries. Rampant population growth and burgeoning poverty strain the world's carrying capacity and environment, both in industrial and developing countries. Development policy and cooperation will fail in the absence of efforts to stem population growth. On this front, religious and political leaders have groundbreaking cooperative steps in supporting international family planning efforts through the global forum of Spiritual and Parliamentary Leaders on Human Survival. Economic development, environment, and population issues are inexorably tied together. The numerous problems faced by uncontrolled Third World urbanization are discussed with potential solutions for change. Incorporating women in the development process is strongly encouraged. The interdependent North-South relationship is discussed. All nations, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and women must cooperate to find solutions and effect positive change on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  2. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  3. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  4. Tetrafluoromethane in the deep North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Mühle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved tetrafluoromethane (CF4) has been measured for the first time in the North Pacific Ocean. Surface water collected during calm weather is near equilibrium with the modern atmosphere. Deep water, isolated from atmospheric exchange for centuries, is near equilibrium with the preindustrial atmosphere, after accounting for an expected 5% addition of this low-solubility gas due to air injection during high-latitude deep-water formation. These results strongly suggest that dissolved CF4 is conservative in seawater and that the oceanic imprint of anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CF4 can be used as a time-dependent tracer of ocean ventilation and subsurface circulation processes. Although the continental lithosphere is a source of natural atmospheric CF4, we find no evidence of an oceanic lithospheric CF4 input into deep Pacific waters. The estimated upper limit of a potential oceanic lithospheric CF4 flux to the global atmosphere is on the order of 4% of that from the continental lithosphere.

  5. Joint implementation: Perspectives form North and South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowen, M.; Mendis, M.; Trexler, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Joint implementation (JI) refers to a provision of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that allows international collaboration to achieve net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. JI emerged from the goal of being able to pursue a least-cost global climate change mitigation strategy. If successful, JI could result in significant climate change mitigation activities and in the channeling of billions of additional dollars into much needed energy and natural resource sector projects in developing countries. Currently, the North's and South's perspectives on JI differ markedly, at least publicly. Most industrialized countries would prefer a relatively unrestricted JI system in which they are free to offset portions of their own GHG emissions abroad. Developing countries are concerned that JI will not result in incremental resource transfers, that JI may actually divert private and public investment funds away from existing priorities, and that their long-term development goals may be undermined in the name of climate change mitigation. International negotiations on JI are currently under way through the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee; these negotiations may continue for years as countries move through a constrained JI pilot phase in the search for JI's ultimate potential. It would be a pity if the system that ultimately emerges fails to actively advance the global objective of climate change mitigation

  6. The North Celestial Pole Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R. M.; Castelaz, M.; Phillips, J.

    2005-05-01

    In the past ten years a renaissance has occurred in the study of transient phenomena using small, dedicated optical telescopes. This has largely been driven by the successful detection of planetary transits with small telescopes (Henry et al. 2000) and the successful recovery of optical afterglows of gamma ray bursts (e.g. Halpern et al. 1997). The telescopes involved are designed to slew at rapid rates accurately across the sky when a burst alert occurs, or to study a single patch of sky to detect transits. We have constructed a dedicated robotic instrument to monitor the region within 4 degrees of the north celestial pole continuously every clear night. Using a sequence of short and long exposures the telescope collects data to conduct searches for transient and variable objects and monitor the Cepheid variable Polaris. Previous authors (Kamper et al. 1984; Evans et al. 1998) have observed Polaris to nearly cease its pulsation, a unique behavior for a Cepheid variable. Monitoring Polaris with high secular coverage should help explain this behavior. We describe here the design of the observatory, its operation and control systems and give preliminary examples of the data products from this unique project.

  7. Feasibility study on intersection in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuty, I. P.; Sembiring, I. S.; Anas, R.; Lubis, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Traffic congestion is one of the problems faced by big cities, One of them is Binjai city and Medan city in North Sumatera. One of the causes of congestion is intersection of roads with highway and roads with railroads. To ensure the smooth movement of vehicles, technical handling at the intersection is needed. Therefore, it is necessary to pre-study the feasibility of level crossing in Binjai and Medan to be able to assess the investment needs and the level of importance of road development in the region. The development of transportation infrastructure and facilities is based on the thought of improving the transportation network system. The necessity of systemical integrated transportation system handling is needed in creating a transportation efficiency. The purpose of this study is to identify and prioritize the needs of the railway crossings. The objective which we want to be achieved is to obtain a document that contains technical, economic and environmental ability indicators as a reference in the feasibility and planning studies. The methodology used is collecting the primary data, secondary data, introduction of study area as the initial analysis of the problem. From the study it can be concluded that the existence of railway interchange will move the movement through traffic so it will not interfere the movement of traffic within urban areas and it keeps the national road network performance is still good.

  8. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  10. Height and weight differences between North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates height and weight differences between the two Koreas by comparing national anthropometric data published by the South Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science with United Nations survey data collected inside North Korea in 2002. For socioeconomic reasons, pre-school children raised in the developing country of North Korea are up to 13 cm shorter and up to 7 kg lighter than children who were brought up in South Korea--an OECD member. North Korean women were also found to weigh up to 9 kg less than their Southern counterparts.

  11. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  12. North Korea and Support to Terrorism: An Evolving History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.

  13. The North Pacific Summer Jet and Climate Extremes Over North America: Mechanisms and Model Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S. D.; Wang, H.; Chang, Y.; Koster, R. D.; Molod, A.

    2017-12-01

    The North Pacific summer jet (NPSJ) plays a critical role as a waveguide for weather systems and other sub-seasonal Rossby waves entering North America and therefore has a controlling influence on the warm season weather and climate extremes over much of the continent. In particular, much of the warm season precipitation that occurs over the central United States depends on subseasonal transients that are able to tap moisture from the Gulf of Mexico as they propagate across the continent. The GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), like many AGCMs, is deficient in the simulation of the NPSJ. It is shown that the deficiency is composed of: 1) a stunted jet in which the strongest winds are confined to the Asian continent, failing to extend across the North Pacific into the Gulf of Alaska as observed, and 2) a zonally symmetric poleward shift in the jet. These biases combine to impede the eastward propagation of the weather systems into the continent (the stunted jet), and deprive those systems that do enter the continent access to the moisture from the Gulf (the northward shift), leading to a dry bias over the central US. It is shown that the stunted jet bias is the result of too strong heating that occurs just south of the jet core over and near Tibet. Furthermore, it is shown that the poleward shift of the NPSJ can be corrected in the current GEOS-5 AGCM by increasing the vertical resolution. The implications of these results for improving warm season forecasts of extreme events will be discussed.

  14. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  15. The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program. [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J.

    1998-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program has been under development for the past three years. The monitoring strategy for NAAMP has five main prongs: terrestrial salamander surveys, calling surveys, aquatic surveys, western surveys, and atlassing. Of these five, calling surveys were selected as one of the first implementation priorities due to their friendliness to volunteers of varying knowledge levels, relative low cost, and the fact that several groups had already pioneered the techniques involved. While some states and provinces had implemented calling surveys prior to NAAMP, like WI and IL, most states and provinces had little or no history of state/provincewide amphibian monitoring. Thus, the majority of calling survey programs were initiated in the past two years. To assess the progress of this pilot phase, a program review was conducted on the status of the NAAMP calling survey program, and the results of that review will be presented at the meeting. Topics to be discussed include: who is doing what where, extent of route coverage, the continuing random route discussions, quality assurance, strengths and weaknesses of calling surveys, reliability of data, and directions for the future. In addition, a brief overview of the DISPro project will be included. DISPro is a new amphibian monitoring program in National Parks, funded by the Demonstration of Intensive Sites Program (DISPro) through the EPA and NPS. It will begin this year at Big Bend and Shenandoah National Parks. The purpose of the DISPro Amphibian Project will be to investigate relationships between environmental factors and stressors and the distribution, abundance, and health of amphibians in these National Parks. At each Park, amphibian long-term monitoring protocols will be tested, distributions and abundance of amphibians will be mapped, and field research experiments will be conducted to examine stressor effects on amphibians (e.g., ultraviolet radiation, contaminants, acidification).

  16. Changing landscape for North American supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs

  17. Pain education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B

    2011-12-01

    Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was

  18. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  19. Gully Development in North Ethiopia's Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; de Mûelenaere, Stephanie; Meire, Ellen; de Dapper, Morgan; Deckers, Jozef; Haile, Mitiku

    2010-05-01

    Understanding trends in gully erosion, and the relation with changes in its triggers, is important to make sustainable development possible in semi-arid regions suffering from low food security and threatened by climatic deterioration. The reconstruction of long-term (1868-2009) patterns in gully erosion in North Ethiopia and environmental control, i.e. LUC changes and rainfall pattern changes, requires an extensive database of ground-based photographs (1868-1975), aerial photographs (1964-1992), satellite images (1972-2009), meteorological station data (1950s-2009) and field measurements. Quantifying gully erosion networks and volumes is done from an integrated analysis of historical ground-based photographs, aerial photographs and IKONOS imagery. Therefore, new methodologies are being developed based on fieldwork, digital photogrammetry and Geographic Information Science techniques. LUC mapping and change analysis for periods prior to satellite imagery and aerial photography is done by developing a new methodology that georeferences LUC boundaries identified on historical photographs to the horizontal plane of the map. For the LANDSAT LUC analysis (1972-2000), images dated 1974-5 were calibrated using photographs of the same period. Therefore, a methodology was developed that involves the development of spectral signatures based on LUC observed on the photographs, and the recording of the location of those LUC units by GPS. Rainfall pattern changes will be analyzed from Rainfall Estimates(2001-2009) and meteorological station data. Early results show that gully erosion was already extensive in the late 19th century, caused by a largely degraded environment and that critical gully expansion occurred after the mid 20th century. Little care was given to land management in 1868 resulting in very low vegetation cover which depleted to a minimum in dry spells like in the 1980s. In recent decades land management practices result in an environmental recovery and

  20. Cardiovascular Health of North Carolina Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiao L; Ward, Rachel; Bolin, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in Eastern North Carolina (ENC). In this study, we investigated cardiometabolic risk in young adults of ENC by sampling entrant undergraduates at East Carolina University (ECU). From June to October of 2010, 525 undergraduates were screened for elevated body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, inactivity, smoking, history of diabetes or hypertension, and family history of coronary disease. Participants were classified as high-risk if they had 3 or more cardiovascular risk factors or as "MetS" if they satisfied the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Forty-four percent of those screened had 2 or more risk factors, 12.5% had 3 or more risk factors, and 1.3% met criteria for MetS. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (27.6%), overweight status (27.2%), and inactivity (27.1%) were leading risks. Females had an increased risk of inactivity compared to males (relative risk [RR] = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.3-2.52). Blacks had a 4-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (RR = 4.21; 95% Cl, 1.0-18.4), and black females had a high risk for obesity (RR = 5.7; 95% CI, 2.5-13) and systolic blood pressure elevation (RR = 4.8; 95% Cl, 1.5-15). Students recognized cardiovascular disease as a valid risk to their well-being. ECU undergraduates have a high prevalence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors. High-risk and MetS students recognize cardiovascular disease as a significant health risk, but they mistakenly maintain the self-perception that they are healthy. Efforts to understand risk perception and personal strategies of risk application are needed for this population of young adults.

  1. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle E. Sakolsky-Hoopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  2. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  3. Space Radar Image of Safsaf, North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degree north latitude, 29 degrees east longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock; the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. On the ground and in optical photographs, this big valley and the channels in it are invisible because they are entirely covered by windblown sand. Some of these same channels were observed in SIR-A images in 1981. It is hypothesized that the large valley was carved by one of several ancient predecessor rivers that crossed this part of North Africa, flowing westward, tens of millions of years before the Nile River existed. The Nile flows north about 300 kilometers (200 miles) to the east. The small channels are younger, and probably formed during relatively wet climatic periods within the past few hundred thousand years. This image shows that the channels are in a river valley located in an area where U.S. Geological Survey geologists and archeologists discovered an unusual concentration of hand axes (stone tools) used by Early Man (Homo erectus) hundreds of thousands of years ago. The image clearly shows that in wetter times, the valley would have supported game animals and vegetation. Today, as a result of climate change, the area in uninhabited and lacks water except fora few scattered oases. This color composite image was produced from C-band and L-band horizontal polarization images. The C-band image was assigned red, the L-band (HH) polarization image is shown in green, and the ratio of these two images (LHH/CHH) appears in blue. The primary and composite colors on the image indicate the degree to which the C-band, H-band, their ratio

  4. Two new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from North Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C.C.; Hernawati,; Akhriadi, P.

    2006-01-01

    Two new species of Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) from North Sumatra, Nepenthes jamban Chi.C. Lee, Hernawati & P. Akhriadi and Nepenthes lingulata Chi.C. Lee, Hernawati & P. Akhriadi, are described and illustrated.

  5. 78 FR 27365 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... items include: Receive the report on the 2013 performance evaluation; review the electronic monitoring... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Observer Advisory Committee (OAC) will...

  6. 78 FR 69649 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Permit (EFP) for electronic Monitoring (T); Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Implementation Committee... Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) and its advisory committees will hold...

  7. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  8. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  9. On North Pacific circulation and associated marine debris concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Evan A; Bograd, Steven J; Morishige, Carey; Seki, Michael P; Polovina, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Marine debris in the oceanic realm is an ecological concern, and many forms of marine debris negatively affect marine life. Previous observations and modeling results suggest that marine debris occurs in greater concentrations within specific regions in the North Pacific Ocean, such as the Subtropical Convergence Zone and eastern and western "Garbage Patches". Here we review the major circulation patterns and oceanographic convergence zones in the North Pacific, and discuss logical mechanisms for regional marine debris concentration, transport, and retention. We also present examples of meso- and large-scale spatial variability in the North Pacific, and discuss their relationship to marine debris concentration. These include mesoscale features such as eddy fields in the Subtropical Frontal Zone and the Kuroshio Extension Recirculation Gyre, and interannual to decadal climate events such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Vegetative Propagation and the Genetic Improvement of North American Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Farmer

    1973-01-01

    Progress and problems in vegetative propagation of important North American hardwoods are reviewed with emphasis on rooting cuttings and the application of propagation techniques in breeding research. Some problems in rooting physiology are discussed.

  11. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), for 1979 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Project is a reanalysis of historical observations using a 32-km version of the National Centers for Environmental...

  12. Chemical oceanography of the Indian Ocean, North of the equator

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    -1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photo synthetic production reaching below...

  13. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  14. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  15. The Islamist Challenge in the Middle East and North Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, Randal

    1996-01-01

    The Islamist movements in the Middle East and North Africa have caused a great deal of concern for many in the West, as they are seen as a monolithic, fundamental religious phenomenon run by fanatical terrorists...

  16. The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2005-01-01

    The Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative (BMENA) is a multilateral development and reform plan aimed at fostering economic and political liberalization in a wide geographic area of Arab and non-Arab Muslim countries...

  17. Dealing with North Korea: Maintenance of Diplomacy and Military Credibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucas, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    North Korea presents a unique problem for America in a number of ways. The regime is extremely hostile to the Untied States and has ignored the obligations signed onto in a number of international treaties...

  18. Misguided U.S. Food Policy Toward North Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bubia, Donald

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the United Nations' World Food Program published an urgent plea for nations to donate food and medicines to relieve a complex food emergency in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea...

  19. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Killdeer, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from sampling events conducted in Killdeer, North Dakota as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources, retrospective case study

  20. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  1. Life history patters among North American tree-feeding sawflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; William J. Mattson

    1993-01-01

    This chapter deals broadly with the North American (NA) sawflies in the two superfamilies  Megalodontoidea (Xyelidae and Pamphiliidae, listed phylogenetically) and Tenthredinoidea (Pergidae, Argidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, and...

  2. North Carolina School Performance Data 2016-2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — 2016-17 State, District, and School Level Drilldown Performance DataPercentages greater than 95 are displayed as >95 and percentages less than 5 are displayed as...

  3. North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join NASPAG ACRM ACRM Abstract Guidelines Meeting Registration Future ACRM Dates ACRM Roomates Wanted Hotel Reservation Exhibit & ... removeClass('notactive'); autoPlay();}); }); About NASPAG The North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG), founded in ...

  4. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily North Arctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated Principal...

  5. A Bibliography of Italian Studies in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.

    1977-01-01

    This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)

  6. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  7. North Dakota wheat transportation knowledge for market enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    North Dakota wheat producers are located long distances from major consumer and export markets. Understanding the competitive position of their products is important to focusing efforts for market development and transportation investments. Research ...

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  9. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  10. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  11. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures, and as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  12. Foreign Assistance: North Korean Constraints Limit Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures and, as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  13. Observing and modelling phytoplankton community structure in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, D.A.; van der Molen, J.; Hyder, K.; Bacon, J.; Barciela, R.; Creach, V.; McEwan, R.; Ruardij, P.; Forster, R.

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplankton form the base of the marine foodchain, and knowledge of phytoplankton community structureis fundamental when assessing marine biodiversity. Policymakers and other users require information on marinebiodiversity and other aspects of the marine environmentfor the North Sea, a highly

  14. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Specifically, the North Korean government, which controls food distribution, has denied the World Food Program full access to the food distribution chain and has not provided required reports on food use...

  16. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  17. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  18. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  19. The role of host communities in north Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mackreath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted in Akkar, north Lebanon, suggests that the role played by the host community demonstrates good local capacity which should be built on to encourage further civic engagement and empowerment.

  20. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  1. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  2. The North American light rail experience : insights for Hamilton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a high level overview of the North American Light Rail Experience with the goal of : providing insights for Hamilton, Ontario. Light rail transit (LRT) is a term that emerged at the : Transportation Research Boards first confe...

  3. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  4. North African genetic variation of cytochrome and sulfotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North African genetic variation of cytochrome and sulfotransferase genes. María Gaibar, Meritxell Arqués, Ana Fernández-Santander, Apolonia Novillo, Alicia Romero-Lorca, Qi wei Li, M. Esther Esteban ...

  5. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  6. North Atlantic Right Whale Sighting Advisory System (NARWSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Since 1995, PSB has been conducting line-transect aerial abundance surveys over waters ranging from North Carolina to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Nova Scotia,...

  7. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A

    2007-01-01

    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  8. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F; Nanto, Dick K

    2006-01-01

    .... Although Pyongyang denies complicity in any counterfeiting operation, at least $45 million in such supernotes of North Korean origin have been detected in circulation, and estimates are that the country earns from $15...

  9. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  10. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the winter (December–February haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR and the generalized additive model (GAM. By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP. After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM prediction model was 3.39 (3.38 and 53 % (54 %, respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (−0.07 and −3.33 (−1.01, respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  11. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2012-06-01

    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eiras-Barca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive cyclogenesis of extratropical cyclones and the occurrence of atmospheric rivers are characteristic features of a baroclinic atmosphere, and are both closely related to extreme hydrometeorological events in the mid-latitudes, particularly on coastal areas on the western side of the continents. The potential role of atmospheric rivers in the explosive cyclone deepening has been previously analysed for selected case studies, but a general assessment from the climatological perspective is still missing. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data for 1979–2011, we analyse the concurrence of atmospheric rivers and explosive cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins for the extended winter months (ONDJFM. Atmospheric rivers are identified for almost 80 % of explosive deepening cyclones. For non-explosive cyclones, atmospheric rivers are found only in roughly 40 % of the cases. The analysis of the time evolution of the high values of water vapour flux associated with the atmospheric river during the cyclone development phase leads us to hypothesize that the identified relationship is the fingerprint of a mechanism that raises the odds of an explosive cyclogenesis occurrence and not merely a statistical relationship. These new insights on the relationship between explosive cyclones and atmospheric rivers may be helpful to a better understanding of the associated high-impact weather events.

  13. The integrated North American electricity market : investment in electricity infrastructure and supply : a North American concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, T.

    2006-03-01

    Electricity supply and infrastructure solutions for the United States and Canada were discussed along with the availability of fuel supply and the diversity of fuel sources. This document focuses on investment in transmission infrastructure in order to assure sustainable generation sources for both countries while addressing constraints along the border, which will allow for enhanced cross-border trade. The Canadian Electricity Association has proposed 3 areas of bi-national cooperation to promote effective investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the North American market: (1) cooperation in enhancing electricity supply, (2) cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure, and (3) cooperation in addressing air quality issues and climate change. The report discussed electricity generation by fuel source in Canada and the United States; status of restructuring in Canada; as well as the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market. It also discussed regulatory and policy matters affecting the investment environment. Last, it discussed the need for opportunities for investment in the North American market, distribution and demand side measures, and cooperation in enhancing transmission infrastructure. It was concluded that growing electricity demand in both the United States and Canada requires investment in electricity infrastructure and supply in the future. Resolving electricity infrastructure and supply needs must be an international concern, requiring the full engagement and cooperation of both countries. 1 tab, 2 figs

  14. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    suffering from several major ailments since 2000, including heart, liver, and kidney problems , and possibly diabetes .38 South Korean and Japanese media...Development and Diplomacy Congressional Research Service 5 North Korea. They emphasized to Chinese, Malaysian , and Russian officials the need to restrict...2008. 24 “North Korea tells China 30.8 kg of plutonium extracted,” Agence France Presse, October 24, 2008. 25 Glenn Kessler, “U.S. increases

  15. Seeds of Doubt: North American farmers' experiences of GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Warwick, Hugh; Meziani, Gundula

    2002-01-01

    The picture the biotechnology industry has painted of GM crops in North America is one of unqualified success, after six years of commercial growing. The objective of this report was to assess whether this image is accurate and if not what problems have occurred. We present interviews with North American farmers about their experiences of GM soya, maize and oilseed rape, and review of some of the independent research. The evidence we have gathered demonstrates that GM food crops are far f...

  16. Investigation of groundwater flow potential in Makurdi, North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    aquifers of the basement complex rocks of north central. Nigeria are ... Complex areas in the north and south of the River Benue. The elongated .... Industrial Estate. 10. 6. 0.60. 45.10. 270.60. 08.49008. 07.70197. Moderate. 12. Lafia road. 84. 52. 0.62. 6.20. 322.40. 08.56592. 07.79809. Moderate. 13. UniAgric road. 31. 30.

  17. A new era for uranium mining in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poissonet, M.; Marvy, A.

    1997-01-01

    North America will be one of the few places in the world where continuous development of new uranium mining projects and renewed, more intense exploration will occur for the coming years. Although the present project approval process and regulatory regime can be seen as a burden, past discoveries of world-class deposits have made North America the best place to invest in uranium production for many years to come. (author) 1 fig

  18. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable disruptions in the central North Sea area, Global Marine Systems Ltd. requested IMARES to investigate a possible link between these occurrences and the recent gear switch of the Dutch –demersal be...

  19. Interannual variability of north Atlantic Sea surface temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, U.S.; Battisiti, D.S.; Alexander, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the midlatitude north Atlantic Ocean the pattern of sea surface temperature anomalies (ssta) is characterized by a north-south dipole. Bjerknes was the first to propose that the banded structure was associated with the interannual variability. Recently, these patterns have been studied more extensively. In this study the quantitative aspects of these patterns are examined through the use of a mixed-layer model (MLM)

  20. Attempts to utilize and integrate traditional medicine in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungmook; Park, Jongbae; Han, Changyon

    2009-03-01

    To summarize the way North Korea attempted to modernize its system of traditional medicine and integrate it with Western biomedicine. We reviewed clinical textbooks and periodicals of traditional Korean medicine published in North Korea, research reports on North Korean health and medicine published elsewhere, and conducted interviews of defectors from North Korea who were students or clinicians of traditional medicine. Key findings of this study are: (1) North Korea has attempted several ways of integrating traditional medicine into education and clinical practices; (2) North Korea's communist government provided the main driving force for an integration policy; (3) school curricula of both Western and traditional Korean medicine incorporated knowledge of both disciplines, yet more weight was placed on traditional Korean medicine; (4) a combination of Western diagnosis and Korean therapeutics was the most frequent example of integration, while the dual system approach with reciprocal practice was also explored; (5) several forms of integrative therapeutic mixture were practiced including concurrent medication, injection on acupuncture points, and intramuscular or intravenous injection of extracts from medicinal plants; and (6) limited resources for research and the underdeveloped level of clinical research failed to secure rigorous scientific advancement. Despite the government-driven attempt to create an ideal integrative system of medicine, according to our findings, the actual introduction of an integrative system into practice was far from the North Korean government's anticipated outcome in regards to clinical practice. We hypothesize this was due to famine, economic crisis, and political isolation from the international realm. Traditional Korean medicine seems to have served the population, which is in desperate need of treatment amid difficulties in health, while North Korea's Western biomedicine-based health delivery system has been badly affected.

  1. Atmospheric teleconnection influence on North American land surface phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P.; Wise, Erika K.; Janko, Mark; Hwang, Taehee; Kolby Smith, W.

    2018-03-01

    Short-term forecasts of vegetation activity are currently not well constrained due largely to our lack of understanding of coupled climate-vegetation dynamics mediated by complex interactions between atmospheric teleconnection patterns. Using ecoregion-scale estimates of North American vegetation activity inferred from remote sensing (1982-2015), we examined seasonal and spatial relationships between land surface phenology and the atmospheric components of five teleconnection patterns over the tropical Pacific, north Pacific, and north Atlantic. Using a set of regression experiments, we also tested for interactions among these teleconnection patterns and assessed predictability of vegetation activity solely based on knowledge of atmospheric teleconnection indices. Autumn-to-winter composites of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) were strongly correlated with start of growing season timing, especially in the Pacific Northwest. The two leading modes of north Pacific variability (the Pacific-North American, PNA, and West Pacific patterns) were significantly correlated with start of growing season timing across much of southern Canada and the upper Great Lakes. Regression models based on these Pacific teleconnections were skillful predictors of spring phenology across an east-west swath of temperate and boreal North America, between 40°N-60°N. While the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was not strongly correlated with start of growing season timing on its own, we found compelling evidence of widespread NAO-SOI and NAO-PNA interaction effects. These results suggest that knowledge of atmospheric conditions over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans increases the predictability of North American spring phenology. A more robust consideration of the complexity of the atmospheric circulation system, including interactions across multiple ocean basins, is an important step towards accurate forecasts of vegetation activity.

  2. An Economic Perspective of Kaesong Industrial Complex in North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yoon

    2007-01-01

    Constructing of Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea is led by private enterprises such as Hyundai group, under the agreement of two Korean governments. So far the constructing of Kaesong industrial complex operates well with the agreement of Inter-Korean Economic Cooperation Promotion Committee. There are some grounds that should be preceded for Kaesong industrial complex in North Korea to get the political safety and economic prosperity as follow; First, South Korea should improve a sy...

  3. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي اسماعيل الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  4. Introduction to the Population Ecology of North American Caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergerud has discussed how major differences in caribou density across North America appear to be related to the impact of wolf (Canis lupus predation, and the strategies used by caribou to avoid wolves. Caribou living in areas without wolves usually occur at high densities and are regulated by competition for food. In this session, we asked the presenters to discuss the population ecology of different caribou herds in North America and to evaluate if they fit the general model.

  5. Norway’s Challenges In the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Germany in 1945. During the Cold War , the nations were on opposite sides of the Iron Curtain ; but, they still had a relationship due to their...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY NORWAY’S CHALLENGES IN THE HIGH NORTH by Liv Judith Olsen, Lt Col, Royal Norwegian Air Force A...currently a student at the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, Alabama. iv Abstract Norway has an extensive coastline; facing the North

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  7. The importance of North Sea gas to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas can, of course, be transported over very long distances but, because of the economics of gas transmission, its impact is most often local. This has certainly been the case with North Sea gas, which has clearly contributed significantly to European energy supply and will continue to do so for some time to come. The historical importance of the discovery of gas in the North Sea has been that it has enabled natural gas industries to grow rapidly in North West Europe. Without North Sea gas and Dutch gas it is difficult to see how town gas would have been replaced in North West Europe. Certainly, a much smaller natural gas industry would have emerged. North Sea gas has inevitably had the greatest impact on gas markets in the countries of the European Community and this will remain the case in future. Nevertheless, it is inevitable that gas will, in future, flow across more national boundaries than in the past, and that North Sea gas will have an important part to play in meeting the Central European demand for competitively priced, secure supplies. This paper discusses the United Kingdom market for gas and future demand both in the United Kingdom and more widely in Europe. An examination of the availability of gas supplies from the North Sea suggests that it is unlikely that there will be a surplus of gas for export from the United Kingdom continental shelf. Norway will remain the main source of exports, with the Netherlands also in a strong position. Transportation and political aspects are also considered. (author)

  8. The political economy of aid flows to North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an historical overview of aid flows to North Africa. It assesses the aid allocation process and argues that past aid flows to the region have been heavily influenced by donor political interests. This has reduced the effectiveness of aid which, with the exception of Tunisia, has not been associated with sustained economic growth. The Arab Spring provides an opportunity to reappraise aid flows to North Africa and it is argued that future flows need to support the democratiz...

  9. Maple River Subbasin, Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    buildings , etc.), and transportation facilities. Rural damages account for 88 percent of total average annual damages in the subbasin, and urban...39 Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 18 42 Motor Freight Transportation/Warehousing 18 51 Wholesale Trade-Nondurable Goods 85 52 Building ...34%: of North Dakota by studying plant collections of the North Dakota State .: .. :¢University Herbarium . To be included in this listing, a plant

  10. FEASIBILITY OF OPERATING A LAMB SLAUGHTER PLANT IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nudell, Daniel J.; Petry, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    A group of North Dakota lamb producers who are members of Valley Wool Growers Association identified several niche markets for high quality North Dakota lambs. The potential availability of a closed, but formerly federally inspected, livestock slaughter and meat processing facility in Steele County heightened their interest in determining the feasibility of a cooperatively owned lamb slaughter and processing facility. The cooperative would be patterned after existing and proposed slaughter co...

  11. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    series of mixed layers separated by sharp interfaces. The discovery of these ‘ thermohaline staircases’ by Tait and Howe (1968) further stimulated...EVOLUTION OF THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC by Steven Wall December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Timour Radko Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Sugarman, David

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the legal services revolution in the North West of England. Originally presented as a paper at a conference on Legal services in North West England: the changing landscape" hosted by Lancaster University's Centre for Law and Society on September 27, 2007. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Societ...

  13. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. The impact of summertime north Indian Ocean SST on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiayu; Wu, Qiaoyan; Guo, Yipeng; Zhao, Sen

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of interannual variability of boreal summertime (June-September) north Indian Ocean (NIO) sea surface temperature (SST) on the distribution of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) using observational datasets. In the boreal summers with warm (cold) SST in the NIO, fewer (more) than normal TCs form over the entire WNP, with fewer (more) TCs forming north of 10°N and more (fewer) TCs forming south of 10°N. The warm (cold) SST in the NIO induces anomalous anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity north of 10°N and cyclonic (anticyclonic) vorticity south of 10°N, which contributes to the meridional seesaw-like distribution of WNP TC genesis. This study provides a new perspective to understand TC activities over the WNP and may help seasonal TC prediction.

  15. Extreme winds in the Western North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, S.

    2006-11-15

    A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU

  16. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  17. Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian

    2011-01-01

    A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.

  18. 77 FR 45488 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; North Topsail Beach, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; North Topsail Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 252.3, at North Topsail Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict vessel...

  19. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  20. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of.... The lands we surveyed are: Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota T. 152 N., R. 100 W. The plat, in... lottings, Township 152 North, Range 100 West, Fifth Principal Meridian, North Dakota, was accepted November...