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Sample records for norte ozone campaign

  1. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, E M

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juárez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juárez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  2. Hydrocarbon source apportionment for the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, E.M. [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89506-0220 (United States)

    2001-08-10

    The 1996 Paso del Norte (PdN) ozone study was conducted to improve current understanding of the significant meteorological and air quality processes that lead to high concentrations of ozone in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico). Two-hour canister samples were collected five times daily at 05.00-07.00 h, 07.00-09.00 h, 09.00-11.00 h, 11.00-13.00 h, and 15.00-17.00 h MST during intensive study periods at one urban and one rural site on each side of the border. An automated gas chromatograph was operated at one site in central El Paso. Source profiles (the fractional chemical composition of emissions) from motor vehicles, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, and commercial natural gas were combined with source profiles from other studies for input to the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model to apportion the measured non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) to sources. On-road vehicle emissions accounted for one-half to two-thirds of the NMHC in Ciudad Juarez and El Paso with the highest contributions occurring during the morning and afternoon commute periods. Emissions from diesel exhaust contributed approximately 2-3% of NMHC in Ciudad Juarez and less than 2% in El Paso. The average sum of liquid gasoline and gasoline vapor increased during the day in Ciudad Juarez from 2% at 06.00 h to approximately 12% at 16.00 h. Diurnal and day-of-the-week patterns in the liquid gasoline contributions are essentially identical to the corresponding patterns for motor vehicle exhaust, which suggest that a large fraction of the liquid gasoline contribution may be associated with tailpipe emissions rather than evaporative emissions from motor vehicles or industrial sources. Including the sum of the two sources put the upper limit for tailpipe contributions at 60-70% of NMHC.

  3. Photochemical ozone budget during the BIBLE A and B campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm; Hu, Wenjie; Rodríguez, José M.; Kondo, Yutaka; Koike, Makoto; Kita, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Shuji; Blake, Donald; Liu, Shaw; Ogawa, Toshihiro

    2003-02-01

    Using the measured concentrations of NO, O3, H2O, CO, CH4, and NMHCs along the flight tracks, a photochemical box model is used to calculate the concentrations of the Ox radicals, the HOx radicals, and the nitrogen species at the sampling points. The calculations make use of the measurements from radiometers to scale clear sky photolysis rates to account for cloud cover and ground albedo at the sampling time/point. The concentrations of the nitrogen species in each of the sampled air parcels are computed assuming they are in instantaneous equilibrium with the measured NO and O3. The diurnally varying species concentrations are next calculated using the box model and used to estimate the diurnally averaged production and removal rates of ozone for the sampled air parcels. Clear sky photolysis rates are used in the diurnal calculations. The campaign also provided measured concentration of NOy. The observed NO/NOy ratio is usually larger than the model calculated equilibrium value. There are several possible explanations. It could be a result of recent injection of NO into the air parcel, recent removal of HNO3 from the parcel, recent rapid transport of an air parcel from another location, or a combination of all processes. Our analyses suggest that the local production rate of O3 can be used as another indicator of recent NO injection. However, more direct studies using air trajectory analyses and other collaborative evidences are needed to ascertain the roles played by individual process.

  4. VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during the HaChi summer campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and its precursors conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China project in summer 2009 were analyzed to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their effects on ozone photochemical production at a suburban site in the North China Plain (NCP. Ozone episodes, during which running 8-h average ozone concentrations exceeding 80 ppbv lasted for more than 4 h, occurred on about two thirds of the observational days during the 5-week field campaign. This suggests continuous ozone exposure risks in this region in the summer. Average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx and VOCs are about 20 ppbv and 650 ppbC, respectively. On average, total VOC reactivity is dominated by anthropogenic VOCs. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to total ozone-forming potential, however, is also considerable in the daytime. Key species associated with ozone photochemical production are 2-butenes (18 %, isoprene (15 %, trimethylbenzenes (11 %, xylenes (8.5 %, 3-methylhexane (6 %, n-hexane (5 % and toluene (4.5 %. Formation of ozone is found to be NOx-limited as indicated by measured VOCs/NOx ratios and further confirmed by a sensitivity study using a photochemical box model NCAR_MM. The Model simulation suggests that ozone production is also sensitive to changes in VOC reactivity under the NOx-limited regime, although this sensitivity depends strongly on how much NOx is present.

  5. Ozone response to emission changes: a modeling study during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Campaign

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    J. Song

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of ozone production to precursor emissions was investigated under five different meteorological conditions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO field campaign using the gridded photochemical model CAMx driven by observation-nudged WRF meteorology. Precursor emissions were constrained by the comprehensive data from the field campaign and the routine ambient air quality monitoring network. Simulated plume mixing and transport were examined by comparing with measurements from the G-1 aircraft during the campaign. The observed concentrations of ozone precursors and ozone were reasonably well reproduced by the model. The effects of reducing precursor emissions on urban ozone production were performed for three representative emission control scenarios. A 50% reduction in VOC emissions led to 7 to 22 ppb decrease in daily maximum ozone concentrations, while a 50% reduction in NOx emissions leads to 4 to 21 ppb increase, and 50% reductions in both NOx and VOC emission decrease the daily maximum ozone concentrations up to 10 ppb. These results along with a chemical indicator analysis using the chemical production ratios of H2O2 to HNO3 demonstrate that the MCMA urban core region is VOC-limited for all meteorological episodes, which is consistent with the results from MCMA-2003 field campaign; however the degree of the VOC-sensitivity is higher during MCMA-2006 due to lower VOCs, lower VOC reactivity and moderately higher NOx emissions. Ozone formation in the surrounding mountain/rural area is mostly NOx-limited, but can be VOC-limited, and the range of the NOx-limited or VOC-limited areas depends on meteorology.

  6. 3D analysis of high ozone production rates observed during the ESCOMPTE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Isabelle; Pinceloup, Stéphanie; Perros, Pascal E.; Laverdet, Gérard; Le Bras, Georges

    2005-03-01

    The development of environmental policies to reduce the ozone levels around large agglomerations requires a good understanding of the development of ozone episodes. In particular, it is necessary to know the location and photochemical activity of the plume where ozone is formed. Measurement campaigns make it possible not only to characterize the concentration fields of ozone and its precursors but also to identify the zones of strong ozone production, by means of specific measurements and kinetic calculations. The combination of the observation-based data with numerical simulations allows to better characterize photochemical pollution. This paper presents a study carried out within the ESCOMPTE program and based on the determination of ozone production rates by experimental and numerical methods: ground measurements of peroxy radicals, NO x at a rural site, airborne measurements of NO X and O 3, Eulerian modeling. The reported case is of particular interest since it corresponds to an episode with very different photochemical situations. The diurnal variations of the peroxy radical concentration are analyzed in relation to those of ozone and its precursors. Ozone production rates— P(O 3)-are studied over one particular day. The results show particularly high concentrations of RO 2+HO 2 at ground level (up to 200 pptv) under the influence of the urban and industrial plume, but also highlight very high production rates of ozone (60 to 80 ppbv h -1) a few tens of kilometers from the sources. The results show satisfactory agreement between the various approaches. Modeling provides a four-dimensional (4D) description of the plumes, in particular the relation between the ozone precursor concentrations and P(O 3) on the ground.

  7. Global sensitivity analysis of GEOS-Chem modeled ozone and hydrogen oxides during the INTEX campaigns

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    K. E. Christian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Making sense of modeled atmospheric composition requires not only comparison to in situ measurements but also knowing and quantifying the sensitivity of the model to its input factors. Using a global sensitivity method involving the simultaneous perturbation of many chemical transport model input factors, we find the model uncertainty for ozone (O3, hydroxyl radical (OH, and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 mixing ratios, and apportion this uncertainty to specific model inputs for the DC-8 flight tracks corresponding to the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX campaigns of 2004 and 2006. In general, when uncertainties in modeled and measured quantities are accounted for, we find agreement between modeled and measured oxidant mixing ratios with the exception of ozone during the Houston flights of the INTEX-B campaign and HO2 for the flights over the northernmost Pacific Ocean during INTEX-B. For ozone and OH, modeled mixing ratios were most sensitive to a bevy of emissions, notably lightning NOx, various surface NOx sources, and isoprene. HO2 mixing ratios were most sensitive to CO and isoprene emissions as well as the aerosol uptake of HO2. With ozone and OH being generally overpredicted by the model, we find better agreement between modeled and measured vertical profiles when reducing NOx emissions from surface as well as lightning sources.

  8. Intercomparison of ground-based ozone and NO2 measurements during the MANTRA 2004 campaign

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    K. Strong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The MANTRA (Middle Atmosphere Nitrogen TRend Assessment 2004 campaign took place in Vanscoy, Saskatchewan, Canada (52° N, 107° W from 3 August to 15 September, 2004. In support of the main balloon launch, a suite of five zenith-sky and direct-Sun-viewing UV-visible ground-based spectrometers was deployed, primarily measuring ozone and NO2 total columns. Three Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs that were part of the balloon payload also performed ground-based measurements of several species, including ozone. Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 differential slant column densities from the zenith-viewing UV-visible instruments are presented herein. They are found to partially agree within NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change standards for instruments certified for process studies and satellite validation. Vertical column densities of ozone from the zenith-sky UV-visible instruments, the FTSs, a Brewer spectrophotometer, and ozonesondes are compared, and found to agree within the combined error estimates of the instruments (15%. NO2 vertical column densities from two of the UV-visible instruments are compared, and are also found to agree within combined error (15%.

  9. Total peroxy nitrates and ozone production : analysis of forest fire plumes during BORTAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busilacchio, Marcella; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Lewis, Ally; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate the connection between PNS and ozone within plumes emitted from boreal forest fires and the possible perturbation to oxidant chemistry in the troposphere. During the Aircraft campaign in Canada called BORTAS (summer 2011 ) were carried out several profiles from ground up to 10 km with the BAe-146 aircraft to observe the atmospheric composition inside and outside fire plumes. The BORTAS flights have been selected based on the preliminary studies of 'Plume identification', selecting those effected by Boreal forest fire emissions (CO > 200 ppbv). The FLAMBE fire counts were used concertedly with back trajectory calculations generated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to locate the sources of Boreal biomass burning.Profiles measured on board the BAe-146 aircraft are used to calculate the productions of PNs and O3 within the biomass burning plume. By selecting the flights that intercept the biomass burning plume, we evaluate the ratio between the ozone production and the PNs production within the plume. Analyzing this ratio it is possible to determine whether O3 production or PNs production is the dominant process in the biomass burning boreal plume detected during BORTAS campaign.

  10. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    variability of the PREDICTED to OBSERVED ozone concentrations of both BASELINE model and simulations with modified emissions assessed by the sensitivity analysis. All simulations were found to vary within acceptable ranges of these two criteria variables. Simulation results indicate ozone formation in the PdN region is VOC-limited. Under VOC-limited conditions, modifications to NOx emissions do not produce a marked increase or decrease in ozone concentrations. Modifications to VOC emissions generated the highest variability in ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% produced results which minimized model bias and error when comparing PREDICTED and OBSERVED ozone concentrations. Increasing VOC emissions by 75% either alone or in combination with a 75% increase in NOx emissions generated PREDICTED ozone concentrations very near to OBSERVED ozone. By evaluating the changes in ambient ozone concentrations through photochemical modeling, air quality planners may identify the most efficient or effective VOC emissions control strategies for area sources. Among the strategies to achieve emissions reductions are installation of gasoline vapor recovery systems, replacing high-pressure low-volume surface coating paint spray guns with high-volume low-pressure spray paint guns, requiring emissions control booths for surface coating operations as well as undertaking solvent management practices, requiring the sale of low VOC paint solvents in the surface-coating industry, and requiring low-VOC solvents in the dry cleaning industry. Other strategies to reduce VOC emissions include initiating Eco-Driving strategies to reduce fuel consumption from mobile sources and minimize vehicle idling at the international ports of entry by reducing bridge wait times. This dissertation depicts a tool for evaluating impacts of emissions on regional air quality by addressing the highly unresolved fugitive emissions in the Paso del Norte region. It provides a protocol for decision makers to

  11. Quantifying TOLNet Ozone Lidar Accuracy During the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J., II; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Brown, Steven S.; Carrion, William; De Young, Russell J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPA) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than +/-15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than +/-5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.

  12. Analysis and validation of ozone variability observed by lidar during the ESCOMPTE-2001 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellet, G.; Ravetta, F.

    2005-03-01

    An ozone lidar was successfully operated as a ground-based instrument during the ESCOMPTE experiment in June/July 2001. Ozone profiles were measured between 0.5 and 5 km. Moreover, simultaneous measurements of the lidar scattering ratio (SR) at 316 nm diagnosed the diurnal evolution of the PBL top. Comparison of this data set with in-situ measurements by ultralight aircraft (ULM) and balloon soundings supports the existence of well-defined layers over the whole altitude range. Differences between measurements techniques are not due to instrumental inaccuracies but point towards the existence of ozone plumes with sharp horizontal gradients. This is indeed supported by aircraft horizontal cross-section available twice a day at two different levels in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. Analysis of the ozone data set has shown a good correlation between surface meteorological conditions, surface ozone measurements and lidar ozone profiles in the PBL. Observed ozone maxima or minima are linked either to sea breeze circulation bringing polluted air masses over the lidar or synoptic flows bringing air with background O 3 values into the region. The observed variability of the ozone field is very large over the whole altitude range. Although it is the result of local temporal variability and advection of spatial inhomogenities, the latter proved to be an important contribution.

  13. TOLNet ozone lidar intercomparison during the discover-aq and frappé campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J.; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Carrion, William; DeYoung, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; Kirgis, Guillaume; Kuang, Shi; Langford, Andy O.; Leblanc, Thierry; McGee, Thomas J.; Pliutau, Denis; Senff, Christoph; Sullivan, John T.; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence W.; Wang, Lihua

    2018-04-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure atmospheric profiles of ozone and aerosols, to contribute to air-quality studies, atmospheric modeling, and satellite validation efforts. The accurate characterization of these lidars is of critical interest, and is necessary to determine cross-instrument calibration uniformity. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the "Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the "Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment" (FRAPPÉ) to measure sub-hourly ozone variations from near the surface to the top of the troposphere. Although large differences occur at few individual altitudes in the near field and far field range, the TOLNet lidars agree with each other within ±4%. These results indicate excellent measurement accuracy for the TOLNet lidars that is suitable for use in air-quality and ozone modeling efforts.

  14. Attribution and evolution of ozone from Asian wild fires using satellite and aircraft measurements during the ARCTAS campaign

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    R. Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use ozone and carbon monoxide measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, model estimates of Ozone, CO, and ozone pre-cursors from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS, and data from the NASA DC8 aircraft to characterize the source and dynamical evolution of ozone and CO in Asian wildfire plumes during the spring ARCTAS campaign 2008. On the 19 April, NASA DC8 O3 and aerosol Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL observed two biomass burning plumes originating from North-Western Asia (Kazakhstan and South-Eastern Asia (Thailand that advected eastward over the Pacific reaching North America in 10 to 12 days. Using both TES observations and RAQMS chemical analyses, we track the wildfire plumes from their source to the ARCTAS DC8 platform. In addition to photochemical production due to ozone pre-cursors, we find that exchange between the stratosphere and the troposphere is a major factor influencing O3 concentrations for both plumes. For example, the Kazakhstan and Siberian plumes at 55 degrees North is a region of significant springtime stratospheric/tropospheric exchange. Stratospheric air influences the Thailand plume after it is lofted to high altitudes via the Himalayas. Using comparisons of the model to the aircraft and satellite measurements, we estimate that the Kazakhstan plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios by approximately 6.4 ppbv and 38 ppbv in the lower troposphere (height of 2 to 6 km, and the Thailand plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios of approximately 11 ppbv and 71 ppbv in the upper troposphere (height of 8 to 12 km respectively. However, there are significant sources of uncertainty in these estimates that point to the need for future improvements in both model and satellite observations. For example, it is challenging to characterize the fraction of air parcels from the stratosphere versus those from the

  15. Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA temperature, water vapor, and ozone profiles with MOHAVE-2009 campaign measurements

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    G. P. Stiller

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204, no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203 is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause, but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202 has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution

  16. Validation of MIPAS IMK-IAA Temperature, Water Vapor, and Ozone Profiles with MOHAVE-2009 Campaign Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Gabrielle; Kiefer, M.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kellmann, S.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Leblanc, T.; Fetzer, E.; Froidevaux, L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    MIPAS observations of temperature, water vapor, and ozone in October 2009 as derived with the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK) and CSIC, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) and retrieved from version 4.67 level-1b data have been compared to co-located field campaign observations obtained during the MOHAVE-2009 campaign at the Table Mountain Facility near Pasadena, California in October 2009. The MIPAS measurements were validated regarding any potential biases of the profiles, and with respect to their precision estimates. The MOHAVE-2009 measurement campaign provided measurements of atmospheric profiles of temperature, water vapor/relative humidity, and ozone from the ground to the mesosphere by a suite of instruments including radiosondes, ozonesondes, frost point hygrometers, lidars, microwave radiometers and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. For MIPAS temperatures (version V4O_T_204), no significant bias was detected in the middle stratosphere; between 22 km and the tropopause MIPAS temperatures were found to be biased low by up to 2 K, while below the tropopause, they were found to be too high by the same amount. These findings confirm earlier comparisons of MIPAS temperatures to ECMWF data which revealed similar differences. Above 12 km up to 45 km, MIPAS water vapor (version V4O_H2O_203) is well within 10% of the data of all correlative instruments. The well-known dry bias of MIPAS water vapor above 50 km due to neglect of non-LTE effects in the current retrievals has been confirmed. Some instruments indicate that MIPAS water vapor might be biased high by 20 to 40% around 10 km (or 5 km below the tropopause), but a consistent picture from all comparisons could not be derived. MIPAS ozone (version V4O_O3_202) has a high bias of up to +0.9 ppmv around 37 km which is due to a non-identified continuum like radiance contribution. No further

  17. A Lagrangian analysis of the impact of transport and transformation on the ozone stratification observed in the free troposphere during the ESCOMPTE campaign

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    A. Colette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ozone variability observed by tropospheric ozone lidars during the ESCOMPTE campaign is analyzed by means of a hybrid-Lagrangian modeling study. Transport processes responsible for the formation of ozone-rich layers are identified using a semi-Lagrangian analysis of mesoscale simulations to identify the planetary boundary layer (PBL footprint in the free troposphere. High ozone concentrations are related to polluted air masses exported from the Iberian PBL. The chemical composition of air masses coming from the PBL and transported in the free troposphere is evaluated using a Lagrangian chemistry model. The initial concentrations are provided by a model of chemistry and transport. Different scenarios are tested for the initial conditions and for the impact of mixing with background air in order to perform a quantitative comparison with the lidar observations. For this meteorological situation, the characteristic mixing time is of the order of 2 to 6 days depending on the initial conditions. Ozone is produced in the free troposphere within most air masses exported from the Iberian PBL at an average rate of 0.2 ppbv h−1, with a maximum ozone production of 0.4 ppbv h−1. Transport processes from the PBL are responsible for an increase of 13.3 ppbv of ozone concentrations in the free troposphere compared to background levels; about 45% of this increase is attributed to in situ production during the transport rather than direct export of ozone.

  18. A Lagrangian analysis of the impact of transport and transformation on the ozone stratification observed in the free troposphere during the ESCOMPTE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colette, A.; Ancellet, G.; Menut, L.; Arnold, S. R.

    2006-08-01

    The ozone variability observed by tropospheric ozone lidars during the ESCOMPTE campaign is analyzed by means of a hybrid-Lagrangian modeling study. Transport processes responsible for the formation of ozone-rich layers are identified using a semi-Lagrangian analysis of mesoscale simulations to identify the planetary boundary layer (PBL) footprint in the free troposphere. High ozone concentrations are related to polluted air masses exported from the Iberian PBL. The chemical composition of air masses coming from the PBL and transported in the free troposphere is evaluated using a Lagrangian chemistry model. The initial concentrations are provided by a model of chemistry and transport. Different scenarios are tested for the initial conditions and for the impact of mixing with background air in order to perform a quantitative comparison with the lidar observations. For this meteorological situation, the characteristic mixing time is of the order of 2 to 6 days depending on the initial conditions. Ozone is produced in the free troposphere within most air masses exported from the Iberian PBL at an average rate of 0.2 ppbv h-1, with a maximum ozone production of 0.4 ppbv h-1. Transport processes from the PBL are responsible for an increase of 13.3 ppbv of ozone concentrations in the free troposphere compared to background levels; about 45% of this increase is attributed to in situ production during the transport rather than direct export of ozone.

  19. Non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Mexico City: Results of the 2012 ozone-season campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Palomera, Mónica; Retama, Armando; Elias-Castro, Gabriel; Neria-Hernández, Angélica; Rivera-Hernández, Olivia; Velasco, Erik

    2016-05-01

    With the aim to strengthen the verification capabilities of the local air quality management, the air quality monitoring network of Mexico City has started the monitoring of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Previous information on the NMHC characterization had been obtained through individual studies and comprehensive intensive field campaigns, in both cases restricted to sampling periods of short duration. This new initiative will address the NMHC pollution problem during longer monitoring periods and provide robust information to evaluate the effectiveness of new control measures. The article introduces the design of the monitoring network and presents results from the first campaign carried out during the first six months of 2012 covering the ozone-season (Mar-May). Using as reference data collected in 2003, results show reductions during the morning rush hour (6-9 h) in the mixing ratios of light alkanes associated with the consumption and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas and aromatic compounds related with the evaporation of fossil fuels and solvents, in contrast to olefins from vehicular traffic. The increase in mixing ratios of reactive olefins is of relevance to understand the moderate success in the ozone and fine aerosols abatement in recent years in comparison to other criteria pollutants. In the case of isoprene, the typical afternoon peak triggered by biogenic emissions was clearly observed for the first time within the city. The diurnal profiles of the monitored compounds are analyzed in terms of the energy balance throughout the day as a surrogate of the boundary layer evolution. Particular features of the diurnal profiles and correlation between individual NMHCs and carbon monoxide are used to investigate the influence of specific emission sources. The results discussed here highlight the importance of monitoring NMHCs to better understand the drivers and impacts of air pollution in large cities like Mexico City.

  20. The behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations for different wind regimes during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign in the greater area of Athens, Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppan, P.; Fabian, P.; Vyras, L.

    1998-01-01

    As a part of an international experimental field campaign, the association of air pollution with sea breeze circulation in the Greater Athens Area (GAA) is discussed on the basis of the behaviour of ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). During typical sea breeze days inside the Athens basin the o...... a straight line across the Athens basin ranging From the island of Aegina in the Gulf of Saronikos to the northern border of the GAA show distinct peaks due to the pollution cloud NEPHOS. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... the ozone levels reach values up to 66% greater than values outside the basin. There is also an increase in ozone and PAN mixing ratios from the south to the north and from lower to higher locations, within the GAA. On-line PAN-measurements with a time resolution of 5 min at three sites located almost along...

  1. The impact of the observation nudging and nesting on the simulated meteorology and ozone concentrations from WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ during DISCOVER-AQ 2013 Texas campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Li, X.; Czader, B.

    2014-12-01

    Three WRF simulations for the DISCOVER-AQ 2013 Texas campaign period (30 days in September) are performed to characterize uncertainties in the simulated meteorological and chemical conditions. These simulations differ in domain setup, and in performing observation nudging in WRF runs. There are around 7% index of agreement (IOA) gain in temperature and 9-12% boost in U-WIND and V-WIND when the observational nudging is employed in the simulation. Further performance gain from nested domains over single domain is marginal. The CMAQ simulations based on above WRF setups showed that the ozone performance slightly improved in the simulation for which objective analysis (OA) is carried out. Further IOA gain, though quite limited, is achieved with nested domains. This study shows that the high ozone episodes during the analyzed time periods were associated with the uncertainties of the simulated cold front passage, chemical boundary condition and small-scale temporal wind fields. All runs missed the observed high ozone values which reached above 150 ppb in La Porte on September 25, the only day with hourly ozone over 120 ppb. The failure is likely due to model's inability to catch small-scale wind shifts in the industrial zone, despite better wind directions in the simulations with nudging and nested domains. This study also shows that overestimated background ozone from the southerly chemical boundary is a critical source for the model's general overpredictions of the ozone concentrations from CMAQ during September of 2013. These results of this study shed a light on the necessity of (1) capturing the small-scale winds such as the onsets of bay-breeze or sea-breeze and (2) implementing more accurate chemical boundary conditions to reduce the simulated high-biased ozone concentrations. One promising remedy for (1) is implementing hourly observation nudging instead of the standard one which is done every three hours.

  2. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20–21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios of 350–400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and ozone (O3 levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1–1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July. The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic layers in the lower atmosphere (<2–3 km over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80–90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy, specifically nitric

  3. Factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the West African lower troposphere during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis wet season campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saunois

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and its precursors were measured on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM BAe 146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft during the monsoon season 2006 as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA campaign. One of the main features observed in the west African boundary layer is the increase of the ozone mixing ratios from 25 ppbv over the forested area (south of 12° N up to 40 ppbv over the Sahelian area. We employ a two-dimensional (latitudinal versus vertical meteorological model coupled with an O3-NOx-VOC chemistry scheme to simulate the distribution of trace gases over West Africa during the monsoon season and to analyse the processes involved in the establishment of such a gradient. Including an additional source of NO over the Sahelian region to account for NO emitted by soils we simulate a mean NOx concentration of 0.7 ppbv at 16° N versus 0.3 ppbv over the vegetated region further south in reasonable agreement with the observations. As a consequence, ozone is photochemically produced with a rate of 0.25 ppbv h−1 over the vegetated region whilst it reaches up to 0.75 ppbv h−1 at 16° N. We find that the modelled gradient is due to a combination of enhanced deposition to vegetation, which decreases the ozone levels by up to 11 pbbv, and the aforementioned enhanced photochemical production north of 12° N. The peroxy radicals required for this enhanced production in the north come from the oxidation of background CO and CH4 as well as from VOCs. Sensitivity studies reveal that both the background CH4 and partially oxidised VOCs, produced from the oxidation of isoprene emitted from the vegetation in the south, contribute around 5–6 ppbv to the ozone gradient. These results suggest that the northward transport of trace gases by the monsoon flux, especially during nighttime, can have a significant, though secondary

  4. Megacity impacts on regional ozone formation: observations and WRF-Chem modeling for the MIRAGE-Shanghai field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The MIRAGE-Shanghai experiment was designed to characterize the factors controlling regional air pollution near a Chinese megacity (Shanghai and was conducted during September 2009. This paper provides information on the measurements conducted for this study. In order to have some deep analysis of the measurements, a regional chemical/dynamical model (version 3 of Weather Research and Forecasting Chemical model – WRF-Chemv3 is applied for this study. The model results are intensively compared with the measurements to evaluate the model capability for calculating air pollutants in the Shanghai region, especially the chemical species related to ozone formation. The results show that the model is able to calculate the general distributions (the level and the variability of air pollutants in the Shanghai region, and the differences between the model calculation and the measurement are mostly smaller than 30%, except the calculations of HONO (nitrous acid at PD (Pudong and CO (carbon monoxide at DT (Dongtan. The main scientific focus is the study of ozone chemical formation not only in the urban area, but also on a regional scale of the surrounding area of Shanghai. The results show that during the experiment period, the ozone photochemical formation was strongly under the VOC (volatile organic compound-limited condition in the urban area of Shanghai. Moreover, the VOC-limited condition occurred not only in the city, but also in the larger regional area. There was a continuous enhancement of ozone concentrations in the downwind of the megacity of Shanghai, resulting in a significant enhancement of ozone concentrations in a very large regional area in the surrounding region of Shanghai. The sensitivity study of the model suggests that there is a threshold value for switching from VOC-limited condition to NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide-limited condition. The threshold value is strongly dependent on the emission ratio of NOx / VOCs. When the

  5. Upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx-impacted convection: Smoke ingestion case study from the DC3 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barth, M. C.; Weinheimer, A.; Cantrell, C.; Rutledge, S. A.; Basarab, B.; Crawford, J.; Diskin, G.; Homeyer, C. R.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Pollack, I.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Crounse, J. D.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Huey, G.; Heikes, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Riemer, D. D.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) experiment, the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream-V (GV) and NASA DC-8 research aircraft probed the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow of two convective storms (north storm, NS, south storm, SS) originating in the Colorado region on 22 June 2012, a time when the High Park wildfire was active in the area. A wide range of trace species were measured on board both aircraft including biomass burning (BB) tracers hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetonitrile (ACN). Acrolein, a much shorter lived tracer for BB, was also quantified on the GV. The data demonstrated that the NS had ingested fresh smoke from the High Park fire and as a consequence had a higher VOC OH reactivity than the SS. The SS lofted aged fire tracers along with other boundary layer ozone precursors and was more impacted by lightning NOx (LNOx) than the NS. The NCAR master mechanism box model was initialized with measurements made in the outflow of the two storms. The NS and SS were predicted to produce 11 and 14 ppbv of O3, respectively, downwind of the storm over 2 days. Sensitivity tests revealed that the ozone production potential of the SS was highly dependent on LNOx. Normalized excess mixing ratios, ΔX/ΔCO, for HCN and ACN were determined in both the fire plume and the storm outflow and found to be 7.0 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.5 pptv ppbv-1, respectively, and 1.4 ± 0.3 pptv ppbv-1 for acrolein in the outflow only.

  6. Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA fourth airborne campaign was conducted in July–August 2006 to study the chemical composition of the middle and upper troposphere in West Africa with the major objective to better understand the processing of chemical emissions by the West African Monsoon (WAM and its associated regional-scale and vertical transports. In particular, the french airborne experiment was organized around two goals. The first was to characterize the impact of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs on the ozone budget in the upper troposphere and the evolution of the chemical composition of these convective plumes as they move westward toward the Atlantic Ocean. The second objective was to discriminate the impact of remote sources of pollution over West Africa, including transport from the middle east, Europe, Asia and from southern hemispheric fires. Observations of O3, CO, NOx, H2O and hydroperoxide above West Africa along repeated meridional transects were coupled with transport analysis based on the FLEXPART lagrangian model. The cross analysis of trace gas concentrations and transport pathways revealed 5 types of air masses: convective uplift of industrial and urban emissions, convective uplift of biogenic emissions, slow advection from Cotonou polluted plumes near the coast, meridional transport of upper tropospheric air from the subtropical barrier region, and meridional transport of Southern Hemisphere (SH biomass burning emissions. O3/CO correlation plots and the correlation plots of H2O2 with a OH proxy revealed not only a control of the trace gas variability by transport processes but also significant photochemical reactivity in the mid- and upper troposphere. The study of four MCSs outflow showed contrasted chemical composition and air mass origins depending on the MCSs lifetime and latitudinal position. Favorables conditions for ozone

  7. Photochemical and Meteorological Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; de Foy, B.; Molina, M. J.; Caetano, E.; Magana, V.; Zitacuaro, A.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Cardenas, B.; Martinez, A.; Reyes, R.; Sosa, G.

    2004-12-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. April is in the transition from the dry to the wet season with predominant westerly synoptic winds and intense radiation heating leading to strong thermal mountain flows. Three basic types of meteorological conditions were identified: "Cold Surge", "O3-North" and "O3-South", corresponding to cloudy days associated with "Norte" events, peak ozone in the north of the city, and peak ozone in the south. The circulation associated with these is described both at the regional and local level, as high concentrations of both ozone and primary pollutants for each category make them equally relevant to chemical analyses of the basin. Modified wind roses (time roses) based on time of day categories instead of wind speed categories are used to identify shifts in wind directions associated with slope flows inside the basin and sea breeze flows outside of it. The photochemical episodes are compared with historical data from the RAMA monitoring network to assess the representativeness of MCMA-2003. The analysis of the episodes during the campaign shows the existence of one-day episodes where no build-up of pollutants is needed in order to attain very highly localized concentrations but where multi-day events lead to peaks covering a much larger geographic area.

  8. Compilation and evaluation of a Paso del Norte emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, T.H.; Chinkin, L.R.; Roberts, P.T. [Sonoma Technology, Inc., 1360 Redwood Way, Suite C, 94954-1169 Petaluma, CA (United States); Saeger, M.; Mulligan, S. [Pacific Environmental Services, 5001 S. Miami Blvd., Suite 300, 27709 Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paramo Figueroa, V.H. [Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, Avenue Revolucion 1425, Nivel 10, Col. Tlacopac San Angel, Delegacion Alvaro Obregon, C.P., 01040, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Yarbrough, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency - Region 6, 1445 Ross Avenue, Suite 1200, 75202-2733 Dallas, TX (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Emission inventories of ozone precursors are routinely used as input to comprehensive photochemical air quality models. Photochemical model performance and the development of effective control strategies rely on the accuracy and representativeness of an underlying emission inventory. This paper describes the tasks undertaken to compile and evaluate an ozone precursor emission inventory for the El Paso/Ciudad Juarez/Southern Dona Ana region. Point, area and mobile source emission data were obtained from local government agencies and were spatially and temporally allocated to a gridded domain using region-specific demographic and land-cover information. The inventory was then processed using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommended Emissions Preprocessor System 2.0 (UAM-EPS 2.0) which generates emissions files compatible with the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). A top-down evaluation of the emission inventory was performed to examine how well the inventory represented ambient pollutant compositions. The top-down evaluation methodology employed in this study compares emission inventory ratios of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC)/nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO)/NO{sub x} ratios to corresponding ambient ratios. Detailed NMHC species comparisons were made in order to investigate the relative composition of individual hydrocarbon species in the emission inventory and in the ambient data. The emission inventory compiled during this effort has since been used to model ozone in the Paso del Norte airshed (Emery et al., CAMx modeling of ozone and carbon monoxide in the Paso del Norte airshed. In: Proc of Ninety-Third Annual Meeting of Air and Waste Management Association, 18-22 June 2000, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 2000)

  9. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  10. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  11. Process analysis and sensitivity study of regional ozone formation over the Pearl River Delta, China, during the PRIDE-PRD2004 campaign using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system is used to simulate the ozone (O3 episodes during the Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, China, in October 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004. The simulation suggests that O3 pollution is a regional phenomenon in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Elevated O3 levels often occurred in the southwestern inland PRD, Pearl River estuary (PRE, and southern coastal areas during the 1-month field campaign. Three evolution patterns of simulated surface O3 are summarized based on different near-ground flow conditions. More than 75% of days featured interactions between weak synoptic forcing and local sea-land circulation. Integrated process rate (IPR analysis shows that photochemical production is a dominant contributor to O3 enhancement from 09:00 to 15:00 local standard time in the atmospheric boundary layer over most areas with elevated O3 occurrence in the mid-afternoon. The simulated ozone production efficiency is 2–8 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized in areas with high O3 chemical production. Precursors of O3 originating from different source regions in the central PRD are mixed during the course of transport to downwind rural areas during nighttime and early morning, where they then contribute to the daytime O3 photochemical production. The sea-land circulation plays an important role on the regional O3 formation and distribution over PRD. Sensitivity studies suggest that O3 formation is volatile-organic-compound-limited in the central inland PRD, PRE, and surrounding coastal areas with less chemical aging (NOx/NOy>0.6, but is NOx-limited in the rural southwestern PRD with aged air (NOx/NOy<0.3.

  12. Lightweight Inexpensive Ozone Lidar Telescope Using a Plastic Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Notari, Anthony; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive lightweight ozone lidar telescope was designed, constructed and operated during an ozone lidar field campaign. This report summarizes the design parameters and performance of the plastic Fresnel lens telescope and shows the ozone lidar performance compared to Zemax calculations.

  13. Campaigns Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    and the external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease...... external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems.......Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale web panel (n≈5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy and external efficacy among...

  14. Node Ranking Tool - NoRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    NoRT) that was developed as part of the Applied Network Science 6.2 base program work unit at NRL, Code 5580. We explain the theory of NoRT and how...to use it. 23-03-2018 Memorandum Report TOPSIS, Social Network, Sensor Network, Centrality, Diffusion, Disease, Virus, Expectation , Pandemic...base program work unit at NRL. We explain the theory of NoRT and how to use it. Index Terms TOPSIS, Social Network, Sensor Network, Centrality, Diffusion

  15. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  16. Ozone decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers. Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates

  17. Ozone modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIllvaine, C M

    1994-07-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO{sub x} concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO{sub x} coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO{sub x} ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented.

  18. Ozone modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIllvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Exhaust gases from power plants that burn fossil fuels contain concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), particulate matter, hydrocarbon compounds and trace metals. Estimated emissions from the operation of a hypothetical 500 MW coal-fired power plant are given. Ozone is considered a secondary pollutant, since it is not emitted directly into the atmosphere but is formed from other air pollutants, specifically, nitrogen oxides (NO), and non-methane organic compounds (NMOQ) in the presence of sunlight. (NMOC are sometimes referred to as hydrocarbons, HC, or volatile organic compounds, VOC, and they may or may not include methane). Additionally, ozone formation Alternative is a function of the ratio of NMOC concentrations to NO x concentrations. A typical ozone isopleth is shown, generated with the Empirical Kinetic Modeling Approach (EKMA) option of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Ozone Isopleth Plotting Mechanism (OZIPM-4) model. Ozone isopleth diagrams, originally generated with smog chamber data, are more commonly generated with photochemical reaction mechanisms and tested against smog chamber data. The shape of the isopleth curves is a function of the region (i.e. background conditions) where ozone concentrations are simulated. The location of an ozone concentration on the isopleth diagram is defined by the ratio of NMOC and NO x coordinates of the point, known as the NMOC/NO x ratio. Results obtained by the described model are presented

  19. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  20. Radhealth campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony.

    1985-01-01

    The report by the National Radiological Protection Board in the Medical Research Council's study of some of the UKAEA workers is criticized. It is argued that the cancer risk estimates of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are seriously wrong, and that as they are used as a basis for radiation protection standards in the UK, these standards now need revising. The subject is discussed under the headings: broad-based campaign; all radiation is a hazard; building networks (of scientific and medical expertise). (U.K.)

  1. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cocentino,Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro; Fujii,Mutue Toyota; Reis,Thiago Nogueira de Vasconcelos; Guimarães-Barros,Nathalia Cristina; Rocha,Marcia de França; Neumann-Leitão,Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is...

  2. Organizational Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    This conference paper will explore the difference between communicating changes and changing communication. Based on a case study in which a manager applies two quite different approaches to organizational communication in order to change the organization he is leading. The first and failing...... approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...... is replaced with a new approach which will be named organizing communication. During the case analysis we will see that this change in approach not only change the managers perception of communication but also his perception of the organization he is leading....

  3. Experimental monitoring of ozone production in a PET cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanibellato, L.; Cicoria, G.; Pancaldi, D.; Boschi, S.; Mostacci, D.; Marengo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ozone produced from radiolytic processes was investigated as a possible health hazard in the working environment at the University Hospital 'S.Orsola-Malpighi' PET facility. Intense radiation fields can generate ozone, known to be the most toxic gas produced by ionizing radiation around a particle accelerator. To evaluate ozone concentration in air, two different measurement campaigns were conducted with passive diffusion detectors. Comparison of the results with the concentration limits recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) demonstrated that ozone poses no health hazard to workers around a biomedical cyclotron.

  4. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-07-01

    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  5. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  6. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  7. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Madureira Maia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Maia U.M., Jaffe R., Carvalho A.T. & Imperatriz-Fonseca V.L. [Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte.] Meliponicultura no Rio Grande do Norte. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:327-333, 2015. Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901, Brasil. E-mail: ummaia@usp.br This study aimed to assess the current status of stingless bee beekeeping (meliponiculture in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, with the aid of structured questionnaires made during visits to beekeepers. The results were compared with a previous census made in the state and with a similar study from Australia. Meliponiculture in Rio Grande do Norte is still informal and little standardized. The activity has grown in recent years considering the mean number of nests per beekeeper. Most apiaries are formed of up to 50 colonies, usually distributed in the backyards of homes. Twelve species of stingless bees were reared in the state, and the most common was the “Jandaíra” bee (Melipona subnitida, whose honey is considered medicinal. While many beekeepers already know the importance of bees as pollinators, stingless bees are still not used for crop pollination. Compared to a recent analysis of beekeeping in Australia, meliponiculture in Brazil is more traditional, honey is the main product and the number of colonies per beekeeper is much higher. Our results highlight the need to reinforce knowledge about bees and promote specific training aimed at improving and standardizing management practices.

  8. Estudios de series temporales de energía solar UV-B de 305 nm y espesor de la capa de ozono estratosférico en Arica, norte de Chile Study of time series for 305 nm solar energy UV-B and stratospheric ozone layer thickness Arica in the north of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rivas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran los resultados del análisis de las series temporales de la energía solar medida a nivel del suelo, en la banda de 305 nm, y el espesor de la capa de ozono estratosférico. El rasgo más importante es la independencia de los valores de energía a nivel del suelo respecto de la variabilidad de corto periodo de la capa de ozono, siendo probablemente efectos meteorológicos locales los que llevan el mayor peso de la varianza.In this paper, the results obtained by analyzing time series of ground level energy of the solar radiation in the 305 nm band and stratospheric ozone layer thickness are shown. The most relevant feature found is the independence of the variability of the ground level energy with respect to the short period variations of the ozone layer, being the meteorological local effects those which more heavily affect the variability.

  9. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  10. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  11. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. NINDS is conducting a public awareness campaign across the United States to educate people about ...

  12. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, GJ; Scheeren, HA; Heland, J; Ziereis, H; Lelieveld, J

    2003-01-01

    A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region ( August, 2001). Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the

  13. PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Hanna , Febrianti

    2013-01-01

    Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...

  14. A Compact Mobile Ozone Lidar for Atmospheric Ozone and Aerosol Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A compact mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide ozone, aerosol and cloud atmospheric measurements in a mobile trailer for ground-based atmospheric ozone air quality campaigns. This lidar is integrated into the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) currently made up of four other ozone lidars across the country. The lidar system consists of a UV and green laser transmitter, a telescope and an optical signal receiver with associated Licel photon counting and analog channels. The laser transmitter consist of a Q-switched Nd:YLF inter-cavity doubled laser pumping a Ce:LiCAF tunable UV laser with all the associated power and lidar control support units on a single system rack. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer and was deployed to Denver, CO July 15-August 15, 2014 supporting the DISCOVER-AQ campaign. Ozone curtain plots and the resulting science are presented.

  15. The Sprite 2003 Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.

    2003-01-01

    During the northern hemisphere summer of 2003, from July 18 to September 18, a sprite observation campaign was conducted with measurements from Southern Europe, coordinated with measurements from the magnetically conjugate region in South Africa. The goal of the campaign was to investigate...... emissions. The presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the meteorological conditions, and present some first results....

  16. Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cocentino, Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro; Fujii, Mutue Toyota; Reis, Thiago Nogueira de Vasconcelos; Guimarães-Barros, Nathalia Cristina; Rocha, Marcia de França; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is...

  17. The Antarctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Anna E

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1970s, the ozone layer over Antarctica has experienced massive destruction during every spring. In this article, we will consider the atmosphere, and what ozone and the ozone layer actually are. We explore the chemistry responsible for the ozone destruction, and learn about why conditions favour ozone destruction over Antarctica. For the historical perspective, the events leading up to the discovery of the 'hole' are presented, as well as the response from the international community and the measures taken to protect the ozone layer now and into the future

  18. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  19. RIVM Tropospheric ozone LIDAR Measurements during TROLIX'91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley A

    1991-01-01

    For the intercomparison of several LIDAR systems for the vertical profiling of tropospheric ozone developed in the EUREKA/EUROTRAC subproject TESLAS a field campaign was held at the RIVM site in Bilthoven, the Netherlands, during the period from June 10 to June 28, 1991. In this report an overview

  20. Ozone Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone is a potent germicide that has been used extensively for water purification. In Europe, 90 percent of the municipal water systems are treated with ozone, and in France, ozone has been used to treat drinking water since 1903. However, there is limited information on the bioc...

  1. Measurements of the potential ozone production rate in a forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, L.; Sklaveniti, S.; Kramer, L.; Bloss, W.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Dusanter, S.; Locoge, N.; Stevens, P. S.; Millet, D. B.; Alwe, H. D.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a significant source of organic compounds globally and alongside NOx play a key role in the formation of ozone in the troposphere. Understanding how changes in NOx concentrations feed through to altered ozone production in BVOC dominated environments will aid our understanding of future atmospheric composition, notably as developing nations transition from NOx dominated to NOx limited chemistry as a result of mitigation strategies. Here we empirically investigate this ambient ozone formation potential. We report deployment of a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ chemical ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for a sampled ambient air mixture, including full VOC complexity, i.e. independent of characterization of individual organic compounds. Ground level measurements were performed as part of the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 field campaign, at a site located within a Northern Michigan forest that has typically low NOx abundance, but high isoprene and terpenoid loadings. As the ambient NOx concentrations were low during the campaign, experiments were performed in which NO was artificially added to the sampled ambient air mixture, to quantify changes in the potential ozone production rate as a function of NOx, and hence the ozone forming characteristics of the ambient air. Preliminarily results from these experiments are presented, and indicate that while ozone production increases with added NO, significant variation was observed for a given NO addition, reflecting differences in the ambient VOC chemical reactivity and ozone formation tendency.

  2. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  3. The Eurosprite 2005 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnone, Enrico; Berg, Peter; Boberg, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    In this report we give an overview of the Eurosprite observation programme and present the results of the Eurosprite 2005 campaign. These campaigns search for occurrences of transient luminous events, such as red sprites, above thunderstorms in France, Spain, northern Italy, Switzerland and south...

  4. Third world campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, P

    1988-10-22

    Your readers may be interested in knowing that VSO will be holding a publicity campaign in Scotland in November and December. The campaign is a chance for people to come and talk to us about the opportunities available to them to work in Third World countries. We have a wide range of interesting and challenging jobs in long-term development in health work.

  5. The stratospheric ozone and the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zea Mazo, Jorge Anibal; Leon Aristizabal Gloria Esperanza; Eslava Ramirez Jesus Antonio

    2000-01-01

    An overview is presented of the principal characteristics of the stratospheric ozone in the Earth's atmosphere, with particular emphasis on the tropics and the ozone hole over the poles. Some effects produced in the atmosphere as a consequence of the different human activities will be described, and some data on stratospheric ozone will be shown. We point out the existence of a nucleus of least ozone in the tropics, stretching from South America to central Africa, with annual mean values less than 240 DU, a value lower than in the middle latitudes and close to the mean values at the South Pole. The existence of such a minimum is confirmed by mean values from measurements made on satellites or with earthbound instruments, for different sectors in Colombia, like Medellin, Bogota and Leticia

  6. Proposal and realization advertising campaign

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHLÁ, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.

  7. Solid waste management in Linamon, Lanao del Norte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragoso, Glaiza P.; Sapar, Cherine Mae A.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Lahoylahoy, Myrna E.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.

    2018-01-01

    In this modern world, Solid Waste Management is very important in maintaining a high quality of life so humans must manage and store waste efficiently and safely. Almost every day each household generates garbage or wastes. People throw things improperly without knowing the consequences. The main objective of the study was to assess the residents' Solid Waste Management. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational attainment, occupation, monthly income, no. of household member; What is the knowledge of the respondents about Natural Environment?; How do respondents disposed garbage from the household?; What is the level of the respondents concern about proper waste management?; What is the willingness of the respondents to participate in proper Solid Waste Management?; What is the attitude of the respondents towards the Solid Waste Management? The said study was conducted at the Municipality of Linamon, which is a 5th class municipality located at the Eastern Gateway to Lanao del Norte, a south western Province of Northern Mindanao in the Philippines. The study was conducted in the 8 barangays of the Municipality of Linamon, namely: Bosque, Larapan, Mago-ong, Napo, Poblacion, Purakan, Robocon, and Samburon. The Municipality has 3 urban barangays and 4 rural barangays. The study revealed that most of the respondents interviewed were housewives. Out of 313 respondents, 67.10 % did not understand the term natural environment, with major issue currently affecting natural environment as "household garbage'. The respondents dispose the yard trimmings and papers through burning. The plastic and glass is disposed through the garbage truck. The metals and damaged home appliances were disposed by selling it to the junk shop. The respondents disposed their garbage into an open container specifically in a sack, collected by garbage trucks. The study also revealed that the respondents were

  8. Ozone therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Mansi, B

    2012-02-22

    Gingival and Periodontal diseases represent a major concern both in dentistry and medicine. The majority of the contributing factors and causes in the etiology of these diseases are reduced or treated with ozone in all its application forms (gas, water, oil). The beneficial biological effects of ozone, its anti-microbial activity, oxidation of bio-molecules precursors and microbial toxins implicated in periodontal diseases and its healing and tissue regeneration properties, make the use of ozone well indicated in all stages of gingival and periodontal diseases. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the clinical applications of ozone in periodontics. The secondary objective is to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. This objective would be of importance to future researchers in terms of what has been tried and what the potentials are for the clinical application of ozone in Periodontics.

  9. SMM mesospheric ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to understand the secular and seasonal behavior of ozone in the lower mesosphere, 50 to 70 km. This altitude region is important in understanding the factors which determine ozone behavior. A secondary objective is the study of stratospheric ozone in the polar regions. Use is made of results from the SBUV satellite borne instrument. In the Arctic the interaction between chlorine compounds and low molecular weight hydrocarbons is studied. More than 30,000 profiles were obtained using the UVSP instrument on the SMM spacecraft. Several orbits of ozone data per day were obtained allowing study of the current rise in solar activity from the minimum until the present. Analysis of Nimbus 7 SBUV data in Antarctic spring indicates that ozone is depleted within the polar vortex relative to ozone outside the vortex. This depletion confirms the picture of ozone loss at altitudes where polar stratospheric clouds exist. In addition, there is ozone loss above the cloud level indicating that there is another mechanism in addition to ozone loss initiated by heterogeneous chlorine reactions on cloud particles.

  10. Transformaciones territoriales en el norte de Marruecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gabriel Moreno-Navarro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los miembros del equipo de cooperación internacional "Territorio Andaluz, Desarrollo e Innovación" se han implicado durante más de una década en proyectos de desarrollo sobre zonas colindantes con el Estrecho de Gibraltar. En este artículo se resume el perfil y las conclusiones obtenidas en los proyectos de cooperación desarrollados por el grupo, así como otros hechos relacionados con las transformaciones territoriales del Norte de Marruecos. En la actualidad, las acciones se basan en la construcción de grandes puertos y carreteras cercanas a los nuevos centros turísticos de la costa. Los impactos son evidentes en el medio ambiente y en el contexto social. La transformación radical ha aumentado el atractivo en las zonas urbanas, incrementando el éxodo rural que ya era de por sí considerable. Por otra, la pérdida de calidad de vida la asociamos a la merma de suelo cultivable y el deterioro del medio al poner en cultivo tierras forestales. La agricultura es de subsistencia y como tal está sometida a la supervivencia de las familias en un medio cada vez más desfavorable. Las intervenciones en este medio podrían tomar como ejemplo los patrones que se han aplicado en el entorno rural español en el pasado, cuyo deterioro siguió pautas similares en un período de tiempo más largo.

  11. Estimated SAGE II ozone mixing ratios in early 1993 and comparisons with Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamic Expedition measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Veiga, R. E.; Poole, L. R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Proffitt, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    An empirical time-series model for estimating ozone mixing ratios based on Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) monthly mean ozone data for the period October 1984 through June 1991 has been developed. The modeling results for ozone mixing ratios in the 10- to 30- km region in early months of 1993 are presented. In situ ozone profiles obtained by a dual-beam UV-absorption ozone photometer during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) campaign, May 1-14, 1993, are compared with the model results. With the exception of two profiles at altitudes below 16 km, ozone mixing ratios derived by the model and measured by the ozone photometer are in relatively good agreement within their individual uncertainties. The identified discrepancies in the two profiles are discussed.

  12. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J.

    2006-06-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes on a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63, and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but indicates that there are still large errors at 120 km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over east Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution. However, subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is not greatly affected. We find that the export of short-lived precursors such as NOx by convection is overestimated at coarse resolution.

  13. Development of a sensitive passive sampler using indigotrisulfonate for the determination of tropospheric ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew George; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves

    2010-06-01

    A new sampling and analytical design for measurement of ambient ozone is presented. The procedure is based on ozone absorption and decoloration (at 600 nm) of indigotrisulfonate dye, where ozone adds itself across the carbon-carbon double bond of the indigo. A mean relative standard deviation of 8.6% was obtained using samplers exposed in triplicate, and a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.957 was achieved in parallel measurements using the samplers and a commercial UV ozone instrument. The devices were evaluated in a measurement campaign, mapping spatial and temporal trends of ozone concentrations in a region of southeast Brazil strongly influenced by seasonal agricultural biomass burning, with associated emissions of ozone precursors. Ozone concentrations were highest in rural areas and lowest at an urban site, due to formation during downwind transport and short-term depletion due to titration with nitric oxide. Ozone concentrations showed strong seasonal trends, due to the influences of precursor emissions, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Advantages of the technique include ease and speed of use, the ready availability of components, and excellent sensitivity. Achievable temporal resolution of ozone concentrations is 8 hours at an ambient ozone concentration of 3.8 ppb, or 2 hours at a concentration of 15.2 ppb.

  14. Pollution Control Using Ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone.......This invention relates to a method for cleaning air comprising one or more pollutants, the method comprising contacting the air with thermal decompositions products of ozone....

  15. The pollution by ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Air pollution by ozone is increasing in spite of several points to reduce it. If the process of ozone formation are complex, the sources of this pollution are well known: first, mobile sources with automobiles (49%), boats , trains and planes (13%), then are following paints and solvents(18%), thermal power plants(11%), and finally industry processing with 5%. (N.C.)

  16. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  17. Willingness to Pay for Dog Rabies Vaccine and Registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhane, Meseret G; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G; Dyer, Jessie L; Blanton, Jesse D; Recuenco, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The Philippines is one of the developing countries highly affected by rabies. Dog vaccination campaigns implemented through collaborative effort between the government and NGOs have played an important role in successfully reducing the burden of disease within the country. Nevertheless, rabies vaccination of the domestic animal population requires continuous commitment not only from governments and NGOs, but also from local communities that are directly affected by such efforts. To create such long-term sustained programs, the introduction of affordable dog vaccination and registration fees is essential and has been shown to be an important strategy in Bohol, Philippines. The aim of this study, therefore, was to estimate the average amount of money that individuals were willing to pay for dog vaccination and registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. This study also investigated some of the determinants of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP). A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 300 households in 17 municipalities (out of a total of 21) selected through a multi-stage cluster survey technique. At the time of the survey, Ilocos Norte had a population of approximately 568,017 and was predominantly rural. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to elicit WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. A 'bidding game' elicitation strategy that aims to find the maximum amount of money individuals were willing to pay was also employed. Data were collected using paper-based questionnaires. Linear regression was used to examine factors influencing participants' WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. On average, Ilocos Norte residents were willing to pay 69.65 Philippine Pesos (PHP) (equivalent to 1.67 USD in 2012) for dog vaccination and 29.13PHP (0.70 USD) for dog registration. Eighty-six per cent of respondents were willing to pay the stated amount to vaccinate each of their dogs, annually. This study also found that WTP was influenced by

  18. Willingness to Pay for Dog Rabies Vaccine and Registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines (2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseret G Birhane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of the developing countries highly affected by rabies. Dog vaccination campaigns implemented through collaborative effort between the government and NGOs have played an important role in successfully reducing the burden of disease within the country. Nevertheless, rabies vaccination of the domestic animal population requires continuous commitment not only from governments and NGOs, but also from local communities that are directly affected by such efforts. To create such long-term sustained programs, the introduction of affordable dog vaccination and registration fees is essential and has been shown to be an important strategy in Bohol, Philippines. The aim of this study, therefore, was to estimate the average amount of money that individuals were willing to pay for dog vaccination and registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines. This study also investigated some of the determinants of individuals' willingness to pay (WTP.A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 300 households in 17 municipalities (out of a total of 21 selected through a multi-stage cluster survey technique. At the time of the survey, Ilocos Norte had a population of approximately 568,017 and was predominantly rural. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to elicit WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. A 'bidding game' elicitation strategy that aims to find the maximum amount of money individuals were willing to pay was also employed. Data were collected using paper-based questionnaires. Linear regression was used to examine factors influencing participants' WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration.On average, Ilocos Norte residents were willing to pay 69.65 Philippine Pesos (PHP (equivalent to 1.67 USD in 2012 for dog vaccination and 29.13PHP (0.70 USD for dog registration. Eighty-six per cent of respondents were willing to pay the stated amount to vaccinate each of their dogs, annually. This study also found that WTP was

  19. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  20. INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features

  1. Vertical ozone transport in the Alps (VOTALP): the valley experiment 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furger, M; Dommen, J; Graber, W K; Prevot, A; Poggio, L; Andreani, S; Keller, J; Portmann, W; Buerki, D; Erne, R; Richter, R; Tinguely, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The EU project VOTALP started its valley campaign in the summer of 1996 in the Mesolcina valley. The influence of thermal circulations on ozone concentrations and on the exchange of ozone and its photochemical precursors between the valley atmosphere and the free troposphere above was the main focus of the study. PSI has participated with various measurement systems (conventional meteorological surface stations, radiosondes, scidar/DOAS systems, chemical analysers). An overview of PSI`s activities in the field campaign is given, and some preliminary results are presented. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  2. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  3. Ozone production in summer in the megacities of Tianjin and Shanghai, China: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth has given rise to a significant increase in ozone precursor emissions in many regions of China, especially in the densely populated North China Plain (NCP and Yangtze River Delta (YRD. Improved understanding of ozone formation in response to different precursor emissions is imperative to address the highly nonlinear ozone problem and to provide a solid scientific basis for efficient ozone abatement in these regions. A comparative study on ozone photochemical production in summer has thus been carried out in the megacities of Tianjin (NCP and Shanghai (YRD. Two intensive field campaigns were carried out respectively at an urban and a suburban site of Tianjin, in addition to routine monitoring of trace gases in Shanghai, providing data sets of surface ozone and its precursors including nitrogen oxides (NOx and various non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. Ozone pollution in summer was found to be more severe in the Tianjin region than in the Shanghai region, based on either the frequency or the duration of high ozone events. Such differences might be attributed to the large amount of highly reactive NMHCs in Tianjin. Industry related species like light alkenes were of particular importance in both urban and suburban Tianjin, while in Shanghai aromatics dominated. In general, the ozone problem in Shanghai is on an urban scale. Stringent control policies on local emissions would help reduce the occurrence of high ozone concentrations. By contrast, ozone pollution in Tianjin is probably a regional problem. Combined efforts to reduce ozone precursor emissions on a regional scale must be undertaken to bring the ozone problem under control.

  4. Ozone, greenhouse effect. Ozone, effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-12-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  6. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  7. New computer security campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    A new campaign is taking shape to promote computer security. The slogan “SEC_RITY is not complete without U!” reminds users of the importance of their contribution. The campaign kicks off on 10 June with a public awareness day in the Council Chamber.   The new campaign, organised by CERN’s computer security team, will focus on prevention and involving the user. “This is an education and awareness-raising campaign for all users at CERN,” explains Stefan Lueders, in charge of computer security. “Every day, we register thousands of computer attacks against CERN: there are attempts to tamper with web pages, hack into user accounts, take over servers, and much more. A successful attack could mean confidential user information being divulged, services being interrupted or data being lost. It could even affect operations at CERN. Another factor is the damage that a successful attack could inflict on the Organization’s reputation. &...

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  14. The Movember campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Mikkelsen, Marta K; Hansen, Rikke B

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate referral patterns and the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) before and after the Movember campaign was initiated in Denmark. METHODS: All men (n=2817) referred to the Department of Urology at Frederiksberg Hospital with suspicion of having ...

  15. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  16. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region (August, 2001. Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric dynamics in the region are strongly influenced by the occurrence of an upper tropospheric anti-cyclone, associated with the Asian summer monsoon and centered over the Tibetan Plateau. The anti-cyclone affects the chemical composition of the upper troposphere, where ozone concentrations of about 50 ppbv were measured, through advection of boundary layer air from South-East Asia. A layer between 4-6 km thickness was present beneath, containing up to 120 ppbv of ozone with substantial contributions by transport from the stratosphere and through lightning NOx. Additionally, pollutant ozone from North America was mixed in. Ozone in the lower troposphere originated mainly from the European continent. The stratospheric influence may be overestimated due to too strong vertical diffusion associated with the relatively coarse vertical resolution. The estimated tropospheric ozone column over the eastern Mediterranean is ~50 DU in summer, to which ozone from recent stratospheric origin contributes about 30%, ozone from lightning 13%, and from South-East Asia, North America and Europe about 7%, 8% and 14%, respectively, adding to a long-term hemispheric background of 25% of the column.

  17. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  18. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  19. Ozone health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  20. 2001 Ozone Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ozone is generated by a complex atmoshperic chemical process. Industrial and automobile pollutants in the form of oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons react in the...

  1. Overview of natural gas in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Panorama do gas natural no Rio Grande do Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Pedro Helio Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GREEN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This work draws a picture of what the natural gas means to Rio Grande do Norte in its quantitative dimension, expressed in the numbers and reserve indicators, production and structure of consume. In another dimension, it broaches the processes of energetic substitution by the natural gas in the state energetic matrix. (author)

  2. Impact of climate change on tropospheric ozone and its global budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the chemistry-climate model UMCAM in which a relatively detailed tropospheric chemical module has been incorporated into the UK Met Office's Unified Model version 4.5. We obtain good agreements between the modelled ozone/nitrogen species and a range of observations including surface ozone measurements, ozone sonde data, and some aircraft campaigns.

    Four 2100 calculations assess model responses to projected changes of anthropogenic emissions (SRES A2, climate change (due to doubling CO2, and idealised climate change-associated changes in biogenic emissions (i.e. 50% increase of isoprene emission and doubling emissions of soil-NOx. The global tropospheric ozone burden increases significantly for all the 2100 A2 simulations, with the largest response caused by the increase of anthropogenic emissions. Climate change has diverse impacts on O3 and its budgets through changes in circulation and meteorological variables. Increased water vapour causes a substantial ozone reduction especially in the tropical lower troposphere (>10 ppbv reduction over the tropical ocean. On the other hand, an enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone, which increases by 80% due to doubling CO2, contributes to ozone increases in the extratropical free troposphere which subsequently propagate to the surface. Projected higher temperatures favour ozone chemical production and PAN decomposition which lead to high surface ozone levels in certain regions. Enhanced convection transports ozone precursors more rapidly out of the boundary layer resulting in an increase of ozone production in the free troposphere. Lightning-produced NOx increases by about 22% in the doubled CO2 climate and contributes to ozone production.

    The response to the increase of isoprene emissions shows that the change of ozone is largely determined by background NOx levels: high

  3. GRIP CAMPAIGN REPORTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Campaign Reports dataset consists of various reports filed by scientists during the GRIP campaign which took place 8/15/2010 - 9/30/2010; however, several...

  4. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  5. The ozone backlash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubes, G.

    1993-01-01

    While evidence for the role of chlorofluorocarbons in ozone depletion grows stronger, researchers have recently been subjected to vocal public criticism of their theories-and their motives. Their understanding of the mechanisms of ozone destruction-especially the annual ozone hole that appears in the Antarctic-has grown stronger, yet everywhere they go these days, they seem to be confronted by critics attacking their theories as baseless. For instance, Rush Limbaugh, the conservative political talk-show host and now-best-selling author of The Way Things Ought to Be, regularly insists that the theory of ozone depletion by CFCs is a hoax: bladerdash and poppycock. Zoologist Dixy Lee Ray, former governor of the state of Washington and former head of the Atomic Energy Commission, makes the same argument in her book, Trashing the Planet. The Wall Street Journal and National Review have run commentaries by S. Fred Singer, a former chief scientists for the Department of Transportation, purporting to shoot holes in the theory of ozone depletion. Even the June issue of Omni, a magazine with a circulation of more than 1 million that publishes a mixture of science and science fiction, printed a feature article claiming to expose ozone research as a politically motivated scam

  6. Ozone depletion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Chang, J.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Penner, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Models of stratospheric chemistry have been primarily directed toward an understanding of the behavior of stratospheric ozone. Initially this interest reflected the diagnostic role of ozone in the understanding of atmospheric transport processes. More recently, interest in stratospheric ozone has arisen from concern that human activities might affect the amount of stratospheric ozone, thereby affecting the ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface and perhaps also affecting the climate with various potentially severe consequences for human welfare. This concern has inspired a substantial effort to develop both diagnostic and prognostic models of stratospheric ozone. During the past decade, several chemical agents have been determined to have potentially significant impacts on stratospheric ozone if they are released to the atmosphere in large quantities. These include oxides of nitrogen, oxides of hydrogen, chlorofluorocarbons, bromine compounds, fluorine compounds and carbon dioxide. In order to assess the potential impact of the perturbations caused by these chemicals, mathematical models have been developed to handle the complex coupling between chemical, radiative, and dynamical processes. Basic concepts in stratospheric modeling are reviewed

  7. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Geraint [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    The last field campaign held at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (PNG), was conducted in February 2014 as part of the Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign. This campaign was a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the United Kingdom’s (UK) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to study the composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the impact of deep convection on this composition. There are three main areas of interest: i) transport of trace gases in the tropical atmosphere (especially short-lived halogenated compounds that can be lifted rapidly into the TTL, where they augment the stratospheric loading of these species); ii) formation of cirrus and its impact on the TTL; and iii) the upper-atmosphere water vapor budget. Overall, the aim was to improve understanding of the dynamical, radiative, and chemical role of the TTL. The Manus operation was a joint experiment between the Universities of Manchester and Cambridge and the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). It consisted of two elements: an ozonesonde campaign to measure ozone vertical profiles through the TTL, and ground-based monitoring of ozone, halogenated hydrocarbons, and greenhouse gases to determine the composition of lower-boundary-layer air in the Warm Pool region. Thanks to the support from the ARM Climate Research Facility and the exemplary collaboration of ARM staff in the region, the campaign was very successful.

  8. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  9. Internet Explorers: the online campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, M.; Sudulich, M.L.; Gallagher, M.; Marsh, M.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an ‘internet election’ was initially put forward in 1997. However, there is little evidence to date that online campaigning has supplanted more traditional campaign practices. This is particularly true of Irish campaigns, which are hardware-rich affairs characterised by substantial

  10. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  11. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  12. Framatome's 1997 advertisement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de

    1998-01-01

    As many other companies involved in the nuclear business, Framatome was initially concentrating on corporate advertisements in business newspapers and magazines. The first goal was to concentrate on our traditional nuclear core business, while selecting the protection of the environment at large, and particularly the greenhouse effect, one of the most sensible issues of the moment. The 1997 campaign was shaped around the need to motivate European decision makers, while maintaining a domestic consensus towards nuclear power for the future resumption of constructions. The brief elaborated for Ad agencies was roughly threefold: elaborate simple messages, unquestionable, and explained with serenity; put emphasis on the benefits of nuclear power for the environment; establish a balanced comparison between nuclear and fossil fuels. A pre-test was conducted with about 100 people, half of which from the energy sector, and politicians, mainly members of the French and European Parliaments, the other half from the general public. Being accustomed to a usually discrete, if not 'ashamed' nuclear communication, people were generally surprised by such an optimistic tone about nuclear power, but agreed, on average. The campaign lasted one month (spread over June-July 97), and the three selected ads appeared successively in the form of a colour double page. Beyond nuclear magazines, the media plan included French daily newspapers le Figaro, le Monde, les Echos, Liberation, and weekly magazines: le Point, le Nouvel Observateur, I'Express, etc. All of them are intended for middle to high social class readers. In addition, some advertisements were inserted in The European Voice, a weekly publication reaching Brussels Commission and European parliament members. As an average, the campaign was perceived as dynamic (69%), and original (61%). But credibility and conviction were poor (resp 33%, 26%), probably because it was coincident with La Hague being on the carpet. On the other hand

  13. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...... these groups well so these groups will gain from strategic campaigning. Welfare effects are assessed...

  14. Ozone modeling within plasmas for ozone sensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Arshak, Khalil; Forde, Edward; Guiney, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ozone (03) is potentially hazardous to human health and accurate prediction and measurement of this gas is essential in addressing its associated health risks. This paper presents theory to predict the levels of ozone concentration emittedfrom a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma for ozone sensing applications. This is done by postulating the kinetic model for ozone generation, with a DBD plasma at atmospheric pressure in air, in the form of a set of rate equations....

  15. CONTRIBUTION TO INDOOR OZONE LEVELS OF AN OZONE GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a study of a commonly used commercially available ozone generator, undertaken to determine its impact on indoor ozone levels. xperiment were conducted in a typical mechanically ventilated office and in a test house. he generated ozone and the in-room ...

  16. How campaigns polarize the electorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper M.; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The minimal effect theory of campaign studies stipulates that intense political competition during campaigns assures and reinforces the initial party choice of the electorate. We find that this reinforcement is two-fold. During the campaign, the party preference of the voters’ in-group party...... an increase in their preference for their most preferred party and a decrease for their least liked party as the campaign progresses. These trends show that the political campaign polarizes the electorate by increasing the affective distance between in-group party and out-group party preferences, thereby...... resulting in stronger political polarization after the campaign than before the campaign. The data utilized in this study is a large six-wave panel-study of Danish voters’ party preferences during the Danish parliamentary election of 2011. Thus, the analysis provides evidence of the minimal effect theory...

  17. Ozone-depleting Substances (ODS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This site includes all of the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) recognized by the Montreal Protocol. The data include ozone depletion potentials (ODP), global warming...

  18. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  19. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  20. Calha Norte: Explaining Brazilian Army Presence in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    the Yanomami Indians.""’ The potential wealth present in the Calha Norte region has been estimated at over US$134 billion, enough to repay almost all...garimpeiros to remain on Yanomami land was essentially a military decision. The Army’s pro-miner position was highlighted by official statements made by the...Environmental Policy and Military Geopolitics in the Development of the Brazilian Amazon: The Case of the Yanomami ," Development and Change (1992

  1. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone from SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozonesondes) Network: A Project for Satellite Research, Process Studies, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise

    2002-01-01

    The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.

  2. Ozone bioindicator sampling and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen C, Smith; William D. Smith; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Ozone is an important forest stressor that has been measured at known phytotoxic levels at forest locations across the United States. The percent forest exhibiting negative impacts from ozone air pollution is one of the Montreal Process indicators of forest health and vitality. The ozone bioindicator data of the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program...

  3. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  4. Disappearing threat to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribbin, J

    1979-02-15

    Concern that human activities might disturb the dynamic natural equilibrium of the ozone layer has stemmed from the fact that this layer plays a key part in the ecology of the earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation which would otherwise penetrate to the ground. Apparently, however, a decline of as much at 15% in total global ozone would have very little effect on climate. A 50% reduction would produce a marked cooling of the stratosphere at 40 km altitude over the tropics, but barely detectable changes in temperature and rainfall in the lower atmosphere. Therefore, biological effects of more uv light at ground level is the only hazard associated with ozone depletion on the scale which might take place.

  5. Campaign Country Going Green?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    justification. This paper finally discusses the reason for this greening of government initiated Danish energy saving campaigns, which is seen as an indirect result of the 1987 UN report, Our Common Future. The 1988 general election in Denmark led to the formation of a new center-right government coalition...... economics and not least a significant portion of patriotism. Environmental justification was almost entirely absent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. This changed only from 1989 onwards, as government initiatives to curb the ever rising consumption of energy commenced an extensive use of environmental...

  6. Ozonation for source treatment of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater - ozone lifetime and required ozone dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation aimed at removing pharmaceuticals was studied in an effluent from an experimental pilot system using staged moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) tanks for the optimal biological treatment of wastewater from a medical care unit of Aarhus University Hospital. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC......) and pH in samples varied considerably, and the effect of these two parameters on ozone lifetime and the efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals were determined. The pH in the effluent varied from 5.0 to 9.0 resulting in approximately a doubling of the required ozone dose at the highest p......H for each pharmaceutical. DOC varied from 6 to 20 mg-DOC/L. The ozone required for removing each pharmaceutical, varied linearly with DOC and thus, ozone doses normalized to DOC (specific ozone dose) agreed between water samples (typically within 15%). At neutral pH the specific ozone dose required...

  7. Potential for lychee crop in Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brazil | Potencial para cultivo de lichia na Mata Norte Pernambucana - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Iris Verslype

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lychee crops occurs mainly in South and Southeast regions of Brazil. In this study, the digital terrain modeling (DTM of the micro-region Mata Norte Pernambucana, was designed to identify the districts that have potential for lychee crop, through the parameters of average altitude, precipitation and temperature. The districts analyzed were Aliança, Buenos Aires, Camutanga, Carpina, Condado, Ferreiros, Goiâna, Itambé, Itaquitinga, Lagoa do Carro, Lagoa do Itaenga, Macaparana, Nazaré da Mata, Paudalho, Timbaúba, Tracunhaém and Vicência. The analysis of climate, wind power and altitude in Mata Norte Pernambucana, has revealed that some districts of the micro-region have potential for lychee crops, which is a product with great financial return, and may contribute to increase economy and quality of life in the micro-region.

  8. Qualidade da carne maturada de bovinos Red Norte e Nelore Aged meat quality in Red Norte and Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Lopes Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade da carne do músculo longissimus thoracis de bovinos durante a maturação. Amostras de 22 bovinos Nelore e 22 Red Norte machos, com 24 meses de idade, foram coletadas às 24 horas post mortem, mantidas a 2oC e analisadas aos 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento (112 dias com silagem de milho (50% e concentrado (50% à vontade. Os valores de pH final, perda por cocção, umidade, proteína, gordura e cinzas foram semelhantes entre as amostras de animais Nelore e Red Norte. O teor de vermelho (a* e a intensidade de amarelo (b* foram semelhantes entre as carnes dos dois grupos genéticos, porém a luminosidade (L* foi maior nas amostras de animais Red Norte. A maturação afetou significativamente a luminosidade, o teor de vermelho e amarelo, croma (C*, o ângulo de tonalidade (H* e a percepção subjetiva da cor (ΔE, de forma que as alterações de cor mais importantes ocorreram entre 7 e 14 dias. A força de cisalhamento na carne dos animais Red Norte foi cerca de 0.9 kg inferior às dos animais Nelore. A maturação influenciou a força de cisalhamento ao longo da maturação e determinou reduções de 1,09; 0,21 e 0,56 kg nos períodos de 1 a 7; 7 a 14 e 14 a 21 dias, respectivamente. O índice de fragmentação miofibrilar foi maior na carne dos animais Red Norte e nas amostras maturadas por 21 dias. A carne dos animais Red Norte apresentou maior luminosidade e maciez. A maturação melhora a maciez das carnes, por reduzir a força de cisalhamento, porém modifica a cor, cujas alterações mais importantes acontecem entre 7 e 14 dias. A escolha do tempo de maturação mais adequado para as carnes bovinas depende do atributo a ser valorizado.The objective in this study was to evaluate meat quality of longissimus thoracisi muscle during ageing. Samples from 22 Nelore bovines and 22 Red Norte males at 24 months of age were collected at 24 hours post mortem, kept at 2º

  9. Physicochemical patterns of ozone absorption by wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Results from studying aspen and pine wood ozonation are presented. The effect the concentration of ozone, the reagent residence time, and the content of water in a sample of wood has on ozone consumption rate and ozone demand are analyzed. The residence time is shown to determine the degree of ozone conversion degree and the depth of substrate destruction. The main patterns of ozone absorption by wood with different moisture content are found. Ways of optimizing the ozonation of plant biomass are outlined.

  10. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2011-03-01

    The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

  11. Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cazorla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ambient air monitor, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS, measures directly the rate of ozone production in the atmosphere. The sensor consists of two 11.3 L environmental chambers made of UV-transmitting Teflon film, a unit to convert NO2 to O3, and a modified ozone monitor. In the sample chamber, flowing ambient air is exposed to the sunlight so that ozone is produced just as it is in the atmosphere. In the second chamber, called the reference chamber, a UV-blocking film over the Teflon film prevents ozone formation but allows other processes to occur as they do in the sample chamber. The air flows that exit the two chambers are sampled by an ozone monitor operating in differential mode so that the difference between the two ozone signals, divided by the exposure time in the chambers, gives the ozone production rate. High-efficiency conversion of NO2 to O3 prior to detection in the ozone monitor accounts for differences in the NOx photostationary state that can occur in the two chambers. The MOPS measures the ozone production rate, but with the addition of NO to the sampled air flow, the MOPS can be used to study the sensitivity of ozone production to NO. Preliminary studies with the MOPS on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University show the potential of this new technique.

  12. Our Shrinking Ozone Layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Depletion of the ozone layer is therefore having significant effects on life on .... but there is always a net balance between the rate of formation and destruction ..... award of Commonwealth Fellowship during the present work and also being an ...

  13. Dobson ozone spectrophotometer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Grass, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a modified version of the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer in which several outdated electronic design features have been replaced by circuitry embodying more modern design concepts. The resulting improvement in performance characteristics has been obtained without changing the principle of operation of the original instrument.

  14. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  15. Ozone, greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aviam, A.M.; Arthaut, R.

    1992-01-01

    This file is made of eight general papers on environment (climates under observation, research on photo-oxidizing pollution, scientific aspects of stratospheric ozone layer, urban engineering and environment, glory of public gardens, earths not very natural, darwinism and society, economical data on environment). (A.B.). refs., 3 tabs

  16. Revisiting Antarctic Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Tritscher, Ines; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Antarctic ozone depletion is known for almost three decades and it has been well settled that it is caused by chlorine catalysed ozone depletion inside the polar vortex. However, there are still some details, which need to be clarified. In particular, there is a current debate on the relative importance of liquid aerosol and crystalline NAT and ice particles for chlorine activation. Particles have a threefold impact on polar chlorine chemistry, temporary removal of HNO3 from the gas-phase (uptake), permanent removal of HNO3 from the atmosphere (denitrification), and chlorine activation through heterogeneous reactions. We have performed simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) employing a recently developed algorithm for saturation-dependent NAT nucleation for the Antarctic winters 2011 and 2012. The simulation results are compared with different satellite observations. With the help of these simulations, we investigate the role of the different processes responsible for chlorine activation and ozone depletion. Especially the sensitivity with respect to the particle type has been investigated. If temperatures are artificially forced to only allow cold binary liquid aerosol, the simulation still shows significant chlorine activation and ozone depletion. The results of the 3-D Chemical Transport Model CLaMS simulations differ from purely Lagrangian longtime trajectory box model simulations which indicates the importance of mixing processes.

  17. Exploration of the formation mechanism and source attribution of ambient ozone in Chongqing with an observation-based model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Rong; ZHAI ChongZhi; ZHANG YuanHang; LU KeDing; YU JiaYan; TAN ZhaoFeng; JIANG MeiQing; LI Jing; XIE ShaoDong; WU YuSheng; ZENG LiMin

    2018-01-01

    An intensive field campaign was conducted in Chongqing during the summer of 2015 to explore the formation mechanisms of ozone pollution.The sources of ozone,the local production rates,and the controlling factors,as well as key species of volatile organic compounds (VOCs),were quantified by integrating a local ozone budget analysis,calculations of the relative incremental reactivity,and an empirical kinetic model approach.It was found that the potential for rapid local ozone formation exists in Chongqing.During ozone pollution episodes,the ozone production rates were found to be high at the upwind station Nan Quan,the urban station Chao Zhan,and the downwind station Jin-Yun Shan.The average local ozone production rate was 30× 10-9 V/V h1 and the daily integration of the produced ozone was greater than 180× 10-9 V/V.High ozone concentrations were associated with urban and downwind air masses.At most sites,the local ozone production was VOC-limited and the key species were aromatics and alkene,which originated mainly from vehicles and solvent usage.In addition,the air masses at the northwestern rural sites were NOx-limited and the local ozone production rates were significantly higher during the pollution episodes due to the increased NOx concentrations.In summary,the ozone abatement strategies of Chongqing should be focused on the mitigation of VOCs.Nevertheless,a reduction in NOx is also beneficial for reducing the regional ozone peak values in Chongqing and the surrounding areas.

  18. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  19. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  20. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  1. Godiva, a European Project for Ozone and Trace Gas Measurements from GOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Tanzi, C. P.; Aben, I.; Burrows, J. P.; Weber, M.; Perner, D.; Monks, P. S.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Corlett, G. K.; Arlander, D. W.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Taalas, P.; Kelder, H.; Piters, A.

    GODIVA (GOME Data Interpretation, Validation and Application) is a European Commission project aimed at the improvement of GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) data products. Existing data products include global ozone, NO2 columns and (ir)radiances. Advanced data products include O3 profiles, BrO, HCHO and OCIO columns. These data are validated by ground-based and balloon borne instruments. Calibration issues are investigated by in-flight monitoring using several complementary calibration sources, as well as an on-ground replica of the GOME instrument. The results will lead to specification of operational processing of the EUMETSAT ozone Satellite Application Facility as well as implementation of the improved and new GOME data products in the NILU database for use in the European THESEO (Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone) campaign of 1999

  2. Surf Zone Sediment Size Variation, Morphodynamics, and Hydrodynamics During Sea/Land Breeze and El-Norte Storm in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrushaid, T.; Figlus, J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Dellapenna, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastlines around the world are under ever-increasing pressure due to population trends, commerce, and geophysical processes like tropical storms and erosion. This multi-institutional field campaign was conducted to improve our understanding of complex nearshore processes under varying forcing conditions on a microtidal, sandy beach located in Sisal, Yucatan from 3/27 to 4/12/2014. Hydrodynamics, morphodynamics, and textural variability were investigated during: (1) a cold front event (referred to as El-Norte); (2) land breeze (LB); and (3) sea breeze (SB). The instrumentation layout included three surf/swash zone cross-shore transects where water elevation, suspended sediment concentration, bed load, and current velocities were measured, as well as several offshore ADCP for hydrodynamic measurements. TKE, τb, ɛ and were estimated using the data obtained from surf zone ADV. In addition, Hs and Tsin the surf zone were computed using measurements from ADV pressure sensors, while a separate pressure transducer was used to obtain water free-surface elevation within the swash zone. During SB cycles the study area experienced wind velocities reaching up to 12ms-1, and 15ms-1 during El-Norte. Elevated wind stress during El-Norte resulted in Hs of 1.5m and 0.6m in water depths of 10m and 0.4m, respectively. Surface sediment grab samples during SB/LB cycles showed that the swash zone had a moderately well sorted distribution with a mean grain size of 0.5mm, while poor sorting and a mean grain size of 0.7mm were found during El-Norte. Additionally, measured bathymetry data showed evidence for offshore sandbar migration during strong offshore currents (0.4ms-1) during El-Norte, while onshore sandbar migration was evident during SB/LB periods (0.3ms-1 and 0.1ms-1, respectively). This study highlights how different weather forcing conditions affect hydrodynamics, morphodynamics, and textural variability on a sandy beach. Aside from furthering our knowledge on these complex

  3. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  4. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  5. Monica del Norte - Eesti maalikunstnik päikeselises Hispaanias / Anne-Mari Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Anne-Mari

    2006-01-01

    Deivi Oru alias Monica del Norte eneseleidmisest maalikunstniku, sisekujundaja ja kunstiõpetajana Hispaanias. Kunstnik teeb oma maalidele ise raamid. Koos abikaasa Alaniga on ta soetanud Räpina lähistele talukoha, millest tulevikus peaks saama näituste ja kunstilaagrite paik. 26. augustini on Monica del Norte maalid väljas Artdepoo galeriis

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  7. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  8. Strategic Ozone Sounding Networks: Review of Design and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David W.; von der Gathen, Peter; Smit, Herman G. J.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone soundings are used to integrate models, satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements for better interpretation of ozone variability, including atmospheric losses (predominantly in the stratosphere) and pollution (troposphere). A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations gives information with high vertical and horizontal resolution on a number of dynamical and chemical processes, allowing us to answer questions not possible with aircraft campaigns or current satellite technology. Strategic ozonesonde networks are discussed for high, mid- and low latitude studies. The Match sounding network was designed specifically to follow ozone depletion within the polar vortex; the standard sites are at middle to high northern hemisphere latitudes and typically operate from December through mid-March. Three mid-latitude strategic networks (the IONS series) operated over North America in July-August 2004, March-May and August 2006, and April and June-July-2008. These were designed to address questions about tropospheric ozone budgets and sources, including stratosphere-troposphere transport, and to validate satellite instruments and models. A global network focusing on processes in the equatorial zone, SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes), has operated since 1998 in partnership with NOAA, NASA and the Meteorological Services of host countries. Examples of important findings from these networks are described,

  9. Ozone Production and Control Strategies for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, C.; Liu, S.; Chang, C.; Chen, J.; Chou, C. C.; Lin, C.

    2006-12-01

    An observation-based modeling (OBM) approach is used to estimate the ozone production efficiency and production rate of O3 (P(O3)) in southern Taiwan. The approach can also provide an indirect estimate of the concentration of OH. Measured concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene, are used to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and the amounts of photochemically consumed NOx and NMHCs. In addition, a one-dimensional (1d) photochemical model is used to compare with the OBM results. The average ozone production efficiency during the field campaign in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area in Fall 2003 is found to be about 5, comparable to previous works. The relationship of P(O3) with NOx is examined in detail and compared to previous studies. The derived OH concentrations from this approach are in fair agreement with values calculated from the 1d photochemical model. The relationship of total oxidants (e.g. O3+NO2) versus initial NOx and NMHCs suggests that reducing NMHCs are more effective in controlling total oxidants than reducing NOx. For O3 control, reducing NMHC is even more effective than NOx due to the NO titration effect. This observation-based approach provides a good alternative for understanding the production of ozone and formulating ozone control strategy in urban and suburban environment without measurements of peroxy radicals.

  10. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that pollution ...

  11. Classification of Nortes in the Gulf of Mexico derived from wave energy maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, C. M.; Hernández-Lasheras, J.

    2016-02-01

    Extreme wave climate in the Gulf of Mexico is determined by tropical cyclones and winds from the Central American Cold Surges, locally referred to as Nortes. While hurricanes can have catastrophic effects, extreme waves and storm surge from Nortes occur several times a year, and thus have greater impacts on human activities along the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the constant impacts from Nortes, there is no available classification that relates their characteristics (e.g. pressure gradients, wind speed), to the associated coastal impacts. This work presents a first approximation to characterize and classify Nortes, which is based on the assumption that the derived wave energy synthetizes information (i.e. wind intensity, direction and duration) of individual Norte events as they pass through the Gulf of Mexico. First, we developed an index to identify Nortes based on surface pressure differences of two locations. To validate the methodology we compared the events identified with other studies and available Nortes logs. Afterwards, we detected Nortes from the 1986/1987, 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons and used their corresponding wind fields to derive the wave energy maps using a numerical wave model. We used the energy maps to classify the events into groups using manual (visual) and automatic classifications (principal component analysis and k-means). The manual classification identified 3 types of Nortes and the automatic classification identified 5, although 3 of them had a high degree of similarity. The principal component analysis indicated that all events have similar characteristics, as few components are necessary to explain almost all of the variance. The classification from the k-means indicated that 81% of analyzed Nortes affect the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, while a smaller percentage affects the northern Gulf of Mexico and even less affect the western Caribbean.

  12. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  13. La "gente del desierto" en el norte de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Javier Salas Quintanal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de la frontera política administrativa, a mediados del siglo diecinueve, entre Arizona (Estados Unidos y Sonora (México provocó una dispersión entre los pápagos que quedaron al lado mexicano y los que se ubicaron al norte de la línea fronteriza. Durante años esta división generó un alejamiento en los estilos de vida y en la forma de habitar un ambiente desértico; en la actualidad, la frontera política se expresa en las esferas de la vida social, económica y cultural. En este artículo se hace referencia a la situación de los pápagos, la "gente del desierto" que habita el desierto de Altar, al norte de Sonora, quienes actualizan sus referentes comunes para identificarse como etnia y como grupo.

  14. Education campaigns: pointers and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariasy, J

    1988-01-01

    The best protection from AIDS is prevention, and this fact makes AIDS awareness campaigns a high priority. Since there are cases of well informed groups that still do not alter their sexual behavior (i.e. teenagers in the UK and San Francisco), fact forcing campaigns cannot be the method of AIDS education. Facts along with behavioral motivation are needed. AIDS awareness campaigns must recognize denial factors that must be overcome before the campaign is even taken seriously. On the other end of the spectrum, exaggerated fears leading to irrational behavior and stigmatization must be prevented by supplying counselling programs to dispel these fears. A campaign must build trust and not underestimate its target population so that their self respect remains high enough to motivate them towards assertive action. Cultural problems, such as women who cannot discuss sexual options for fear of being socially stigmatized, need to have programs that instruct as well as develop a environment that supports change. School women's groups, work places, clinics, community networks, and religious organizations know a local temperament and beliefs, and therefore should be consulted on designing messages that best fit their peers language, literacy, and economic circumstances. Their is no single answer for an AIDS awareness campaign, but a mixture of facts, explanation, persuasion, and reassurance for each targeted community must be well planned. Since each campaign is an experiment, it should be carefully regulated.

  15. Awareness campaign. Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma launches awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma is a 25-bed inpatient and outpatient center with one focus: Orthopedics. To acquaint people with its services and build brand awareness to drive market share, the hospital launched a print campaign featuring actual patients.

  16. Cyber-campaigning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    sites and Facebook sites are popular among candidates but other features such as blogs, feeds, newsletter, video uploads, SMS and twitter are used by less than half the candidates. Second, only age and possibly education seem to matter when explaining the uptake of cyber-campaigning. The prominent...... candidates are not significantly more likely to use cyber-campaigning tools and activities. Third, the analysis of the effect of cyber-campaigning shows that the online score has an effect on the inter-party competition for personal votes, but it does not have a significant effect when controlling for other...

  17. The articulation of transnational campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The article traces the complex series of relations that are constitutive of transnational campaigning through empirical research, focusing on political campaigning critical of the WTO's General Agreement on Trade-in-Services. Applying the methodology of post-structuralist discourse theory......, as developed by Laclau and Mouffe, the article is able to move beyond the search for a ‘Global Civil Society' or ‘Transnational Advocacy Network', and instead focus on the articulatory process in which the relations central to transnational campaigning are produced. This empowers an analysis that is able...

  18. Norplant campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Indian government's plan to introduce the new long-acting contraceptive Norplant in the National Family Planning Program under pressure from the US government is opposed because Norplant has not been adequately tested. The government has reduced the funding for the national program for eradication of malaria and tuberculosis, but it is proposing to finance a Norplant based population project for the State of Uttar Pradesh. The powers that can turn a deaf ear to the possible hazards of Norplant. Implanted in the arm of a woman, the chemical is released into the bloodstream providing contraception for 5 years. Severe adverse reactions include depression, heart disease thromboembolism, high blood pressure, and ovarian cysts. Many such long-acting contraceptives are being developed including injectables, vaccines, nasal sprays, and vaginal rings with potential permanent impairment to fertility. One of the major objectives of the Family Planning Program is the improvement of the health status of women, but the introduction of Norplant would harm healthy young women. Therefore, the group Saheli and others in the campaign demand: 1) that plans for introduction of Norplant in the Family Planning Program be halted immediately; 2) that the introduction of any other long acting invasive contraceptive such as Net-En, vaginal ring, nasal spray, and anti-fertility vaccine be banned, both on the grounds of inadequacy of the health services and loss of user controls; 3) that information on the safety aspects of Norplant and the basis on which the Drugs Controller has granted his approval be made public; 4) that each and every one of the hundreds of women who still have the implant should be located, and the implant removed; and 5) that all hormonal contraceptive preparations be banned in the social marketing program as their use involves extensive monitoring.

  19. On the origin of tropospheric ozone and NOx over the tropical South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Martin G.; Jacob, Daniel James; Wang, Yuhang; Logan, Jennifer A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Blake, Donald R.; Blake, Nicola J.; Bradshaw, John D.; Browell, Edward V.; Fenn, Marta A.; Flocke, Frank; Gregory, Gerald L.; Heikes, Brian G.; Sachse, Glen W.; Sandholm, Scott T.

    1999-01-01

    The budgets of ozone and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the tropical South Pacific troposphere are analyzed by photochemical point modeling of aircraft observations at 0–12 km altitude from the Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics A campaign flown in September-October 1996. The model reproduces the observed NO2/NO concentration ratio to within 30% and has similar success in simulating observed concentrations of peroxides ( H2O2, CH3OOH), lending confidence in its use to investigate ozone ...

  20. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  1. Categorization of Mobile Advertising Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2006-01-01

    The result of this contribution is a categorization and thus a description model for mobile advertising campaigns using the morphological method. For identification of the characteristics 32 case studies were analysed and relevant literature was sighted.

  2. Political Reputations and Campaign Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aragones, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which candidates' reputations may affect voters' beliefs over what policy will be implemented by the winning candidate of an election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. We analyze an equilibrium in which voters' strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates who renege on their campaign promises and in which all campaign promises are believed by voters and honored by candidates....

  3. Ozone Production in Global Tropospheric Models: Quantifying Errors due to Grid Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, O.; Prather, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Ozone production in global chemical models is dependent on model resolution because ozone chemistry is inherently nonlinear, the timescales for chemical production are short, and precursors are artificially distributed over the spatial scale of the model grid. In this study we examine the sensitivity of ozone, its precursors, and its production to resolution by running a global chemical transport model at four different resolutions between T21 (5.6° × 5.6°) and T106 (1.1° × 1.1°) and by quantifying the errors in regional and global budgets. The sensitivity to vertical mixing through the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence is also examined. We find less ozone production in the boundary layer at higher resolution, consistent with slower chemical production in polluted emission regions and greater export of precursors. Agreement with ozonesonde and aircraft measurements made during the NASA TRACE-P campaign over the Western Pacific in spring 2001 is consistently better at higher resolution. We demonstrate that the numerical errors in transport processes at a given resolution converge geometrically for a tracer at successively higher resolutions. The convergence in ozone production on progressing from T21 to T42, T63 and T106 resolution is likewise monotonic but still indicates large errors at 120~km scales, suggesting that T106 resolution is still too coarse to resolve regional ozone production. Diagnosing the ozone production and precursor transport that follow a short pulse of emissions over East Asia in springtime allows us to quantify the impacts of resolution on both regional and global ozone. Production close to continental emission regions is overestimated by 27% at T21 resolution, by 13% at T42 resolution, and by 5% at T106 resolution, but subsequent ozone production in the free troposphere is less significantly affected.

  4. Territorio flexible en la semiperiferia: La frontera norte mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidio González Gómez

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza una discusión sobre la aplicabilidad de la propuesta de la denominada corriente regulacionista en torno a la espacialidad de los procesos recientes de industrialización, para un caso dentro de los países no centrales, en particular sobre el proceso de industrialización ocurrido en la Frontera Norte mexicana, desde mediados de la década pasada. Lo que se cuestiona, primeramente, a nivel teórico, es la utilidad de esta propuesta para parte de los estados no-centrales del Sistema Mundial. También se desarrollan, en el mismo plano, las objeciones principales en relación a sus supuestos generales al aplicarse esta teoría tanto al centro del Sistema Mundial como también al resto de ésta. Las características principales de este reciente proceso de industrialización en el territorio del norte mexicano son esbozadas para luego ser confrontadas a los supuestos subyacentes a la teoría regulacionista. Desde la crítica formulada a esta escuela de pensamiento, se genera una propuesta interpretativa, basada primeramente sobre el concepto de espacio de flujos, y después sobre la flexibilidad en el uso de la región fronteriza del norte mexicanoA debate is proposed in this paper on the suitability of the regulationist proposal to explain the spatial implications of recent industrial processes. This suitability is questioned for a particular territory in a non-central Nation-State, the Mexican Northern Border, from the mid-dle 1980´s. At a theoretical level, the usefulness of this for parts of the non-central nations of the World-System. On the same level the main objections on its general assumptions when this theory is applied to the center of the World-System as well as to the rest of it. Are also developed he main characteristics of the new industrialization process in the northern Mexican territory are depicted. These features are then confronted to the underlying assumptions of the regulationist theory. And, from

  5. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Traag

    Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  6. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities.

  7. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  8. Experimental study of ozone synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garamoon, A A; Elakshar, F F; Nossair, A M; Kotp, E F

    2002-01-01

    A silent discharge ozonizer has been constructed with a design that enables the study of ozone concentration behaviour as a function of different parameters when oxygen used as a working gas. The behaviour of ozone concentration as a function of discharge current density has four characteristic regions. The concentration is enhanced by more than threefold whenever gas pressure is reduced by a factor of two. The flow rate of the working gas is a more effective parameter on ozone concentration than the gas pressure. When the flow rate is kept constant, and the pressure is decreased by 100%, the ozone concentration increases by only 10%. On the other hand, when the flow rate is decreased by 13%, the ozone concentration increases by 200%, whenever the gas pressure is kept constant. The concentration is nearly doubled when the gap space is increased by four times under the same conditions. The length of the discharge region, the thickness and the dielectric constant of the insulating materials are found to have a considerable effect on the generated ozone concentration. Also, the ozone concentration is ten times less when air is used instead of oxygen as a working gas. A maximum efficiency of 185 g/kWh, is obtained for the present system

  9. Radium diagnosis campaign - 59327

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillaud Poillion, Florence

    2012-01-01

    In line with the approaches already adopted in France during the 90's on various sites where research and/or radium-extraction activities were mostly conducted in the past, the French public authorities wish from now on to pursue their prevention and site-rehabilitation approach inherited from the French craftsman and medical sectors that used that radioelement. As a matter of fact, radium has been in use in several medical activities, notably in the initial methods of cancer therapy. Similarly, it was also used in some craftsman activities, such as the clock industry, for its radioluminescent properties, the fabrication of lightning conductors or cosmetics until the 60's. Those activities have generated various traces of pollution that have remained today. On the basis of the different inventories of industrial sites where radium may have been held or used, and notably the inventory updated by the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN) in 2007 at the request of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN), French State services have potentially identified 134 sites that hosted radium-related activities in France. The radiological status of those sites is either unknown or very partially known by State services. Sites include both dwellings or commercial premises and derelict lands. The 'Radium Diagnosis Campaign' (Operation Diagnostic Radium), consists of a radiological survey carried out by the IRSN. In cases where traces of radium are detected, plans call for the implementation of precautionary measures and of a medical follow-up of the relevant populations. Lastly, radium-contaminated sites are rehabilitated by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra). That voluntary and positive approach on the part of public authorities is fully financed by public funds, and consequently

  10. Is There Evidence that Mid-Latitude Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Occurs in Conjunction with North American Monsoon Convection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlof, K. H.; Ray, E. A.; Portmann, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    A recent study suggests that during the period of the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM), ozone depletion could occur as a result of catalytic ozone destruction associated with the cold and wet conditions caused by overshooting convection. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor measurements do show that the NAM region is wetter than other parts of the globe in regards to both the mean and extremes. However, definitive evidence of ozone depletion occurring in that region has not been presented. In this study, we examine coincident measurements of water vapor, ozone, and tropospheric tracers from aircraft data taken during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) aircraft campaign looking specifically for ozone depletion in regions identified as impacted by overshooting convection. Although we do find evidence of lower ozone values in air impacted by convective overshoots, using tropospheric tracers we attribute those observations to input of tropospheric air rather than catalytic ozone destruction. Additionally, we explore the consequences of these lower ozone values on surface UV, and conclude that there is minimal impact on the UV index.

  11. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  12. Trans-Pacific transport of reactive nitrogen and ozone to Canada during spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. W. Walker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We interpret observations from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment, Phase B (INTEX-B in spring 2006 using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate sensitivities of the free troposphere above the North Pacific Ocean and North America to Asian anthropogenic emissions. We develop a method to use satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns to provide timely estimates of trends in NOx emissions. NOx emissions increased by 33% for China and 29% for East Asia from 2003 to 2006. We examine measurements from three aircraft platforms from the INTEX-B campaign, including a Canadian Cessna taking vertical profiles of ozone near Whistler Peak. The contribution to the mean simulated ozone profiles over Whistler below 5.5 km is at least 7.2 ppbv for Asian anthropogenic emissions and at least 3.5 ppbv for global lightning NOx emissions. Tropospheric ozone columns from OMI exhibit a broad Asian outflow plume across the Pacific, which is reproduced by simulation. Mean modelled sensitivities of Pacific (30° N–60° N tropospheric ozone columns are at least 4.6 DU for Asian anthropogenic emissions and at least 3.3 DU for lightning, as determined by simulations excluding either source. Enhancements of ozone over Canada from Asian anthropogenic emissions reflect a combination of trans-Pacific transport of ozone produced over Asia, and ozone produced in the eastern Pacific through decomposition of peroxyacetyl nitrates (PANs. A sensitivity study decoupling PANs globally from the model's chemical mechanism establishes that PANs increase ozone production by removing NOx from regions of low ozone production efficiency (OPE and injecting it into regions with higher OPE, resulting in a global increase in ozone production by 2% in spring 2006. PANs contribute up to 4 ppbv to surface springtime ozone concentrations in western Canada. Ozone production due to PAN transport is

  13. Ozone's impact on public health: Contributions from indoor exposures to ozone and products of ozone-initiated chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations between ozone concentrations measured outdoors and both morbidity and mortality may be partially due to indoor exposures to ozone and ozone-initiated oxidation products. In this article I examine the contributions of such indoor exposures to overall ozone-related heal...

  14. Pre-cambrian geochronology in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.C.

    1981-08-01

    The Precambrian region polyciclic caracter, in the Rio Grande do Norte State has make difficulties to its geochronological and geological studies. Four importants tectonometamorphic occurences identified dissimulate the original isotopic composition of the rocks. Is much defined the presence of three geochronological events wich left vestiges in the differents Serido litological units. The first event is related with Jequie cicle (2,7 b.y) and related with the Caico Group rocks. The second important event define the Transamazonic cicle (2.1 b.y). The third is correlated with Brazilian Cicle, when occurred the granitoids and pegmatites bodies formation. This third event was the last in this region and affect the other units too. (C.D.G.) [pt

  15. Corea del Norte: vientos favorables para el cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pío García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Las manifestaciones de fuerza de Corea del Norte durante el último año crisparon los nervios de los televidentes de todo el mundo, ante el temor de un conflicto de grandes dimensiones en el noreste asiático. La decisión de realizar una segunda explosión y continuar el lanzamiento de cohetes de mediano alcance al Pacífico le significó nuevas sanciones del Consejo de Seguridad al gobierno de Pyongyang, en el mes de julio. La inminencia de una guerra no aparece, empero, un escenario realista, en cuanto el pronunciamiento multilateral refleja el acuerdo de las grandes potencias en atender la situación de ese país, impidiendo la posesión de la bomba atómica por parte

  16. Abasto del agua en la frontera norte de Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús FRAUSTO ORTEGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ref lexiona sobre el abasto de agua potable en los municipios fronterizos del norte de Tamaulipas, a partir de la perspectiva del derecho humano al agua ( DHA . Se responde la pregunta: ¿cómo se ha desarrollado la cobertura de agua potable en esos municipios? Se revisan estadísticas del Inegi de 1990 a 2010, ejemplares del Periódico o f icial del estado y diversas fuen - tes secundarias. Se encuentra que hay coberturas altas, tanto en agua potable como en drenaje, superiores a los promedios nacional y regional. Sin embargo, aún existe población sin acceso a estos servicios en sus viviendas y que, utilizando el DHA como una herramienta de gestión, puede demandar la dotación de esos servicios.

  17. 5 CFR 950.801 - Campaign schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaign schedule. 950.801 Section 950... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS CFC Timetable § 950.801 Campaign schedule. (a) The Combined Federal Campaign will be.../International and International parts of the Charity List to all local campaigns by a date to be determined by...

  18. Impact of French advertising campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre; Ansel, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    'Today, some 75 % of France's electricity is generated by nuclear plants'. This was the theme of the advertising campaign launched for the second time in May 1992 by Electricite de France in national daily newspapers and magazines, in regional publications, on cinema and on TV. Compared to 1991 the second campaign was a new step in communication: first, was the wish to inform better the public. A Minitel program '3614 EDF' was created and connected by general public including a lot of information about nuclear energy and the way to visit a nuclear plant; secondly, was the use of TV media to target a larger population. The TV spot, 'the nuclear drill', uses humor to get more impact on the public. The campaign received an encouraging reception from the press, which admired its boldness and originality. As far as the general public is concerned, the campaign achieved its goals, as illustrated by the results of post-campaign surveys carried out to measure its effect. The segment of population targeted by campaign was mainly the so called 'pragmatics'. 'Pragmatics', who account for 25 % of the French population, are young, have a good education and are well informed. This category was selected as it shows a subtle attitude towards nuclear power, with more doubts than certainties. Moreover, this segment of the population has proven to be open to information issued by EDF and also plays a key role in influencing social trends. 63% of the segment targeted by the campaign (pragmatics) and 56% of the whole french population saw the ads

  19. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  20. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m 3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m 3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m 3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  1. Correlative studies of satellite ozone sensor measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Comparisons are made between total ozone measurements made by four satellite ozone sensors (TOMS, SBUV, TOVS and MFR). The comparisons were made during July 1979 when all sensors were operating simultaneously. The TOMS and SBUV sensors were observed to measure less total ozone than the MFR sensor, 10 and 15 Dobson units (DU) respectively. The MFR and TOMS sensors measured less ozone than the TOVS sensor, 19 an 28 DU, respectively. Latitudinal variability of the total ozone comparisons is discussed

  2. Dobson spectrophotometer ozone measurements during international ozone rocketsonde intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the total ozone content of the atmosphere, made with seven ground based instruments at a site near Wallops Island, Virginia, are discussed in terms for serving as control values with which the rocketborne sensor data products can be compared. These products are profiles of O3 concentration with altitude. By integrating over the range of altitudes from the surface to the rocket apogee and by appropriately estimating the residual ozone amount from apogee to the top of the atmosphere, a total ozone amount can be computed from the profiles that can be directly compared with the ground based instrumentation results. Dobson spectrophotometers were used for two of the ground-based instruments. Preliminary data collected during the IORI from Dobson spectrophotometers 72 and 38 are presented. The agreement between the two and the variability of total ozone overburden through the experiment period are discussed.

  3. Determination of the Optimum Ozone Product on the Plasma Ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Widdi Usada; Suryadi; Isyuniarto; Sri Sukmajaya

    2002-01-01

    An experiment of the optimum ozone product determination on the cylindrical plasma ozonizer has been done. The experiment is carried out by using alternating high voltage power supply, oscilloscope CS-1577 A, flow meter and spectronik-20 instrument for the absorbance solution samples which produced by varying the physics parameter values of the discharge alternating high voltage and velocity of oxygen gas input. The plasma ozonizer is made of cylinder stainless steel as the electrode and cylinder glass as the dielectric with 1.00 mm of the discharge gap and 7.225 mm 3 of the discharge tube volume. The experiment results shows that the optimum ozone product is 0.360 mg/s obtained at the the discharge of alternating high voltage of 25.50 kV, the frequency of 1.00 kHz and the rate of oxygen gas input of 1.00 lpm. (author)

  4. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  5. Safety campaigns. TIS Launches New Safety Information Campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Need to start a new installation and worried about safety aspects? Or are you newly responsible for safety matters in a CERN building? Perhaps you're simply interested in how to make the working environment safer for yourself and your colleagues. Whatever the case, a new information campaign launched by TIS this week can help. The most visible aspects of the new campaign will be posters distributed around the Laboratory treating a different subject each month. The Web site - http://safety.cern.ch/ - which provides all safety related information. But these are not the only aspects of the new campaign. Members of the TIS/GS group, whose contact details can be found on the safety web site, are available to give information and advice on a one-to-one basis at any time. The campaign's launch has been timed to coincide with European Safety Week, organized by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work and the subject treated in the first posters is safety inspection. This particular topic only concerns thos...

  6. Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: role of meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and NO2 were carried out in the marine environment of the Bay of Bengal (BoB during the winter months, December 2008–January 2009, as part of the second Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization. The ozone mixing ratio was found to be high in the head and the southeast BoB with a mean value of 61 ± 7 ppb and 53 ± 6 ppb, respectively. The mixing ratios of NO2 and CO were also relatively high in these regions. The spatial patterns were examined in the light of airflow patterns, air mass back trajectories and other meteorological conditions and satellite retrieved maps of tropospheric ozone, NO2, CO, and fire count in and around the region. The distribution of these gases was strongly associated with the transport from the adjoining land mass. The anthropogenic activities and forest fires/biomass burning over the Indo Gangetic Plains and other East Asian regions contribute to ozone and its precursors over the BoB. Similarity in the spatial pattern suggests that their source regions could be more or less the same. Most of the diurnal patterns showed decrease of the ozone mixing ratio during noon/afternoon followed by a nighttime increase and a morning high. Over this oceanic region, photochemical production of ozone involving NO2 was not very active. Water vapour played a major role in controlling the variation of ozone. An attempt is made to simulate ozone level over the north and south BoB using the photochemical box model (NCAR-MM. The present observed features were compared with those measured during the earlier cruises conducted in different seasons.

  7. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  8. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  9. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  10. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    GO! Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Current AQI Forecast AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - 50) ... resources for Hawaii residents and visitors more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke ...

  11. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  12. REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA NO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fransualdo de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este articulo es analizar el proceso de reestruturación produtiva del sistema capitalista, discu- tiendo sus distintas dimensiones, concretamente la económica, social, política y técnica. Se trata, por tanto, de explicar como este proceso se à desarrollando em el territorio de Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil, teniendo em cuenta las vuejas y nuevas materialidades que constituyen este proceso de producción del espacio durante las últimas décadas. Al mismo tiempo que lo ayudan a explicar. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, se hace una breve revisión teórica y conceptual acerca de la recolección de datos y la sistematización y ana- lisi de los datos procedentes de fuentes oficiales. Como son las secretarias y los organos gubernamentales -Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Norte, Agência Nacional de Petróleo, Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas- y también algunas instituciones académicas, como es el caso del Observatório das Metrópoles. De todo ello parece desprenderse que los años 1980/90 estuvieron marcados por cambios importantes em el proceso de producción del espacio potiguar, destacando em particular los que estuvieron asociados a los incentivos estatales, em consonancia con acciones e intenciones del capítal privado interessado em el fo- mento de la reeestructuración de las actividades em todo el arco de la estructura económica: las actividades agropeciarias, la pesca, y la carcinicultura, así como el turismo, la extracción minera, la construcción de infrestructuras públicas, la industria textil, el comercio y los servicios.

  13. Ozone as an ecotoxicological problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, L. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    Ozone is quantitatively the dominating oxidant in photochemical air pollution. Other compounds like hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes, formate, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) and nitrogen dioxide are present too, and several of these are known to be phytotoxic, but under Danish conditions the concentration of these gases are without significance for direct effects on vegetation. Therefore, it is the effects of ozone on plant growth that will be described below. (EG) 65 refs.

  14. Campaign Advertising and Voter Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of campaign advertising and the opportunity of legal restrictions on it. An electoral race is modeled as a signalling game with three classes of players: a continuum of voters, two candidates, and one interest group. The group has non-verifiable insider information

  15. The Effect of Political Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    between the theoretical considerations and empirical data. Finally, the paper presents how these models are operationalized in the questionnaires and experiments of the project Online Panel of Electoral Campaigning (OPEC). The paper is part of a five years research project, OPEC, which is set out...

  16. Successful Strategies for Capital Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stuart R.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty five years ago, few community or technical colleges considered launching capital campaigns. They lacked community standing, professional fundraising staff, and the related institutional foundation structure to manage charitable efforts. Gradually, as public funding eroded, bond issues became harder to pass, and colleges recognized the need…

  17. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  18. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  19. Impact of near-surface atmospheric composition on ozone formation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Elena; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Pankratova, Natalia; Elansky, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    One of the consequences of the human impact on the atmosphere is increasing in tropospheric ozone concentration, with the highest ozone level being observed in industrially developed and highly populated regions of the world. In these regions, main anthropogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are concentrated. The oxidation of these compounds, when interacting with hydroxyl and nitrogen oxides at rather high temperature and sunlight, leads to ozone formation. CO and CH4 are slowly oxidized in the atmosphere and cause an increase in global and regional background ozone. However, the oxidation of some VOCs occurs during daylight hours and is accompanied by an increase in ozone concentration near VOCs sources, particularly in urban and industrial areas. The contribution of biogenic VOCs to ozone generation is estimated to be from 40 to 70% of the total contribution of all chemical ozone precursors in the troposphere [1], with isoprene playing the main role in ozone formation [2]. The impact of aromatic hydrocarbons to ozone formation is reported to be about 40% of the total ozone generation from the oxidation of anthropogenic VOCs [3]. In this study, the results of VOCs measurements (isoprene, benzene, toluene, phenol, styrene, xylene and propilbenzene) by proton mass spectrometry in different regions of Russia along the Trans-Siberian railway from Moscow to Vladivostok from TROICA-12 campaign on a mobile laboratory in summer 2008 are analyzed. It is shown that the TROICA-12 measurements were carried out mostly in moderately polluted (2≤NOx20 ppb) conditions ( 20 and 2% of measurements, correspondingly). The lower troposphere chemical regime in the campaign is found to be mainly NOx sensitive, both in rural and urban environments, with typical morning NMHC/NOx ratios being well above 20. Hence, ozone production rates are expected to be controlled by regional NOx emissions and their complex interplay with both

  20. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  1. New dynamic NNORSY ozone profile climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifel, A. K.; Felder, M.; Declercq, C.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Climatological ozone profile data are widely used as a-priori information for total ozone using DOAS type retrievals as well as for ozone profile retrieval using optimal estimation, for data assimilation or evaluation of 3-D chemistry-transport models and a lot of other applications in atmospheric sciences and remote sensing. For most applications it is important that the climatology represents not only long term mean values but also the links between ozone and dynamic input parameters. These dynamic input parameters should be easily accessible from auxiliary datasets or easily measureable, and obviously should have a high correlation with ozone. For ozone profile these parameters are mainly total ozone column and temperature profile data. This was the outcome of a user consultation carried out in the framework of developing a new, dynamic ozone profile climatology. The new ozone profile climatology is based on the Neural Network Ozone Retrieval System (NNORSY) widely used for ozone profile retrieval from UV and IR satellite sounder data. NNORSY allows implicit modelling of any non-linear correspondence between input parameters (predictors) and ozone profile target vector. This paper presents the approach, setup and validation of a new family of ozone profile climatologies with static as well as dynamic input parameters (total ozone and temperature profile). The neural network training relies on ozone profile measurement data of well known quality provided by ground based (ozonesondes) and satellite based (SAGE II, HALOE, and POAM-III) measurements over the years 1995-2007. In total, four different combinations (modes) for input parameters (date, geolocation, total ozone column and temperature profile) are available. The geophysical validation spans from pole to pole using independent ozonesonde, lidar and satellite data (ACE-FTS, AURA-MLS) for individual and time series comparisons as well as for analysing the vertical and meridian structure of different modes of

  2. Ozone adsorption on carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Guillaume; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous particles produced by incomplete combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. On these particles are adsorbed hundreds of chemical species. Those of great concern to health are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During atmospheric transport, particulate PAHs react with gaseous oxidants. The induced chemical transformations may change toxicity and hygroscopicity of these potentially inhalable particles. The interaction between ozone and carbon particles has been extensively investigated in literature. However ozone adsorption and surface reaction mechanisms are still ambiguous. Some studies described a fast catalytic decomposition of ozone initiated by an atomic oxygen chemisorption followed by a molecular oxygen release [1-3]. Others suggested a reversible ozone adsorption according to Langmuir-type behaviour [4,5]. The aim of this present study is a better understanding of ozone interaction with carbon surfaces. An aerosol of carbon nanoparticles was generated by flowing synthetic air in a glass tube containing pure carbon (primary particles studied. Accordingly to literature, it has been observed that the number of gas-phase ozone molecules lost per unit particle surface area tends towards a plateau for high ozone concentration suggesting a reversible ozone adsorption according to a Langmuir mechanism. We calculated the initial reaction probability between O3 and carbon particles.An initial uptake coefficient of 1.10-4 was obtained. Similar experiments were realized by selecting the particles size with a differential mobility analyser. We observed a strong size-dependent increase in reactivity with the decrease of particles size. This result is relevant for the health issues. Indeed the smallest particles are most likely to penetrate deep into the lungs. Competitive reactions between ozone and other species like H2O or atomic oxygen were also considered. Oxygen atoms were generated by photolysis of O3

  3. Assessment of Solid Waste Management Strategies in Camarines Norte, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina C. Azuelo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 or RA 9003 mandates the local government units to take initiatives in managing their daunting problems on ecological solid waste disposal. Consequently, compliance of Camarines Norte, Philippines on this mandate needs assessment to determine the existing solid waste management (SWM strategies, the effectiveness and the possibility of adoption in each municipality. This study utilized the descriptive method using questionnaire as the main tool supplemented by interview. Results showed that the existing SWM strategies with the highest percentages of existence in the twelve (12 municipalities were provision of number of trucks in transporting solid wastes and knowledge on waste segregation conducted at every household/establishment. Varying levels were observed. However, high level of effectiveness is still required for significant impact, seeing that from the six areas assessed only four municipalities were identified to have more and highly effective SWM strategies. Generally, only availability of technology for composting was considered more effective and can be adopted in all municipalities. Better solid waste management may be fully attained through the involvement, political will and commitment of the implementers in the implementation of politically passed resolutions and undertaking of their initiatives that will stimulate active participation of the community. All these measures may bring change in health and environment in the province.

  4. Conflictos sindicales en la maquila de la frontera norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirila Quintero Ramírez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza tres movimientos laborales en las maquiladoras de la frontera norte, acontecidos entre 1997 y 1998, señalando que más que eventos coyunturales, tales manifestaciones son parte de la reestructuración sindical iniciada en estas empresas durante los años setenta y ochenta. El comienzo de este proceso estuvo caracterizado por una definición de la función y los objetivos que estas organizaciones deberían desempeñar en estas industrias; así se conformaron dos comportamientos: el sindicalismo tradicional, vinculado a los trabajadores, y el sindicalismo subordinado, enlazado a los inversionistas. La segunda fase, iniciada a principios de los noventa, se ha caracterizado por un reacomodo en las estructuras internas de las organizaciones sindicales locales. En este reacomodo, la fragilidad de algunas organizaciones conformadas ex-profeso para las maquiladoras, como lo muestran los conflictos analizados, ha sido evidente.

  5. específico en la sierra norte de Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Garzón García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera parte del artículo ofrece una visión panorámica de la política de fomento del uso público en la Red de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Andalucía desde su origen hasta nuestros días, con especial incidencia en cuestiones tales como el papel preponderante asumido por la figura de Parque Natural, el desequilibrio territorial de las intervenciones planteadas, o la necesaria ordenación y planificación de la actividad. Ello conforma el contexto idóneo para abordar, en segunda instancia, un análisis particularizado de la gestión del uso público en el Parque Natural Sierra Norte de Sevilla. La elección de este ámbito territorial se fundamenta tanto en sus especiales condicionantes para el fomento de esta línea de acción (privilegiada situación, existencia de una demanda tradicional asociada a determinados enclaves, propiedad de la tierra… como en la singular gestión desarrollada desde la declaración del parque, destacando las nuevas perspectivas e incertidumbres que parecen despertarse a partir del impulso y aprobación de una planificación específica

  6. DRENAGEM SUPERFICIAL DE SOLOS ARGILOSOS DO NORTE DO PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Teixeira de Faria

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Foi avaliado o desempenho de práticas de drenagem superficial e cobertura morta em uma área de várzea do norte do Paraná. Antes e após o cultivo do arroz, foram comparadas as taxas de drenagem em tratamentos com e sem drenos torpedo e determinadas a vazão e a obstrução dos condutos. Sob o cultivo do feijoeiro, foram avaliados os efeitos dos drenos torpedo e de "camas" na drenagem e de cobertura morta (palha de arroz na retenção de água do solo. Os resultados indicaram que os drenos torpedo foram mais eficientes se construídos com solo menos úmido, porém sua longevidade foi menor que um ano. Sob o feijoeiro, os drenos torpedo e cobertura morta mantiveram o lençol freático mais profundo e o solo com menor tensão de umidade, mas esses efeitos ocorreram abaixo da zona radicular (15 cm, resultando em baixa produtividade.

  7. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects.......News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...

  8. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  9. Transport and build-up of tropospheric trace gases during the MINOS campaign: comparision of GOME, in situ aircraft measurements and MATCH-MPIC-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The MINOS (Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study campaign was an international, multi-platform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air-pollution and aerosols from South East Asia and Europe towards the Mediterranean basin during August 2001. High pollution events were observed during this campaign. For the Mediterranean region enhanced tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO, which are precursors of tropospheric ozone (O3, were detected by the satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument and compared with airborne in situ measurements as well as with the output from the global 3D photochemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC (Model of Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry - Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. The increase of pollution in that region leads to severe air quality degradation with regional and global implications.

  10. Issues in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven Andrew

    Following the announcement of the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1985 there have arisen a multitude of questions pertaining to the nature and consequences of polar ozone depletion. This thesis addresses several of these specific questions, using both computer models of chemical kinetics and the Earth's radiation field as well as laboratory kinetic experiments. A coupled chemical kinetic-radiative numerical model was developed to assist in the analysis of in situ field measurements of several radical and neutral species in the polar and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. Modeling was used in the analysis of enhanced polar ClO, mid-latitude diurnal variation of ClO, and simultaneous measurements of OH, HO_2, H_2 O and O_3. Most importantly, such modeling was instrumental in establishing the link between the observed ClO and BrO concentrations in the Antarctic polar vortex and the observed rate of ozone depletion. The principal medical concern of stratospheric ozone depletion is that ozone loss will lead to the enhancement of ground-level UV-B radiation. Global ozone climatology (40^circS to 50^ circN latitude) was incorporated into a radiation field model to calculate the biologically accumulated dosage (BAD) of UV-B radiation, integrated over days, months, and years. The slope of the annual BAD as a function of latitude was found to correspond to epidemiological data for non-melanoma skin cancers for 30^circ -50^circN. Various ozone loss scenarios were investigated. It was found that a small ozone loss in the tropics can provide as much additional biologically effective UV-B as a much larger ozone loss at higher latitudes. Also, for ozone depletions of > 5%, the BAD of UV-B increases exponentially with decreasing ozone levels. An important key player in determining whether polar ozone depletion can propagate into the populated mid-latitudes is chlorine nitrate, ClONO_2 . As yet this molecule is only indirectly accounted for in computer models and field

  11. Importance of Ship Emissions to Local Summertime Ozone Production in the Mediterranean Marine Boundary Layer: A Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N. Gencarelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone concentrations in the Mediterranean area regularly exceed the maximum levels set by the EU Air Quality Directive, 2008/50/CE, a maximum 8-h mean of 120 μg·m-3, in the summer, with consequences for both human health and agriculture. There are a number of reasons for this: the particular geographical and meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean play a part, as do anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions from around the Mediterranean and continental Europe. Ozone concentrations measured on-board the Italian Research Council’s R. V. Urania during summer oceanographic campaigns between 2000 and 2010 regularly exceeded 60 ppb, even at night. The WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model coupled with Chemistrymodel has been used to simulate tropospheric chemistry during the periods of the measurement campaigns, and then, the same simulations were repeated, excluding the contribution of maritime traffic in the Mediterranean to the anthropogenic emissions inventory. The differences in the model output suggest that, in large parts of the coastal zone of the Mediterranean, ship emissions Atmosphere 2014, 5 938 contribute to 3 and 12 ppb to ground level daily average ozone concentrations. Near busy shipping lanes, up to 40 ppb differences in the hourly average ozone concentrations were found. It seems that ship emissions could be a significant factor in the exceedance of the EU directive on air quality in large areas of the Mediterranean Basin.

  12. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  13. The MUMBA campaign: measurements of urban, marine and biogenic air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, Clare; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Kubistin, Dagmar; Humphries, Ruhi; Wilson, Stephen R.; Dominick, Doreena; Galbally, Ian; Buchholz, Rebecca; Bhujel, Mahendra; Chambers, Scott; Cheng, Min; Cope, Martin; Davy, Perry; Emmerson, Kathryn; Griffith, David W. T.; Griffiths, Alan; Keywood, Melita; Lawson, Sarah; Molloy, Suzie; Rea, Géraldine; Selleck, Paul; Shi, Xue; Simmons, Jack; Velazco, Voltaire

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia) from 21 December 2012 to 15 February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest, so the urban airshed is heavily influenced by biogenic emissions. Instruments were deployed during MUMBA to measure the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere with the aim of providing a detailed characterisation of the complex environment of the ocean-forest-urban interface that could be used to test the skill of atmospheric models. The gases measured included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and many of the most abundant volatile organic compounds. The aerosol characterisation included total particle counts above 3 nm, total cloud condensation nuclei counts, mass concentration, number concentration size distribution, aerosol chemical analyses and elemental analysis.The campaign captured varied meteorological conditions, including two extreme heat events, providing a potentially valuable test for models of future air quality in a warmer climate. There was also an episode when the site sampled clean marine air for many hours, providing a useful additional measure of the background concentrations of these trace gases within this poorly sampled region of the globe. In this paper we describe the campaign, the meteorology and the resulting observations of atmospheric composition in general terms in order to equip the reader with a sufficient understanding of the Wollongong regional influences to use the MUMBA datasets as a case study for testing a chemical transport model. The data are available from PANGAEA (pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982" target="_blank">http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982).

  14. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed

  15. Measurements of Peroxy Radicals and Related Species At A Rural Site During The Escompte Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinceloup, S.; Laverdet, G.; Le Bras, G.

    The chemical amplifier technique has been used to measure peroxy radicals (RO2) concentrations at a rural site (Dupail), located 35 km North East of Marseille, during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June-July 2001. Daily profiles of RO2 and also ozone and NOx concentrations have been recorded everyday including those of the four in- tensive observation periods (IOP). The NOx levels were most of the time lower than a few ppbv, ie characteristic of a rural site. Typical diurnal profiles of RO2 were ob- served with maxima in the range 40-180 pptv. The RO2 signals were corrected from the influence of relative humidity based on calibration of the chemical amplifier in separate laboratory experiments under controlled water vapor concentrations. Prelim- inary interpretation of the data shows very different ratios of photochemically pro- duced/transported ozone related to meteorological conditions. Further interpretation of the data is underway integrating additional measurements of a large variety of hy- drocarbons as well as some hydroperoxides and aldehydes made at the site by other groups. The results of the comparison of calculated steady state concentrations of RO2 and ozone production rate with the measured values will be presented and discussed in relation with our understanding of the tropospheric ozone production.

  16. OZONE GENERATORS IN INDOOR AIR SETTINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives information on home/office ozone generators. It discusses their current uses as amelioratives for environmental tobacco smoke, biocontaminants, volatile organic compounds, and odors and details the advantages and disadvantages of each. Ozone appears to work well ...

  17. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  18. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

  19. An overview of two years of ozone radio soundings over Cotonou as part of AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thouret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA program, a total of 98 ozone vertical profiles over Cotonou, Benin, have been measured during a 26 month period (December 2004–January 2007. These regular measurements broadly document the seasonal and interannual variability of ozone in both the troposphere and the lower stratosphere over West Africa for the first time. This data set is complementary to the MOZAIC observations made from Lagos between 0 and 12 km during the period 1998–2004. Both data sets highlight the unique way in which West Africa is impacted by two biomass burning seasons: in December–February (dry season due to burning in the Sahelian band and in June-August (wet season due to burning in southern Africa. High interannual variabilities between Cotonou and Lagos data sets and within each data set are observed and are found to be a major characteristic of this region. In particular, the dry and wet seasons are discussed in order to set the data of the Special Observing Periods (SOPs into a climatological context. Compared to other dry and wet seasons, the 2006 dry and wet season campaigns took place in rather high ozone environments. During the sampled wet seasons, southern intrusions of biomass burning were particularly frequent with concentrations up to 120 ppbv of ozone in the lower troposphere. An insight into the ozone distribution in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere (up to 26 km is given. The first tropospheric columns of ozone based on in-situ data over West Africa are assessed. They compare well with satellite products on seasonal and interannual time-scales, provided that the layer below 850 hPa where the remote instrument is less sensitive to ozone, is removed.

  20. Ozone production, nitrogen oxides, and radical budgets in Mexico City: observations from Pico de Tres Padres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Neuman, J. A.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Knighton, W. B.

    2008-08-01

    Observations at a mountain-top site within the Mexico City basin are used to characterize ozone production and destruction, the nitrogen oxide budget, and the radical budget during the MILAGRO campaign. An ozone production rate of ~50 ppbv/h was observed in a stagnant air mass during the afternoon of 12 March 2006, which is among the highest observed anywhere in the world. Approximately half of the ozone destruction was due to the oxidation of NO2. During this time period ozone production was VOC-limited, deduced by a comparison of the radical production rates and the formation rate of NOx oxidation products (NOz) For [NOx]/[NOy] values between 0.2 and 0.8, gas-phase HNO3 typically accounted for less than 10% of NOz and accumulation-mode particulate nitrate (NO3-(PM)) accounted for 20% 70% of NOz, consistent with high ambient NH3 concentrations. The fraction of NOz accounted for by the sum of HNO3(g) and NO3-(PM) decreased with photochemical processing. This decrease is apparent even when dry deposition of HNO3 is accounted for, and indicates that HNO3 formation decreased relative to other NOx "sink" processes during the first 12 h of photochemistry and/or a significant fraction of the nitrate was associated with the coarse aerosol size mode. The ozone production efficiency of NOx on 11 and 12 March 2006 was approximately 7 on a time scale of one day. A new metric for ozone production efficiency that relates the dilution-adjusted ozone mixing ratio to cumulative OH exposure is proposed.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  2. Recent results from milagro field campaign 2006 in the mexico megacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, I.T.; Madronich, S.; Gaffney, J.S.; Singh, H.B.; Gosa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The air quality in large urbanized regions represents one of the major threats to the public and the ecosystems health. A number of harmful compounds emitted to the atmosphere from the various human activities increase the risk of having undesired illnesses, and possible death. Secondary air pollutants in both, air and aerosol phase, contribute to worsening this situation. on the other hand, there is an increasing recognition that air quality and climate change are strongly connected. Ozone plays an important role in this connection, apart from being by itself a greenhouse gas. This interaction is expected to evolve in response to changes in man-made emissions of gas precursors and to changes in physical climate. In this paper, a general scheme of the tropospheric ozone formation will be presented, as well as the current results from the MILAGRO field campaign took place in the Mexico Mega city in 2006. (author)

  3. RESCUE OF Cucurbita spp. GERMPLASM IN RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRACE KELLY LEITE DE LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de resgatar germoplasma de Cucurbita spp. da agricultura familiar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, quantificar a variabilidade fenotípica e identificar as principais espécies cultivadas, foram organizadas 17 expedições para coleta de acessos, nos municípios de Baraúna, Rio do Fogo e Touros (principais fornecedores de frutos para o comercio estadual e de mais oito municípios de diferentes microrregiões do Estado (Apodi, Caraúbas, Ceará Mirim, Cerro Corá, Currais Novos, João Câmara, Lagoa Nova e Macaíba. Cada acesso coletado foi composto por um fruto ou aproximadamente vinte sementes fornecidas pelo próprio agricultor. Todos os acessos foram identificados quanto à espécie botânica e realizados os procedimentos de acondicionamento, identificação e armazenamento das sementes em câmara fria para preservação do material. Uma amostra dos acessos coletados como frutos e uma pequena parte dos acessos obtidos como sementes da espécie C. moschata foram multiplicados usando-se autofecundação das plantas. Plantas e frutos foram caracterizados preliminarmente com auxílio de descritores morfológicos. Resgatou-se acessos em todos os municípios visitados, sendo 112 de C. moschata e 50 de C. maxima. Verificou-se predominância do cultivo da espécie C. moschata bem como constatou-se grande variabilidade para vários descritores de planta e fruto nos acessos que foram caracterizados.

  4. Evaluation of the coal properties of Norte de Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Project Characterization of Coal of Norte de Santander, concluded in the second semester of 1986 with the presentation of the 4 final reports of the participant entities: Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Bogota, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Instituto de Investigaciones Technologicas (I.I.T.), and Instituto de Investigaciones geologico Mineras - INGEOMINAS. In each Institution some common aspects were worked - analytic part and other specific topics, that which believes the necessity to develop a study that unified the parts worked jointly with the elaboration of a new chart of data, and it allowed this way to assemble the analytic base with the studies of some technological properties and of benefit. Initially it is made a summary of the most excellent aspects in the Geology, mining and Commercialization of the Coal of the department and later on with reference to all the available analytic information, new data were obtained with base in averages among Institutions, checkups of differing results, correlate and discard of rusty samples. For the chemical and physicochemical analyses, the plastic properties, the petrographic results, the chemical analysis of the ashes, they were made statistical and correlative new treatment discriminating against the different sectors and formations inside the area (the Formation Catatumbo was excepted). For the analyses more used as range indicators and others of quality were carried out three-dimensional graphic that summarize in a visual form the variation of the parameter through the study area and the sectors inside this being obtained the iso-values curves equally. The study of some properties of the coal related with technological processes like coking, liquefaction and of benefit they supplement the analytic characterization being able to obtain several practical conclusions as for the use of these coal and remarking some concrete problems to solve with the objective of improving the quality of the

  5. The holes in the ozone scare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maduro, R.; Schauerhamer, R.

    1992-05-01

    For the authors, the ozone hole is more politic than scientific, and is caused by anthropogenic CFC, the ozone concentration reduction measured in the antarctic stratosphere is a natural phenomena: ozone destruction by chlorides and bromides coming from volcanos and oceans. The ozone hole was discovered in 1956 and not in 1985. For the greenhouse effect, the CO[sub 2] part is very small in comparison with the atmospheric water vapour part. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs.

  6. A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antarctic Ozone Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 0 A Review of Atmospheric ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole A thesis submitted in partial satisfaction of the...4. TI TLE (Pit 5,1tlfie) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PFRIOO COVERED A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current THESIS/DA/;J.At1AAU00 Thinking on the Antartic ...THESIS A Review of Atmospheric Ozone and Current Thinking on the Antartic Ozone Hole by Randolph Antoine Fix Master of Science in Atmospheric Science

  7. The ozone pollution and the climatology in a Mediterranean space: the Alpes-Maritimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, N.

    2008-12-01

    The tropospheric ozone, secondary pollutant affecting the health of the human beings, concerns particularly the department of the Alpes-Maritimes during the photochemical season. Mountainous littoral space, this territory is widely dominated during summer notably by anticyclonic conditions allowing the thermal breezes to express themselves. This regime of wind is in the center of the problem of the ozone pollution because it pulls frequently an accumulation of primary and secondary pollutants in the course of days within the same air mass. Although being a weakly industrialized department, the Alpes-Maritimes are victims of a strong period of sunshine which allows primary pollutants emitted mainly by the road traffic to produce some ozone. Through the data of pollution stemming from the network of surveillance of the air quality AtmoPACA as well as from very numerous measures of ground, the objective is to understand better the relations between the spatial and temporal variability of the ozone and that of the weather conditions to various scales. Having detailed the history of the available ozone and nitrogen dioxide measures in the department, the first approach in macro-scale is led between the NCEP reanalysis and the ozone pollution levels in nine measures stations of the Alpes-Maritimes. This first level of analysis allows defining the general meteorological configurations characterizing an episode of pollution by the ozone. The presence of an anticyclonic ridge on the Western Europe associated with weak speeds of wind, weak rates of relative humidity and a weak relative vorticity, provoke a degradation of the air quality in the department. A second analysis level is then approached: it is a question of clarifying in meso-scale and in micro-scale the weather conditions convenient to strong ozone concentrations. For it, itinerant ozone measures campaigns are made in the whole of the department; an important data base is established on Nice and in its

  8. Trust us Trust Thorp Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, John

    1995-01-01

    The history of the nuclear industry in the UK has been dominated by Sellafield reprocessing site in west Cumbria. The site, formerly owned by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority was transferred to the newly-formed British Nuclear Fuels plc in 1971. Although trade union representation existed at Sellafield before the emergence of BNFL, it is only after this date that collective trade union activity began to emerge. In 1977, after a long running dispute with management about the issue of radiation dose uptake, the workforce went on strike, forcing the management to question their previous 'need to know' attitude and to improve industrial relations. In 1984, it was recognised that the lobbying influence of trade unions within politics, and especially the Labour party could be used to greater effect to challenge potentially -damaging influence of anti-nuclear campaigners. The National Campaign for the Nuclear Industry (NCNI) was born, combining nine industrial and non-industrial trade unions within the nuclear industry. Its task during the last ten years has been to put forward the interests of its members collectively and to secure the, role of nuclear power. within a balanced energy policy in the political arena. In dome so, it has gained a credible voice within both the trade union movement and the Labour party. The new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) received strong support from the NCNI during its construction and commissioning phases. When it became clear that the anti-nuclear lobby had gained the upper hand and were beginning to seriously delay the necessary legal instruments required to start the plant, the power of collective action was once again recognised, and the TRUST US campaign was born. The campaign was run and organised by a clerks committee and fronted by the Trade Unions at Sellafield., and turned out to be one of the most successful] trade union campaigns in recent history. The first task involved getting, the entire workforce on

  9. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    The question of air quality in polluted regions represents one of the issues of geochemistry with direct implications for human well-being. Human health and well-being, along with the well-being of plants, animals, and agricultural crops, are dependent on the quality of air we breathe. Since the start of the industrial era, air quality has become a matter of major importance, especially in large cities or urbanized regions with heavy automobile traffic and industrial activity.Concern over air quality existed as far back as the 1600s. Originally, polluted air in cities resulted from the burning of wood or coal, largely as a source of heat. The industrial revolution in England saw a great increase in the use of coal in rapidly growing cities, both for industrial use and domestic heating. London suffered from devastating pollution events during the late 1800s and early 1900s, with thousands of excess deaths attributed to air pollution (Brimblecombe, 1987). With increasing use of coal, other instances also occurred in continental Europe and the USA. These events were caused by directly emitted pollutants (primary pollutants), including sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulates. They were especially acute in cities with northerly locations during fall and winter when sunlight is at a minimum. These original pollution events gave rise to the term "smog" (a combination of smoke and fog). Events of this type have become much less severe since the 1950s in Western Europe and the US, as natural gas replaced coal as the primary source of home heating, industrial smokestacks were designed to emit at higher altitudes (where dispersion is more rapid), and industries were required to install pollution control equipment.Beginning in the 1950s, a new type of pollution, photochemical smog, became a major concern. Photochemical smog consists of ozone (O3) and other closely related species ("secondary pollutants") that are produced photochemically from directly

  10. Ozone, Climate, and Global Atmospheric Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of global atmospheric problems relating to ozone depletion and global warming. Provides background information on the composition of the earth's atmosphere and origin of atmospheric ozone. Describes causes, effects, and evidence of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. A vignette provides a summary of a 1991 assessment of…

  11. Future heat waves and surface ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Tilmes, Simone; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Bates, Susan; Pendergrass, Angeline; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2018-06-01

    A global Earth system model is used to study the relationship between heat waves and surface ozone levels over land areas around the world that could experience either large decreases or little change in future ozone precursor emissions. The model is driven by emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors from a medium-high emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 6.0–RCP6.0) and is compared to an experiment with anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions fixed at 2005 levels. With ongoing increases in greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in average temperature in both experiments, heat waves are projected to become more intense over most global land areas (greater maximum temperatures during heat waves). However, surface ozone concentrations on future heat wave days decrease proportionately more than on non-heat wave days in areas where ozone precursors are prescribed to decrease in RCP6.0 (e.g. most of North America and Europe), while surface ozone concentrations in heat waves increase in areas where ozone precursors either increase or have little change (e.g. central Asia, the Mideast, northern Africa). In the stabilized ozone precursor experiment, surface ozone concentrations increase on future heat wave days compared to non-heat wave days in most regions except in areas where there is ozone suppression that contributes to decreases in ozone in future heat waves. This is likely associated with effects of changes in isoprene emissions at high temperatures (e.g. west coast and southeastern North America, eastern Europe).

  12. Do social marketing campaigns in health work? A critical analysis of four UK campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Coope, David

    2007-01-01

    This management project looks at four recent social marketing campaigns in the field of health in the UK to determine whether such campaigns work. The project critically analyses the marketing campaigns used, and aims to determine the range of factors that create a successful social marketing campaign in health. There is analysis of four case studies undertaken after secondary research into social marketing campaigns run by a range of different organisations. The case studies are the ...

  13. Why do models overestimate surface ozone in the Southeast United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Travis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60 %, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper-tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 6 ± 14 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes

  14. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; Thompson, Anne M.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Crounse, John D.; St Clair, Jason M.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Laughner, Joshua L.; Dibb, Jack E.; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Pollack, Illana B.; Peischl, Jeff; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Zhou, Xianliang

    2018-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°×0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8±13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease

  15. Why do Models Overestimate Surface Ozone in the Southeastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine R.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Fisher, Jenny A.; Kim, Patrick S.; Marais, Eloise A.; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Karen; Miller, Christopher C.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx = NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25 deg. x 0.3125 deg. horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30-60%, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft, and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a 15 regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 8 +/- 13 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone

  16. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  17. Evaluation of the coal properties of Norte de Santander; Evaluacion de las propiedades de los carbones de Norte de Santander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    The Project Characterization of Coal of Norte de Santander, concluded in the second semester of 1986 with the presentation of the 4 final reports of the participant entities: Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Bogota, Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, Instituto de Investigaciones Technologicas (I.I.T.), and Instituto de Investigaciones geologico Mineras - INGEOMINAS. In each Institution some common aspects were worked - analytic part and other specific topics, that which believes the necessity to develop a study that unified the parts worked jointly with the elaboration of a new chart of data, and it allowed this way to assemble the analytic base with the studies of some technological properties and of benefit. Initially it is made a summary of the most excellent aspects in the Geology, mining and Commercialization of the Coal of the department and later on with reference to all the available analytic information, new data were obtained with base in averages among Institutions, checkups of differing results, correlate and discard of rusty samples. For the chemical and physicochemical analyses, the plastic properties, the petrographic results, the chemical analysis of the ashes, they were made statistical and correlative new treatment discriminating against the different sectors and formations inside the area (the Formation Catatumbo was excepted). For the analyses more used as range indicators and others of quality were carried out three-dimensional graphic that summarize in a visual form the variation of the parameter through the study area and the sectors inside this being obtained the iso-values curves equally. The study of some properties of the coal related with technological processes like coking, liquefaction and of benefit they supplement the analytic characterization being able to obtain several practical conclusions as for the use of these coal and remarking some concrete problems to solve with the objective of improving the quality of the

  18. OZONE CONCENTRATION ATTRIBUTABLE PREMATURE DEATH IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere (troposphere, strong photochemical oxidant, is not directly emitted to the atmosphere but formed through a series of complex reactions. Ozone concentrations depends on ozone precursors air contamination (mainly nitrogen dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds and meteorological conditions (temperature and solar radiation. The main sectors emitted ozone precursors are road transport, power and heat generation plants, household (heating, industry, and petrol storage and distribution. Ozone and some of its precursors are also transported long distances in the atmosphere and are therefore considered a transboundary problem. As a result, the ozone concentrations are often low in busy urban areas and higher in suburban and rural areas. Nowadays, instead of particulate matter, ozone is one of the most widespread global air pollution problems. In and around urban areas, relatively large gradients of ozone can be observed. Because of its high reactivity in elevated concentrations ozone causes serious health problems and damage to ecosystems, agricultural crops and materials. Main ill-health endpoints as a results of ozone concentrations can be characterised as an effect of pulmonary and cardiovascular system, time morbidity and mortality series, development of atherosclerosis and asthma and finally reduction in life expectancy. The associations with increased daily mortality due to ozone concentrations are confirmed by many researches and epidemiological studies. Estimation of the level selected ill-health endpoints (mortality in total and due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes as a result of the short-term ozone exposure in Poland was the main aim of the project. Final results have been done based on estimation method elaborated by WHO, ozone measurements from National Air Quality Monitoring System and statistical information such as mortality rate and populations. All analysis have been done in

  19. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  20. Ozone Control Strategies | Ground-level Ozone | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Air Quality Planning Unit's primary goal is to protect your right to breathe clean air. Guided by the Clean Air Act, we work collaboratively with states, communities, and businesses to develop and implement strategies to reduce air pollution from a variety of sources that contribute to the ground-level ozone or smog problem.

  1. Demanda y distribución de agua en el norte de Sinaloa.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sombra, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    La disminución de los niveles de almacenamiento de agua en las presas de la región norte de Sinaloa y el incremento en su demanda para uso agrícola y residencial hacen urgente establecer políticas que promuevan la distribución y uso eficiente. Para conocer los factores que explican el comportamiento de la demanda de agua en los sectores residencial, agrícola, pecuario, industrial y comercial del norte de Sinaloa, México, se estimó un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas, compuesto de diez ecuaci...

  2. ANÁLISIS DE LA LOGÍSTICA DEL CARBÓN EN NORTE DE SANTANDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Guevara

    2013-01-01

    Dentro del análisis logístico de la cadena del carbón en Norte de Santander, se resaltar un informe inicial de la industria del carbón a nivel mundial, donde se describen las actividades que componen la cadena logística en Colombia, información que permitirá analizar cuál es el comportamiento del departamento norte de Santander con respecto a los principales departamentos de este sector minero a nivel nacional. El estudio muestra como las ventajas comparativas en cuanto a las reservas, aún no...

  3. Impacts of ozone on trees and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felzer, B.S.; Cronina, T.; Melillo, J.M.; Reilly, J.M.; Xiaodong, Wang

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, we explore how surface-level ozone affects trees and crops with special emphasis on consequences for productivity and carbon sequestration. Vegetation exposure to ozone reduces photosynthesis, growth, and other plant functions. Ozone formation in the atmosphere is a product of NO x , which are also a source of nitrogen deposition. Reduced carbon sequestration of temperate forests resulting from ozone is likely offset by increased carbon sequestration from nitrogen fertilization. However, since fertilized crop-lands are generally not nitrogen-limited, capping ozone-polluting substances in the USA, Europe, and China can reduce future crop yield loss substantially. (authors)

  4. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  5. The Sprite 2005 Observation Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Crosby, Norma; Armone, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    The four year "Coupling of Atmospheric Layers (CAL)" EU FP5 Research Training Network project studied unanswered questions related to transient luminous events (sprites, jets and elves) in the upper atmosphere. Consisting of ten scientific work-packages CAL also included intensive training and ou......, to develop their organisational skills, and to enhance their ability to communicate their activities. The campaign was a unique opportunity to train and strengthen skills that will be an asset to their future careers and, overall, was most successful....

  6. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  7. "OZONE SOURCE APPORTIONMENT IN CMAQ' | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone source attribution has been used to support various policy purposes including interstate transport (Cross State Air Pollution Rule) by U.S. EPA and ozone nonattainment area designations by State agencies. Common scientific applications include tracking intercontinental transport of ozone and ozone precursors and delineating anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic contribution to ozone in North America. As in the public release due in September 2013, CMAQ’s Integrated Source Apportionment Method (ISAM) attributes PM EC/OC, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, ozone and its precursors NOx and VOC, to sectors/regions of users’ interest. Although the peroxide-to-nitric acid productions ratio has been the most common indicator to distinguish NOx-limited ozone production from VOC-limited one, other indicators are implemented in addition to allowing for an ensemble decision based on a total of 9 available indicator ratios. Moreover, an alternative approach of ozone attribution based on the idea of chemical sensitivity in a linearized system that has formed the basis of chemical treatment in forward DDM/backward adjoint tools has been implemented in CMAQ. This method does not require categorization into either ozone regime. In this study, ISAM will simulate the 2010 North America ozone using all of the above gas-phase attribution methods. The results are to be compared with zero-out difference out of those sectors in the host model runs. In addition, ozone contribution wil

  8. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  9. HISTOPATOLOGIA DA ADENOMIOSE EM VACAS ABATIDAS NO NORTE FLUMINENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulógio Carlos Queiróz de Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento relata a ocorrência de adenomiose em vacas destinadas ao abate, na região do Norte Fluminense do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O crescimento excessivo de glândulas e estroma endometriais por entre as fibras do miométrio é denominado adenomiose. A literatura cita que sua ocorrência não é muito comum nas fêmeas domésticas, contudo é observada em cadelas com hiperplasia endometrial cística. Muitos estudos sugerem que a adenomiose seja causada primariamente pela desorganização da membrana basal endométrio-miometral por estrógenos, progestágenos e prolactina, desencadeando uma invasão do miométrio pelos componentes endometriais. Atribui-se a esta enfermidade interferência na implantação do embrião, em função de alterações em nível vascular e estresse oxidativo, com conseqüente fibrose, subfertilidade e infertilidade. Amostras de 27 úteros de vacas, vazias, azebuadas, foram colhidas e protocoladas no Setor de Morfologia e Anatomia Patológica/LSA/CCTA/UENF, submetidas a histotécnica por inclusão em parafina e coloração pela hematoxilina e eosina e Van-Gieson. Idealizou-se um escore foi idealizado para lesões adenomióticas. Das 27 amostras, 18 (66,67% apresentaram adenomiose, contra 9 (33,33% sem o achado. Dez (55,56% apresentaram adenomiose superficial discreta; 2(11,12% profunda discreta; 1 (5,56% a do tipo moderada superficial; 3 (16,67% profunda moderada; e finalmente 2 (11,12% a do tipo acentuada profunda. É admissível que a exigüidade de descrições desta distrofia nas demais fêmeas domésticas não signifique uma negligência, e sim uma não-percepção da lesão, por se tratar de víscera de pouco valor comercial, de não ser demonstrada em biópsias endometriais e por estarem, em muitos casos, associadas a processos mais expressivos clinicamente, como hiperplasia endometrial cística, ovários policísticos, tumor de células da granulosa etc. Faz-se imprescindível o registro desta

  10. Ozone concentrations at a selected high-elevation forest site downwind Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    Torres-Jardón, R.*, Rosas-Pérez, I., Granada-Macías, L. M., Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, México D. F. México * rtorres@unam.mx For many years, the vegetation of forest species such as Abies religiosa in natural parks located in the southwest mountains of Mexico City has attracted much attention since these parks have been experiencing a severe decline of unclear etiology. The high ozone levels in the area and the observed naked eye macroscopic, histological and cytological injuries on these species, strongly suggest an important contribution of tropospheric ozone to this deterioration process. Apart of historical short monitoring campaigns for measuring ozone levels in these mountains, it is known just a little is known about the present exposure levels at which the local vegetation is exposed. A continuous ozone analyzer has been in operation since 2011 at a high-elevation forest site (Parque Nacional Miguel Hidalgo, PNMH; 3110 m above mean sea level) located downwind of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in order to characterize the local ozone diel amplitude and its seasonal trend, as well as the influence of MCMA on the local O3 concentrations. Hourly average ozone data in PNMH shows that in general, the diel of ozone concentrations in the forest site has a statistical significant correlation with the pattern of ozone levels observed in several monitoring sites (smog receptor sites) within the MCMA, although the high elevation O3 levels are relatively lower than those in the urban area (around 2200 m above mean sea level). It is possible that a part of the oxidants in the air masses are removed by sink deposition processes during the air mass transport across the hills. The diel amplitude of ozone concentrations is small in the cold season, increasing as the seasons advance to June. As in the city, the highest ozone concentrations occur in April or May and the lowest levels during the rainy season, which extends from

  11. Ozonation control and effects of ozone on water quality in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Chetri, Ravi K.

    2018-01-01

    To address the undesired effect of chemotherapeutants in aquaculture, ozone has been suggested as an alternative to improve water quality. To ensure safe and robust treatment, it is vital to define the ozone demand and ozone kinetics of the specific water matrix to avoid ozone overdose. Different...... ozone dosages were applied to water in freshwater recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Experiments were performed to investigate ozone kinetics and demand, and to evaluate the effects on the water quality, particularly in relation to fluorescent organic matter. This study aimed at predicting...... a suitable ozone dosage for water treatment based on daily ozone demand via laboratory studies. These ozone dosages will be eventually applied and maintained at these levels in pilot-scale RAS to verify predictions. Selected water quality parameters were measured, including natural fluorescence and organic...

  12. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  13. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  14. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  15. Satellite Ozone Analysis Center (SOAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Knox, J.B.; Korver, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    Many questions have been raised during the 1970's regarding the possible modification of the ozonosphere by aircraft operating in the stratosphere. Concern also has been expressed over the manner in which the ozonosphere may change in the future as a result of fluorocarbon releases. There are also other ways by which the ozonosphere may be significantly altered, both anthropogenic and natural. Very basic questions have been raised, bearing upon the amount of ozone which would be destroyed by the NO/sub x/ produced in atmospheric nuclear explosions. Studies of the available satellite data have suggested that the worldwide increase of ozone during the past decade, which was observed over land stations, may have been biased by a poor distribution of stations and/or a shift of the planetary wave. Additional satellite data will be required to resolve this issue. Proposals are presented for monitoring of the Earth's ozone variability from the present time into the 1980's to establish a baseline upon which regional, as well as global, ozone trends can be measured

  16. Investigations into regional ozone concentrations in the Bakken-Williston Basin using ARTEMIS, a mobile measurment platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoue, D.; Jumes, D.; Jaglowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    During a campaign launched in August 2015, concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and weather conditions were measured throughout the Bakken-Williston Basin. The data was collected using a new in-situ monitoring system ARTEMIS (Atmospheric Research Trailer for Environmental Monitoring and Interactive Science). ARTEMIS is a self-sustaining trailer equipped with a solar panel and four 80 Ah batteries, which can power an instrumental suite. It provided a temporary sampling station which could be erected in five minutes. During this campaign we collected data for one hour at sites throughout North Dakota and Montana. Preliminary results from this data suggests that near active mining or methane flaring regions ozone concentrations appear to be elevated from the background.

  17. Vertical distribution and sources of tropospheric ozone over South China in spring 2004: Ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Chan, C.; Scientific Team Of Tapto

    2010-12-01

    The Transport of Air Pollutant and Tropospheric Ozone over China (TAPTO-China) science initiative is a two-year (TAPTO 2004 and 2005) field measurement campaign to help improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes that control the tropospheric ozone budget over the Chinese subcontinent (including the Asian Pacific rim) and its surrounding SE Asia. In this paper, we use two state-of-the-art 3-D global chemical transport models (GEOS-Chem and Global Modeling Initiative or GMI) to examine the characteristics of vertical distribution and quantify the sources of tropospheric ozone by analysis of TAPTO in-situ ozonesonde data obtained at five stations in South China during spring (April and May) 2004: Lin’an (30.30N, 119.75E), Tengchong (25.01N, 98.30E), Taipei (25.0N, 121.3E), Hong Kong (22.21N, 114.30E) and Sanya (18.21N, 110.31E). The observed tropospheric ozone concentrations show strong spatial and temporal variability, which is largely captured by the models. The models simulate well the observed vertical gradients of tropospheric ozone at higher latitudes but are too low at lower latitudes. Model tagged ozone simulations suggest that stratosphere has a large impact on the upper and middle troposphere (UT/MT) at Lin’an and Tengchong. Continental SE Asian biomass burning emissions are maximum in March but still contribute significantly to the photochemical production of tropopheric ozone in South China in early April. Asian anthropogenic emissions are the major contribution to lower tropospheric ozone at all stations. On the other hand, there are episodes of influence from European/North American anthropogenic emissions. For example, model tagged ozone simulations show that over Lin’an in April 2004, stratosphere contributes 20% (13 ppbv) at 5 km, Asian boundary layer contributes 70% (46 ppbv) to ozone in the boundary layer, European boundary layer contributes 5% (3-4 ppbv) at 1.2 km, and North American boundary layer contributes 4.5% (3

  18. Campaign rhetoric: A model of reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés, Enriqueta; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which a candidate's campaign rhetoric may affect the beliefs of the voters over what policy the candidate will implement in case he wins the election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. Voter's strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates that renege of their campaign promises, and in equilibrium all campaign promises are believed by voters, and honore...

  19. Interaction between local and regional pollution during Escompte 2001: impact on surface ozone concentrations (IOP2a and 2b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Tulet, P.; Rosset, R.

    2005-03-01

    Escompte, a European programme which took place in the Marseille region in June-July 2001, has been designed as an exhaustive database to be used for the development and validation of air pollution models. The air quality Mesoscale NonHydrostatic Chemistry model (Meso-NH-C) is used to simulate 2 days of an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) documented during the Escompte campaign, June 23 and 24, 2001. We first study the synoptic and local meteorological situation on June 23 and 24, using surface and aircraft measurements. Then, we focus on the pollution episode of June 24. This study emphasizes the deep impact of synoptic and local dynamics on observed ozone concentrations. It is shown that ozone levels are due both to regional and local factors, with highlights of the importance of ozone layering. More generally this confirms, even in an otherwise predominant local sea-breeze regime, the need to consider larger scale regional pollutant transport.

  20. Monocyclic supracrustals at far west of Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, E.F.J. de; Macedo, M.H.F.; Sa, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A geochronological study of supracrustals and intrusive rocks from Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil, is presented. Leucogranites and felsic metavolcanics were dated by Rb-Sr method. A summary of geologic relationship is given to supply the geochronological interpretation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. After Crossing the Border You Reach the Limit: Norte, by Edmundo Paz Soldan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norte, by Edmundo Paz Soldan, is an attempt to rethink Mexican border’s narrative from exceptional cases beyond the usual socio-historical coordinates of that narrative subgenre. The plurality of migrant identities of the novel presents anomalous and unpredictable forms of psychological response and cultural assimilation that discuss previous models of transculturation.

  2. PROTAGONISMO DOS ÍNDIOS NORTE-AMERICANOS NOS DESENHOS ANIMADOS DE WALTER LANTZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL DUARTE OLIVEIRA VENANCIO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Condemned to a dubious media representation in early cinema through thenovels of the late nineteenth century, the North American Indians never had a high profile infilms of this period. However, an animator, Walter Lantz, has a high degree of characterizationof Native Americans in his work. The aim of this paper is to study the role of Native Americansin these cartoons and analyze the social implications of these choices, using the concepts ofapparatus and formula. Furthermore, the analysis will include a portrayal of the Americanmedia scene before and after Lantz, seeking disruptions and legacies.Condenados a uma duvidosa representação midiática no início do cinema graçasaos romances do final do século XIX, os índios norte-americanos nunca tiveram um grandedestaque nos filmes dessa época. No entanto, um realizador de desenhos animados, WalterLantz, possui um alto grau de caracterização de nativos norte-americanos em seus trabalhos. Oobjetivo do presente artigo é estudar o protagonismo dos índios norte-americanos nessesdesenhos animados, e analisar as implicações sociais dessas escolhas através do uso dosconceitos de dispositivo e fórmula. Além disso, a análise incluirá a retratação da cenamidiática norte-americana antes e depois de Lantz, buscando rupturas e legados.

  3. Observaciones sobre la flora del “Norte Chico” de Chile./ Notes on the flora of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ulriksen Becker [1952

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde un profundo conocimiento adquirido en sus estudios teóricos y prácticos, Guillermo Ulriksen da una mirada a la flora y fauna encontrada en sus exhaustivos recorridos por el Norte Chico de Chile, y a sus experiencias con ellas en circunstancias de su trabajo −conjunto con Oscar Prager− para efectos del proyecto del llamado “Plan Serena” desde 1947, y de su tesis de título de Arquitecto en 1952-53. En esta última, intenta aportar bases para la planeación regional del Norte Chico, a partir de las carencias que él estima existieron en el mandato del “Plan Serena”. Corresponde el presente escrito a un anexo con observaciones complementarias en la citada tesis./ Guillermo Ulriksen presents a deep study of the flora and fauna of the Norte Chico, as a part of his study for the Plan Serena and for his Graduation Proyect. He also tries to propose the basis for the development plan for the Norte Chico.

  4. The interaction of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the stratosphere of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchkouski, Ilya; Krasouski, Aliaksandr; Dziomin, Victar; Svetashev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    At the Russian Antarctic station "Progress" (S69°23´, E76°23´) simultaneous measurements of trace gases using the MARS-B (Multi-Axis Recorder of Spectra) instrument and PION-UV spectro-radiometer for the time period from 05.01.2014 to 28.02.2014 have been performed. Both instruments were located outdoors. The aim of the measurements was to retrieve the vertical distribution of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere and to study their variability during the period of measurements. The MARS-B instrument, developed at the National Ozone Monitoring Research and Education Centre of the Belarusian State University (NOMREC BSU), successfully passed the procedure of international inter-comparison campaign MAD-CAT 2013 in Mainz, Germany. The instrument is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight at different elevation angles within a maximum aperture of 1.3°. 12 elevation angles have been used in this study, including the zenith direction. Approximately 7000 spectra per day were registered in the range of 403-486 nm, which were then processed by DOAS technique aiming to retrieve differential slant columns of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen dimer. Furthermore, total nitrogen dioxide column values have been retrieved employing the Libradtran radiative transfer model. The PION-UV spectro-radiometer, also developed at NOMREC BSU, is able to record the spectra of scattered sunlight from the hemisphere in the range of 280-430 nm. The registered spectra have been used to retrieve the total ozone column values employing the Stamnes method. In this study observational data from both instruments is presented and analyzed. Furthermore, by combining analysis of this data with model simulations it is shown that decreases in nitrogen dioxide content in the upper atmosphere can be associated with increases in total ozone column values and rising of the ozone layer upper boundary. Finally, the time delay between changes in nitrogen dioxide and ozone values is

  5. Recent Science Campaigns at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, R. P.; Bristow, W. A.; Fallen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Experiments in HF ionospheric heating using the High­frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities have tremendous potential for informing our investigation of the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. They provide a unique opportunity for quantifying and modeling the multi­scale coupled processes that characterize the interactions between the plasma in near­Earth space, the Earth's magnetic field, and the neutral gasses of the atmosphere. Physical parameters of the region are often difficult to measure with ground­based instruments, and the measurements that are possible are often poorly resolved in range or time or unavailable outside narrow altitude regimes. HF ionospheric modification experiments allow us to measure ionospheric and thermospheric state parameters more systematically and over a broader range of conditions than would otherwise be possible. HAARP is the world's most powerful and most flexible HF transmitting facility, capable of generating 3.6 MW of RF power over a frequency range from about 2 MHz to about 10 MHz. The electronic phased array antenna provides the ability to direct the RF energy to a large region of the sky above Alaska. HAARP was constructed through a research program managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). It was jointly funded by AFRL, ONR, and the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA). These agencies ended of their program of HAARP research in 2014, and donated the site equipment to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), in the summer of 2015, who now operate the facility as an international observatory for radio plasma heating and subauroral physics. Since taking control of HAARP, UAF has carried out research campaigns in February 2017, and September 2017. The topics investigated in the campaigns included the physics of ionospheric irregularities (FAI), the stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), generation of optical

  6. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  7. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  8. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  9. Contribution of long-range transport to the ozone levels recorded in the Northeast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, C.; Nunes, T.; Marques, M. C.; Ferreira, F.

    2009-04-01

    levels were calculated for each cluster and the differences between the groups were validated using the Kruskal-Wallis statistical test. The results have shown a significant influence of the transport path on ozone concentrations, which is more noticeable when the probability of occurring photochemical pollution phenomena is higher. Air masses from Europe (Spain, France, United Kingdom, etc.) generally originate higher ozone levels than the ones arriving from the Atlantic Ocean. This feature shows the role of photochemical production along long-range transport phenomena, and the input of pollutants into air masses, along their path. A more detailed analysis at local/regional scale, supported mainly by an intensive field campaign performed during spring/summer of 2006 in the vicinity of Alvão Natural Park (FOTONET Project), at different altitudes, together with pollutant measurements from rural air quality stations in the north of Portugal and one from Spain (Peñausende) was carried out in order to evaluate the extension of photochemical pollution in the Northeast of Portugal. Ozone concentrations measurements in the region showed a noticeable decrease with altitude, mainly at night. In resume back trajectories based analysis has demonstrated that other countries, mainly Spain, contribute decisively to the ozone levels registered in the station used for this study. Backed on this knowledge we point out towards the need of considering common international policies when dealing with controlling ozone levels in the environment. References: Monks, P. (2000): A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum. Atmospheric Environment 34, 3545-3561. Vingarzan, R., Taylor, B. (2003): Trend analysis of ground level ozone in the greater Vancouver / Fraser Valley area of British Columbia. Atmospheric Environment 37, 2159-2171. EMPA (2008): Air mass trajectory clustering. Retrieved 01 November 2008 from: http://www.empa.ch/plugin/template/empa/*/63288/—/l=1

  10. World campaign for the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E.B.

    1982-07-01

    Four aims are included in the Draft Declaration about the Champaign for The Biosphere; 1) education and allied activities, 2) scientific understanding, 3) practical activities, and 4) accommodation of humanity to The Biosphere. There is a strong case for application to practical affairs of what is already known. The campaign might focus initially on problems that illustrate changing attitudes which are the result of research and experience. Examples include the Green revolution in agriculture and, in engineering, the swing of changing attitudes to the primary and ancillary effects of large projects for hydro-power and irrigation. The need for conservation of natural resources by rational, ecologically wise use is stressed. Educational and medical programs for planned parenthood are already available. The problem will be to boost them to top priority in the countries that need them most. (JMT)

  11. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  12. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  13. Two case studies on the interaction of large-scale transport, mesoscale photochemistry, and boundary-layer processes on the lower tropospheric ozone dynamics in early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, S.; Siegrist, F.C.; Eugster, W.; Cattin, R.; Sidle, C.; Wanner, H. [Inst. of Geography, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Hirschberg, M.M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung, TU Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Schneiter, D. [MeteoSwiss, Station Aerologique, Payerne (Switzerland); Perego, S. [IBM Switzerland, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    The vertical distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere over the Swiss Plateau is investigated in detail for two episodes in early spring (February 1998 and March 1999). Profile measurements of boundary-layer ozone performed during two field campaigns with a tethered balloon sounding system and a kite are investigated using regular aerological and ozone soundings from a nearby site, measurements from monitoring stations at various altitudes, backward trajectories, and synoptic analyses of meteorological fields. Additionally, the effect of in situ photochemistry was estimated for one of the episodes employing the Metphomod Eulerian photochemical model. Although the meteorological situations were completely different, both cases had elevated layers with high ozone concentrations, which is not untypical for late winter and early spring. In the February episode, the highest ozone concentrations of 55 to 60 ppb, which were found at around 1100 m asl, were partly advected from Southern France, but a considerable contribution of in situ photochemistry is also predicted by the model. Below that elevation, the local chemical sinks and surface deposition probably overcompensated chemical production, and the vertical ozone distribution was governed by boundary-layer dynamics. In the March episode, the results suggest that ozone-rich air parcels, probably of stratospheric or upper tropospheric origin, were advected aloft the boundary layer on the Swiss Plateau. (orig.)

  14. Two case studies on the interaction of large-scale transport, mesoscale photochemistry, and boundary-layer processes on the lower tropospheric ozone dynamics in early spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brönnimann

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere over the Swiss Plateau is investigated in detail for two episodes in early spring (February 1998 and March 1999. Profile measurements of boundary-layer ozone performed during two field campaigns with a tethered balloon sounding system and a kite are investigated using regular aerological and ozone soundings from a nearby site, measurements from monitoring stations at various altitudes, backward trajectories, and synoptic analyses of meteorological fields. Additionally, the effect of in situ photochemistry was estimated for one of the episodes employing the Metphomod Eulerian photochemical model. Although the meteorological situations were completely different, both cases had elevated layers with high ozone concentrations, which is not untypical for late winter and early spring. In the February episode, the highest ozone concentrations of 55 to 60 ppb, which were found at around 1100 m asl, were partly advected from Southern France, but a considerable contribution of in situ photochemistry is also predicted by the model. Below that elevation, the local chemical sinks and surface deposition probably overcompensated chemical production, and the vertical ozone distribution was governed by boundary-layer dynamics. In the March episode, the results suggest that ozone-rich air parcels, probably of stratospheric or upper tropospheric origin, were advected aloft the boundary layer on the Swiss Plateau.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and  chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  15. Twitter Campaigns Around the Fifth IPCC Report: Campaign Spreading, Shared Hashtags, and Separate Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, K.; Hellsten, I.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyzed campaigning on Twitter around the publication of the fifth Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group 1 report in September, 2013. In particular, we analyzed how participation in a specific campaign and use of hashtags connected to the campaign

  16. 11 CFR 106.3 - Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of expenses between campaign and non-campaign related travel. 106.3 Section 106.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL ALLOCATIONS OF CANDIDATE AND COMMITTEE ACTIVITIES § 106.3 Allocation of expenses between campaign and non...

  17. Photochemical production of ozone and control strategy for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chein-Jung; Liu, Shaw Chen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chou, Charles C. K.; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Young, Chea-Yuan

    An observation-based method (OBM) is developed to evaluate the ozone (O 3) production efficiency (O 3 molecules produced per NO x molecule consumed) and O 3 production rate ( P(O 3)) during a field campaign in southern Taiwan. The method can also provide an estimate of the concentration of OH. A key step in the method is to use observed concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, namely ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene, to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and amounts of photochemically consumed NO x and NMHCs by OH. In addition, total oxidant (O 3+NO 2) instead of O 3 itself turns out to be very useful for representing ozone production in the OBM approach. The average O 3 production efficiency during the field campaign in Fall (2003) is found to be about 10.2±3.9. The relationship of P(O 3) with NO x is examined and compared with a one-dimensional (1D) photochemical model. Values of P(O 3) derived from the OBM are slightly lower than those calculated in the 1D model. However, OH concentrations estimated by the OBM are about a factor of 2 lower than the 1D model. Fresh emissions, which affect the degree of photochemical processing appear to be a major cause of the underestimate. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) OBM O 3 production diagram that resembles the EKMA ozone isopleth diagram to study the relationship of the total oxidant versus O 3 precursors. The 3D OBM O 3 production diagram suggests that reducing emissions of NMHCs are more effective in controlling O 3 than reducing NO x. However, significant uncertainties remain in the OBM, and considerable more work is required to minimize these uncertainties before a definitive control strategy can be reached. The observation-based approach provides a good alternative to measuring peroxy radicals for evaluating the production of O 3 and formulating O 3 control strategy in urban and suburban environments.

  18. Effect of ozone on leaf cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, E S; Thomson, W W; Mudd, J B

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ozone on membrane lipids and on the electron-density patterns of cell membranes in electron micrographs. Analysis of fatty acids from tobacco leaves fumigated with ozone indicated that there was no significant difference between the ozone-treated and the control plants in the relative amounts of the fatty acids. This suggests that if the primary site of ozone action is unsaturated lipids in membranes then the amounts of affected unsaturated fatty acids are too small to be detected by gas chromatography. In support of this, characteristic electron-microscopic images of membranes are observed in cells of fumigated leaves. However, measurements of the length and width of the chloroplasts and the determination of axial ratios indicated that the ozone treatment resulted in a shrinkage of the chloroplasts. In contrast, mitochondrial changes are apparently explained in terms of ozone-induced swelling. 33 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  20. Teaching the Public Relations Campaigns Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.

    2001-01-01

    Argues for a Campaign Planning Course in the undergraduate public relations major. Discusses nine course objectives. Describes five phases of campaign planning and implementation, how the phase approach includes important course topics, and how it fulfills course objectives. Describes how student groups work with actual clients throughout the…

  1. Political Campaigns Get Personal with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    On Election Day in 2006, some students at the University of Texas at Austin were prodded by startlingly personal calls from Democratic Party supporters. As political campaigns look to corral young voters, those calls could be a harbinger of things to come in 2008: campaigns going after students through contact information that public colleges are…

  2. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  3. Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Dave

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the relation between radio broadcasting and politics in the 1924 presidential campaign, focusing on newspaper and magazine coverage. Notes radio's influence on candidate image, the aspect of censorship, and the use of radio during the campaign and after the election. (MM)

  4. Two-phase ozonation of chlorinated organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Freshour, A.; West, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the last few years the amount of research being conducted in the field of single-phase ozonation has grown extensively. However, traditional aqueous-phase ozonation systems are limited by a lack of selective oxidation potential, low ozone solubility in water, and slow intermediate decomposition rates. Furthermore, ozone may decompose before it can be utilized for pollutant destruction since ozone can be highly unstable in aqueous solutions. Naturally occurring compounds such as NaHCO 3 also affect ozone reactions by inhibiting the formation of OH-free radicals. To compensate for these factors, excess ozone is typically supplied to a reactor. Since ozone generation requires considerable electric power consumption (16 - 24 kWh/kg of O 3 ), attempts to enhance the ozone utilization rate and stability should lead to more efficient application of this process to hazardous waste treatment. To improve the process, ozonation may be more efficiently carried out in a two-phase system consisting of an inert solvent (saturated with O 3 ) contacted with an aqueous phase containing pollutants. The non-aqueous phase must meet the following criteria: (1) non-toxic, (2) very low vapor pressure, (3) high density (for ease of separation), (4) complete insolubility in water, (5) reusability, (6) selective pollutant extractability, (7) high oxidant solubility, and (8) extended O 3 stability. Previously published studies (1) have indicated that a number of fluorinated hydrocarbon compounds fit these criteria. For this project, FC40 (a product of 3M Co.) was chosen due to its low vapor pressure (3 mm Hg) and high specific gravity (1.9). The primary advantages of the FC40 solvent are that it is non-toxic, reusable, has an ozone solubility 10 times that of water, and that 85 % of the ozone remains in the solvent even after 2 hours. This novel two-phase process has been utilized to study the rapid destruction of organic chlorine compounds and organic mixtures

  5. Ozone decay in chemical reactor for ozone-dynamical disintegration of used tyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golota, V.I.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Taran, G.V.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Pismenetskii, A.S.; Zamuriev, A.A.; Benitskaja, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ozone decay kinetics in the chemical reactor intended for used tyres disintegration is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Ozone was synthesized in barrierless ozonizers based on the streamer discharge. The chemical reactor for tyres disintegration in the ozone-air environment represents the cylindrical chamber, which feeds from the ozonizer by ozone-air mixture with the specified rate of volume flow, and with known ozone concentration. The output of the used mixture, which rate of volume flow is also known, is carried out through the ozone destructor. As a result of ozone decay in the volume and on the reactor walls, and output of the used mixture from the reactor, the ozone concentration in the reactor depends from time. In the paper, the analytical expression for dependence of ozone concentration in the reactor from time and from the parameters of a problem such as the volumetric feed rate, ozone concentration on the input in the reactor, volume flow rate of the used mixture, the volume of the reactor and the area of its internal surface is obtained. It is shown that experimental results coincide with good accuracy with analytical ones.

  6. Seasonal Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations over South Korea and Its Link to Ozone Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. C.; Moon, B. K.; Wie, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of tropospheric ozone over South Korea has steadily been on the rise in the last decades, mainly due to rapid industrializing and urbanizing in the Eastern Asia. To identify the characteristics of tropospheric ozone in South Korea, we fitted a sine function to the surface ozone concentration data from 2005 to 2014. Based on fitted sine curves, we analyzed the shifts in the dates on which ozone concentration reached its peak in the calendar year. Ozone monitoring sites can be classified into type types: where the highest annual ozone concentration kept occurring sooner (Esites) and those that kept occurring later (Lsites). The seasonal analysis shows that the surface ozone had increased more rapidly in Esites than in Lsites in the past decade during springtime and vice-versa during summertime. We tried to find the reason for the different seasonal trends with the relationship between ozone and ozone precursors. As a result, it was found that the changes in the ground-level ozone concentration in the spring and summer times are considerably influenced by changes in nitrogen dioxide concentration, and this is closely linked to the destruction (production) process of ozone by nitrogen dioxide in spring (summer). The link between tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide discussed in this study will have to be thoroughly examined through climate-chemistry modeling in the future. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  7. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  8. Towards the retrieval of tropospheric ozone with the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Van Peet, J.C.A.; Eremenko, M.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) ozone profile retrieval algorithm to a number of a priori and radiative transfer assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved

  9. Ozone depletion potentials of halocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, I.L.; Kiselev, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of ozone depletion potential (ODP) is widely used in the evaluation of numerous halocarbons and of their replacements for effects on ozone, but the methods, model assumptions and conditions of ODP calculation have not been analyzed adequately. In this paper, a model study of effects on ozone after the instantaneous releases of various amounts of CH 3 CCl 3 and of CHF 2 Cl(HCFC-22) in the several conditions of the background atmosphere are presented, aimed to understand the main connections of ODP values with the methods of their calculations. To facilitate the ODP computation in numerous versions for long after the releases, the above rather short-lived gases have been used. The variation of released gas global mass from 1 Mt to 1 Gt leads to ODP value increase atmosphere. The same variations are analyzed for the CFC-free atmosphere of 1960s conditions for the anthropogenically loaded atmosphere in the 21st century according to the known IPCC- A scenario (business as usual). Recommendations of proper ways of ODP calculations are proposed for practically important cases

  10. The 2016 iodine pill distribution campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmestre, A.; Le Guen, B.

    2016-01-01

    The last iodine pills were distributed in february 2009, they are now outdated and a new campaign has been launched. Each family will receive a voucher to recover iodine pills from the nearby pharmacy. The aim of this new campaign is of course to protect people in case of severe nuclear accident but also to develop a radiation protection culture among the population. During the previous campaign only 51% of the concerned people went to the pharmacy to get the pills. The 2016 campaign will involve the public and all the establishments open to the public in a range of 10 km around each of the 19 nuclear power plants. It concerns 500 municipalities, 375.000 households, 55.000 enterprises and public utilities and 275 pharmacies are involved in the campaign. (A.C.)

  11. Ozone and NOx chemistry in the eastern US: evaluation of CMAQ/CB05 with satellite (OMI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ, are used by federal and state agencies to guide policy decisions that determine how to best achieve adherence with National Ambient Air Quality Standards for surface ozone. We use observations of ozone and its important precursor NO2 to test the representation of the photochemistry and emission of ozone precursors within CMAQ. Observations of tropospheric column NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, retrieved by two independent groups, show that the model overestimates urban NO2 and underestimates rural NO2 under all conditions examined for July and August 2011 in the US Northeast. The overestimate of the urban to rural ratio of tropospheric column NO2 for this baseline run of CMAQ (CB05 mechanism, mobile NOx emissions from the National Emissions Inventory; isoprene emissions from MEGAN v2.04 suggests this model may underestimate the importance of interstate transport of NOx. This CMAQ simulation leads to a considerable overestimate of the 2-month average of 8 h daily maximum surface ozone in the US Northeast, as well as an overestimate of 8 h ozone at AQS sites during days when the state of Maryland experienced NAAQS exceedances. We have implemented three changes within CMAQ motivated by OMI NO2 as well as aircraft observations obtained in July 2011 during the NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign: (a the modeled lifetime of organic nitrates within CB05 has been reduced by a factor of 10, (b emissions of NOx from mobile sources has been reduced by a factor of 2, and (c isoprene emissions have been reduced by using MEGAN v2.10 rather than v2.04. Compared to the baseline simulation, the CMAQ run using all three of these changes leads to considerably better simulation of column NO2 in both urban and rural areas, better agreement with the 2-month average of daily 8 h maximum ozone in the US Northeast, fewer number of false positives of an ozone exceedance

  12. Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, R.H.; Asinovsky, E.I.; Samoilov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures was experimentally examined. The average ozone concentration in the volume of the discharge tube was less at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperatures. The production of condensed ozone have been determined by measuring the ozone concentration when the walls was heated and ozone evaporated. The energy yield of ozone generation at cryogenic temperatures has been calculated. The maximum value was 200 g/kWh

  13. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  14. Solar dynamics influence on the atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogosheva, T.; Grigorieva, V.; Mendeva, B.; Krastev, D.; Petkov, B.

    2007-01-01

    A response of the atmospheric ozone to the solar dynamics has been studied using the total ozone content data, taken from the satellite experiments GOME on ERS-2 and TOMS-EP together with data obtained from the ground-based spectrophotometer Photon operating in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria during the period 1999-2005. We also use data from surface ozone observations performed in Sofia, Bulgaria. The solar activity was characterized by the sunspot daily numbers W, the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) and the MgII wing-to-core ratio solar index. The impact of the solar activity on the total ozone has been investigated analysing the ozone response to sharp changes of these parameters. Some of the examined cases showed a positive correlation between the ozone and the solar parameters, however, a negative correlation in other cases was found. There were some cases when the sharp increases of the solar activity did not provoke any ozone changes. The solar radiation changes during an eclipse can be considered a particular case of the solar dynamics as this event causes a sharp change of irradiance within a comparatively short time interval. The results of both - the total and surface ozone measurements carried out during the eclipses on 11 August 1999, 31 May 2003 and 29 March 2006 are presented. It was found that the atmospheric ozone behavior shows strong response to the fast solar radiation changes which take place during solar eclipse. (authors)

  15. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    within local networks were relatively small, but seasonal and inter-annual differences were strong due to the variability of meteorological conditions and related ozone concentrations. The 2001 data revealed a significant relationship between foliar injury degree and various descriptors of ozone...... pollution such as mean value, AOT20 and AOT40. Examining individual sites of the local monitoring networks separately, however, yielded noticeable differences. Some sites showed no association between ozone pollution and ozone-induced effects, whereas others featured almost linear relationships...

  16. Campaigning on behalf of the party? Party constraints on candidate campaign personalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses what makes political candidates run a party-focused or personalised election campaign. Prior work shows that candidates face incentives from voters and the media to personalise their campaign rhetoric and promises at the expense of party policy. This has raised concerns about...... that party control over the candidate nomination process and campaign financing constrains most political candidates in following electoral incentives for campaign personalisation. Using candidate survey data from the 2009 EP election campaign in 27 countries, we show how candidates from parties in which...... party officials exerted greater control over the nomination process and campaign finances were less likely to engage in personalised campaigning at the expense of the party programme. The findings imply that most parties, as central gatekeepers and resource suppliers, hold important control mechanisms...

  17. Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) 2014 Western Pacific Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E.; Pfister, L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) is a series of airborne campaigns focused on understanding physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. ATTREX is using the high-altitude, long-duration NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Air System to make in situ and remote-sensing measurements spanning the Pacific. A particular ATTREX emphasis is to better understand the dehydration of air as it passes through the cold tropical tropopause region. The ATTREX payload contains 12 in situ and remote sensing instruments that measure water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide), reactive chemical compounds (ozone, bromine, nitrous oxide), meteorological parameters, and radiative fluxes. During January-March, 2014, the Global Hawk was deployed to Guam for ATTREX flights. Six science flights were conducted from Guam (in addition to the transits across the Pacific), resulting in over 100 hours of Western Pacific TTL sampling and about 180 vertical profiles through the TTL. I will provide an overview of the dataset, with examples of the measurements including meteorological parameters, clouds and water vapor, and chemical tracers.

  18. Reconciliation of Halogen-Induced Ozone Loss with the Total-Column Ozone Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Plummer, D. A.; Scinocca, J. F.; Hegglin, M. I.; Fioletov, V. E.; Reader, M. C.; Remsberg, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Wang, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    The observed depletion of the ozone layer from the 1980s onwards is attributed to halogen source gases emitted by human activities. However, the precision of this attribution is complicated by year-to-year variations in meteorology, that is, dynamical variability, and by changes in tropospheric ozone concentrations. As such, key aspects of the total-column ozone record, which combines changes in both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, remain unexplained, such as the apparent absence of a decline in total-column ozone levels before 1980, and of any long-term decline in total-column ozone levels in the tropics. Here we use a chemistry-climate model to estimate changes in halogen-induced ozone loss between 1960 and 2010; the model is constrained by observed meteorology to remove the eects of dynamical variability, and driven by emissions of tropospheric ozone precursors to separate out changes in tropospheric ozone. We show that halogen-induced ozone loss closely followed stratospheric halogen loading over the studied period. Pronounced enhancements in ozone loss were apparent in both hemispheres following the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon and, in particular, Mount Pinatubo, which significantly enhanced stratospheric aerosol loads. We further show that approximately 40% of the long-term non-volcanic ozone loss occurred before 1980, and that long-term ozone loss also occurred in the tropical stratosphere. Finally, we show that halogeninduced ozone loss has declined by over 10% since stratospheric halogen loading peaked in the late 1990s, indicating that the recovery of the ozone layer is well underway.

  19. El paleomargen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Cobiella-Reguera

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro dominios paleogeográficos y paleotectónicos se distinguen en los cortes mesozoicos cubansos. De norte a sur, ellos son: 1. Secuencias de un paleomargen pasivo septentrional (PPS; 2. El cinturón ofiolítico septentrional (COS; 3. El terreno de arcos volcánicos cretácicos (TAVK, y 4. Secuencias metamorfizadas de un paleomargen pasivo meridional (PPM. Tres tipos de cortes de secuencias de margen pasivo, geográficamente bien diferenciados, afloran en el norte de Cuba: A-Cortes de Guaniguanico, divisibles a su vez en tres subtipos: Sierra del Rosario, Sierra de los Órganos y Cinturón Cangre; B-Cortes del norte de Cuba Central, caracterizados por una manifiesta zonalidad estratigráfica y estructural, y C-Cortes de Maisí, caracterizados poe el metamorfismo de bajo grado de sus rocas. En estas tres regiones los cortes más jóvenes, comenzando en el Jurásico Superior, son casi exclusivamente carbonatados, mientras que su parte inferior (Oxfordiano y más antiguo es terrígena, exceptuando los más septentrionales, en Cuba central, donde están presentes evaporitas. Los cortes A y B presentan una discordancia qie se correlaciona estrechamente con el Mid-Cretaceous Sequence Boundary, detectado en el sur del golfo de México y el estrecho de La Florida. Las similitudes, en particular entre las regiones A y B, indican una misma identidad geológica. Su posición actual, yuxtapuestos a las plataformas de Bahamas y Yucatán de la placa norteamericana, y su bien confirmado tránsito a los cortes de Bahamas en el norte de Cuba central, indican que los cortes del PPS deben formar parte del margen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte. La continuación al este de los cortes de Guaniguanico es visible en varios afloramientos y registrada por numerosos pozos de prospección desde el oeste de La Habana hasta Matanzas. Por tanto, no hay razón para considerar los cortes de Guaniguanico como parte de los "terrenos sudoccidentales". Siguiendo esta

  20. FREQUÊNCIA DE OCORRÊNCIA E CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOLÓGICAS EXTERNOS DE PEIXES MARINHOS DE CAIÇARA DO NORTE, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreira Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O litoral de Caiçara do Norte é considerado uma área de maior produção pesqueira artesanal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a frequência de ocorrência, as características morfológicos externos de peixes marinhos de Caiçara do Norte, RN. Durante o período de julho de 2012 a agosto de 2013, foi registrada a ocorrência de cinco ordens (Beloniformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Perciformes, Siluriformes, 13 famílias (Ariidae, Exocoetidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Coryphaenidae, Haemulidae, Hemiramphidae, Istiophoridae, Lutjanidae, Mugilidae, Sparidae, Serranidae,  Scombridae e 29 espécies de peixes marinhos. Os resultados do presente trabalho podem enriquecer o conhecimento da ictiofauna das águas costeiras de Caiçara do Norte, além de fornecer informações para o futuro planejamento da gestão e conservação dos recursos pesqueiros do litoral do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Palavras chave: Águas costeiras; pesca artesanal; recursos pesqueiros; litoral norte do RN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p55-63

  1. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  2. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  3. Ozone generation over the Indian Ocean during the South African biomass-burning period: case study of October 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Taupin

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present an estimation of photochemical ozone production during free tropospheric transport between the African biomass burning area and Reunion Island (Indian Ocean by means of trajectory-chemistry model calculations. Indeed, enhanced ozone concentrations (80–100 ppbv between 5 and 8 km height over Reunion Island are encountered during September–October when African biomass burning is active. The measurements performed during flight 10 of the TRACE-A campaign (October 6, 1992 have been used to initialise the lagrangian trajectory-chemistry model and several chemical forward trajectories, which reach the area of Reunion Island some days later, are calculated. We show that the ozone burden already present in the middle and upper troposphere over Southern Africa, formed from biomass burning emissions, is further enhanced by photochemical production over the Indian Ocean at the rate of 2.5 - 3 ppbv/day. The paper presents sensitivity studies of how these photochemical ozone production rates depend on initial conditions. The rates are also compared to those obtained by other studies over the Atlantic Ocean. The importance of our results for the regional ozone budget over the Indian Ocean is briefly discussed.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (evolution of the atmosphere; troposphere – composition and chemistry; meterorology and atmospheric dynamics (tropical meteorology

  4. The replanting campaign has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-SEM Group - General Infrastructure and Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The poplars on the border of CERN's Prévessin site were felled, according to plan, on Friday, 26 February. The work was essential as the trees were showing signs of serious ageing problems (broken and dead branches, weakened trunks and root systems, etc.) and needed to be felled to ensure the safety of drivers on the D35 The trees that have been cut will be transformed into renewable energy wood chips and used to heat local schools and crèches. They will be replaced by a hedge of hornbeams, a native fast-growing tree, which will be planted in the spring.     The felling operation was entrusted to the French national forestry authorities, with the support of the Bellegarde-Pays de Gex Agence Routière et Technique. It marks the start of a vast poplar-felling and replanting campaign, which will be extended to CERN's Meyrin site.  The work is part of CERN's general renovation and site planning scheme for the future.    

  5. Advanced fuels campaign 2013 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hamelin, Doug [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  6. Evaluation of Kentucky's "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report was to document the results of the "Click It or Ticket" 2008 campaign in Kentucky. The campaign involved a combination of earned media, paid media, and enforcement. : The evaluation of the campaign included documenting th...

  7. Development of Compact Ozonizer with High Ozone Output by Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ueda, Satoru; Kouno, Kanako; Sakugawa, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Youhei

    Conventional ozonizer with a high ozone output using silent or surface discharges needs a cooling system and a dielectric barrier, and therefore becomes a large machine. A compact ozonizer without the cooling system and the dielectric barrier has been developed by using a pulsed power generated discharge. The wire to plane electrodes made of metal have been used. However, the ozone output was low. Here, a compact and high repetition rate pulsed power generator is used as an electric source of a compact ozonizer. The ozone output of 6.1 g/h and the ozone yield of 86 g/kWh are achieved at 500 pulses per second, input average power of 280 W and an air flow rate of 20 L/min.

  8. Marketing plan and campaign for Riosol Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create an efficient marketing plan and a working marketing campaign for the case company. The aspects of the marketing plan and campaign were adjusted to fit the company size, field of business and aims of the case company. To get a better view on the aspects of the marketing plan and campaign, theoretical frameworks are inspected, such as marketing mix, company stages and SWOT-analysis. This thesis consists of theoretical framework as well as practical implem...

  9. AAU-DLR 2010 Indoor Measurement Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A measurement campaign, not part of the WHERE2 project, with the focus on indoor multilink and reverberant in-room channels was conducted by DLR and AAU. The measurement data is used from both parties within the WHERE2 project and can be shared upon request. The measurement campaign has two main...... Channels". For the measurement campaign the measurement platform for time-variant wireless channels from DLR was used. The high spatial resolution of the platform allows for combining several transmitter positions to a virtual array. Together with the circular receiver array, this enables a bi...

  10. Challenges and opportunities for dietary campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The objective of our research was to explore and discuss the challenges and opportunities inherent to the management of public healthy eating campaigns. The discussion is based on a study of campaign managers’ perceptions of nine successfully implemented European healthy eating campaigns. Based...... on these interviews, we suggest that social marketing compared to commercial food marketing is not necessarily at a disadvantage; rather, social marketers working to promote healthy eating can benefit from the formation of alliances with public and private partners, the empowerment of their targets and of those who...... influence the targets, the development of credible and emotive messages and relationships with media and public institutions....

  11. La subida de los precios de los alimentos: Una mirada al Norte de África

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Priego

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 4 años el mundo ha sufrido al menos 3 crisis alimenticias. La explicación a este fenómeno tenemos que buscarla en un conjunto de diferentes causas (económicas, medioambientales, financieras, técnicas, políticas y sociales En el norte de África dichas crisis han sido el detonante de procesos de cambios sociales y políticos que hemos denominado Primaveras Árabes. En el presente artículo vamos a analizar las causas que han provocado el alza del precio de los alimentos y las consecuencias sobre la población del Norte de África.

  12. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  13. CRISIS DEL SISTEMA MIGRATORIO Y SEGURIDAD EN LAS FRONTERAS NORTE Y SUR DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Villafuerte Solís

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo se analizan las implicaciones de la crisis del sistema migratorio Centroamérica-México-Estados Unidos, que se evidenció con la llamada crisis humanitaria de los niños migrantes mexicanos y centroamericanos detenidos por la Patrulla Fronteriza. Una de las consecuencia ha sido el reforzamiento de las fronteras sur y norte de México para detener el flujo de migrantes, y para lo ello los gobierno de México, Guatemala, Honduras y El Salvador, en estrecha colaboración con la Casa Blanca, han diseñado diversas estrategias, que van desde el incremento de la vigilancia de los pasos fronterizos, contención y deportación de migrantes, hasta la implementación de la Alianza para la Prosperidad en el Triángulo Norte de Centroamérica.

  14. Effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Mehliyar; Tai, Amos P. K.; Lombardozzi, Danica; Martin, Maria Val

    2017-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the most hazardous air pollutants as it harms both human health and plant productivity. Foliage uptake of ozone via dry deposition damages photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure. These foliage changes could lead to a cascade of biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects that not only modulate the carbon cycle, regional hydrometeorology and climate, but also cause feedbacks onto surface ozone concentration itself. In this study, we implement a semi-empirical parameterization of ozone damage on vegetation in the Community Earth System Model to enable online ozone-vegetation coupling, so that for the first time ecosystem structure and ozone concentration can coevolve in fully coupled land-atmosphere simulations. With ozone-vegetation coupling, present-day surface ozone is simulated to be higher by up to 4-6 ppbv over Europe, North America and China. Reduced dry deposition velocity following ozone damage contributes to ˜ 40-100 % of those increases, constituting a significant positive biogeochemical feedback on ozone air quality. Enhanced biogenic isoprene emission is found to contribute to most of the remaining increases, and is driven mainly by higher vegetation temperature that results from lower transpiration rate. This isoprene-driven pathway represents an indirect, positive meteorological feedback. The reduction in both dry deposition and transpiration is mostly associated with reduced stomatal conductance following ozone damage, whereas the modification of photosynthesis and further changes in ecosystem productivity are found to play a smaller role in contributing to the ozone-vegetation feedbacks. Our results highlight the need to consider two-way ozone-vegetation coupling in Earth system models to derive a more complete understanding and yield more reliable future predictions of ozone air quality.

  15. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  16. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Little, Kirsty; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2010-06-14

    In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05) in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1) Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2) Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3) Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  17. 21 CFR 173.368 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.368 Ozone. Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028-15-6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and processing of foods, including meat and poultry (unless such use is precluded by standards of identity in 9...

  18. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  20. 21 CFR 184.1563 - Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use Bottled water that prior to ozonation meets... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ozone. 184.1563 Section 184.1563 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  1. Pensando el “diálogo académico” norte/sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Krueger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda la compleja relación entre las instituciones norteamericanas dedicadas a la producción de conocimiento sobre Bolivia y sus homólogas bolivianas, destacando el hecho de que hoy día en Bolivia no sólo existe una inmensa riqueza intelectual plenamente establecida, sino también un escenario de conocimientos emergentes cuyas  reflexiones y desafíos ameritan una difusión a gran escala en el norte.  Autorizar en el norte el potecial teórico de los debates generados en Bolivia haría más dinámico y responsable el conocimiento que el norte produce sobre Bolivia. Inversamente, se discutirá también la importancia de que en Bolivia se inicien estudios conducentes a dimensionar la complejidad de las instituciones y sociedades del norte, que no son ni homogéneas ni estáticas, menos aún automáticamente reproductoras del imperialismo.This work approaches the complex relation between North American institutions dedicated to the production of knowledge on Bolivia and its homologous Bolivians, emphasizing the fact that nowadays in Bolivia not only an immense intellectual wealth totally established exists, but also a field of emergent knowledge whose reflections and challenges deserve a diffusion in the north. To authorize in the north the theoretical potecial of the debates generated in Bolivia would make the knowledge produced on Bolivia a lot more dynamic and responsible. Inversely, I will also  discuss the importance to initiate in Bolivia studies that will lead to understand the complexity of the institutions and societies of the north, that are not neither homogenous nor static, less still automatically reproductive of imperialism. 

  2. Las dysyunciones anfitrópicas en las floras xerofíticas norte y sudamericanas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.

    1973-01-01

    A pesar de que en general las floras de América del Norte y del Sur son muy distintas, hay sin embargo una serie de coincidencias. Los casos más extraños son aquellas áreas extratropicales, de ambas Américas, que poseen cierto numero de taxones comunes con amplia disyunción por faltar en las

  3. Putin e o escudo nuclear norte-americano: uma nova Guerra Fria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A decisão norte-americana de instalar na República Tcheca e na Polônia mísseis anti-balísticos repercutiu enormemente na Rússia. Nesse sentido o presente artigo analisa, sob a ótica da segurança internacional, essa atitude do governo Bush e as suas repercusões e conseqüências internacionais.

  4. Economía y Empresa en el Norte de España [book review

    OpenAIRE

    Houpt, Stefan

    1996-01-01

    Este artículo reseña: MARTÍN ACEÑA Pablo y GÁRATE OJANGUREN, Montserrat (eds). Economía y Empresa en el Norte de España : una aproximación histórica, San Sebastián. Cuadernos de Economía y Empresa, Sección Historia, 1994, 386 pp.

  5. Improvement of ozone yield by a multi-discharge type ozonizer using superposition of silent discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Jig; Chun, Byung-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve ozone generation, we experimentally investigated the silent discharge plasma and ozone generation characteristics of a multi-discharge type ozonizer. Ozone in a multi-discharge type ozonizer is generated by superposition of a silent discharge plasma, which is simultaneously generated in separated discharge spaces. A multi-discharge type ozonizer is composed of three different kinds of superposed silent discharge type ozonizers, depending on the method of applying power to each electrode. We observed that the discharge period of the current pulse for a multi discharge type ozonizer can be longer than that of silent discharge type ozonizer with two electrodes and one gap. Hence, ozone generation is improved up to 17185 ppm and 783 g/kwh in the case of the superposed silent discharge type ozonizer for which an AC high voltages with a 180 .deg. phase difference were applied to the internal electrode and the external electrode, respectively, with the central electrode being grounded.

  6. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  7. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  8. Computational analysis of ozonation in bubble columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones-Bolanos, E.; Zhou, H.; Otten, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational ozonation model based on the principle of computational fluid dynamics along with the kinetics of ozone decay and microbial inactivation to predict the performance of ozone disinfection in fine bubble columns. The model can be represented using a mixture two-phase flow model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the water flow and using two transport equations to track the concentration profiles of ozone and microorganisms along the height of the column, respectively. The applicability of this model was then demonstrated by comparing the simulated ozone concentrations with experimental measurements obtained from a pilot scale fine bubble column. One distinct advantage of this approach is that it does not require the prerequisite assumptions such as plug flow condition, perfect mixing, tanks-in-series, uniform radial or longitudinal dispersion in predicting the performance of disinfection contactors without carrying out expensive and tedious tracer studies. (author)

  9. Ozone reaction on slime mold. [Physarum polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoh, F.

    1972-01-01

    To determine the effect of ozone, the motive force responsible for protoplasmic streaming in the slime mold, Physarum polycephalum was measured by the Double chamber method which was developed by Kamiya. The effects of ozone on the motive force were investigated by comparison of the Dynamoplasmogram of controls with that of ozone exposure. In the case of high concentration exposure, thickening of plasmagel, inversion of the period of flow and reduction of the extreme point were observed. Succinoxidase of exposed homogenates showed stronger activity than that of controls. It is certain that the Pasteur reaction takes place when plasmodium is kept under high ozone exposure condition. It appears that ozone inhibited a part of the process of glycolysis. 32 references, 8 figures.

  10. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  11. Ozone sensitivity of plants in natural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treshow, M; Stewart, D

    1973-07-01

    Field fumigation studies conducted in grassland, oak, aspen, and conifer, communities established the injury threshold of prevalent plant species to ozone. Several important species, including Bromus tectorum, Quercus gambelii, and Populus tremuloides, were injured by a single 2-hours exposure to 15 pphM ozone. Over half the perennial forbs and woody species studied were visibly injured at concentrations of 30 pphM ozone or less. It is postulated that lower concentrations at prolonged or repeated exposures to ozone may impair growth and affect community vigor and stability. Continued exposure of natural plant communities to ozone is expected to initiate major shifts in the plant composition of communities. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. History of mesquite introduction in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Silva dos Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw DC was established as a successful action of xerophilous introduction in Brazilian Northeast dry region. Its fruits are used in animal feed and the wood may be used as piles, firewood and charcoal. The species was introduced in 1942, spreading in "low areas" in Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Bahia and Piauí States. This article aims to elucidate how mesquite was introduced in Rio Grande do Norte State and to understand how it was spread. It was first introduced in Rio Grande do Norte State by the introduction experiments installed at São Miguel farm in the municipality of Angicos. The enthusiasm of technicians and researchers promoted the distribution of pods and seedlings on farms and cities in the state. In addition, there were government incentives to production, distribution and planting the species. This work aims to establish considerations to be used as historical basis on studies about this species and to consider aspects regarding current situation of this culture in Brazilian Northeast.

  13. Modeling the uncertainty of several VOC and its impact on simulated VOC and ozone in Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Li, Xiangshang; Jeon, Wonbae; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ modeling system was used to study Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions and their impact on surface VOC and ozone concentrations in southeast Texas during September 2013. The model was evaluated against the ground-level Automated Gas Chromatograph (Auto-GC) measurement data from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The comparisons indicated that the model over-predicted benzene, ethylene, toluene and xylene, while under-predicting isoprene and ethane. The mean biases between simulated and observed values of each VOC species showed clear daytime, nighttime, weekday and weekend variations. Adjusting the VOC emissions using simulated/observed ratios improved model performance of each VOC species, especially mitigating the mean bias substantially. Simulated monthly mean ozone showed a minor change: a 0.4 ppb or 1.2% increase; while a change of more than 5 ppb was seen in hourly ozone data on high ozone days, this change moved model predictions closer to observations. The CMAQ model run with the adjusted emissions better reproduced the variability in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) columns. The adjusted model scenario also slightly better reproduced the aircraft HCHO concentrations from NASA's DISCOVER-AQ campaign conducted during the simulation episode period; Correlation, Mean Bias and RMSE improved from 0.34, 1.38 ppb and 2.15 ppb to 0.38, 1.33 ppb and 2.08 ppb respectively. A process analysis conducted for both industrial/urban and rural areas suggested that chemistry was the main process contributing to ozone production in both areas, while the impact of chemistry was smaller in rural areas than in industrial and urban areas. For both areas, the positive chemistry contribution increased in the sensitivity simulation largely due to the increase in emissions. Nudging VOC emissions to match the observed concentrations shifted the ozone hotspots

  14. Outreach Materials for the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign offers outreach materials to help collision repair shops reduce toxic air exposure. Materials include a DVD, poster, training video, and materials in Spanish (materiales del outreach en español).

  15. Tragedy prompts depression awareness, suicide prevention campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    1998-01-01

    The tragic suicide of Robert C. Goltz prompted associates at the integrated marketing and communications company he founded in Green Bay, Wis., to develop two multimedia campaigns, one focusing on depression awareness and the other on suicide prevention.

  16. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  17. Ecuador's Healthy Food Campaign: An Effectiveness Assessment ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This would trigger changes in food production, retail, and marketing. ... assess and document the actual and potential impact of the social marketing campaign. ... IDRC and the United Kingdom's Global AMR Innovation Fund—managed by the ...

  18. The Observed Relationship Between Water Vapor and Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Saturation Layer and the Influence of Meridional Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    We examine balloonsonde observations of water vapor and ozone from three Ticosonde campaigns over San Jose, Costa Rica [10 N, 84 W] during northern summer and a fourth during northern winter. The data from the summer campaigns show that the uppermost portion of the tropical tropopause layer between 360 and 380 K, which we term the tropopause saturation layer or TSL, is characterized by water vapor mixing ratios from proximately 3 to 15 ppmv and ozone from approximately 50 ppbv to 250 ppbv. In contrast, the atmospheric water vapor tape recorder at 380 K and above displays a more restricted 4-7 ppmv range in water vapor mixing ratio. From this perspective, most of the parcels in the TSL fall into two classes - those that need only additional radiative heating to rise into the tape recorder and those requiring some combination of additional dehydration and mixing with drier air. A substantial fraction of the latter class have ozone mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv, and with water vapor greater than 7 ppmv this air may well have been transported into the tropics from the middle latitudes in conjunction with high-amplitude equatorial waves. We examine this possibility with both trajectory analysis and transport diagnostics based on HIRDLS ozone data. We apply the same approach to study the winter season. Here a very different regime obtains as the ozone-water vapor scatter diagram of the sonde data shows the stratosphere and troposphere to be clearly demarcated with little evidence of mixing in of middle latitude air parcels.

  19. Brand experiences in engaging marketing campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Reisegg, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the effects from engaging marketing campaigns on brand experiences and the potential outcome on affective commitment and loyalty. In doing this, it also test the validity of the brand experience scale in a new setting during a short term marketing campaign. The research was conducted as a natural experiment during a marketing event arranged by Litago. Data were collected from participants and a control group, and the survey was sent out through the online survey tool...

  20. Theoretical Approaches on Successful Email Marketing Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Budac

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarifications on what could bring success to email marketingcampaigns. Responses are related to how sent emails can draw the attention of people (ie how theycan be observed, given that, users’ inboxes are invaded by messages of all kinds, how to measurethe results of a campaign and which are the best practices through which we can get higher returnsfrom email marketing campaigns.

  1. SEPARATIONS AND WASTE FORMS CAMPAIGN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, John D.; Todd, Terry A.; Peterson, Mary E.

    2012-11-26

    This Separations and Waste Forms Campaign Implementation Plan provides summary level detail describing how the Campaign will achieve the objectives set-forth by the Fuel Cycle Reasearch and Development (FCRD) Program. This implementation plan will be maintained as a living document and will be updated as needed in response to changes or progress in separations and waste forms research and the FCRD Program priorities.

  2. Social media in advertising campaigns: examining the effects on perceived persuasive intent, campaign and brand responses

    OpenAIRE

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Noort, G.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing popularity of advertising on social media, and especially on social network sites (SNSs), the aim of this study is to give insight into the effectiveness of SNS advertising. The first experimental study compares consumer responses to advertising on SNSs and television (TV) and demonstrates that while TV campaigns are evaluated more positively, SNS campaigns result in more favourable cognitive responses. Moreover, the persuasive intent of SNS campaigns is less recogn...

  3. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  4. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  5. Stratospheric ozone chemistry in the Antarctic: what determines the lowest ozone values reached and their recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-U. Grooß

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne observations of ozone from the South Pole Station have been reported to reach ozone mixing ratios below the detection limit of about 10 ppbv at the 70 hPa level by late September. After reaching a minimum, ozone mixing ratios increase to above 1 ppmv on the 70 hPa level by late December. While the basic mechanisms causing the ozone hole have been known for more than 20 yr, the detailed chemical processes determining how low the local concentration can fall, and how it recovers from the minimum have not been explored so far. Both of these aspects are investigated here by analysing results from the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. As ozone falls below about 0.5 ppmv, a balance is maintained by gas phase production of both HCl and HOCl followed by heterogeneous reaction between these two compounds in these simulations. Thereafter, a very rapid, irreversible chlorine deactivation into HCl can occur, either when ozone drops to values low enough for gas phase HCl production to exceed chlorine activation processes or when temperatures increase above the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC threshold. As a consequence, the timing and mixing ratio of the minimum ozone depends sensitively on model parameters, including the ozone initialisation. The subsequent ozone increase between October and December is linked mainly to photochemical ozone production, caused by oxygen photolysis and by the oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane.

  6. Ozone therapy and restorative dentistry: a literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This approach is being further reinforced with the emergence of ozone therapy in the management of tooth decay. Ozone therapy is the treatment of the tooth with a mixture of oxygen and ozone. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature on ozone therapy and on the different areas of restorative dental ...

  7. Study: Ozone Layer's Future Linked Strongly to Changes in Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA scientists launch an ozonesonde via balloon to measure of the vertical profile of the ozone layer. NOAA releases ozonesondes at eight sites to continuously monitor stratospheric ozone. Download here. (Credit: NOAA) The ozone layer - the thin

  8. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '

    2009-07-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)

  9. Evidence for a continuous decline in lower stratospheric ozone offsetting ozone layer recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stübi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; Bourassa, Adam; Davis, Sean M.; Degenstein, Doug; Frith, Stacey; Froidevaux, Lucien; Roth, Chris; Sofieva, Viktoria; Wang, Ray; Wild, Jeannette; Yu, Pengfei; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Rozanov, Eugene V.

    2018-02-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective ozone layer around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60° S and 60° N outside the polar regions (60-90°). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60° S and 60° N has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60° S and 60° N. We find that total column ozone between 60° S and 60° N appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  10. Evidence for a Continuous Decline in Lower Stratospheric Ozone Offsetting Ozone Layer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, William T.; Alsing, Justin; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Staehelin, Johannes; Haigh, Joanna D.; Peter, Thomas; Tummon, Fiona; Stuebi, Rene; Stenke, Andrea; Anderson, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone forms in the Earth's atmosphere from the photodissociation of molecular oxygen, primarily in the tropical stratosphere. It is then transported to the extratropics by the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), forming a protective "ozone layer" around the globe. Human emissions of halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (hODSs) led to a decline in stratospheric ozone until they were banned by the Montreal Protocol, and since 1998 ozone in the upper stratosphere is rising again, likely the recovery from halogen-induced losses. Total column measurements of ozone between the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere indicate that the ozone layer has stopped declining across the globe, but no clear increase has been observed at latitudes between 60degS and 60degN outside the polar regions (60-90deg). Here we report evidence from multiple satellite measurements that ozone in the lower stratosphere between 60degS and 60degN has indeed continued to decline since 1998. We find that, even though upper stratospheric ozone is recovering, the continuing downward trend in the lower stratosphere prevails, resulting in a downward trend in stratospheric column ozone between 60degS and 60degN. We find that total column ozone between 60degS and 60degN appears not to have decreased only because of increases in tropospheric column ozone that compensate for the stratospheric decreases. The reasons for the continued reduction of lower stratospheric ozone are not clear; models do not reproduce these trends, and thus the causes now urgently need to be established.

  11. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colette, A.

    2005-12-01

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  12. Florida's "truth" campaign: a counter-marketing, anti-tobacco media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, D; Hopkins, R S; Sly, D F; Urich, J; Kershaw, J M; Solari, S

    2000-05-01

    The "truth" campaign was created to change youth attitudes about tobacco and to reduce teen tobacco use throughout Florida by using youth-driven advertising, public relations, and advocacy. Results of the campaign include a 92 percent brand awareness rate among teens, a 15 percent rise in teens who agree with key attitudinal statements about smoking, a 19.4 percent decline in smoking among middle school students, and a 8.0 percent decline among high school students. States committed to results-oriented youth anti-tobacco campaigns should look to Florida's "truth" campaign as a model that effectively places youth at the helm of anti-tobacco efforts.

  13. The chemistry of stratospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurylo, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Compelling observational evidence shows that the chemical composition of the atmosphere is changing on a global scale at a rapid rate. The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) 11 (CFCl 3 ) and 12 (CF 2 Cl 2 ) are currently increasing at rate ranging from 0.2 to 5% per year. The concentrations of other cases, including CFC 113 (C 2 F 3 Cl 3 ) and halons 121 (CF 2 ClBr) and 1301 (CF 3 Br), important in the ozone depletion and global warming issues, are also increasing (at even faster rates). These changes in atmospheric composition reflect, on one part, the metabolism of the biosphere and, on another, the broad range of influencing human activities, including industrial, agricultural, and combustion practices. The only known sources of the CFCs and halons are industrial production prior to their use as aerosol propellants, refrigerants, foam blowing agents, solvents, and fire retardants. One of our greatest difficulties in accurately predicting future changes in ozone or global warming is our inability to predict the future atmospheric concentrations of these gases. This paper discusses the role of the biosphere in regulating the emissions of gases such as CH 4 , CO 2 , N 2 O, and methyl chloride (CH 3 Cl) to the atmosphere as well as the most probable future industrial release rates of the CFCs, halons, N 2 O, carbon monoxide (CO), and CO 2 , which depend upon a variety of economic, social, and political factors

  14. Lessons from the Ozone Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedick, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    On September 16, 1987, a treaty was signed that was unique in that annals of international diplomacy. The Montreal Protocol on substrates that Deplete the Ozone Layer mandated significant reductions in the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons. Perhaps the most extraordinary aspect of the Montreal Protocol was that it imposed substantial short-term economic costs in order to protect human health and the environment against speculative future dangers - dangers which rested on scientific theories rather than on proven facts. Unlike environmental agreements of the past, it was not a response to harmful events, but rather preventive action on a global scale. In the realm of international relations, there will always be resistance to change and there will always be uncertainties - political, economic, scientific, psychological. The ozone negotiations demonstrated that the international community, even in the real world of ambiguity and imperfect knowledge, can be capable of undertaking difficult cooperative actions for the benefit of future generation. The Montreal Protocol may well be a paradigm for international cooperation on the challenge of global warming

  15. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Projections of stratospheric ozone from a suite of chemistry-climate models (CCMs have been analyzed. In addition to a reference simulation where anthropogenic halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODSs and greenhouse gases (GHGs vary with time, sensitivity simulations with either ODS or GHG concentrations fixed at 1960 levels were performed to disaggregate the drivers of projected ozone changes. These simulations were also used to assess the two distinct milestones of ozone returning to historical values (ozone return dates and ozone no longer being influenced by ODSs (full ozone recovery. The date of ozone returning to historical values does not indicate complete recovery from ODSs in most cases, because GHG-induced changes accelerate or decelerate ozone changes in many regions. In the upper stratosphere where CO2-induced stratospheric cooling increases ozone, full ozone recovery is projected to not likely have occurred by 2100 even though ozone returns to its 1980 or even 1960 levels well before (~2025 and 2040, respectively. In contrast, in the tropical lower stratosphere ozone decreases continuously from 1960 to 2100 due to projected increases in tropical upwelling, while by around 2040 it is already very likely that full recovery from the effects of ODSs has occurred, although ODS concentrations are still elevated by this date. In the midlatitude lower stratosphere the evolution differs from that in the tropics, and rather than a steady decrease in ozone, first a decrease in ozone is simulated from 1960 to 2000, which is then followed by a steady increase through the 21st century. Ozone in the midlatitude lower stratosphere returns to 1980 levels by ~2045 in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and by ~2055 in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, and full ozone recovery is likely reached by 2100 in both hemispheres. Overall, in all regions except the tropical lower stratosphere, full ozone recovery from ODSs occurs significantly later than the

  16. Analysis of Ozone in Cloudy Versus Clear Sky Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, Sarah; Douglass, Anne; Ziemke, Jerald

    2016-01-01

    Convection impacts ozone concentrations by transporting ozone vertically and by lofting ozone precursors from the surface, while the clouds and lighting associated with convection affect ozone chemistry. Observations of the above-cloud ozone column (Ziemke et al., 2009) derived from the OMI instrument show geographic variability, and comparison of the above-cloud ozone with all-sky tropospheric ozone columns from OMI indicates important regional differences. We use two global models of atmospheric chemistry, the GMI chemical transport model (CTM) and the GEOS-5 chemistry climate model, to diagnose the contributions of transport and chemistry to observed differences in ozone between areas with and without deep convection, as well as differences in clean versus polluted convective regions. We also investigate how the above-cloud tropospheric ozone from OMI can provide constraints on the relationship between ozone and convection in a free-running climate simulation as well as a CTM.

  17. Antarctic ozone loss in 1989-2010: evidence for ozone recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttippurath, J.; Lefèvre, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Roscoe, H. K.; Goutail, F.; Pazmiño, A.; Shanklin, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed estimation of chemical ozone loss in the Antarctic polar vortex from 1989 to 2010. The analyses include ozone loss estimates for 12 Antarctic ground-based (GB) stations. All GB observations show minimum ozone in the late September-early October period. Among the stations, the lowest minimum ozone values are observed at South Pole and the highest at Dumont d'Urville. The ozone loss starts by mid-June at the vortex edge and then progresses towards the vortex core with time. The loss intensifies in August-September, peaks by the end of September-early October, and recovers thereafter. The average ozone loss in the Antarctic is revealed to be about 33-50% in 1989-1992 in agreement with the increase in halogens during this period, and then stayed at around 48% due to saturation of the loss. The ozone loss in the warmer winters (e.g. 2002, and 2004) is lower (37-46%) and in the colder winters (e.g. 2003, and 2006) is higher (52-55%). Because of small inter-annual variability, the correlation between ozone loss and the volume of polar stratospheric clouds yields ~0.51. The GB ozone and ozone loss values are in good agreement with those found from the space-based observations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOMS/OMI), the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), where the differences are within ±5% and are mostly within the error bars of the measurements. The piece-wise linear trends computed from the September-November vortex average GB and TOMS/OMI ozone show about -4 to -5.6 DU (Dobson Unit) yr-1 in 1989-1996 and about +1 DU yr-1 in 1997-2010. The trend during the former period is significant at 95% confidence intervals, but the trend in 1997-2010 is significant only at 85% confidence intervals. Our analyses suggest a period of about 9-10 yr to get the first detectable ozone

  18. Impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation in the Mediterranean area - a BEMA modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunis, P.; Cuvelier, C.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study is to understand and quantify the influence of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions on the formation of tropospheric ozone in the Burriana area (north of Valencia) on the east coast of Spain. The mesoscale modelling system used consists of the meteorology/transport module TVM and the chemical reaction mechanism RACM. The results of the model simulations are validated and compared with the data collected during the biogenic emissions in the mediterranean area (BEMA) field campaign that took place in June 1997. Anthropogenic and biogenic emission inventories have been constructed with an hourly resolution. Averaged (over the land area and over 24 h) emission fluxes for AVOC, anthropogenic NO x , BVOC and biogenic NO x are given by 16.0, 9.9, 6.2, and 0.7 kg km -2 day -1 , respectively. The impact of biogenic emissions is investigated on peak ozone values by performing simulations with and without biogenic emissions; while keeping anthropogenic emissions constant. The impact on ozone formation is also studied in combination with some anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies, i.e. when anthropogenic VOC emissions and/or NO x emissions are reduced. A factor separation technique is applied to isolate the impact due to biogenic emissions from the overall impact due to biogenic and anthropogenic emissions together. The results indicate that the maximum impact of biogenic emissions on ozone formation represents at the most 10 ppb, while maximum ozone values are of the order of 100 ppb. At different locations the maximum impact is reached at different times of the day depending on the arrival time of the sea breeze. It is also shown that this impact does not coincide in time with the maximum simulated ozone concentrations that are reached over the day. By performing different emission reduction scenarios, BVOC impacts are found to be sensitive mainly to NO x , and not to AVOC. Finally, it is shown that amongst the various

  19. Ozone injury to celery. [Apium graveolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, S.

    1966-10-01

    Ozone is the principal air pollutant damaging crops in Connecticut. Ozone injury in Connecticut has been found on a number of crops including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, spinach, alfalfa, and cereals. This is the first report of ozone damage to celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce) in Connecticut, and perhaps in the United States. On July 7, 1966, celery plants with badly damaged older leaves were found in a commercial garden near Shelton, Connecticut. The injured leaves showed chlorotic and necrotic interveinal areas on their upper surfaces. These areas were slightly depressed. Cross sections of the lesions revealed that the palisade cells were most severely injured. Spinach and carrots growing near the celery showed typical symptoms of ozone damage. To substantiate the diagnosis, young celery plants were exposed to 0.2 ppm of ozone in a well-lighted plastic chamber for 1 to 3 hours. Five days later, these plants developed symptoms indentical to those found on celery in the field. Ozone damage appeared on many crops in southern Connecticut early in July. This injury probably occurred on June 27, when a high concentration of ozone (0.1 ppm) was present in the New Haven area.

  20. Geophysical validation of SCIAMACHY Limb Ozone Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Brinksma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the quality of the two available SCIAMACHY limb ozone profile products. They were retrieved with the University of Bremen IFE's algorithm version 1.61 (hereafter IFE, and the official ESA offline algorithm (hereafter OL versions 2.4 and 2.5. The ozone profiles were compared to a suite of correlative measurements from ground-based lidar and microwave, sondes, SAGE II and SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. To correct for the expected Envisat pointing errors, which have not been corrected implicitly in either of the algorithms, we applied a constant altitude shift of -1.5 km to the SCIAMACHY ozone profiles. The IFE ozone profile data between 16 and 40 km are biased low by 3-6%. The average difference profiles have a typical standard deviation of 10% between 20 and 35 km. We show that more than 20% of the SCIAMACHY official ESA offline (OL ozone profiles version 2.4 and 2.5 have unrealistic ozone values, most of these are north of 15° S. The remaining OL profiles compare well to correlative instruments above 24 km. Between 20 and 24 km, they underestimate ozone by 15±5%.

  1. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  2. When will the Antarctic Ozone Hole Recover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the .TOMS instrument. The severity of the hole has been assessed from TOMS using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole) and by calculating the average size during the September-October period. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to, both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. Using projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates, we find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. The ozone hole will begin to show first signs of recovery in about 2023, and the hole will fully recover to pre-1980 levels in approximately 2070. This 2070 recovery is 20 years later than recent projections.

  3. Ozone depleting substances management inventory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ivan Romero Rodríguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The care of the ozone layer is an activity that contributes to the planet's environmental stability. For this reason, the Montreal Protocol is created to control the emission of substances that deplete the ozone layer and reduce its production from an organizational point of view. However, it is also necessary to have control of those that are already circulating and those present in the equipment that cannot be replaced yet because of the context of the companies that keep it. Generally, the control mechanisms for classifying the type of substances, equipment and companies that own them, are carried in physical files, spreadsheets and text documents, which makes it difficult to control and manage the data stored in them. Method: The objective of this research is to computerize the process of control of substances that deplete the ozone layer. An evaluation and description of all process to manage Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS, and its alternatives, is done. For computerization, the agile development methodology SCRUM is used, and for the technological solution tools and free open source technologies are used. Result: As a result of the research, a computer tool was developed that automates the process of control and management of substances that exhaust the ozone layer and its alternatives. Conclusions: The developed computer tool allows to control and manage the ozone-depleting substances and the equipment that use them. It also manages the substances that arise as alternatives to be used for the protection of the ozone layer.

  4. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  5. Rocket Ozone Data Recovery for Digital Archival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. H.; Krueger, A. J.; Hilsenrath, E.; Haffner, D. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Ozone distributions in the photochemically-controlled upper stratosphere and mesosphere were first measured using spectrometers on V-2 rockets after WWII. The IGY(1957-1958) spurred development of new optical and chemical instruments for flight on meteorological and sounding rockets. In the early 1960's, the US Navy developed an Arcas rocket-borne optical ozonesonde and NASA GSFC developed chemiluminescent ozonesonde onboard Nike_Cajun and Arcas rocket. The Navy optical ozone program was moved in 1969 to GSFC where rocket ozone research was expanded and continued until 1994 using Super Loki-Dart rocket at 11 sites in the range of 0-65N and 35W-160W. Over 300 optical ozone soundings and 40 chemiluminescent soundings were made. The data have been used to produce the US Standard Ozone Atmosphere, determine seasonal and diurnal variations, and validate early photochemical models. The current effort includes soundings conducted by Australia, Japan, and Korea using optical techniques. New satellite ozone sounding techniques were initially calibrated and later validated using the rocket ozone data. As satellite techniques superseded the rocket methods, the sponsoring agencies lost interest in the data and many of those records have been discarded. The current task intends to recover as much of the data as possible from the private records of the experimenters and their publications, and to archive those records in the WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre). The original data records are handwritten tabulations, computer printouts that are scanned with OCR techniques, and plots digitized from publications. This newly recovered digital rocket ozone profile data from 1965 to 2002 could make significant contributions to the Earth science community in atmospheric research including long-term trend analysis.

  6. Optical remote measurement of ozone in cirrus clouds; Optische Fernmessung von Ozon in Zirruswolken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    The subject of this thesis is theoretical and experimental investigations into the simultaneous optical remote measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration and particle properties. A lidar system was developed that combines the Raman-lidar and the polarization-lidar with the Raman-DIAL technique. An error analysis is given for ozone measurements in clouds. It turns out that the wavelength dependencies of photon multiple scattering and of the particle extinction coefficient necessitate a correction of the measured ozone concentration. To quantify the cloud influence, model calculations based on particle size distributions of spheres are carried out. The most important experimental result of this thesis is the measured evidence of pronounced minima in the ozone distribution in a humid upper troposphere shortly before and during cirrus observation. Good correlation between ozone-depleted altitude ranges and ice clouds is found. This finding is in contrast to ozone profiles measured in a dry and cloud-free troposphere. (orig.) 151 refs.

  7. 29 CFR 452.79 - Opportunity to campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity to campaign. 452.79 Section 452.79 Labor... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.79 Opportunity to campaign. There must be a reasonable... prior to the election so that he was denied an equal opportunity to campaign. Similarly, in a mail...

  8. 11 CFR 9002.11 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9002.11 Section 9002.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.11 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense means...

  9. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DoD overseas campaign. 950.701 Section... VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS DoD Overseas Campaign § 950.701 DoD overseas campaign. (a) A Combined Federal Campaign is authorized for all Department of Defense (DoD) activities in the overseas areas during a 6-week...

  10. 26 CFR 701.9006-1 - Presidential Election Campaign Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presidential Election Campaign Fund. 701.9006-1...) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND § 701.9006-1 Presidential Election Campaign Fund. (a) Transfer of amounts to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. The Secretary shall determine...

  11. 11 CFR 9032.9 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9032.9 Section 9032.9 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.9 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense...

  12. Campaign contributions and the desirability of full disclosure laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.

    1999-01-01

    In a signaling game model of costly political campaigning in which a candidate is dependent on a donor for campaign funds it is verified whether the electorate may benefit from campaign contributions being directly observed. By purely focusing on the informational role of campaign contributions the

  13. 29 CFR 452.67 - Distribution of campaign literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution of campaign literature. 452.67 Section 452.67... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.67 Distribution of campaign literature. The Act... distribute his campaign literature to the membership at his expense. When the organization or its officers...

  14. What makes or breaks a health fundraising campaign on twitter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasetyo, N.D.; Hauff, C.; Nguyen, D.; Broek, T.A. van den; Hiemstra, D.

    2015-01-01

    Health campaigns that aim to raise awareness and subsequently raise funds for research and treatment are commonplace. While many local campaigns exist, very few attract the attention of a global audience. One of those global campaigns is Movember, an annual campaign during the month of November,

  15. Variability of the stratospheric ozone in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Gloria Leon

    2002-01-01

    In this study has been examined the causes of ozone variations and the sign that represent in the short-term, seasonal, interannual, decadal and long-term variability. The analysis of NASA satellite data sets, obtained with the total ozone mapping spectrometer toms, for the period 1979-1999, they permit to deduce to the total column ozone that in Colombia, varies among 255 and 267 U.D., and presents synchronous variations with the quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) and in the series not any tendency with the time is recognized

  16. Tunable Diode Laser Heterodyne Spectrophotometry of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, P. F.; McElroy, C. T.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    Tunable diode laser heterodyne spectrophotometry (TDLHS) has been used to make extremely high resolution (less than 0.0005/ cm) solar spectra in the 9.6 micron ozone band. Observations have shown that a signal-to-noise ratio of 95 : 1 (35% of theoretical) for an integration time of 1/8 second can be achieved at a resolution of 0.0005 wavenumbers. The spectral data have been inverted to yield a total column amount of ozone, in good agreement with that. measured at the nearby National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ozone monitoring facility in Boulder, Colorado.

  17. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  18. Lightweight ozonizer for field and airborne use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E. J.; Caldwell, J. R.; de Waal, C.; Horvath, J. J.; Pearson, R., Jr.; Stedman, D. H.

    1982-12-01

    An efficient, lightweight apparatus for the production of ozone in flowing oxygen or air has been constructed and tested. The exciter is an automotive electronic ignition running from a 28-V dc power source. The discharge tube consists of coaxial conductive-coated flint glass tubing fitting into Teflon end pieces. A single such unit will produce 4% ozone in oxygen flowing at 0.2 l/min, or a maximum of 0.020 l of ozone per minute in a total flow of 1.0 l/min.

  19. Are we approaching an Arctic ozone hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braathen, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Observations during the last decade in the Arctic areas mainly made by satellite, on the ground and by probes and sensors in the stratosphere are presented. Future perspectives are deducted from the results. Factors that may influence the ozone layer negatively are: Emission rate of ozone destroying compounds, the rapidly increasing use of some substitutes, increased concentrations of steam from aeroplanes and increased amount of methane, decreasing temperature in the stratosphere due to increasing amounts of climatic gases, large volcanic eruptions and altered timing for the polar whirl dissolution. It is concluded that the ozone reduction will be larger than observed at present in the next 10 to 20 years

  20. Ozone mitigation tests at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Collins, J.T.; Pisharody, M.; Job, P.K.; Wang Zhibi.

    1996-09-01

    Ozone is generated in the APS experimental stations whenever the x-ray beam has a chance to interact with air. Ozone concentrations in an experimental station have to be below a certain defined limit (current OSHA regulations specify 0.08 ppm as the maximum limit) before an experimenter can reenter the hutch. This limit is said to be currently under study for a downward adjustment. One method of depleting the ozone generated in an experimental station is mitigation through either adsorption or direct destruction. In recent tests, both methods were tried using commercially available units. Test results and some analytical predictions are presented

  1. Diversity and distribution Patterns of the infralittoral green macroalgae from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das macroalgas verdes da bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilma de Lourdes Montenegro Cocentino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and distribution pattern of the infralittoral green macroalgae at Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil were analyzed from material collected at depths varying from 2 to 100 m. Collections were carried out with two types of dredges during four campaigns: July 2002, May and November 2003 and May 2004 at 43 stations. Chlorophyta is represented by 54 species, five varieties and three forms. The most representative family is Caulerpaceae, and the most diverse genus is Caulerpa, with 11 species. The results showed that most taxa (89% are rare, and 10% are present at low frequencies. The most frequent species was Caulerpaprolifera (Forssk. J.V. Lamour. occurring at almost all coastal and inner shelf stations, recorded in all campaigns. Species distribution by depth range showed that higher species number occurred on the inner shelf from 10 to 20 m, and a wide vertical distribution pattern was registered for Anadyomenestellata (Wulfen in Jacq. C. Agardh,Chamaedoris peniculum (J. Ellis & Solander Kuntze, Codium isthmocladum Vickers, Microdictyon sp., Udoteaoccidentalis A. Gepp & E. Gepp and Ventricaria ventricosa (J. Agardh J.L. Olsen & J.A. West. Four species, Cladophoracoelothrix Kütz., C.ordinata (Børgensen C. Hoek, Caulerpellaambigua (Okamura Prud'homme & Lokhorst and Halimedasimulans M. Howe, were recorded for the first time in Rio Grande do Norte.Diversidade e padrão de distribuição das algas verdes do infralitoral da Bacia potiguar, RN, nordeste do Brasil foram analisados a partir de material coletado em profundidades que variaram de 2 a 100 m. As coletas foram feitas em dois tipos de dragas durante as quatro campanhas: julho de 2002, maio e novembro de 2003 e maio de 2004, em 43 estações. Chlorophyta está representada por 54 espécies, cinco variedades e três formas. A família mais representativa é Caulerpaceae e dentro da família, o gênero mais diverso é Caulerpa, com 11 espécies. Os resultados

  2. Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Scientists Press Events & Ceremonies Science & Training Videos Scientific Seminars News & Events Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers ...

  3. Cultivating Campaign Managers: A Discussion Regarding the Creation and Implementation of a Campaign Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Amber R.

    2018-01-01

    When approached about working with colleagues to develop a new course revolving around the inner-workings of a political campaign, one thing was obvious to me: We had to give the course the unique element of making it as closely mimic real-world campaign activities as possible. If we were going to attempt to actually prepare students for work on a…

  4. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  5. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion; Ozon in der Troposphaere. Bildung, Eigenschaften, Wirkungen. Gutachten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1996-06-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Gutachten nimmt nur am Rande die Problematik der Bildung und Ausbreitung von troposphaerischen Ozon auf; Im Mittelpunkt steht die Auseinandersetzung mit den Wirkungen des bodennahen Ozons auf Pflanze, Tier und Mensch. Das Gutachten basiert auf einer Analyse der zugaenglichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten. (orig./MG)

  6. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  7. Pb-Pb Dating mono zircon from Gloria Norte Massif, Sergipano belt; Datacao de Pb-Pb em monozircao do Macico Gloria Norte, faixa Sergipana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa, V.A.C.; Rosa, M.L.S.; Conceicao, H., E-mail: viniciuslisboa1@hotmail.com [Pós-Graduacão em Geociências e Análise de Bacias/Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A. [Pós-Graduacão em Geociências/Universidade Federal do Pará, Belem, PA (Brazil); Rios, D.C. [Departamento de Geologia/Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The Gloria Norte Massif (MGN) has about 50 km{sup 2} in area, lies between the cities of Nossa Senhora da Gloria and Monte Alegre, northeastern Sergipe state, is composed of monzonitic rocks, being intrusive in metasediments Domain Macurure, in the Sergipano Belt. In this study Pb-Pb geochronological determinations were performed using the evaporation technique single crystals of zircon in MGN. Two samples were analyzed (03A and 12A) and the results were ages of 646 ± 2.5 Ma and 650 ± 4.5 Ma, place this magmatism in the Cryogenian period. These data may imply that around 645-655 Ma, there was an active magmatic arc in this region of the Sergipano Belt. (author)

  8. Merged SAGE II, Ozone_cci and OMPS ozone profile dataset and evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II on ERBS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY and MIPAS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, ACE-FTS on SCISAT, and OMPS on Suomi-NPP. The merged dataset is created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (Ozone_cci with the aim of analyzing stratospheric ozone trends. For the merged dataset, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The datasets from the individual instruments have been extensively validated and intercompared; only those datasets which are in good agreement, and do not exhibit significant drifts with respect to collocated ground-based observations and with respect to each other, are used for merging. The long-term SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is created by computation and merging of deseasonalized anomalies from individual instruments. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset consists of deseasonalized anomalies of ozone in 10° latitude bands from 90° S to 90° N and from 10 to 50 km in steps of 1 km covering the period from October 1984 to July 2016. This newly created dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997. The upper stratospheric trends are statistically significant at midlatitudes and indicate ozone recovery, as expected from the decrease of stratospheric halogens that started in the middle of the 1990s and stratospheric cooling.

  9. Anti-idling campaign : Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The efficient use of transportation fuels and other petroleum products is being promoted by the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. The Institute was busy during the past year in attempting to gain an understanding of the measures that could be adopted to assist motorists clearly identify the relationship between fuel consumption, personal transportation spending, and environmental impacts. The Institute undertook these efforts with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency (which both provided funding) and the Public Policy Forum. A first step proposed was the development of an anti-idling public awareness campaign. It was recognized that idling a vehicle for more than ten seconds costs money and wastes fuel, while simultaneously contributing to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. The campaign also involved Esso, Shell, Petro-Canada, Canadian Tire and Sunoco for the development and implementation phases over the last two weeks of August 2002. A pilot campaign was tested in Mississauga, Ontario. Various materials were used for this campaign, such as posters, banners, cling vinyl window decals, air fresheners and information cards. The main successes of the campaign were: testing the methods of communicating the anti-idling message to drivers at gasoline retailing sites, increasing awareness among the driving public concerning the problems resulting from excessive idling, and encouraging the reduction of idling whenever and wherever it takes place. 1 tab.

  10. Remembering the 100,000 lives campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Earlier this week the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI emailed its weekly bulletin celebrating that it has been ten years since the end of the 100,000 Lives Campaign (Appendix 1. This was the campaign, according to the bulletin, that put IHI on the map. The Campaign started at the IHI National Forum in December 2004, when IHI's president, Don Berwick, announced that IHI would work together with nearly three-quarters of the US hospitals to reduce needless deaths by 100,000 over 18 months. A phrase borrowed from political campaigns became IHI's cri de coeur: “Some is not a number. Soon is not a time.” The Campaign relied on six key interventions: Rapid Response Teams; Improved Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction; Medication Reconciliation; Preventing Central Line Infections; Preventing Surgical Site Infections; Preventing Ventilator-Associated Pnemonia [sic]. According to the bulletin, the Campaign’s impact rippled across the organization and the world. IHI listed some ...

  11. Ozone measurements in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.

    Several scientists of the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Espacias, or INPE; headquarters at Sāo Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo) went to Manaus (3°S, 60°W), in the central region of the Amazon forest during July-August 1985 to study the atmosphere of the equatorial rainforest. The expedition to the Amazon was part of a large binational atmospheric chemistry field campaign that was organized to measure several atmospheric gases of the forest environment. This was definitely the largest scientific field expedition in this field ever performed on Brazilian territory.

  12. Process Analysis of Typhoon Related Ozone Pollution over the Pearl River Delta during the PRIDE-PRD2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There were two typhoon processes during Campaign PRIDE-PRD2006 in July 2006 and serious ozone pollution episodes occurred before the landing of the typhoons. Chemical transport model CMAQ was employed in this work to simulate the ozone pollution episode related by the typhoon KAEMI. According to the meteorological conditions, the pollution episode could be divided into three phases with the movement of the typhoon, which were (1) far away from the continent; (2) coming close to the continent; (3) before landing. Process analysis was applied to get the contributions of physical and chemical processes for the ozone. It revealed that transport process was dominant during this pollution episode, and the influence of chemical process increased in the second phase. Three typical regions, northern rural area, urban area and Hong Kong area, were selected to study the contribution of each chemical and physical process. In the first phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was vertical diffusion, accounting for 47% and 46% respectively. In the second phase, the primary process in northern rural area and the urban area was chemical process, accounting for 33% and 31% respectively. In the third phase, the region of high concentration ozone moved southward. For Hong Kong area, the western inflow was prominent as 40%. Sensitivity study showed that urban areas were VOCs-limited regime with decreased ozone concentration when reducing the emission of VOCs. On the contrary, the ozone concentration in downwind rural areas decreased with the reduction of NOx, and the reason may be the decrement of the accumulated precursors.

  13. Observations of the vertical distributions of summertime atmospheric pollutants and the corresponding ozone production in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chengzhi; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shanshan; Chan, Ka Lok; Gao, Yang; Huang, Xin; Su, Wenjing; Zhang, Chengxin; Dong, Yunsheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Zhang, Tianshu; Chen, Zhenyi; Hu, Qihou; Su, Hang; Xie, Zhouqing; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-12-01

    Ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and lidar measurements were performed in Shanghai, China, during May 2016 to investigate the vertical distribution of summertime atmospheric pollutants. In this study, vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements using the Heidelberg Profile (HEIPRO) algorithm, while vertical distribution of ozone (O3) was obtained from an ozone lidar. Sensitivity study of the MAX-DOAS aerosol profile retrieval shows that the a priori aerosol profile shape has significant influences on the aerosol profile retrieval. Aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements with Gaussian a priori profile demonstrate the best agreements with simultaneous lidar measurements and vehicle-based tethered-balloon observations among all a priori aerosol profiles. Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) measured with MAX-DOAS show a good agreement with OMI satellite observations with a Pearson correlation coefficient (R) of 0.95. In addition, measurements of the O3 vertical distribution indicate that the ozone productions do not only occur at surface level but also at higher altitudes (about 1.1 km). Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and horizontal and vertical wind field information were integrated to discuss the ozone formation at upper altitudes. The results reveal that enhanced ozone concentrations at ground level and upper altitudes are not directly related to horizontal and vertical transportation. Similar patterns of O3 and HCHO vertical distributions were observed during this campaign, which implies that the ozone productions near the surface and at higher altitudes are mainly influenced by the abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the lower troposphere.

  14. Regional and local meteorology influences high-resolution tropospheric ozone concentration in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzoukis, S.; Jenerette, D.; Chandler, M.; Wang, J.; Ge, C.; Ripplinger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban air quality and climate directly affect resident health. The Los Angeles (LA) Basin is a highly populated metropolitan area, with widespread point sources of ozone (O3) precursors (NOx , Volatile Organic Compounds, CO) from fossil fuel combustion. The LA basin exists on a coast-to-mountain gradient, with increasing temperatures towards the Transverse Ranges, which rise to 1700m. Frequently not compliant with 8-hour O3 standards, the LA and South Coast Air Basins are designated as severe and extreme non-attainment areas. Summer weather in the LA basin is characterized by a persistent high pressure system, creating an inversion that traps air pollutants, including O3 precursors, coupled with physical geography that blocks prevailing upper atmosphere air flow. These interactions make neighborhood-level O3 levels more variable than common regional models. Over the summer of 2017, we investigated the importance of local meteorology, wind patterns and air temperature, in transporting and mixing ozone precursors from point sources along the coast-to-mountain gradient. We deployed a network of six EPA federal equivalent method ozone and meteorological sensors in three campaigns in the LA basin along the coast-to-mountain transect. Each campaign, we collaborated with citizen scientists to deploy three sensor stations in two, 4 km2 quadrats, for a total of six high-resolution 4 km2 pixels. O3 concentrations vary greatly along the transect. At the coastal sites, daily O3 ranges from 0ppm to 60ppm and the range increases at the inland sites, to 100ppm. At all sites, there was a positive relationship between wind speed, air temperature, and O3 concentration, with increasing correlation inland. The Pearson correlation coefficient between wind speed and O3 concentration doubles from the coast to inland, and triples between air temperature and O3. The site-specific relationships between O3 and wind direction and temperature vary, suggesting neighborhood-effects from local

  15. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ... and comparison of the emissions from motor vehicles using different reformulated gasolines based on their ozone-forming potentials and to assess the concomitant impact of that approach on air-quality benefits...

  16. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  17. Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Ozone-Forming Potential of Reformulated Gasoline, National Research Council

    ...) technical aspects of various air-quality issues related to RFG assessment, and (3) the sensitivity of evaluations of the relative ozone-forming potentials to factors related to fuel properties and the variability of vehicle technologies and driving patterns.

  18. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  20. In Brief: Monitoring ozone in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    Qatar is establishing an ozone and pollution monitoring ground station in West Asia, following discussions between the government, the Qatar Foundation, and the United Nations Environment Programme, according to a 19 November announcement. The station will assist in understanding whether the ozone layer is actually recovering after being damaged by ozone-depleting chemicals. Qatar also announced plans to establish a global center of excellence for research and development of ozone and climate-friendly technology, equipment, and appliances. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner said the announcements by Qatar ``will help plug key data gaps relating to information gathering in West Asia and the Gulf to the benefit of the region and the world.''

  1. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  2. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, D.; Hisham, M.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time (1-8 days), color change vs. ozone concentration (30-350 ppb), and response to changes in sampler configuration that modify the passive sampling rate. With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. day and 120 ppb. day using a plastic grid and Teflon filter, respectively, as diffusion barriers. Interferences from nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and peroxyacetyl nitrate are 15, 4 and 16%, respectively, thus resulting in a negligible bias when measuring ozone in ambient air

  4. Reactions of GD and VX with Ozone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bartram, Philip

    1998-01-01

    .... The identified products reveal that the reaction is strictly analogous to the well-known ozonation of tertiary amines, with oxidation occurring predominately at carbons adjacent to the nitrogen...

  5. Ozone: Good Up High, Bad Nearby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are already under stress from UV radiation. This stress could have adverse consequences for human food supplies from the oceans. What is Being Done About the Depletion of “Good” Ozone? The United States, along with over 180 ...

  6. Merging of OMI and AIRS Ozone Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labow, Gordon J.; Fisher, Bradford; Susskind, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The OMI Instrument measures ozone using the backscattered light in the UV part of the spectrum. In polar night there are no OMI measurements so we hope to incorporate the AIRS ozone data to fill in these missing regions. AIRS is on the Aqua platform and has been operating since May 2002. AIRS is a multi-detector array grating spectrometer containing 2378 IR channels between 650 per centimeter and 2760 per centimeter which measures atmospheric temperature, precipitable water, water vapor, CO, CH4, CO2 and ozone profiles and column amount. It can also measure effective cloud fraction and cloud top pressure for up to two cloud layers and sea-land skin temperature. Since 2008, OMI has had part of its aperture occulted with a piece of the thermal blanket resulting in several scan positions being unusable. We hope to use the AIRS data to fill in the missing ozone values for those missing scan positions.

  7. Ozone Layer Research and Technical Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on research and technical resources related to ozone layer science. This page provides links to research efforts led by organizations such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the United Nations Environment Program, an

  8. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the Infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  9. RESULTS of the "ELIMINATING NOISE" campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    From 4 to 6 August, CERN’s nurses conducted a screening campaign entitled "Eliminating noise". This campaign was especially aimed at young people exposed to noise during their leisure hours (playing in a band, listening to MP3 players, attending concerts, etc.). In all, 166 people attended the infirmary, where they were able to receive personalised advice, documentation and, above all, a hearing test (audiogram). While the high attendance of people in the younger age category (18-30) was a success, their audiogram data were a cause for concern, with 24.5% showing abnormal results, hearing deficiencies which, we should remind you, are irreversible. It should be noted that such conditions are almost exclusively caused by noise exposure in a non-professional environment (leisure activities, music, etc.). This latest campaign confirms the harmful effects of noise on people’s hearing due to the absence or insufficiency of protective equipment during music-related activities; this further unde...

  10. Road safety campaign is a great success

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.

  11. Impact of climate variability on tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, Volker

    2007-01-01

    A simulation with the climate-chemistry model (CCM) E39/C is presented, which covers both the troposphere and stratosphere dynamics and chemistry during the period 1960 to 1999. Although the CCM, by its nature, is not exactly representing observed day-by-day meteorology, there is an overall model's tendency to correctly reproduce the variability pattern due to an inclusion of realistic external forcings, like observed sea surface temperatures (e.g. El Nino), major volcanic eruption, solar cycle, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Additionally, climate-chemistry interactions are included, like the impact of ozone, methane, and other species on radiation and dynamics, and the impact of dynamics on emissions (lightning). However, a number of important feedbacks are not yet included (e.g. feedbacks related to biogenic emissions and emissions due to biomass burning). The results show a good representation of the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer, including the ozone hole, which plays an important role for the simulation of natural variability of tropospheric ozone. Anthropogenic NO x emissions are included with a step-wise linear trend for each sector, but no interannual variability is included. The application of a number of diagnostics (e.g. marked ozone tracers) allows the separation of the impact of various processes/emissions on tropospheric ozone and shows that the simulated Northern Hemisphere tropospheric ozone budget is not only dominated by nitrogen oxide emissions and other ozone pre-cursors, but also by changes of the stratospheric ozone budget and its flux into the troposphere, which tends to reduce the simulated positive trend in tropospheric ozone due to emissions from industry and traffic during the late 80s and early 90s. For tropical regions the variability in ozone is dominated by variability in lightning (related to ENSO) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (related to Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric

  12. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  13. Experimental and modeling study of the impact of vertical transport processes from the boundary-layer on the variability and the budget of tropospheric ozone; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des processus de transport depuis la couche-limite sur la variabilite et le bilan d'ozone tropospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colette, A

    2005-12-15

    Closing the tropospheric ozone budget requires a better understanding of the role of transport processes from the major reservoirs: the planetary boundary layer and the stratosphere. Case studies lead to the identification of mechanisms involved as well as their efficiency. However, their global impact on the budget must be addressed on a climatological basis. This manuscript is thus divided in two parts. First, we present case studies based on ozone LIDAR measurements performed during the ESCOMPTE campaign. This work consists in a data analysis investigation by means of a hybrid - Lagrangian study involving: global meteorological analyses, Lagrangian particle dispersion computation, and mesoscale, chemistry - transport, and Lagrangian photochemistry modeling. Our aim is to document the amount of observed ozone variability related to transport processes and, when appropriate, to infer the role of tropospheric photochemical production. Second, we propose a climatological analysis of the respective impact of transport from the boundary-layer and from the tropopause region on the tropospheric ozone budget. A multivariate analysis is presented and compared to a trajectography approach. Once validated, this algorithm is applied to the whole database of ozone profiles collected above Europe during the past 30 years in order to discuss the seasonal, geographical and temporal variability of transport processes as well as their impact on the tropospheric ozone budget. The variability of turbulent mixing and its impact on the persistence of tropospheric layers will also be discussed. (author)

  14. Pyrolytic citrate synthesis and ozone annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celani, F.; Saggese, A.; Giovannella, C.; Messi, R.; Merlo, V.

    1988-01-01

    A pyrolytic procedure is described that via a citrate synthesis allowed us to obtain very fine grained YBCO powders that, after a first furnace thermal treatment in ozone, results already to contain a large amount of superconducting microcrystals. A second identical thermal treatment gives a final product strongly textured, as shown by magnetic torque measurements. Complementary structural and diamagnetic measurement show the high quality of these sintered pellets. The role covered by both the pyrolytic preparation and the ozone annealing are discussed

  15. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E; Thomalla, E; Koepke, P [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  16. Video-documentation: 'The Pannonic ozon project'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.; Cabela, E.; Mayer, H. F.; Schmidt, M.

    1998-07-01

    Goal of the project was the production of a video film as documentation of the Pannonian Ozone Project- POP. The main part of the video describes the POP-model consisting of the modules meteorology, emissions and chemistry, developed during the POP-project. The model considers the European emission patterns of ozone precursors and the actual wind fields. It calculates ozone build up and depletion within air parcels due to emission and weather situation along trajectory routes. Actual ozone concentrations are calculated during model runs simulating the photochemical processes within air parcels moving along 4 day trajectories before reaching the Vienna region. The model computations were validated during extensive ground and aircraft-based measurements of ozone precursors and ozone concentration within the POP study area. Scenario computations were used to determine how much ozone can be reduced in north-eastern Austria by emissions control measures. The video lasts 12:20 minutes and consists of computer animations and life video scenes, presenting the ozone problem in general, the POP model and the model results. The video was produced in co-operation by the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf - Department of Environmental Planning (ARCS) and Joanneum Research - Institute of Informationsystems (JR). ARCS was responsible for idea, concept, storyboard and text while JR was responsible for computer animation and general video production. The speaker text was written with scientific advice by the POP - project partners: Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences- Vienna, Environment Agency Austria - Air Quality Department, Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf- Environmental Planning Department/System Research Division. The film was produced as German and English version. (author)

  17. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  18. Multi sensor reanalysis of total ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. van der A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A single coherent total ozone dataset, called the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR, has been created from all available ozone column data measured by polar orbiting satellites in the near-ultraviolet Huggins band in the last thirty years. Fourteen total ozone satellite retrieval datasets from the instruments TOMS (on the satellites Nimbus-7 and Earth Probe, SBUV (Nimbus-7, NOAA-9, NOAA-11 and NOAA-16, GOME (ERS-2, SCIAMACHY (Envisat, OMI (EOS-Aura, and GOME-2 (Metop-A have been used in the MSR. As first step a bias correction scheme is applied to all satellite observations, based on independent ground-based total ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Center. The correction is a function of solar zenith angle, viewing angle, time (trend, and effective ozone temperature. As second step data assimilation was applied to create a global dataset of total ozone analyses. The data assimilation method is a sub-optimal implementation of the Kalman filter technique, and is based on a chemical transport model driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The chemical transport model provides a detailed description of (stratospheric transport and uses parameterisations for gas-phase and ozone hole chemistry. The MSR dataset results from a 30-year data assimilation run with the 14 corrected satellite datasets as input, and is available on a grid of 1× 1 1/2° with a sample frequency of 6 h for the complete time period (1978–2008. The Observation-minus-Analysis (OmA statistics show that the bias of the MSR analyses is less than 1% with an RMS standard deviation of about 2% as compared to the corrected satellite observations used.

  19. From ozone depletion to biological UV damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, E.; Thomalla, E.; Koepke, P. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Based on the ozone data from the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHP: 47.8 deg N, 11.01 deg E) and corresponding mean atmospheric conditions, high resolution UV spectra are calculated with a complex radiation transfer model STAR. Biologically weighted UV spectra are investigated as integrated irradiances (dose rates) for maximum zenith angles and as daily integrals for selected days of the year. Ozone variation and uncertainty of action spectra are investigated

  20. High troposphere O3 filament at mid-latitude: a BORTAS campaign case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Peterson, David; Di Carlo, Piero; Biancofiore, Fabio; Busilacchio, Marcella; Dari Salisburgo, Cesare; Giammaria, Franco; Bauguitte, Stephane; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Hopkins, James; Punjabi, Shalini; Lewis, Alistair C.; Palmer, Paul; Hyer, Edward

    2016-04-01

    During a flight (B625, 24 July 2011) of the BORTAS campaign (BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites, Nova Scotia, Canada, July-August 2011), an increase in the ozone (O3) concentrations has been observed at high altitude (about 7.5 Km a.s.l.) correlated with a significant growth of total peroxy nitrates (∑PNs), CO, NO2, NOy, black carbon (BC), isoprene and other species. We will illustrate the data analysis, the Hysplit back trajectories calculation and the analysis of the meteorological/physical conditions occurred during this case study in order to demonstrate that the O3 filament measured at high altitude over the Atlantic Ocean (between Nova Scotia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence) is a consequence of boreal biomass burning fires.

  1. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution from Space: New Views from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Frolov, Alexander D.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) >satellite instrument can resolve pollution events in tropical and mid-latitudes, Over the past several years, we have developed tropospheric ozone data sets by two methods. The modified-residual technique [Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999] uses v. 7 TOMS total ozone and is applicable to tropical regimes in which the wave-one pattern in total ozone is observed. The TOMSdirect method [Hudson et at., 2000] represents a new algorithm that uses TOMS radiances to extract tropospheric ozone in regions of constant stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone displaying high mixing ratios and variability characteristic of pollution, Absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke; Herman et at., 1997 Hsu et al., 1999), a standard TOMS product, provide transport and/or source marker information to interpret tropospheric ozone. For the Nimbus 7/TOMS observing period (1979-1992), modified-residual TTO (tropical tropospheric ozone) appears as two maps/month at I-degree latitude 2-degree longitude resolution at a homepage and digital data are available (20S to 20N) by ftp at http://metosrv2. umd.edu/tropo/ 14y_data.d. Preliminary modified-residual TTO data from the operational Earth-Probe/TOMS (1996- present) are posted in near-real-time at the same website. Analyses with the new tropospheric ozone and aerosol data are illustrated by the following (I)Signals in tropical tropospheric ozone column and smoke amount during ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation) events, e.g. 1982-1983 and the intense ENSO induced biomass fires of 1997-1998 over the Indonesian region [Thompson et a[, 2000a, Thompson and Hudson, 1999]. (2) Trends in tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols in various tropical regions (Atlantic, Pacific, Africa, Brazil). No significant trends were found for ozone from1980-1990 [Thompson and Hudson, 19991 although smoke aerosols increased during the period [Hsu et al.,1999]. (3) Temporal and spatial offsets

  2. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  3. The (n,γ campaigns at EXILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolie J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin, the EXILL array consisting of EXOGAM, GASP and ILL-Clover detectors was used to perform (n,γ measurements at very high coincidence rates. About ten different reactions were measured in autumn 2012 using a highly collimated cold neutron beam. In spring 2013, the EXOGAM array was combined with 16 LaBr3(Ce scintillators in the EXILL&FATIMA campaign for the measurement of lifetimes using the generalised centroid difference method. We report on the properties of the set-ups and present first results from both campaigns.

  4. Modulations of stratospheric ozone by volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christian; Mcconnell, John C.

    1994-01-01

    We have used a time series of aerosol surface based on the measurements of Hofmann to investigate the modulation of total column ozone caused by the perturbation to gas phase chemistry by the reaction N2O5(gas) + H2O(aero) yields 2HNO3(gas) on the surface of stratospheric aerosols. We have tested a range of values for its reaction probability, gamma = 0.02, 0.13, and 0.26 which we compared to unperturbed homogeneous chemistry. Our analysis spans a period from Jan. 1974 to Oct. 1994. The results suggest that if lower values of gamma are the norm then we would expect larger ozone losses for highly enhanced aerosol content that for larger values of gamma. The ozone layer is more sensitive to the magnitude of the reaction probability under background conditions than during volcanically active periods. For most conditions, the conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is saturated for reaction probability in the range of laboratory measurements, but is only absolutely saturated following major volcanic eruptions when the heterogeneous loss dominates the losses of N2O5. The ozone loss due to this heterogeneous reaction increases with the increasing chlorine load. Total ozone losses calculated are comparable to ozone losses reported from TOMS and Dobson data.

  5. Encantamento do filme Vento norte atravessa meio século

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Póvoas, Glênio Nicola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Quando Salomão Scliar filmou em dezembro de 1944 em Capão da Canoa o documentário curto Homens do mar (1945, em contato com os pescadores locais, teve oportunidade de ouvir muitas histórias interessantes. Entre elas a do vento norte, que seca tudo aquilo por lá e gera uma miséria desgraçada. A idéia de tranformar aquelas histórias num filme não me saía da cabeça

  6. Libre commercio y desarrollo regional en el norte de México

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendert de Bell

    2010-01-01

    La buena actuación económica de México en los primeros años después de la firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) con los Estados Unidos y Canadá ha generado mucho interés como ejemplo para los demás países de América Latina en su transición a una economía dirigida por las

  7. Liquens brasileiros: novas descobertas evidenciam a riqueza no Norte e Nordeste do país

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eugenia da Silva Cáceres; Edvaneide Leandro de Lima Nascimento; André Aptroot; Robert Luecking

    2014-01-01

    A maioria das espécies não descritas de fungos é esperada em áreas pouco estudadas, como as florestas tropicais ou habitats pouco explorados como fungos que vivem em insetos, plantas, ou liquens. O Filo Ascomycota apresenta o maior número de espécies dentro do Reino Fungi, sendo que cerca da metade destas espécies são liquenizadas, ou seja, associam-se a algas e/ou cianobactérias e formam os liquens. Estes fungos liquenizados, de maneira geral, têm sido muito pouco estudados no Norte e Nordes...

  8. Factores asociados a mastitis en vacas de la microcuenca lechera del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Vásquez, Nicolás; Arroyave Henao, Ofelia; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Jaramillo, Manuel; Cerón, Juan; Palacio, Luis Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Se efectuó un estudio de corte sobre la prevalencia de mastitis bovina en una muestra representativa de las granjas lecheras del altiplano norte de Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron los resultados del California Mastitis Test (CMT), Recuento de Células Somáticas (RCS) y cultivo bacteriológico de leche, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo asociados a mastitis bovina. El análisis estadístico de la información se efectuó por medio de estadística descriptiva, análisis de razón de prevalencias ...

  9. Sociedades religiosas y organizaciones privadas de beneficencia en la frontera norte (Tijuana): Un primer acercamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Clark Alfaro

    1991-01-01

    A partir de la década de los setenta se da un crecimiento importante de organizaciones religiosas en América Latina y del que la frontera norte no ha sido ajeno.El propósito de esta investigación es dar una visión aproximada de la presencia cada vez más numerosa de sociedades religiosas y organizaciones privadas de beneficencia y su impacto social en distintos ámbitos de la ciudad de Tijuana con una breve referencia a la zona rural (San Quintín). La información que se ofrece fue recopilada an...

  10. Del territorio a la empresa: conocimientos productivos entre los ingenieros del norte de México

    OpenAIRE

    Hualde Alfaro, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    El crecimiento del empleo industrial con el aumento de la inversión extranjera ha producido un incremento de los mercados profesionales de ingenieros en las ciudades del norte de México. En los casos a los que el artículo se refiere, dicho crecimiento es mucho más importante en Tijuana que en Hermosillo. En una época de valoración creciente del conocimiento, la pericia y las competencias para el desarrollo local y regional, es necesario preguntarse por la naturaleza de dichos conocimientos, l...

  11. Movilidad estudiantil en la subregión fronteriza Táchira-Norte de Santander

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Matajira; Eimer Barajas

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra los resultados del proyecto “Movilidad estudiantil en la subregión fronteriza Táchira - Norte de Santander: Hacia la construcción de una política pública educativa”, financiado por la Escuela Superior de Administración Pública ESAP. La problemática de la investigación indaga la movilidad estudiantil que por múltiples factores, afecta y vulnera el derecho a la educación en esta área geográfica. El objetivo propuesto busca comprender la dinámica de la movilidad estudiantil ...

  12. The Rio Grande do Norte electric power market: the competitiveness that won't come

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Neilton Fidelis da; Pernambuco Univ., Recife

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to analyze the Rio Grande Norte, a Brazilian state, electric power market after privatization advent based on regulations established by National Agency of Electric Energy

  13. Characterization of ceramic product of the Apodi region in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria R.; Freire, Juvenise T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great precariousness of information on ceramics products, as the brick of Rio Grande do Norte state, the purpose of this work was to analyze the physical and mechanical characteristics of ceramic bricks for construction manufactured in Assu region of the state. Therefore, samples were collected in cities belonging to different potters poles. The bricks were subjected to several tests: visual, absorption, suction, compressive strength, dimensions and flatness deviation from the square. According to ABNT standard, the products need some improvement in quality

  14. Thrips collected in watermelon crops in the semiarid of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewerton Marinho Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to report the occurrence of two species of thrips in watermelon crops in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From August to September 2011, we performed weekly sampling of thrips in a commercial watermelon production area with 10,000m2, using 20 Moericke traps. We captured a total of 431 thrips, belonging to Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom (Thripidae and Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin (Phlaeothripidae. This is the first report of H. gowdeyi in watermelon crops in Brazil

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Maria de Fátima de; Pimentel-Neto,Manoel; Silva,Rízia Maria da; Farias,Albeísa Cleyse Batista; Guimarães,Marcos Pezzi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the gastrointestinal parasitism by helminths and protozoa in sheep (Ovis aries) Santa Inês breed, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Monthly, from April 2005 to August 2007, stool samples were collected from two tracer lambs in the first day of the experiment and performed a necropsy of these animals in 44th day. A total of 64 lambs were sampled, but only 62 lambs were slaughtered. The fecal samples were examined by sedimentation in water. The contents of the ...

  16. Simultaneous observations of SAO and QBO in winds, temperature and ozone in the tropical middle atmosphere over Thumba (8.5 N, 77 E)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Swain, Debadatta; John, Sherine Rachel; Ramkumar, Geetha [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Space Physics Laboratory, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2011-11-15

    Owing to the importance of middle atmosphere, recently, a Middle Atmospheric Dynamics (MIDAS) program was carried out during the period 2002-2007 at Thumba (8.5 N, 77 E). The measurements under this program, involving regular radiosonde/rocket flights as well as atmospheric radars, provided long period observations of winds and temperature in the middle atmospheric region from which waves and oscillations as well as their forcing mechanisms particularly in the low-latitude middle atmosphere could be analyzed. However, a detailed analysis of the forcing mechanisms remains incomplete due to the lack of important measurements like ozone which is a significant contributor to atmospheric dynamics. Presently, profiles of ozone are available from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broad Emission Radiometry) satellite globally from about 15 to 100 km, over multiple years since 2002. In this regard, a comprehensive study has been carried out on ozone and its variability at Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and Semiannual Oscillation (SAO) scales using TIMED/SABER ozone observations during the MIDAS campaign period. Before using the TIMED/SABER ozone measurements, an inter-comparison has been carried out with in situ measurements of ozone obtained under the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) campaign for the year 2007 at few stations. The inter-comparison showed very good agreement between SABER and ozonesonde derived ozone profiles. After validating the SABER observations, ozone profiles are used extensively to study the QBO and SAO along with temperature and winds in the 20-100 km height region. It is known that the SAO in mesosphere and stratosphere are in opposite phases, but the present study for the first time reports the aspect of opposite phases in the mesosphere itself. Thus, the present work attempts to study the long-period oscillations in stratosphere and mesosphere in ozone

  17. Effect of Pulse Width on Oxygen-fed Ozonizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Sho; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    Though general ozonizers based on silent discharge (barrier discharge) have been used to supply ozone at many industrial situations, there is still some problem, such as improvements of ozone yield. In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed discharge in order to improve the characteristics of ozone generation. It is known that a pulse width gives strong effect to the improvement of energy efficiency in exhaust gas processing. In this paper, the effect of pulse duration on ozone generation by pulsed discharge in oxygen would be reported.

  18. Urban Summertime Ozone of China: Peak Ozone Hour and Nighttime Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, H.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the observed diurnal cycle of summertime ozone in the cities of China using a regional chemical transport model. The simulated daytime ozone is in general agreement with the observations. Model simulations suggest that the ozone peak time and peak concentration are a function of NOx (NO + NO2) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The differences between simulated and observed ozone peak time and peak concentration in some regions can be applied to understand biases in the emission inventories. For example, the VOCs emissions are underestimated over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, and either NOx emissions are underestimated or VOC emissions are overestimated over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions. In contrast to the general good daytime ozone simulations, the simulated nighttime ozone has a large low bias of up to 40 ppbv. Nighttime ozone in urban areas is sensitive to the nocturnal boundary-layer mixing, and enhanced nighttime mixing (from the surface to 200-500 m) is necessary for the model to reproduce the observed level of ozone.

  19. 77 FR 74381 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances--Fire Suppression... a companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New... companion proposed rule issuing listings for three fire suppressants under EPA's Significant New...

  20. Impact of enhanced ozone deposition and halogen chemistry on tropospheric ozone over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate of ozone in marine environments has been receiving increased attention due to the tightening of ambient air quality standards. The role of deposition and halogen chemistry is examined through incorporation of an enhanced ozone deposition algorithm and inclusion of halogen ch...

  1. Sacerdotisas, Curanderas, Parteras y Guerreras: Mujeres de élite en la costa norte del Perú Antiguo

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Escudero, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Los hallazgos arqueológicos en la costa norte peruana durante las últimas décadas han permitido constatar que el género femenino tuvo un peso muy importante en las estructuras regionales de poder. Se ha descubierto que las mujeres ocuparon cargos especiales en el mundo político-religioso, lo cual significa una importante contribución al actual análisis de la sociedad prehispánica en la costa norte del Perú. Este artículo analiza cuatro de estos cargos ocupados por mujeres de élite y argumenta...

  2. Evolución geológica del margen Norte de la Placa del Caribe, República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Estaun, Andrés; Tavares, I.; García-Cortés, Ángel; Hernaiz Huerta, P. P.

    2002-01-01

    La Isla La Española se encuentra situada en la actualidad en la parte septentrional de la Placa del Caribe. Conjuntamente con Puerto Rico, constituye una unidad que puede interpretarse como una microplaca, limitada al Norte por una zona de subducción oblicua, con una fuerte componente de salto en dirección, y al Sur por otra zona de subducción incipiente a la que se asocia la Fosa de los Muertos. El margen Norte de la Placa del Caribe ha evolucionado desde constituir un límite contro...

  3. HMV Ingenieros Ltda : un modelo de internacionalización para entrar en el mercado Triángulo Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Cadavid, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigación por medio de un estudio de caso estudia el proceso de internacionalización que debería seguir HMV ingenieros Ltda, con el objetivo de ingresar en el mercado Triángulo Norte. Un paso a paso es el modelo que debe llevarse a cabo como guía para incursionar en dicho mercado. Con la experiencia de HMV Ingenieros Ltda, se concluye que presenta una fortaleza para establecer presencia comercial (modo 3) en el mercado de Triángulo Norte. Adicionalmente acorde con las tendencias de l...

  4. A Global Ozone Climatology from Ozone Soundings via Trajectory Mapping: A Stratospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. J.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.; McLinden, C.; Zhao, T.; Gong, S.; Sioris, G.; Jin, J. J.; Liu, G.; Moeini, O.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores a domain-filling trajectory approach to generate a global ozone climatology from sparse ozonesonde data. Global ozone soundings of 51,898 profiles at 116 stations over 44 years (1965-2008) are used, from which forward and backward trajectories are performed for 4 days, driven by a set of meteorological reanalysis data. Ozone mixing ratios of each sounding from the surface to 26 km altitude are assigned to the entire path along the trajectory. The resulting global ozone climatology is archived monthly for five decades from the 1960s to the 2000s with grids of 5 degree 5 degree 1 km (latitude, longitude, and altitude). It is also archived yearly from 1965 to 2008. This climatology is validated at 20 ozonesonde stations by comparing the actual ozone sounding profile with that found through the trajectories, using the ozone soundings at all the stations except one being tested. The two sets of profiles are in good agreement, both individually with correlation coefficients between 0.975 and 0.998 and root mean square (RMS) differences of 87 to 482 ppbv, and overall with a correlation coefficient of 0.991 and an RMS of 224 ppbv. The ozone climatology is also compared with two sets of satellite data, from the Satellite Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) and the Optical Spectrography and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS). Overall, the ozone climatology compares well with SAGE and OSIRIS data by both seasonal and zonal means. The mean difference is generally under 20 above 15 km. The comparison is better in the northern hemisphere, where there are more ozonesonde stations, than in the southern hemisphere; it is also better in the middle and high latitudes than in the tropics, where assimilated winds are imperfect in some regions. This ozone climatology can capture known features in the stratosphere, as well as seasonal and decadal variations of these features. Furthermore, it provides a wealth of detail about longitudinal variations in the stratosphere such

  5. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  6. Providence Sponsors Diocesan Teacher Recruiting Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygert, William

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the issue of teacher recruitment in Providence, Rhode Island. Explains that the Catholic education staff designed a campaign that involved creating marketing materials, advertising in daily newspapers, and holding job fairs and open houses. Stresses the importance of promoting teaching at Catholic schools as both rewarding and…

  7. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  8. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  9. Campaign best practice in intravenous therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Wayne; Murphy, Jayne; Shakespeare, David; Kelly, Chris; Fox, Louise; Kelly, Matthew

    Intravenous therapy is an integral part of nursing care but is associated with a high risk of infection. This article outlines a campaign that aimed to increase awareness of best practice for IV therapy and reduce the risks of healthcare-associated IV infections in hospital and community settings.

  10. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  11. Advocacy of Trafficking Campaigns: A Controversy Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Echezarreta, Vanesa; Alvarado, María-Cruz; Gómez-Lorenzini, Paulina

    2018-01-01

    The construction, visualization and stabilization of public problems require the mobilization of civil society groups concerned about these issues to actively engage in the demand for actions and policies. This paper explores the institutional campaigns against human trafficking and sexual exploitation in Spain between 2008 and 2017 and their role…

  12. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  13. Gender identity and breast cancer campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven); N.T. Tavassoli (Nader)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractConcerning itself with understanding how marketing methods and tools can be of benefit to healthcare professionals, health marketing is an area of research that has grown substantially in recent years. Of much interest to the sector is whether awareness campaigns are effective in

  14. Japanese campaign to enthuse young scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Japan's Science and Technology Agency has launched a 3-year campaign to promote the public understanding of science and revive the interest in science subjects in schools. Plans include a science-only television channel and a 'virtual science museum' on the Internet (2 paragraphs).

  15. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  16. Campaign Assessment in Counterinsurgency: Reinventing the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    Pamphlet 525-5-500: Commander’s Appreciation and Campaign Design (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2008), 18. 18 Robert Axelrod and Michael D...distrust within the Johnson 60 Axelrod and Cohen, Harnessing Complexity: Organizational...Metrics in COIN: Effects Based Analysis.” Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin (April-June 2010). Axelrod , Robert and Michael D. Cohen

  17. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  18. Analyzing the Communication Dynamics of Political Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Sally

    2007-01-01

    It is widely agreed that college students do not fully participate in the political process. The most commonly cited reasons are apathy, indifference, and ignorance. This article presents an activity that aims to help students learn about communication dynamics in the context of political campaigns and develop an appreciation and confidence about…

  19. Educative campaign about information on irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-07-01

    The irradiation of foods is accepted by international agencies (FAO, OMS) like a healthy and effective technology at the moment the irradiated foods are marketed easily in many countries, however in other countries exist several factors that affect the practical application of this process. In this work is planned about an educational campaign about the irradiation process directed to the consumers. (Author)

  20. Constant volume balloons measurements in the urban Marseille and Fos-Berre industrial ozone plumes during ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénech, Bruno; Ezcurra, Agustin; Lothon, Marie; Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Lohou, Fabienne; Durand, Pierre

    ESCOMPTE programme aims at studying the emissions of primary pollutants in industrial and urban areas, their transport, diffusion and transformation in the atmosphere. This experiment, carried out in southeast France, can be used to validate and to improve meteorological and chemical mesoscale models. One major goal of this experiment was to follow the pollutant plumes, and to investigate its thermodynamic and physico-chemical time evolution. This was realized by means of constant volume balloons, located by global position satellite (GPS) and equipped with thermodynamic and ozone sensors, flying at constant density levels. During the two ESCOMPTE campaigns that took place in June and July 2000 and 2001, 40 balloons were launched, 17 of them equipped with ozone sensors during the day from 0800 to 1800 UTC. Balloons' altitudes flight levels ranged between 400 and 1200 m altitude with Mistral (northerly synoptic flow) and Sea Breeze (southerly breeze) conditions. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) topography of the experimental domain is complex and varies strongly from day to day. Its depth presents a large gradient from the sea coast to the north part of the ESCOMPTE domain, and also more complex variability within the domain. The balloons' trajectories describe the evolution of the pollutant plume emitted from the industrial area of Fos-Berre or from the Marseille urban area. Constant volume balloons give a good description of the trajectories of these two plumes. The balloons, which fly at an isopicnic level, cross different atmospheric layers chiefly depending on the ABL height in relation with the constant volume balloons flight level. Thus, each balloon flight is decomposed into different segments that correspond to the same atmospheric layer. In each segment, the ozone content variation is analyzed in relation to other thermodynamical parameters measured by the balloon and mainly to the vapor mixing ratio content. During ESCOMPTE campaign, the mean linear

  1. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  2. El acuerdo de cooperación laboral de America del Norte (ACLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Mantero de San Vicente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El antecedente inmediato del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, es el Tratado de Libre Comercio entre USA y Canadá de 1987. El mismo era un tratado estrictamente comercial entre dos países pero en el que se contiene ya una referencia a las cuestiones laborales y sociales en cuanto señalaba, como uno de sus objetivos, el logro del pleno empleo y la elevación del standard de vida.Contenido: Antecedentes. El contexto histórico en que se celebraron los acuerdos. El Tratado de libre Comercio de América del Norte. Características generales del TLCAN. Estructura y temas tratados en el TLCAN. Características generales del ACLAN. Estructura del ACLAN. El preámbulo. El anexo I. Diferentes grados de aplicación de las materias enumeradas en el anexo 1.Primera parte. Objetivos. Segunda parte. Las obligaciones. La Comisión para la Cooperación Laboral. Cuarta parte. Consultas y evaluaciones para la cooperación. Los Comités Evaluadores de Expertos. Solución de controversias. Instancias para la solución de controversias. Imposición de contribución monetaria y suspensión de beneficios. Experiencias de funcionamiento del ACLAN. El informe sobre cierre de empresas y derechos laborale

  3. Prosavana: Instrumento de Cooperação Internacional (Norte-Sul-Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre de Paiva Toledo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diante da crise energético-alimentar de 2008, a África passa a ser vista pelas instituições internacionais como território de expansão da fronteira agrícola, isto é, local de inserção do agronegócio. Apesar das contestações quanto ao caráter improdutivo do modelo tradicional de produção local, diversos Estados africanos têm estabelecido acordos internacionais de investimento com vistas à modernização de sua agricultura. Nesse contexto, surge o acordo trilateral entre Japão, Brasil e Moçambique, que possibilitará a implementação neste país do Prosavana, o programa de desenvolvimento agrícola da Savana moçambicana. Justificado como resultado da cooperação internacional Sul-Sul em contraposição ao tradicional mecanismo Norte-Sul, verificar-se-á que, na realidade, o Prosavana é um instrumento de cooperação (Norte-Sul-Sul, pelo qual são garantidos determinados interesses incompatíveis com a horizontalidade da cooperação Sul-Sul.

  4. Assistive Technology and specific care in the granting of wheelchairs in Rio Grande do Norte state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Cabral Galvão

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Orthesis and Prosthesis Grant Program from Rio Grande do Norte State was restructured by a team of occupational and physical therapists specialized in Assistive Technology. The sector has a showroom for the equipment, prepares prescriptions, and makes deliveries after individual assessment made by the team. The work is developed in conjunction with orthopedic workshop technicians to adjust and adapt the wheelchairs when necessary. Social workers guide and follow the bureaucratic processes of documentation and purchasing, which allows the handing in of wheelchairs throughout the year. This program is considered distinctive compared to programs from other states. In this work, a study was conducted to characterize the demand for locomotion assistance devices, such as wheelchairs, and describe the delivery and acquisition process of the Orthesis and Prosthesis Grant Program from Rio Grande do Norte State. The study was carried out after analyzing and correlating information on the wheelchair delivery process in the past three years. A discussion on the organizational structure, operation, and acquisition facilities of this program is presented in order to promote the social inclusion of people with special needs.

  5. Susceptibility to mass movement processes in the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec, Sierra Norte de Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Borja Baeza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since historical times, mass movement processes have taken place in the Mexican territory as a result of its topography, heterogeneous lithology, intense rainfall and the impact of anthropic activity, particularly in mountainous areas such as the Sierra Norte de Puebla. In this region, as a result of extremely high rainfall, a large number of landslides occurred in October 1999. These were mainly slides and flows; they affected economic, structural and environmental aspects and caused the loss of dozens of human lives. Among the various approaches to analysis of this type of hazard, cartography is of considerable importance since it allows the understanding and assessment of spatial distribution, as well as of the interactions of elements of the terrain that determine slope instability. Hence, some studies of landslide hazard cartography have been carried out in Mexico; these have mainly been based on the overlaying, against a background of geographic information systems, of layers of information concerning the parameters that are involved in slope instability. However, there is a tendency for this approach to establish similar degrees of influence for all factors, regardless of specific local conditions. The present aim was to consider the influence of the five most important parameters controlling regional slope instability in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (slope, morphogenesis, relief dissection, deforestation and roads, and to validate the results by means of a recurrence index. Multicriteria analysis has allowed a map of susceptibility to mass movement processes to be produced for the municipality of Tlatlauquitepec.

  6. Movilidad estudiantil en la subregión fronteriza Táchira-Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matajira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra los resultados del proyecto “Movilidad estudiantil en la subregión fronteriza Táchira - Norte de Santander: Hacia la construcción de una política pública educativa”, financiado por la Escuela Superior de Administración Pública ESAP. La problemática de la investigación indaga la movilidad estudiantil que por múltiples factores, afecta y vulnera el derecho a la educación en esta área geográfica. El objetivo propuesto busca comprender la dinámica de la movilidad estudiantil en el eje Táchira-Norte de Santander, para generar propuestas que fortalezcan una política educativa fundamentada en la condición de frontera y de integración binacional. La investigación muestra un diagnóstico, a partir de una metodología cuanticualitativa, con fuentes estadísticas, institucionales y trabajo de campo. Entre los hallazgos está, el uso consuetudinario de la doble identidad, como medio para saltar los requerimientos oficiales de inmigración, y acceder así a la educación, hecho que posteriormente se convierte en obstáculo de la misma movilidad estudiantil.

  7. ANÁLISIS DE LA LOGÍSTICA DEL CARBÓN EN NORTE DE SANTANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Guevara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del análisis logístico de la cadena del carbón en Norte de Santander, se resaltar un informe inicial de la industria del carbón a nivel mundial, donde se describen las actividades que componen la cadena logística en Colombia, información que permitirá analizar cuál es el comportamiento del departamento norte de Santander con respecto a los principales departamentos de este sector minero a nivel nacional. El estudio muestra como las ventajas comparativas en cuanto a las reservas, aún no se desarrolla en el sector ventajas competitivas en materia de logística, que permita mitigar los efectos de los bajos precios internacionales del carbón, y el desarrollo de un clúster encadenado tanto con productores, proveedores, comercializadores, transportadores, sector público, que aporten a la cadena de creación y captura de valor en los mercados internacionales, y su aporte al desarrollo regional fronterizo.

  8. Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.: Maas (Zingiberaceae: planta comestible de la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía, Manuel J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The edible fruits of Renealmia alpinia are highly valued in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México where they are managed at a household level. The plant is wild in the región, although a rare species. The aril of the fruit is the edible part. After harvesting, the aril is extracted fresh and processed for local consumption. Sometimes the fruits are commercialized in tradicional markets. Only 19% of the total weight of the fruits is used for food.Los frutos comestibles de Renealmia alpinia son muy apreciados en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, en donde son manejados a nivel familiar. La planta crece silvestre en la región, aunque es una especie poco frecuente. La parte comestible es el arilo de los frutos. Tras la cosecha, se extrae en fresco el arilo y se procesa para su consumo familiar. Ocasionalmente los frutos se comercializan en los mercados tradicionales. Solamente el 19 % del peso total de los frutos se aprovecha para alimentación.

  9. Peroxy radical chemistry and the control of ozone photochemistry at Mace Head, Ireland during the summer of 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Fleming

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxy radical (HO2+ΣRO2 measurements, using the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplification (PERCA technique at the North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer EXperiment (NAMBLEX at Mace Head in summer 2002, are presented and put into the context of marine, boundary-layer chemistry. A suite of other chemical parameters (NO, NO2, NO3, CO, CH4, O3, VOCs, peroxides, photolysis frequencies and meteorological measurements, are used to present a detailed analysis of the role of peroxy radicals in tropospheric oxidation cycles and ozone formation. Under the range of conditions encountered the peroxy radical daily maxima varied from 10 to 40 pptv. The diurnal cycles showed an asymmetric shape typically shifted to the afternoon. Using a box model based on the master chemical mechanism the average model measurement agreement was 2.5 across the campaign. The addition of halogen oxides to the model increases the level of model/measurement agreement, apparently by respeciation of HOx. A good correlation exists between j(HCHO.[HCHO] and the peroxy radicals indicative of the importance of HCHO in the remote atmosphere as a HOx source, particularly in the afternoon. The peroxy radicals showed a strong dependence on [NO2] with a break point at 0.1 ppbv, where the radicals increased concomitantly with the reactive VOC loading, this is a lower value than seen at representative urban campaigns. The HO2/(HO2+ΣRO2 ratios are dependent on [NOx] ranging between 0.2 and 0.6, with the ratio increasing linearly with NOx. Significant night-time levels of peroxy radicals were measured up to 25 pptv. The contribution of ozone-alkenes and NO3-alkene chemistry to night-time peroxy radical production was shown to be on average 59 and 41%. The campaign mean net ozone production rate was 0.11±0.3 ppbv h-1. The ozone production rate was strongly dependent on [NO] having linear sensitivity (dln(P(O3/dln(NO=1.0. The results imply that the N(O3 (the in-situ net photochemical rate of ozone

  10. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-09-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular in the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During one measurement flight the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low-ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. Entrainment of ozone-rich air is estimated to account for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on model calculations using observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range reported previously.

  11. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERKOWITZ, C.M.; SPRINGSTON, S.R.; DORAN, J.C.; FAST, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy

  12. Flora útil de los cafetales en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México Useful plants of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cafetales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla son agroecosistemas variados en composición y estructura, donde se pueden encontrar especies vegetales cultivadas y silvestres, nativas e introducidas, y cuya diversidad florística está estrechamente ligada a las condiciones sociales, económicas y ecológicas en las que se inserta la producción del café. En la última década el cultivo de esta planta ha estado en crisis debido a los bajos precios del producto; sin embargo,los agricultores mantienen los cafetales como fuente de ingreso adoptando nuevas estrategias para obtener recursos económicos mediante la introducción o incremento de cultivos de importancia económica, como pimienta, mamey o plantas medicinales, aprovechando la versatilidad y posibilidades de reorganización de estos agroecosistemas. En este trabajo se presenta el inventario de la flora útil encontrada en cafetales de la SNP. A la fecha están registradas 319 especies pertenecientes a 238 géneros y 99 familias; 90 especies son objeto de comercio y pueden representar nuevas fuentes de ingreso; 256 son nativas y 63 introducidas y se han agrupado en 13 categorías antropocéntricas, de las cuales las medicinales y comestibles son las más numerosas.Coffee plantations in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (SNP are agroecosystems with variable composition and structure. These agroecosystems include native and introduced plant species, as well as cultivated and wild ones. Plant diversity in coffee plantations is closely related to the social, economic, and ecological context into which coffee production is inserted. In the last decade, coffee cultivation has been in crisis due to low prices. Nevertheless, farmers of the SNP maintain their plantations as a source of income, with new strategies such as the introduction or increase of plants with economic value, like allspice (Pimenta dioica, mamey (Pouteria sapota, and medicinal plants, taking advantage of the versatility and possibilities

  13. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Plummer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art chemistry climate model coupled to a three-dimensional ocean model is used to produce three experiments, all seamlessly covering the period 1950–2100, forced by different combinations of long-lived Greenhouse Gases (GHGs and Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs. The experiments are designed to quantify the separate effects of GHGs and ODSs on the evolution of ozone, as well as the extent to which these effects are independent of each other, by alternately holding one set of these two forcings constant in combination with a third experiment where both ODSs and GHGs vary. We estimate that up to the year 2000 the net decrease in the column amount of ozone above 20 hPa is approximately 75% of the decrease that can be attributed to ODSs due to the offsetting effects of cooling by increased CO2. Over the 21st century, as ODSs decrease, continued cooling from CO2 is projected to account for more than 50% of the projected increase in ozone above 20 hPa. Changes in ozone below 20 hPa show a redistribution of ozone from tropical to extra-tropical latitudes with an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In addition to a latitudinal redistribution of ozone, we find that the globally averaged column amount of ozone below 20 hPa decreases over the 21st century, which significantly mitigates the effect of upper stratospheric cooling on total column ozone. Analysis by linear regression shows that the recovery of ozone from the effects of ODSs generally follows the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine levels, with the exception of the lower polar stratosphere where recovery of ozone in the second half of the 21st century is slower than would be indicated by the decline in reactive chlorine and bromine concentrations. These results also reveal the degree to which GHG-related effects mute the chemical effects of N2O on ozone in the standard future scenario used for the WMO Ozone Assessment. Increases in the

  14. Utilization of Alternate Propellants to Reduce Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, David

    1994-01-01

    There is continuing concern about the depletion of the ozone layer. Recently it has been determined that effluents from rockets exhausts contain chemical species that can be classified as Potentially Ozone Reactive Chemicals (PORCs...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Stratospheric Monitoring Ozone Blended Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 3-D global ozone mixing ratio (ppm) and total column ozone (DU) dataset analyzed from daily Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument(SBUV/2) and TIROS Operational...

  16. SUM06 Index for Damage to Flora from Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In addition to health effects in humans, Ozone exposure also causes damage to plants. One index used in calculating the potential damage to plants from Ozone...

  17. Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-12

    Feb 12, 2013 ... discharge of effluents by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are not ... The efficiency of ozone in removing pharmaceuticals and personal care ...... assessment and modeling of an ozonation step for full-scale munic-.

  18. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  19. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  20. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.; Pandey, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Keski-Saari, S.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Sharma, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  1. Inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, O.E.; Bogdanov, M.V.; Kazantseva, V.A.; Gabrilevskaia, L.N.; Kodkind, G.K.H.

    The study of ozone inactivation of enteroviruses in sewage showed the presence in sewage of suspensions of organic origin and bacterial flora to influence the rate of inactivation. The inactivation rate of poliomyelitis virus in sewage free from organic suspension and bacterial flora was significantly higher than that in sewage containing such suspension and bacterial flora. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses was found not to depend upon the protein and salt composition and pH of sewage or strain appurtenance of viruses. The inactivation rate of enteroviruses directly depended upon the dose of ozone and time of contact with it. Differences in the resistance of different types of poliomyelitis virus, ECHO and Coxsackie viruses to the effect of ozone are likely exist. These differences are manifested within the range of relatively small doses of ozone. E. coli is more resistant to ozone than entero-viruses. The results of laboratory studies were used to choose the regimen of sanitation of urban sewage to be used in technological cycles of industrial enterprises.

  2. [Curative effect of ozone hydrotherapy for pemphigus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fuqiong; Deng, Danqi; Li, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenfang; Xie, Hong; Wu, Yongzhuo; Luan, Chunyan; Yang, Binbin

    2018-02-28

    To determine clinical curative effects of ozone therapy for pemphigus vulgaris.
 Methods: Ozone hydrotherapy was used as an aid treatment for 32 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The hydropathic compression of potassium permanganate solution for 34 patients with pemphigus vulgaris served as a control. The main treatment for both groups were glucocorticoids and immune inhibitors. The lesions of patients, bacterial infection, usage of antibiotics, patient's satisfaction, and clinical curative effect were evaluated in the 2 groups.
 Results: There was no significant difference in the curative effect and the average length of staying at hospital between the 2 groups (P>0.05). But rate for the usage of antibiotics was significantly reduced in the group of ozone hydrotherapy (P=0.039). The patients were more satisfied in using ozone hydrotherapy than the potassium permanganate solution after 7-day therapy (P>0.05).
 Conclusion: Ozone hydrotherapy is a safe and effective aid method for pemphigus vulgaris. It can reduce the usage of antibiotics.

  3. Two case studies on the interaction of large-scale transport, mesoscale photochemistry, and boundary-layer processes on the lower tropospheric ozone dynamics in early spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brönnimann

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere over the Swiss Plateau is investigated in detail for two episodes in early spring (February 1998 and March 1999. Profile measurements of boundary-layer ozone performed during two field campaigns with a tethered balloon sounding system and a kite are investigated using regular aerological and ozone soundings from a nearby site, measurements from monitoring stations at various altitudes, backward trajectories, and synoptic analyses of meteorological fields. Additionally, the effect of in situ photochemistry was estimated for one of the episodes employing the Metphomod Eulerian photochemical model. Although the meteorological situations were completely different, both cases had elevated layers with high ozone concentrations, which is not untypical for late winter and early spring. In the February episode, the highest ozone concentrations of 55 to 60 ppb, which were found at around 1100 m asl, were partly advected from Southern France, but a considerable contribution of in situ photochemistry is also predicted by the model. Below that elevation, the local chemical sinks and surface deposition probably overcompensated chemical production, and the vertical ozone distribution was governed by boundary-layer dynamics. In the March episode, the results suggest that ozone-rich air parcels, probably of stratospheric or upper tropospheric origin, were advected aloft the boundary layer on the Swiss Plateau.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and  chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  4. Effects of local meteorology and aerosols on ozone and nitrogen dioxide retrievals from OMI and pandora spectrometers in Maryland, USA during DISCOVER-AQ 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Andra J; Thompson, Anne M; Kollonige, Debra E; Martins, Douglas K; Tzortziou, Maria A; Herman, Jay R; Berkoff, Timothy A; Abuhassan, Nader K; Cede, Alexander

    An analysis is presented for both ground- and satellite-based retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide levels from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan area during the NASA-sponsored July 2011 campaign of D eriving I nformation on S urface CO nditions from Column and VER tically Resolved Observations Relevant to A ir Q uality (DISCOVER-AQ). Satellite retrievals of total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite are used, while Pandora spectrometers provide total column ozone and nitrogen dioxide amounts from the ground. We found that OMI and Pandora agree well (residuals within ±25 % for nitrogen dioxide, and ±4.5 % for ozone) for a majority of coincident observations during July 2011. Comparisons with surface nitrogen dioxide from a Teledyne API 200 EU NO x Analyzer showed nitrogen dioxide diurnal variability that was consistent with measurements by Pandora. However, the wide OMI field of view, clouds, and aerosols affected retrievals on certain days, resulting in differences between Pandora and OMI of up to ±65 % for total column nitrogen dioxide, and ±23 % for total column ozone. As expected, significant cloud cover (cloud fraction >0.2) was the most important parameter affecting comparisons of ozone retrievals; however, small, passing cumulus clouds that do not coincide with a high (>0.2) cloud fraction, or low aerosol layers which cause significant backscatter near the ground affected the comparisons of total column nitrogen dioxide retrievals. Our results will impact post-processing satellite retrieval algorithms and quality control procedures.

  5. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  6. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  7. Ozone Sensitivity to Varying Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances in CCMI-1 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Olaf; Stone, Kane A.; Schofield, Robyn; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Yamashita, Yousuke; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Sudo, Kengo; Plummer, David A.; Scinocca, John; hide

    2018-01-01

    Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1) will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  8. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by ozonation, γ radiation as well as ozonation combined with γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.; Wang, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The radiolysis of aqueous 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) by gamma radiation in the presence of air and ozone was investigated. The 4-CP degradation, release of chloride ion, UV absorption spectrum, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was measured. Under the conditions of synergistic effect of ozone and radiation a complete degradation of 100 mg/L 4-CP was obtained at a dose of 6 kGy, without ozone the 4-chlorophenol was completely decomposed at 15 kGy. The total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 26% when ionizing radiation (at 15 kGy) combined with ozonation, and by 17% without ozone, respectively. Analysis of intermediate products resulting from synergistic effect of ozone and radiation of 4-CP was performed by using the GC/MS method. Some primary influencing factors such as irradiation time and initial 4-CP concentration were also discussed. The results showed that the degradation of 4-chlorophenol could described by first-order reaction kinetic model. There is potential for combination of irradiation with ozonation, which can remarkably reduce the irradiation dose increase the degradation efficiency of 4-CP.

  9. Ozone sensitivity to varying greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting substances in CCMI-1 simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone fields simulated for the first phase of the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI-1 will be used as forcing data in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Here we assess, using reference and sensitivity simulations produced for CCMI-1, the suitability of CCMI-1 model results for this process, investigating the degree of consistency amongst models regarding their responses to variations in individual forcings. We consider the influences of methane, nitrous oxide, a combination of chlorinated or brominated ozone-depleting substances, and a combination of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. We find varying degrees of consistency in the models' responses in ozone to these individual forcings, including some considerable disagreement. In particular, the response of total-column ozone to these forcings is less consistent across the multi-model ensemble than profile comparisons. We analyse how stratospheric age of air, a commonly used diagnostic of stratospheric transport, responds to the forcings. For this diagnostic we find some salient differences in model behaviour, which may explain some of the findings for ozone. The findings imply that the ozone fields derived from CCMI-1 are subject to considerable uncertainties regarding the impacts of these anthropogenic forcings. We offer some thoughts on how to best approach the problem of generating a consensus ozone database from a multi-model ensemble such as CCMI-1.

  10. Aportaciones a la flora vascular del norte de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidalgo, E., Llorente, A., Cadiñanos, J.A., Tarruella, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se citan varios taxones nuevos o interesantes de la flora vascular del norte de la Península Ibérica, concretamente de las provincias vascas de Álava, Vizcaya y Guipúzcoa y de las comunidades de Cantabria, Asturias, Castilla-León y Navarra.

  11. Application of the exploratory analysis of data in the geographical discrimination of okra of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santos Panero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The contents of Cu, Zn, Na, Fe, K, Ca, Mn, Mg, PO43-, Cl- and SO42- were determined in samples of okra of the municipal districts of Caruaru and Vitória de Santo Antão, in Pernambuco, as well as in the municipal districts of Ceará-Mirim, Macaíba and Extremoz in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. The objective of this work is the application of two methods of  exploratory analysis of data: Principal Component Analysis - PCA and Hierarquical Cluster Analysis - HCA in the geographical discrimination of okra originating in the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco. The results showed that Cl- and Na were the main elements for the differentiation of the samples of Rio Grande do Norte and, the samples of Pernambuco presented the largest amount of Fe, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ca, Zn, K, PO43-, and SO42-. Boths the methods of exploratory analysis of data investigated are efficient for geographical discrimination of okra originating in Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco.

  12. Diagnóstico de la logística del carbón en Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez-Guevara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The participation of Colombian coal in the international market has depended and will depend primarily on price to compete with other potential international suppliers, if the strategy is not changed to compete. Therefore one of the most important factors to consider has to do with the cost of logistics operation, in the case of Norte de Santander. Objective: The main objective of this project is to make the diagnosis of coal logistics operation in Northern Santander. Methods: Basically the methodology used was the application of polls leading experts and entrepreneurs exporters of coal in Norte de Santander. Results: One of the most important aspects that mitigate the possibility of capturing value in foreign trade are high costs in logistics operation. The identified problem occurs in the absence of studies to characterize the international physical distribution of coal in Norte de Santander, the most representative for extraction Municipalities sector. Conclusions: Finally the internationalization of the economy requires productive sectors, to shift from comparative advantages to competitive advantages. These are needed to tap international markets, however, strategic sectors for its potential reserves and features of your product, as the coal sector in Norte de Santander, not yet consolidated elements for their use.

  13. Investigaciones arqueologicas en el norte de la Española. Entre viejos esquemas y nuevos datos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa, Hung J.; Herrera, Malatesta E.N.

    2015-01-01

    En la historiografía y la arqueología dominicana la trascendencia de la región norte ha estado tradicionalmente ligada a su condición de escenario de importantes acontecimientos vinculados con los inicios de la colonización europea (Arranz Marquez 1991; Cassa 1992; Deagan y Cruxent 2002; Guerrero y

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth: an analysis for Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in the period 1980-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Pedro Helio Gomes; Santos, Sara Macedo dos

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce and to analyze the energetic content of the gross domestic product of Rio Grande do Norte (a Brazilian state) economy in the period 1980-1994. Analysis plans, energy supply structure, energy consumption sectorial structure, and economic activity profile are presented. Just the qualitative evaluation is presented

  15. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  16. Overview of the Ozone Water-Land Environmental Transition Study: Summary of Observations and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkoff, T.; Sullivan, J.; Pippin, M. R.; Gronoff, G.; Knepp, T. N.; Twigg, L.; Schroeder, J.; Carrion, W.; Farris, B.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Nino, L.; Gargulinski, E.; Rodio, L.; Sanchez, P.; Desorae Davis, A. A.; Janz, S. J.; Judd, L.; Pusede, S.; Wolfe, G. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Munyan, J.; Flynn, J.; Moore, B.; Dreessen, J.; Salkovitz, D.; Stumpf, K.; King, B.; Hanisco, T. F.; Brandt, J.; Blake, D. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Tzortziou, M.; Demoz, B.; Tsay, S. C.; Swap, R.; Holben, B. N.; Szykman, J.; McGee, T. J.; Neilan, J.; Allen, D.

    2017-12-01

    The monitoring of ozone (O3) in the troposphere is of pronounced interest due to its known toxicity and health hazard as a photo-chemically generated pollutant. One of the major difficulties for the air quality modeling, forecasting and satellite communities is the validation of O3 levels in sharp transition regions, as well as near-surface vertical gradients. Land-water gradients of O3 near coastal regions can be large due to differences in surface deposition, boundary layer height, and cloud coverage. Observations in horizontal and vertical directions over the Chesapeake Bay are needed to better understand O3 formation and redistribution within regional recirculation patterns. The O3 Water-Land Environmental Transition Study (OWLETS) was a field campaign conducted in the summer 2017 in the VA Tidewater region to better characterize O3 across the coastal boundary. To obtain over-water measurements, the NASA Langley Ozone Lidar as well as supplemental measurements from other sensors (e.g. Pandora, AERONET) were deployed on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel (CBBT) 7-8 miles offshore. These observations were complimented by NASA Goddard's Tropospheric Ozone Lidar along with ground-based measurements over-land at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in Hampton, VA. On measurement days, time-synchronized data were collected, including launches of ozonesondes from CBBT and LaRC sites that provided additional O3, wind, and temperature vertical distribution differences between land and water. These measurements were complimented with: in-situ O3 sensors on two mobile cars, a micro-pulse lidar at Hampton University, an in-situ O3 sensor on a small UAV-drone, and Virginia DEQ air-quality sites. Two aircraft and a research vessel also contributed to OWLETS at various points during the campaign: the NASA UC-12B with the GeoTASO passive remote sensor, the NASA C-23 with an in-situ chemistry analysis suite, and a SERC research vessel with both remote and in-situ sensors. This

  17. SBUV/Nimbus-7 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV Nimbus-7 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  18. SBUV2/NOAA-09 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-9 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  19. SBUV2/NOAA-16 Ozone Profile, Ozone Total Column 1-Orbit L2 200x200 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The version 8 SBUV/2 NOAA-16 ozone data were first released at the 2004 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium on DVD. The DVD contained all of the SBUV/2 data from NOAA-9,...

  20. Regional Assessment of Ozone Sensitive Tree Species Using Bioindicator Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Gretchen C. Smith; William D. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document...