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Sample records for normativno chistogo moloka

  1. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters southwest Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southwest Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  2. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of southcentral Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southcentral Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  3. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of southcentral Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southcentral Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  4. The Exile of Hansen's Disease Patients to Moloka'i: A Diffusion of Innovations Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman Harris, Adrea; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    This article analyzes the exile of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) to Moloka'i (Hawaii) by applying the diffusion of innovations (DoI) theory. Developed by Rogers, DoI posits that an innovation (i.e., idea, movement, or trend) is initiated within a culture. Then, it is diffused via particular channels across diverse cultures. Instead of evolving independently, innovations diffuse from one culture to another through various forms of contact and communication. In the context of this analysis, the objective is to examine how the diffusion of certain ideas, namely, abolishing the stigma associated with leprosy, could have improved the lives of Hawaiians. An important premise of this article is that the Hawaiian government barely applied the tenets of DoI, which is the reason why many people lost their lives. So, this article seeks to explore what could have been done to improve their situation and what pitfalls should be avoided in the future.

  5. Scoping Meeting Summary, Kaunakakai, Moloka'i, March 12, 1992, 2 PM Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-01

    The meeting began with presentations by the facilitator, Mr. Spiegel, and Dr. Lewis, the program manager from DOE. The facilitator introduced those on the podium. He then described the general structure of the meeting and its purpose: to hear the issues and concerns of those present regarding the proposed Hawaiian Geothermal Project. He described his role as assuring the impartiality and fairness of the meeting. Dr. Lewis of DOE further defined the scope of the project, introduced members of the EIS team, and briefly described.the EIS process. The overwhelming concerns of the meeting were Native Hawaiian issues. The presenters [more than 70%, most of whom addressed no other issue] want the EIS to respect Native Hawaiian religion, race, rights, language, and culture, noting that they believe that geothermal development is a desecration of Pele [{approx}60% of all presenters]. They expressed concern that their ancestors and burials should not be desecrated. The EIS should address Native Hawaiian concerns that the HGP would negatively impact Native Hawaiian fisheries, subsistence lifestyles, and religious practices. Virtually all the speakers expressed frustration with government. Most (> 70%) of the speakers voiced concern and frustration regarding lack of consideration for Native Hawaiians by government and lack of trust in government. One commenter requested that the EIS should consider the international implications of the U.S allowing their rainforests to be cleared, when the U.S. government asks other nations to preserve theirs. Nearly 30% of the commenters want the EIS to address the concern that people on Moloka'i will bear major environmental consequences of the HGP, but not gain from it. The commenters question whether it is right for Moloka'i to pay for benefits to Oahu, particularly using an unproven technology. After questioning the reliability and feasibility of the marine cable:, nearly 30% of the presenters were concerned about the impacts of

  6. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kaunakakai on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Kaunakakai area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  7. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kamalo on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kamalo area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  8. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kaunakakai on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kaunakakai area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  9. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kawela on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kawela area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  10. Digital image mosaics of the nearshore coastal waters of Kalaeloa on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kalaeloa area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  11. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kamalo on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kamalo area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  12. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kamiloloa on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kamiloloa area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  13. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Kamiloloa on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Kamiloloa area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  14. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Umipa'a on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Umipa'a area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  15. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of La'au Point on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the La'au Point area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  16. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of La'au Point on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the La'au Point area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  17. Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Puko'o on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Puko'o area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image...

  18. Coral Ba/Ca records of sediment input to the fringing reef of the southshore of Moloka'i, Hawai'i over the last several decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G; Field, Michael E; Stock, Jonathan D; Jupiter, Stacy D; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2010-10-01

    The fringing reef of southern Moloka'i is perceived to be in decline because of land-based pollution. In the absence of historical records of sediment pollution, ratios of coral Ba/Ca were used to test the hypothesis that sedimentation has increased over time. Baseline Ba/Ca ratios co-vary with the abundance of red, terrigenous sediment visible in recent imagery. The highest values at One Ali'i are near one of the muddiest parts of the reef. This co-varies with the lowest growth rate of all the sites, perhaps because the upstream Kawela watershed was historically leveed all the way to the nearshore, providing a fast-path for sediment delivery. Sites adjacent to small, steep watersheds have ∼decadal periodicities whereas sites adjacent to mangrove forests have shorter-period fluctuations that correspond to the periodicity of sediment transport in the nearshore, rather than the watershed. All four sites show a statistically significant upward trend in Ba/Ca. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Jokiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term (10 month exposure experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore to 3 mg l−1 (offshore. Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  20. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka'i, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L; Rodgers, Kuʻulei S; Storlazzi, Curt D; Field, Michael E; Lager, Claire V; Lager, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Moloka'i, Hawai'i. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l(-1) (inshore) to 3 mg l(-1) (offshore). Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l(-1) as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawai'i. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  1. Vegetation map of the watersheds between Kawela and Kamalō Gulches, Island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Ambagis, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this document we describe the methods and results of a project to produce a large-scale map of the dominant plant communities for an area of 5,118.5 hectares encompassing the Kawela and Kamalō watersheds on the island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, using digital image analysis of multi-spectral satellite imagery. Besides providing a base map of the area for land managers to use, this vegetation map serves as spatial background for the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Molokaʻi Ridge-to-Reef project, which is an interdisciplinary study of erosion and sediment transport within these watersheds. A total of 14 mapping units were identified for the Kawela-Kamalō project area. The most widespread units were the ʻŌhiʻa montane wet or mesic forest and No vegetation or very sparse grasses/shrubs communities, each present in more than 800 hectares, or 16 percent of the mapping area. Next largest were the Kiawe woodland with alien grass understory and ʻAʻaliʻi dry shrubland units, each of which covered more than 500 hectares, or more than 12 percent of the area; followed by the Mixed native mesic shrubland, ʻIlima and mixed grass dry shrubland, Mixed alien grass with ʻilima shrubs, and the Mixed alien forest with alien shrub/grass understory communities, which ranged in size from approximately 391 to 491 hectares, or 7.6 to 9.6 percent of the project site. The other six mapped units covered less than 170 hectares of the landscape. Six of the map units were dominated by native vegetation, covering a total of 2,535.2 hectares combined, or approximately 50 percent of the project area. The remaining map units were dominated by nonnative species and represent vegetation types that have resulted from invasion and establishment of plant species that had been either purposely or accidently introduced into Hawaiʻi since humans arrived in these islands more than 1,500 years ago. The preponderance of mapping units that are dominated by alien species of plants is a strong

  2. Vegetation map of the watersheds between Kawela and Kamalō Gulches, Island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Ambagis, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this document we describe the methods and results of a project to produce a large-scale map of the dominant plant communities for an area of 5,118.5 hectares encompassing the Kawela and Kamalō watersheds on the island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, using digital image analysis of multi-spectral satellite imagery. Besides providing a base map of the area for land managers to use, this vegetation map serves as spatial background for the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Molokaʻi Ridge-to-Reef project, which is an interdisciplinary study of erosion and sediment transport within these watersheds. A total of 14 mapping units were identified for the Kawela-Kamalō project area. The most widespread units were the ʻŌhiʻa montane wet or mesic forest and No vegetation or very sparse grasses/shrubs communities, each present in more than 800 hectares, or 16 percent of the mapping area. Next largest were the Kiawe woodland with alien grass understory and ʻAʻaliʻi dry shrubland units, each of which covered more than 500 hectares, or more than 12 percent of the area; followed by the Mixed native mesic shrubland, ʻIlima and mixed grass dry shrubland, Mixed alien grass with ʻilima shrubs, and the Mixed alien forest with alien shrub/grass understory communities, which ranged in size from approximately 391 to 491 hectares, or 7.6 to 9.6 percent of the project site. The other six mapped units covered less than 170 hectares of the landscape. Six of the map units were dominated by native vegetation, covering a total of 2,535.2 hectares combined, or approximately 50 percent of the project area. The remaining map units were dominated by nonnative species and represent vegetation types that have resulted from invasion and establishment of plant species that had been either purposely or accidently introduced into Hawaiʻi since humans arrived in these islands more than 1,500 years ago. The preponderance of mapping units that are dominated by alien species of plants is a strong

  3. Low-flow characteristics for streams on the Islands of Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui, and Hawaiʻi, State of Hawaiʻi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chui Ling

    2016-08-03

    Statistical models were developed to estimate natural streamflow under low-flow conditions for streams with existing streamflow data at measurement sites on the Islands of Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. Streamflow statistics used to describe the low-flow characteristics are flow-duration discharges that are equaled or exceeded between 50 and 95 percent of the time during the 30-year base period 1984–2013. Record-augmentation techniques were applied to develop statistical models relating concurrent streamflow data at the measurement sites and long-term data from nearby continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations that were in operation during the base period and were selected as index stations. Existing data and subsequent low-flow analyses of the available data help to identify streams in under-represented geographic areas and hydrogeologic settings where additional data collection is suggested.Low-flow duration discharges were estimated for 107 measurement sites (including long-term and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, and partial-record stations) and 27 index stations. The adequacy of statistical models was evaluated with correlation coefficients and modified Nash-Sutcliff coefficients of efficiency, and a majority of the low-flow duration-discharge estimates are satisfactory based on these regression statistics.Molokaʻi and Hawaiʻi have the fewest number of measurement sites (that are not located on ephemeral stream reaches) at which flow-duration discharges were estimated, which can be partially explained by the limited number of index stations available on these islands that could be used for record augmentation. At measurement sites on some tributary streams, low-flow duration discharges could not be estimated because no adequate correlations could be developed with the index stations. These measurement sites are located on streams where duration-discharge estimates are available at long-term stations at other

  4. The coral reef of South Moloka'i, Hawai'i - Portrait of a sediment-threatened fringing reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michael E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Logan, Joshua; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2008-01-01

    Moloka‘i, with the most extensive coral reef in the main Hawaiian Islands, is especially sacred to Hina, the Goddess of the Moon. As Hinaalo, she is the Mother of the Hawaiian people; as Hinapuku‘a, she is the Goddess of Fishermen; and in the form Hina‘opuhalako‘a, she is the Goddess who gave birth to coral, coral reefs, and all spiny marine organisms. Interdependence between the reef’s living resources, the people, and their cosmology was the basis for management of Moloka‘i’s coastal waters for over a thousand years.The ancient residents of Moloka‘i built the greatest concentration of fishponds known anywhere, but their mastery of mariculture, something needed now more than ever, was lost after near genocide from exotic Western diseases. Subsequent destruction of the native vegetation for exotic cattle, goats, pigs, sugar cane, and pineapple caused soil erosion and sedimentation on the reef flat. This masterful volume clearly documents that soil washing into the sea is the major threat to the reef today. Abandoned fishponds, choked with sediment, now act as barriers and mud traps, making damage to corals less than it would otherwise would have been.The role of mud and freshwater from land in preventing coral reef growth, clearly articulated in Charles Darwin’s first book, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, is the major theme of this book. All around the tropics, coral reefs have died from huge increases in terrestrial sedimentation that resulted from destruction of hillside forests for cash-crop agriculture and pastures in the colonial era, especially in Latin America, Asia, and the islands of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific. It is obvious that one cannot manage the coastal zone as a unit separate from the watersheds that drain into it. Yet there has been surprisingly little comprehensive scientific study of these impacts.In this landmark volume, U.S. Geological Survey researchers and their colleagues have developed and applied a remarkably integrated approach to the reefs of Moloka‘i, combining geology, oceanography, and biology to provide an in-depth understanding of the processes that have made these reefs grow and that now limit them. They have joined old fashioned natural history of marine animals and plants with study of the geological evolution of the island, hydrology, meteorology, and land-use history, to an arsenal of new methods of remote sensing, including aerial photography, laser ranging, infrared thermal mapping, seismic reflection, in-situ instrumentation to measure chemical parameters of water quality, and direct measurements of the physical driving forces affecting them—such as wave energy, currents, sedimentation, and sediment transport. They provide a level of documentation and insight that has never been available for any reef before.A remarkable feature of this book is that it is aimed at the people of Moloka‘i to inform them of what is happening to their reef and what they might do to preserve their vital resources. The scientific data and interpretations are expressed in unusually clear and comprehensible language, free of the professional jargon that makes most technical publications impenetrable to the public that most needs to know about them, yet without loss of scientific rigor.Here readers will see clearly explained the whole path of soil loss, from the impacts of wild pigs and goats at higher elevations, deforestation of the hills for cattle pasture at lower levels, and denudation of low lands for cash crops. The resulting biological impoverishment has bared the soils, which wash away in flash storms, smothering the inshore reefs, whose growth was already limited because they had grown right up to sea level. The data in this book show that the mud doesn’t get far if it is washed into the sea during a big storm with heavy waves. Afterwards this mud keeps getting stirred up by every succeeding storm, spreading and affecting corals over wider areas until it is finally washed out of the system—and that only happens if there is no more new mud washing onto the reef.I saw this myself a few years ago in Pila‘a Bay on Kaua‘i, where a bulldozed hillside of abandoned sugar cane fields had slumped right on top of a coral reef following exceptional rains. Years later, the algae species were zoned in a way that clearly mapped the distribution of nutrients washed into the bay, most likely from fertilizers bound to the eroded soils. That pattern closely mimics, on a small scale, that shown in Moloka‘i in this volume, where the inner reef is covered with algae, zoned by species in a way that points to land-based sources of nutrients, while the outermost reef slope is still coral dominated, and the deep algae seem to indicate deep-water nutrient upwelling.What of the future? The Hawaiian Islands have been exceptionally fortunate to be spared the worst coral heatstroke death from high temperatures, at least to date. So far, the worst global warming impacts have luckily been small in this region, and the small number of people on Moloka‘i has kept population densities, and sewage pollution, low compared to the more developed islands. Nutrients from years of sugar and pineapple fertilization, and the washing of this soil onto the reefs, show clear influences on the pattern of algae on the reef. Even at very low levels of nutrients, well below that which drives algae to smother and kill coral reefs, more algae is present. Soil erosion control is therefore the key to better management of both nutrients and turbidity on Moloka‘i reefs. To that end land management actions mentioned in this book, such as suppressing wild fires and eliminating wild goats and pigs, could be made even more effective if supplemented by active erosion control using plants whose roots bind the soil effectively in place. Through all of these efforts, Hina and the people of Moloka‘i could be happy again!

  5. mkk_benthic_habitats - Benthic habitat of the coral reef ecosystem on the south shore of Molokai Hawaii.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A benthic habitat polygon coverage has been created of the coral reef ecosystem on the south shore of Moloka'i. Polygons were hand-digitized from visual...

  6. Community Values as the Context for Interpreting Social Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Penelope; Hennessy, Michael

    A social impact assessment which focused on a Hawaiian community's evaluation of social change and development is reported. The research occurred on the island of Moloka'i, which depends largely on imports for its energy sources, although it has a number of natural sources (biomass, wind, solar, and water power). Specifically, the study identified…

  7. Assessment of Nonindigenous Species on Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Islands, with Emphasis on Introduced Invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reefs on the islands of Kaua'i, Moloka'i, Maui, Hawai'i and O'ahu were surveyed for the presence and impact of marine nonindigenous and cryptogenic species...

  8. Archaeology of the Recent Past at Kalawao: Landscape, Place, and Power in a Hawaiian Hansen's Disease Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Flexner, James Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Historical archaeology often focuses on the study of dispossessed, subaltern, or marginalized groups in the modern world. One such group is the community of the Hansen's disease (leprosy) settlement at Kalawao, Moloka`i, which was established by the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1865. The first people diagnosed by the state with Hansen's disease arrived in Kalawao in 1866, and around 1900 settlement shifted to the other side of Kalaupapa peninsula. Hawaii would not end its quarantine policy until 196...

  9. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

  10. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Lager, Claire V.; Lager, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore) to 3 mg l−1(offshore). Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  11. Notes on status and ecology of the endangered Hawaiian annual 'Āwiwi, Centaurium sebaeoides (Gentianaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Arthur C.; Chimera, Charles G.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Joe, Stephanie M.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    The annual, endemic, coastal herb Centaurium sebaeoides is the only native Hawaiian species in the gentian family. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed it as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act on 29 October 1991. Before surveys reported here, the total population of this species statewide was estimated at 80-110 individuals in eight populations. During counts made in April and May 1997, following ample winter rains, 12 populations of C. sebaeoides with a total of 6300-6600 plants were noted on five islands (Kaua'i, O'ahu, Lana'i, Moloka'i, and Maui). Five populations were mapped with a global positioning system and counted; in the remaining seven populations, the numbers of individuals were estimated. More recent surveys in 1998-1999 estimated a total of only 60-80 individuals at all sites. Such dramatic population fluctuations are believed to be related to the sporadic occurrence of winter rains. Threats that further contribute to the rarity of the species include (1) displacement and overtopping by salt-tolerant nonnative woody species, especially Casuarina spp., (2) trampling and erosion of habitat by ungulates, and (3) damage caused by off-road vehicles.

  12. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  13. Fossiliferous Lana'i deposits formed by multiple events rather than a single giant tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, K H; Fletcher, C H; Sherman, C

    2000-12-01

    Giant tsunamis, generated by submarine landslides in the Hawaiian Islands, have been thought to be responsible for the deposition of chaotic gravels high on the southern coastal slopes of the islands of Lana'i and Moloka'i, Hawaii. Here we investigate this hypothesis, using uranium-thorium dating of the Hulopoe gravel (on Lana'i) and a study of stratigraphic relationships, such as facies changes and hiatuses, within the deposit. The Hulopoe gravel contains corals of two age groups, representing marine isotope stages 5e and 7 (approximately 135,000 and 240,000 years ago, respectively), with significant geographical and stratigraphic ordering. We show that the Hulopoe gravel was formed by multiple depositional events, separated by considerable periods of time, thus invalidating the main premise of the 'giant wave' hypothesis. Instead, the gravels were probably deposited during interglacial periods (when sea level was relatively high) by typical Hawaiian shoreline processes such as seasonal wave patterns, storm events and possibly 'normal' tsunamis, and reached their present height by uplift of Lana'i.

  14. The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

  15. From Ridge to Reef, Quantifying Sediment Pollution to Hawaiian Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, J. D.; Ericksen, T.; Tribble, G.; Jacobi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Corals of the nearshore waters are increasingly under threat from a multitude of environmental changes. Amongst the most visible of these changes is arrival of large amounts of fine terrestrial sediment that degrade coral ecosystem's ability to capture sunlight and to reproduce. These muds and silts are products of accelerating landscape changes sweeping across the world's tropics in the last several hundred years of development. Unlike some of the more global threats to coral like ocean temperature increases, local communities can act to reduce this threat at human timescales. Yet restoring whole catchments is a daunting task. We use over 8 years of monitoring data to chart the sources, pathways and fate of fine sediment on its journey from the ridges of Moloka'i, Hawai'i to the reef below. Using imagery and topography from cm to meter-scale, instruments to capture and record the flow of water and sediment, and mapping that synthesizes these measurements, we show that ~ 1% of the landscape contributes over half the fine sediment pollution during a brief period of intense rainfall, ~ 0.1% of the time. Pockets of deep silt erode at rates that are proportional to the amount of time it rains at rates above saturated hydraulic conductivities (c. 10-20 mm/hr). Recent removal of many feral ungulates resulted in rapid vegetation regrowth which has reduced lowering in hotspots by almost an order of magnitude over the last 5 years, from ~10 mm/year to ~ 1-2 mm/year. We contrast these results with emerging evidence from West Maui that the current sediment budget of plumes there is dominated by erosion of legacy in-stream deposits, a challenging mitigation task. Although local communities cannot address every threat to their reefs, they can expect to significantly reduce some sediment pollution by targeted mitigation.

  16. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Santamaria

    Full Text Available Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i, increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis, or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi, implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them

  18. Prilog unapređenju rada i upravljanja u Vojnoj akademiji i na Univerzitetu odbrane / Contribution to work and management improvement in the Military Academy and the University of Defence / Повышение эффективности работы Военной академии и Университета обороны

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obimne i dinamične organizacione promene koje su u poslednjih nekoliko godina sprovođene u oblasti odbrane zahvatile su i oblasti visokog obrazovanja i naučnoistraživačkog rada vezanog za odbranu. Nastojao se formirati novi, integrisani naučni i obrazovni sistem, harmonizovan sa nacionalnim sistemom, koji će biti samoobnovljiv i delom samoodrživ, te kao takav biti koristan ne samo sistemu odbrane već i široj društvenoj zajednici. Da bi se operacionalizovala osnovna zamisao osnovan je Univerzitet odbrane, kao državni univerzitet i institucija integrativnog karaktera u kojoj se odbrana izučava i istražuje na naučnim osnovama. Analizom funkcionisanja Univerziteta odbrane na nečelima i logici sistemskog i situacionog pristupa, kroz sagledavanje postojećih načina rada, trenutnih mogućnosti, potreba i očekivanih rezultata, može se uočiti da postoje mogućnosti za opšte unapređenje postojećeg stanja i za postizanje višeg nivoa organizacionih performansi. Mogućnosti za unapređenje stanja postoje u oblasti usklađivanja postojeće i nacionalne normativno-zakonske regulative, zatim organizacije, organizacione kulture, u oblasti tehnologije rada, kvaliteta i raspodele, u funkcijama i procesima, kao i u domenu pojedinačnih elemenata sistema. / Robust and dynamic organizational changes that have been carried out in defense in recent years affected the field of higher education and scientific research related to defense . A creation of a new, integrated research and education system, harmonized with the national system, is underway. Such a system will be resilient and partly self-sustainingt and useful not only for the defense area, but also for the wider community. Introduction Higher education is a very important part of the strategy of power and the influence of a real defense system. Creativity as a basic resource produces innovations which can enhance and improve the defense system. Organizational changes in the country over

  19. Scoping Meeting Summary, Wailuku, Maui, March 9, 1992, 2 PM Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-06

    The meeting began with presentations by the facilitator, Mr. Spiegel, and Dr. Lewis, the program director from DOE. The facilitator introduced those on the podium. He then described the general structure of the meeting and its purpose: to hear the issues and concerns of those present regarding the proposed Hawaiian Geothermal Project. He described his role in ensuring the impartiality and fairness of the meeting. Dr. Lewis further defined the scope of the project, introduced members of the EIS team, briefly described the EIS process, and answered several process questions, noting that cable feasibility would be examined and that Native Hawaiian concerns would be addressed. Ms. Borgstrom stated that the ISIS Implementation Plan will be continuously refined and that impacts of reasonably foreseeable future activities would be examined. During the meeting, more than 90% of the commenters requested that the EIS identify and assess the relative merits and impacts of energy alternatives to the proposed action. Nearly 80% requested that the EIS investigate conservation and renewable forms of energy, such as wind, solar, and biomass. They suggested that integrated resource planning should be used, noting that the State is initiating such a process. More than 30% of the commenters asked that the EIS examine geothermal alternatives to the action including developing geothermal resources on Maui and using geothermal power on Hawai'i only on that island. One commenter proposed an alternative cable route that proceeds from Hawai'i to Lana'i and from Lana'i to Oahu with spur lines to Moloka'i and Maui as needed. Nearly 70% of the commenters made general statements concerning potential short- and long-term environmental costs and impacts of the HGP (particularly on pristine environments). Others were concerned about environmental costs to Maui, particularly the impacts of a land-based cable route on the south side of Maui and on Hawaiian homestead lands

  20. Scoping Meeting Summary, Honolulu, Oahu, March 14, 1992, 2 PM Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    1992-06-10

    of the HGP on marine life, particularly threatened and endangered species such as the humpback whale. It should address the effects of emf. In particular, the EIS should establish whether the clearing of land for HGP increase the problems of silting in the near-shore ocean. Ninety percent of the presenters requested that the EIS address long- and short-term socioeconomic impacts of the HGP. Sixty percent want the EIS to provide a detailed economic analysis of the costs (to the Consumer, rate payer and non-user) of the HGP, including the cable, from inception (planning) through decommissioning, to determine both feasibility and impacts to economic systems. The EIS should investigate the effects of the presence of transmission lines making large regions of the State: less desirable for living in terms of property values, cost of living, etc . b.b. This impact would affect all residents of Hawai'i, not just those on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i and Oahu. The EIS should analyze the economic impacts of failures once geothermal energy provides a significant proportion of Hawai'i's energy needs, including the costs of developing backup power supply on Oahu. One commenter asked who would be responsible for the consequences of lower property values or property condemnation associated with the HGP and suggested that the developer(s) should be bonded. Fifty percent want the EIS to identify what the benefits of HGP are and who would benefit from development of the HGP.

  1. Polynesian land use decisions in Hawai`i and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, O.; Ladefoged, T. N.; Haoa, S.; Stevenson, C.; Vitousek, P.

    2009-12-01

    Over the span of several centuries ancient Hawaiians and Rapanui (Easter Islanders) developed a range of intensive agricultural systems in their volcanic homelands. In leeward Kohala (Hawai`i) people targeted relatively young geologic substrates that were naturally enriched soil nutrient zones to construct a 60 km2 intensive rain-fed field system. A series of earthen and rock embankments and trails were built to facilitate sweet potato and dryland taro production and distribution. By comparing nutrient levels under embankments of different ages it has been possible to document significant nutrient depletion over approximately 150 years of pre-European gardening. On the wet windward side of Kohala leaching driven by high rainfall depleted soil nutrients in upland areas naturally, to levels unsuitable for intensive rain-fed agriculture. As an alternative, people exploited colluvial and alluvial zones for intensive rain-fed and irrigated agriculture, respectively. Analyses from Pololu in Kohala and Halawa on Moloka`i suggests that soil nutrient levels within colluvial zones were rejuvenated by erosion and deposition from fresh bedrock. In alluvial areas, soil nutrient levels were enhanced through the deposition of soluble elements via weathering of minerals along the flowpath between rainfall and delivery of irrigation water to Hawaiian crops. On Rapa Nui the lack of perennial streams meant that people were reliant on intensive rain-fed systems for their subsistence and surplus needs. In response to the matrix of geologic substrate ages and rainfall levels several innovative agricultural strategies were employed. Basalt outcrops were intentionally broken apart and large quantities of rock were distributed over the barren landscape. In places these “rock gardens” consisted of boulder concentrations and/or smaller rock veneers, whereas in other zones rocks were mulched into the soil to a depth of 30 cm to create growing medium. The advantages of these techniques

  2. El Nino influence on Holocene reef accretion in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, J.; Fletcher, C.; Grossman, E.; Engels, M.; Field, M.

    2004-01-01

    New observations of reef accretion from several locations show that in Hawai'i accretion during early to middle Holocene time occurred in areas where today it is precluded by the wave regime, suggesting an increase in wave energy. Accretion of coral and coralline algae reefs in the Hawaiian Islands today is largely controlled by wave energy. Many coastal areas in the main Hawaiian Islands are periodically exposed to large waves, in particular from North Pacific swell and hurricanes. These are of sufficient intensity to prevent modern net accretion as evidenced by the antecedent nature of the seafloor. Only in areas sheltered from intense wave energy is active accretion observed. Analysis of reef cores reveals patterns of rapid early Holocene accretion in several locations that terminated by middle Holocene time, ca. 5000 yr ago. Previous analyses have suggested that changes in Holocene accretion were a result of reef growth "catching up" to sea level. New data and interpretations indicate that the end of reef accretion in the middle Holocene may be influenced by factors in addition to sea level. Reef accretion histories from the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, and Moloka'i may be interpreted to suggest that a change in wave energy contributed to the reduction or termination of Holocene accretion by 5000 yr ago in some areas. In these cases, the decrease in reef accretion occurred before the best estimates of the decrease in relative sea-level rise during the mid-Holocene high stand of sea level in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, reef accretion should decrease following the termination of relative sea-level rise (ca. 3000 yr ago) if reef growth were "catching up" to sea level. Evidence indicates that rapid accretion occurred at these sites in early Holocene time and that no permanent accretion is occurring at these sites today. This pattern persists despite the availability of hard substrate suitable for colonization at a wide range of depths between -30 m and the

  3. Diversity and Quality in Teacher Education: Providing access via Distance Delivery Modes in Hawaii%夏威夷教师教育的质量与种类:远程教育模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐迪; 张红美

    2007-01-01

    highlight the necessity and significance of providing both equity and quality in teacher education to meet the needs of our communities in the 21st century.%美国目前正面临着严重的教师短缺,尤其是缺乏合格的优秀教师.这种现象遍及于幼儿因到高中.产生这种现象的原因是大批教师退休、教师工资的低廉、美国校园内的暴力和联邦政府所规定的考试及规章制度等.这种现象在夏威夷也不例外.教育的质量和公平是师资培训和招生的核心问题.这个问题对于夏威夷偏远地区的少数民族学生则显得更为重要.根据Banks(2003年)及Collnick和Chinn(2002年)所提到的多元文化理论,本文将介绍2006年的一项调查.该调查研究报告以夏威夷教育学院和夏威夷大学系统的511位师生及当地居民为对象,检视教育学院招生及指导职前教师的做法,包括其偏远地区的岛屿--夏威夷岛(Hawai(y)i)、可爱岛(Kaua(y)i)、茂依岛(Maui)、摩洛开依岛(Moloka(y)i)及蓝尼岛(Lana(y)i)等.这项研究显示了在偏远地区为少数民族学生提供高质量师资教育的种种困难,同时也提出了解决这些问题的有效途径和方法,以适应二十一世纪教师及教师教育的发展.