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Sample records for normative aging study

  1. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

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    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.

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    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lazarus, Ross; Sparrow, David; Demolles, Debbie; Weiss, Scott T

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have noted that subjects with diabetes have lower lung function than non-diabetic subjects. We conducted this analysis to determine whether diabetic subjects have different rates of lung function change compared with non-diabetic subjects. We conducted a nested case-control analysis in 352 men who developed diabetes and 352 non-diabetic subjects in a longitudinal observational study of aging in men. We assessed lung function among cases and controls at three time points: Time0, prior to meeting the definition of diabetes; Time1, the point when the definition of diabetes was met; and Time2, the most recent follow-up exam. Cases had lower forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at all time points, even with adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking. In multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant covariates, there were no differences in rates of FEV1 or FVC change over time between cases and controls. Men who are predisposed to develop diabetes have decreased lung function many years prior to the diagnosis, compared with men who do not develop diabetes. This decrement in lung function remains after the development of diabetes. We postulate that mechanisms involved in the insulin resistant state contribute to the diminished lung function observed in our subjects.

  3. Hand Grip Strength: age and gender stratified normative data in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of people originally aged 18 years and over. The aim of this study was to describe normative data for hand grip strength in a community-based Australian population. Secondary aims were to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hand grip strength, and to compare Australian data with international hand grip strength norms. Methods The sample was randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. Overall, 3 206 (81% of those recruited participants returned to the clinic during the second stage (2004-2006 which specifically focused on the collection of information relating to musculoskeletal conditions. Results Following the exclusion of 435 participants who had hand pain and/or arthritis, 1366 men and 1312 women participants provided hand grip strength measurement. The study population was relatively young, with 41.5% under 40 years; and their mean BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.5. Higher hand grip strength was weakly related to higher BMI in adults under the age of 30 and over the age of 70, but inversely related to higher BMI between these ages. Australian norms from this sample had amongst the lowest of the hand grip strength of the internationally published norms, except those from underweight populations. Conclusions This population demonstrated higher BMI and lower grip strength in younger participants than much of the international published, population data. A complete exploration of the relationship between BMI and hand grip strength was not fully explored as there were very few participants with BMI in the underweight range. The age and gender grip strength values are lower in younger adults than those reported in international literature.

  4. Normative values of cognitive and physical function in older adults: findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

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    Kenny, Rose Anne; Coen, Robert F; Frewen, John; Donoghue, Orna A; Cronin, Hilary; Savva, George M

    2013-05-01

    To provide normative values of tests of cognitive and physical function based on a large sample representative of the population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Data were used from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a prospective cohort study that includes a comprehensive health assessment. Health assessment was undertaken at one of two dedicated health assessment centers or in the study participant's home if travel was not practicable. Five thousand eight hundred ninety-seven members of a nationally representative sample of the community-living population of Ireland aged 50 and older. Those with severe cognitive impairment, dementia, or Parkinson's disease were excluded. Measurements included height and weight, normal walking speed, Timed Up-and-Go, handgrip strength, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Color Trails Test, and bone mineral density. Normative values were estimated using generalized additive models for location shape and scale (GAMLSS) and are presented as percentiles, means, and standard deviations. Generalized additive models for location shape and scale fit the observed data well for each measure, leading to reliable estimates of normative values. Performance on all tasks decreased with age. Educational attainment was a strong determinant of performance on all cognitive tests. Tests of walking speed were dependent on height. Distribution of body mass index did not change with age, owing to simultaneous declines in weight and height. Normative values were found for tests of many aspects of cognitive and physical function based on a representative sample of the general older Irish population. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Social representations and normative beliefs of aging.

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    Torres, Tatiana de Lucena; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Boulsfield, Andréa Barbará; Silva, Antônia Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted the theory of social representations as a theoretical framework in order to characterize similarities and differences in social representations and normative beliefs of aging for different age groups. The 638 participants responded to self-administered questionnaire and were equally distributed by sex and age. The results show that aging is characterized by positive stereotypes (knowledge and experience); however, retirement is linked to aging, but in a negative way, particularly for men, involving illness, loneliness and disability. When age was considered, it was verified that the connections with the representational elements became more complex for older groups, showing social representation functionality, largely for the elderly. Adulthood seems to be preferred and old age is disliked. There were divergences related to the perception of the beginning of life phases, especially that of old age. Work was characterized as the opposite of aging, and it revealed the need for actions intended for the elderly and retired workers, with post-retirement projects. In addition, it suggests investment in public policies that encourage intergenerational contact, with efforts to reduce intolerance and discrimination based on age of people.

  6. Vertical Jump and Leg Power Normative Data for Colombian Schoolchildren Aged 9-17.9 Years: The FUPRECOL Study.

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    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Cadore, EL, Alonso-Martinez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Vertical jump and leg power normative data for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 990-998, 2017-The aims of the present study were to generate normative vertical jump height and predicted peak power (Ppeak) data for 9- to 17.9-year-olds and to investigate between-sex and age group differences in these measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 7,614 healthy schoolchildren (boys n = 3,258 and girls n = 4,356, mean [SD] age 12.8 [2.3] years). Each participant performed 2 countermovement jumps; jump height was calculated using a Takei 5414 Jump-DF Digital Vertical (Takei Scientific Instruments Co., Ltd.). The highest jump was used for analysis and in the calculation of predicted Ppeak. Centile smoothed curves, percentiles, and tables for the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles were calculated using Cole's LMS (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) method. The 2-way analysis of variance tests showed that maximum jump height (in centimeters) and predicted Ppeak (in watts) were higher in boys than in girls (p jump height and Ppeak in all ages. In boys, the maximum jump height and predicted Ppeak 50th percentile ranged from 24.0 to 38.0 cm and from 845.5 to 3061.6 W, respectively. In girls, the 50th percentile for jump height ranged from 22.3 to 27.0 cm, and the predicted Ppeak was 710.1-2036.4 W. For girls, jump height increased yearly from 9 to 17.9 years old. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific vertical jump height and predicted Ppeak reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  7. Normative monocular visual acuity for early treatment diabetic retinopathy study charts in emmetropic children 5 to 12 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Miller, Joseph M; Harvey, Erin M

    2009-07-01

    To provide normative data for children tested with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts. Cross-sectional study. A total of 252 Native American (Tohono O'odham) children aged 5 to 12 years. On the basis of cycloplegic refraction conducted on the day of testing, all were emmetropic (myopia < or =0.25 diopter [D] spherical equivalent, hyperopia < or =1.00 D spherical equivalent, and astigmatism < or =0.50 D in both eyes). Monocular visual acuity was tested at 4 m, using 1 ETDRS chart for the right eye (RE) and another for the left eye (LE). Visual acuity was scored as the total number of letters correctly identified, by naming or matching to letters on a lap card, and as the smallest letter size for which the child identified 3 of 5 letters correctly. Visual acuity results did not differ for the RE versus the LE, so data are reported for the RE only. Mean visual acuity for 5-year-olds (0.16 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] [20/29]) was significantly worse than for 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-year-olds (0.05 logMAR [20/22] or better at each age). The lower 95% prediction limit for determining whether a child has visual acuity within the normal range was 0.38 (20/48) for 5-year-olds and 0.30 (20/40) for 6- to 12-year-olds, which was reduced to 0.32 (20/42) for 5-year-olds and 0.21 (20/32) for 6- to 12-year-olds when recalculated with outlying data points removed. Mean interocular acuity difference did not vary by age, averaging less than 1 logMAR line at each age, with a lower 95% prediction limit of 0.17 log unit (1.7 logMAR lines) across all ages. For monocular visual acuity based on ETDRS charts to be in the normal range, it must be better than 20/50 for 5-year-olds and better than 20/40 for 6- to 12-year-olds. Normal interocular acuity difference includes values of less than 2 logMAR lines. Normative ETDRS visual acuity values are not as good as norms reported for adults, suggesting that a child's visual acuity results should

  8. Blood Telomere Length Attrition and Cancer Development in the Normative Aging Study Cohort

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    Lifang Hou

    2015-06-01

    Interpretation: Age-related BTL attrition was faster in cancer cases but their age-adjusted BTL attrition began decelerating as diagnosis approached. This may explain prior inconsistencies and help develop BTL as a cancer detection biomarker.

  9. The relationship of bone and blood lead to hypertension: Further analyses of the normative aging study data

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    Hu, H.; Kim, Rokho; Korrick, S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]|[Harvard Health of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Rotnitzky, A. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In an earlier report based on participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, we found a significant association between the risk of hypertension and lead levels in tibia. To examine the possible confounding effects of education and occupation, we considered in this study five levels of education and three levels of occupation as independent variables in the statistical model. Of 1,171 active subjects seen between August 1991 and December 1994, 563 provided complete data for this analysis. In the initial logistic regression model, acre and body mass index, family history of hypertension, and dietary sodium intake, but neither cumulative smoking nor alcohol ingestion, conferred increased odds ratios for being hypertensive that were statistically significant. When the lead biomarkers were added separately to this initial logistic model, tibia lead and patella lead levels were associated with significantly elevated odds ratios for hypertension. In the final backward elimination logistic regression model that included categorical variables for education and occupation, the only variables retained were body mass index, family history of hypertension, and tibia lead level. We conclude that education and occupation variables were not confounding the association between the lead biomarkers and hypertension that we reported previously. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Ambient pollutants, polymorphisms associated with microRNA processing and adhesion molecules: the Normative Aging Study

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    Vokonas Pantel S

    2011-05-01

    adjustment. Conclusions PM2.5 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels. SO4-2 seven day moving averages are associated with higher sICAM-1 and a suggestive association was observed with sVCAM-1 in aging men. SNPs in miRNA-processing genes may modify associations between ambient pollution and sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, which are correlates of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Serum tocopherol levels and vitamin E intake are associated with lung function in the normative aging study.

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    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Campos, Hannia; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2016-02-01

    The results of studies assessing relationships between vitamin E intake and status and lung function are conflicting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin E intake and serum levels of tocopherol isoforms on lung function in a cross-sectional sample of 580 men from the Normative Aging Study, a longitudinal aging study. Regression models were used to look at associations of serum tocopherol isoform levels and vitamin E intake with lung function parameters after adjustment for confounders. Vitamin E intake was measured using a food frequency questionnaire and serum levels of γ, α, and δ-tocopherol levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. After adjustment for potential confounders, serum γ-tocopherol had a significant inverse association with forced vital capacity (β = -0.10, p = 0.05). Alpha and δ-tocopherol were not associated with any lung function parameter. After classifying COPD status according to Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage criteria, serum levels of δ-tocopherol were lower in participants with more severe COPD (p = 0.01). Serum levels of δ-tocopherol were also lower in participants with greater levels of smoking (p = 0.02). Both vitamin E intake (β = 0.03, p = 0.02; β = 0.03, p = 0.01) and use of vitamin E supplements (β = 0.05, p = 0.03; β = 0.06. p = 0.02) were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, after adjusting for confounders. Subjects who took vitamin E supplements had significantly higher α-tocopherol levels (p tocopherol levels (p tocopherol and lung function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between changes in city and address specific temperature and QT interval--the VA Normative Aging Study.

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    Amar J Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. METHODS: This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000-2008 (n = 743. We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1-7, 14, 21, and 28 days of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. RESULTS: Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4, 5.2 longer QTc. Associations between 24-hr standard deviation of temperature and QTc were stronger in colder months, and in participants with diabetes and coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this sample of older men, elevated mean temperature was associated with longer QTc, and increased variability of temperature was associated with longer QTc, particularly during colder months and among individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease. These findings may offer insight of an important underlying mechanism of

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Three Study Populations: KORA F3, KORA F4, and the Normative Aging Study.

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    Panni, Tommaso; Mehta, Amar J; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Just, Allan C; Wolf, Kathrin; Wahl, Simone; Cyrys, Josef; Kunze, Sonja; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and cancer and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. DNA methylation has been identified as a possible link but so far it has only been analyzed in candidate sites. We studied the association between DNA methylation and short- and mid-term air pollution exposure using genome-wide data and identified potential biological pathways for additional investigation. We collected whole blood samples from three independent studies-KORA F3 (2004-2005) and F4 (2006-2008) in Germany, and the Normative Aging Study (1999-2007) in the United States-and measured genome-wide DNA methylation proportions with the Illumina 450k BeadChip. PM concentration was measured daily at fixed monitoring stations and three different trailing averages were considered and regressed against DNA methylation: 2-day, 7-day and 28-day. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the study-specific results. Random-effect meta-analysis revealed 12 CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites as associated with PM concentration (1 for 2-day average, 1 for 7-day, and 10 for 28-day) at a genome-wide Bonferroni significance level (p ≤ 7.5E-8); 9 out of these 12 sites expressed increased methylation. Through estimation of I2 for homogeneity assessment across the studies, 4 of these sites (annotated in NSMAF, C1orf212, MSGN1, NXN) showed p > 0.05 and I2 F4, and the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:983-990; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509966.

  14. Creating a normative database of age-specific 3D geometrical data, bone density, and bone thickness of the developing skull: a pilot study.

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    Delye, Hans; Clijmans, Tim; Mommaerts, Maurice Yves; Sloten, Jos Vnder; Goffin, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Finite element models (FEMs) of the head are used to study the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and depend heavily on the use of accurate material properties and head geometry. Any FEM aimed at investigating traumatic head injury in children should therefore use age-specific dimensions of the head, as well as age-specific material properties of the different tissues. In this study, the authors built a database of age-corrected skull geometry, skull thickness, and bone density of the developing skull to aid in the development of an age-specific FEM of a child's head. Such a database, containing age-corrected normative skull geometry data, can also be used for preoperative surgical planning and postoperative long-term follow-up of craniosynostosis surgery results. Computed tomography data were processed for 187 patients (age range 0-20 years old). A 3D surface model was calculated from segmented skull surfaces. Skull models, reference points, and sutures were processed into a MATLAB-supported database. This process included automatic calculation of 2D measurements as well as 3D measurements: length of the coronal suture, length of the lambdoid suture, and the 3D anterior-posterior length, defined as the sum of the metopic and sagittal suture. Skull thickness and skull bone density calculations were included. Cephalic length, cephalic width, intercoronal distance, lateral orbital distance, intertemporal distance, and 3D measurements were obtained, confirming the well-established general growth pattern of the skull. Skull thickness increases rapidly in the first year of life, slowing down during the second year of life, while skull density increases with a fast but steady pace during the first 3 years of life. Both skull thickness and density continue to increase up to adulthood. This is the first report of normative data on 2D and 3D measurements, skull bone thickness, and skull bone density for children aged 0-20 years. This database can help build an age

  15. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

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    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  16. A prospective study of bone lead concentration and death from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in the VA Normative Aging Study

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    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Jain, Nitin; Nie, Huiling; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood lead concentration has been associated with mortality from different causes in several studies. Many effects of lead exposure that might increase risk of death are likely to result from cumulative exposure, for which bone lead is a better biomarker than blood lead. The association between bone lead levels and mortality has not been explored. Methods and Results We prospectively assessed the association between both blood lead and bone lead—analyzed using K-x-ray fluorescence—and mortality among 868 men in the Normative Aging Study. We identified 241 deaths over an average of 8.9 (sd=3.9) years of follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards. Compared to the lowest tertile of patella bone lead, the fully adjusted HR in the highest tertile for all cause and cardiovascular mortality (n=137 deaths) were 2.52 (95% CI: 1.17–5.41) and 5.63 (95% CI: 1.73–18.3), respectively. The age, smoking, and race-adjusted HR for ischemic heart disease mortality (n=62 deaths) in the highest tertile was 8.37 (95% CI: 1.29–54.4). Results were similar for tibia lead. Bone lead was not associated with cancer, and blood lead was not associated with any mortality category. Conclusions We found bone lead to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in an environmentally-exposed population with low blood lead levels. This study suggests that cumulative lead exposure from prior decades of high environmental exposures continues to significantly impact risk of death despite recent declines in environmental lead exposure. PMID:19738141

  17. Telomere Length, Long-Term Black Carbon Exposure, and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men: The VA Normative Aging Study.

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    Colicino, Elena; Wilson, Ander; Frisardi, Maria Chiara; Prada, Diddier; Power, Melinda C; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Weisskopf, Marc G; Schwartz, Joel D; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2017-01-01

    Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with age-related cognitive impairment, possibly because of enhanced inflammation. Leukocytes with longer telomere length (TL) are more responsive to inflammatory stimuli, yet TL has not been evaluated in relation to air pollution and cognition. We assessed whether TL modifies the association of 1-year exposure to black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, with cognitive function in older men, and we examined whether this modification is independent of age and of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation. Between 1999 and 2007, we conducted 1-3 cognitive examinations of 428 older men in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measure logistic regression to estimate associations of 1-year BC exposure with relative odds of being a low scorer (≤ 25) on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which is a proxy of poor cognition. Confounders included age, CRP, and lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. Each doubling in BC level was associated with 1.57 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.05) times higher odds of low MMSE scores. The BC-MMSE association was greater only among individuals with longer blood TL (5th quintile) (OR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.37, 7.59; p = 0.04 for BC-by-TL-interaction). TL and CRP were associated neither with each other nor with MMSE. However, CRP modified the BC-MMSE relationship, with stronger associations only at higher CRP (5th quintile) and reference TL level (1st quintile) (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.79; p = 0.04 for BC-by-CRP-interaction). TL and CRP levels may help predict the impact of BC exposure on cognitive function in older men. Citation: Colicino E, Wilson A, Frisardi MC, Prada D, Power MC, Hoxha M, Dioni L, Spiro A III, Vokonas PS, Weisskopf MG, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA. 2017. Telomere length, long-term black carbon exposure, and cognitive function in a cohort of older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect

  18. Lead exposure and fear-potentiated startle in the VA Normative Aging Study: a pilot study of a novel physiological approach to investigating neurotoxicant effects.

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    Grashow, Rachel; Miller, Mark W; McKinney, Ann; Nie, Linda H; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically-based indicators of neural plasticity in humans could provide mechanistic insights into toxicant actions on learning in the brain, and perhaps prove more objective and sensitive measures of such effects than other methods. We explored the association between lead exposure and classical conditioning of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR)-a simple form of associative learning in the brain-in a population of elderly men. Fifty-one men from the VA Normative Aging Study with cumulative bone lead exposure measurements made with K-X-Ray-Fluorescence participated in a fear-conditioning protocol. The mean age of the men was 75.5years (standard deviation [sd]=5.9) and mean patella lead concentration was 22.7μg/g bone (sd=15.9). Baseline ASR eyeblink response decreased with age, but was not associated with subsequent conditioning. Among 37 men with valid responses at the end of the protocol, higher patella lead was associated with decreased awareness of the conditioning contingency (declarative learning; adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 20μg/g patella lead=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 0.99, p=0.03). Eyeblink conditioning (non-declarative learning) was 0.44sd less (95% CI: -0.91, 0.02; p=0.06) per 20μg/g patella lead after adjustment. Each result was stronger when correcting for the interval between lead measurement and startle testing (awareness: OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99, p=0.04; conditioning: -0.79sd less, 95% CI: -1.56, 0.03, p=0.04). This initial exploration suggests that lead exposure interferes with specific neural mechanisms of learning and offers the possibility that the ASR may provide a new approach to physiologically explore the effects of neurotoxicant exposures on neural mechanisms of learning in humans with a paradigm that is directly comparable to animal models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The normative study of acoustic parameters in normal Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yehia A. Abo-Ras

    2013-03-21

    Mar 21, 2013 ... all children were subjected to computerized acoustic analysis using Multidimensional voice program ... cal quality is important for social relations to happen effectively. ... lish comparative parameters with the normal values of the acoustic ... from lower age ranges in the normative studies since the child's.

  20. Naturalism, Normativity, and the Study of Religion

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    Anil Mundra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article repudiates the common view that the study of religion, in order to qualify as academic, must be descriptively neutral and naturalistic rather than normative or prescriptive. Following philosophers like John McDowell, John Cottingham, and Tyler Roberts, I claim that such a methodological stance amounts to viewing humans as determined rather than free agents. On the basis of W.V.O. Quine and Donald Davidson’s analysis of translation, I argue that normativity is ineliminable from humanistic scholarship, which is itself inextricable from religious studies. Robert Pippin and Thomas A. Lewis’s readings of Hegel then provide resources to reconcile human freedom and constraint in religion.

  1. Judi Dench's age-inappropriateness and the role of M: challenging normative temporality.

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    Krainitzki, Eva

    2014-04-01

    This article approaches Judi Dench's role as M in the long-running James Bond series from a gender and ageing studies' perspective and explores this character's subversion of normative concepts of gender and temporality. Based on the assumption that cultural narratives shape our understanding of ageing, it examines how M disrupts prescribed age- and gender roles, presenting an alternative within films which otherwise perpetuate normative notions of a sexualised, youthful femininity. It focusses on Dench's return as M in Casino Royale (2006), as an instance of anachronism (Russo, 1999), subverting viewers' expectation of linear timelines and examines M's challenge of normative age-appropriateness in Skyfall (2012). Despite M's portrayal as a more vulnerable female character in the latter, this article presents her character as an alternative to traditional portrayals of older women on screen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  3. Distinct Patterns of Cognitive Aging Modified by Education Level and Gender among Adults with Limited or No Formal Education: A Normative Study of the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haiqun; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Huang, Shuyun; Cui, Wei; Yang, Wenbin; Koski, Lisa; Xu, Xiping; Li, Youbao; Zheng, Meili; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Shi, Xiuli; Wang, Kai; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Huo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is increasingly prevalent due to rapid aging of the population, but under-recognized among people with low education levels. This is partly due to a lack of appropriate and precise normative data, which underestimates cognitive aging in the use of screening tools for dementia. We aimed to improve the precision of screening for cognitive impairment, by characterizing the patterns of cognitive aging and derived normative data of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for illiterate and low-educated populations. This community-based study included data from 2,280 individuals aged 40 years or older from two rural areas. Multiple linear modeling examined the effect of aging on cognition reflected by the MMSE, stratified by education level and gender. Threshold effect of age on cognition was performed using a smoothing function. The majority of participants (60.4%) were illiterate or had attended only primary school (24.6%). The effect of aging on cognition varied by gender and education. Primary-school educated females and males remained cognitively stable up to 62 and 71 years of age, respectively, with MMSE score declining 0.4 and 0.8 points/year in females and males thereafter. Illiterates females scored 2.3 points lower than illiterate males, and scores for both declined 0.2 points/year. According to these results, normative data stratified by age, education and gender was generated. This study suggests gender and educational differences exist in cognitive aging among adults with limited or no formal education. To improve screening precision for cognitive impairment with the use of MMSE in low-educated population, age, gender, and education level should be considered.

  4. [Pattern-reversal electroretinogram (PERG): a normative study in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Letícia Dourado; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sacai, Paula Yuri; Pereira, Josenilson Martins; Salomão, Solange Rios

    2010-01-01

    To determine normative values for pattern-reversal electroretinogram (PERG) in healthy adult volunteers according to the standard protocol recommended by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision-ISCEV. Participants were 30 healthy volunteers (15 males) with ages from 18 to 61 years (mean= 30.8 +/- 8.7 yrs.; median= 29.5 yrs). Inclusion criteria were: visual acuity of 0.0 logMAR (20/20 Snellen) in each eye, absence of visual complaints, absence of media opacities, negative history for ocular or neurological diseases, negative family history for ocular and informed consent. PERG was recorded from each eye in a darkened room at 1 m from a high resolution display monitor. Stimuli were monochromatic checkerboards subtending 60, 15 e 7.5 minutes of visual angle reversing at 1.9 Hz. Responses were obtained from modified disposable fiber electrodes developed at UNIFESP. Latency (ms) for N35, P50 and N95 components as well as peak-to-peak amplitudes (microV) for N35-P50 and P50-N95 were determined. For normative values only one randomly chosen eye was included. Normal limits were calculated as 97.5% percentiles for latency and 2.5% percentile for amplitudes for each stimulus size. Normal limits for N35, P50 and N95 latencies for 60', 15' and 7.5' stimuli were respectively: N35 - 40.1; 39.9 and 41.3 ms; P50 - 60.5; 64.4 and 65.6 ms and N95 - 103.4; 104.6 and 104.6 ms. For amplitude the normative values for N35-P50 and P50-N95 for 60', 15' and 7.5' were respectively: N35-P50 - 1.7; 1.6 and 0.9 microV; P50-N95 - 3.8; 2.8 and 1.5 microV. No gender differences were found either for latency or for amplitude in the three stimulus sizes. There was no correlation between PERG latency and amplitude with age, except for P50 amplitude for stimulus 15'(r=0.39; P=0.035). Normative values were determined for PERG parameters of amplitude and latency for three stimulus sizes. These parameters are important for evaluating the normal functioning of retinal ganglion

  5. Normative Study of Rorschach (Parisian School for Brazilian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Casillo Jardim-Maran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAmong the projective methods of psychological assessment, the relevance of the Rorschach method stands out in the investigation of personality, albeit without normative references in the Parisian School for adolescents in Brazil. This study addresses this gap by developing normative standards of the Rorschach method (Parisian School for this age group, evaluating specificities of production associated with sex, age and school system. The Rorschach tests were individually administered to 180 students aged from 15 to 17 years old, with typical signs of development. Data considering the 54 Rorschach's variables were descriptively and inferentially examined. The main average results were: (a productivity: R = 17.7; (b modes of apperception: G = 35.0%, D = 33.4%, Dd = 30.3% and Dd = 1.1%; (c determinants and formal indexes: F% = 54.5%, F+% = 55.6% and F+ext% = 57.3%; (d predominant content: A% = 51.0% and H% = 20.9%; (e Ban = 17.0%. Specificities of production according to sex, age and school system were identified, which supports the analysis and interpretation of Rorschach's variables with contemporary Brazilian adolescents.

  6. Both odor identification and ApoE-ε4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ε4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features.

  7. Stability of normative data for the SF-36: results of a three-year prospective study in middle-aged Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; vandenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Anastassiades, Tassos; Cranney, Ann; Adachi, Jonathan D; Loannidis, George; Poliquin, Suzette; Brown, Jacques P; Murray, Timothy M; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A; Tenenhouse, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The SF-36 is widely used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but with few longitudinal studies in healthy populations, it is difficult to quantify its natural history. This is important because any measure of change following an intervention may be confounded by natural changes in HRQOL. This paper assesses mean changes in SF-36 scores over a 3-year period in men and women between the ages of 40 and 59 years at baseline. Subjects were randomly selected from nine Canadian cities. Mean SF-36 changes over a 3-year period (1996/1997-1999/2000) were calculated for each gender within 5-year age categories. Multiple imputation was used to correct for potential bias due to missing data. The baseline cohort included 1,974 women and 975 men between 40 and 59 years. Mean changes in HRQOL tended to be small. Women demonstrated small average declines in 22 of the 32 age and domain groupings (4 age groups, 8 SF-36 domains) while men showed declines in 14/32. Most participants stayed within 10 points of their original baseline score. Mean SF-36 scores change only slightly over three years in middle-aged Canadians, although there is much individual variation. It may be necessary to adjust for the natural evolution of SF-36 scores when interpreting results from longitudinal studies.

  8. Creating a normative database of age-specific 3D geometrical data, bone density, and bone thickness of the developing skull: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delye, H.H.; Clijmans, T.; Mommaerts, M.Y.; Sloten, J.V.; Goffin, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT Finite element models (FEMs) of the head are used to study the biomechanics of traumatic brain injury and depend heavily on the use of accurate material properties and head geometry. Any FEM aimed at investigating traumatic head injury in children should therefore use age-specific dimensions

  9. Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    's normative power than any other academic journal, including a special issue on "What Kind of Power?" in 2006. As the leading journal in the debate, this special issue brings together seven normative power articles published in JEPP since the 2006 special issue, together with Ian Manners' ‘Normative power......The social sciences have many different understandings of ‘normative power', but in European Union (EU) studies normative power has three particular meanings. The first meaning of normative power is its emphasis on normative theory, that is, how we judge and justify truth claims in social science...... effects of EU relations with the world in areas ranging from inter-regional relations, through traditional diplomacy, to environmental politics. Research areas of particular interest include the study of the interplay between physical, material and normative forms of power, as well as the constitutive...

  10. Quantile Regression Analysis of the Distributional Effects of Air Pollution on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate Variability, Blood Lipids, and Biomarkers of Inflammation in Elderly American Men: The Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Peters, Annette; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have observed associations between air pollution and heart disease. Susceptibility to air pollution effects has been examined mostly with a test of effect modification, but little evidence is available whether air pollution distorts cardiovascular risk factor distribution. This paper aims to examine distributional and heterogeneous effects of air pollution on known cardiovascular biomarkers. A total of 1,112 men from the Normative Aging Study and residents of the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area with mean age of 69 years at baseline were included in this study during the period 1995-2013. We used quantile regression and random slope models to investigate distributional effects and heterogeneity in the traffic-related responses on blood pressure, heart rate variability, repolarization, lipids, and inflammation. We considered 28-day averaged exposure to particle number, PM2.5 black carbon, and PM2.5 mass concentrations (measured at a single monitor near the site of the study visits). We observed some evidence suggesting distributional effects of traffic-related pollutants on systolic blood pressure, heart rate variability, corrected QT interval, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). For example, among participants with LDL cholesterol below 80 mg/dL, an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 black carbon exposure was associated with a 7-mg/dL (95% CI: 5, 10) increase in LDL cholesterol, while among subjects with LDL cholesterol levels close to 160 mg/dL, the same exposure was related to a 16-mg/dL (95% CI: 13, 20) increase in LDL cholesterol. We observed similar heterogeneous associations across low versus high percentiles of the LDL distribution for PM2.5 mass and particle number. These results suggest that air pollution distorts the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors, and that, for several outcomes, effects may be greatest among individuals who are already at high risk

  11. Trail Making Test: normative data for Turkish elderly population by age, sex and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangoz, Banu; Karakoc, Ebru; Selekler, Kaynak

    2009-08-15

    Trail Making Test (TMT) is a neuropsychological test, which has parts A and B that can precisely measure executive functions, like complex visual-motor conceptual screening, planning, organization, abstract thinking and response inhibition. The main purpose of this study is to standardize TMT for Turkish adults and/or elderly population. This study primarily consists of two main parts; norm determination study and reliability/validity studies, respectively. The standardization study was carried on 484 participants (238 female and 246 male). Participants at the age of 50 years and older were selected from a pool of people employed in or retired from governmental and/or private institutions. The research design of this study involves the following variables mainly; age (7 subgroups), sex (2 subgroups) and education (3 subgroups). Age, sex and education variables have significant influence on eight different kinds of TMT scores. Statistical analysis by ANOVA revealed a major effect of age (pKruskal-Wallis Test was performed and chi-square (chi(2)) values revealed that, correction scores for Part A and B were found to be influenced by age groups (pTest-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability coefficients for time scores of Parts A and B were estimated as 0.78, 0.99 and 0.73, 0.93, respectively. This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the executive functions in Turkish elderly population at the age of 50 and over.

  12. Untimed Design Fluency in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Psychometrics and Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderaraman, Preeti; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Cines, Sarah; Sullo, Elizabeth; Orly, Aidan; Lerer, Bianca; Karlawish, Jason; Huey, Edward; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Design fluency tests, commonly used in both clinical and research contexts to evaluate nonverbal concept generation, have the potential to offer useful information in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging. Although normative data for older adults (OAs) are available for multiple timed versions of this test, similar data have been unavailable for a previously published untimed test, the Graphic Pattern Generation Test (GPG). Time constraints common to almost all of the available design fluency tests may cloud interpretation of higher-level executive abilities-for example, in individuals with slow processing speed. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the GPG and presents normative data in a sample of 167 healthy OAs and 110 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results suggest that a brief version of the GPG can be administered reliably and that this short form has high test-retest and interrater reliability. Number of perseverations was higher in individuals with AD as compared with OAs. A cutoff score of 4 or more perseverations showed a moderate degree of sensitivity (76%) and specificity (37%) in distinguishing individuals with AD and OAs. Finally, perseverations were associated with nonmemory indexes, thereby underscoring the nonverbal nature of this error in OAs and individuals with AD.

  13. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual...... perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of visual short-term memory based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates are presented at total sample level as well as at gender level. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory...... speed of Visual Short-term Memory (VTSM) but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular....

  15. The normative dimensions of extending the human lifespan by age-related biomedical innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Joerg; Marckmann, Georg

    2008-10-01

    The current normative debate on age-related biomedical innovations and the extension of the human lifespan has important shortcomings. Mainly, the complexity of the different normative dimensions relevant for ethical and/or juridicial norms is not fully developed and the normative quality of teleological and deontological arguments is not properly distinguished. This article addresses some of these shortcomings and develops the outline of a more comprehensive normative framework covering all relevant dimensions. Such a frame necessarily has to include conceptions of a good life on the individual and societal levels. Furthermore, as a third dimension, a model for the access to and the just distribution of age-related biomedical innovations and technologies extending the human lifespan will be developed. It is argued that such a model has to include the different levels of the general philosophical theories of distributive justice, including social rights and theories of just health care. Furthermore, it has to show how these theories can be applied to the problem area of aging and extending the human lifespan.

  16. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analucia Abreu Maranhão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Methods: Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. Results: The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv, latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms, area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms. Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv, latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms, area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms. Conclusion: The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  17. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Analucia Abreu; Carvalho, Sonia Regina da Silva; Caetano, Marcelo Ribeiro; Alamy, Alexandre Hofke; Peixoto, Eduardo Mesquita; Filgueiras, Pedro Del Esporte Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv), latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms), area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv) and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms). Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv), latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms), area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv) and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms). The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  18. Normative values for physical fitness in children aged 11-17 in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha Milaim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aim: In the present study, the purpose was to determine the normative values for physical and biomotoric characteristics of children aged 11-17 in Kosovo. Material and Methods: 742 students who were selected according to the Random Sampling Method from 24 schools determined in the cities and rural areas in all regions were included in the study (n = 347 girls, n = 395 - boys. Volunteering students who did not have any acute or chronic disease that might avoid testing were included in the study after the permissions were received from the Ministry of National Education, Principals of the Schools, and the support of the parents. The declarations of Helsinki were taken into consideration in the study. Results: The results of each test were given as the norm values according to gender and age together with 20% groups, which is considered as the Canadian Standard. The data on the physical and biomotoric characteristics of the children living in Kosovo were compared with the data of the World Health Organization and the literature data of other countries. Conclusions: While the children living in Kosovo showed higher performances in the tests that were affected by anthropometric properties like height and body fat percentage and by genetic properties like the speed of the movements of the arms when compared with the children from other countries from the same age group; they had lower performances in the tests that were affected by life style and physical activity levels like endurance, long jump, and flexibility.

  19. Normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in a population in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Yilmaz, R B; Oktay, I; Ilhan, D; Fişekçioğlu, E; Özdemir, Fulya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Central Anatolia Region) (mean age ± SD: 12.80 ± 3.57 years) were randomly selected and divided into six age groups (7-8,9-10,11-12,13-14,15-16, and 17-18 year-olds) and categorized according to the dental health component (DHC) of the index for orthodontic treatment need (IOTN). Additionally, the patients were asked to indicate the photograph that was most similar to their own dentition from the 10-point scale of the aesthetic component of IOTN. The DHC of IOTN was not significantly different between the six age groups (P > 0.05). However, no/slight need (aesthetic component 1-4) for orthodontic treatment according to AC of IOTN was significantly higher in 13-14,15-16, and 17-18 age groups than 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 age groups (P age groups (P > 0.05). The normative need distribution was homogeneous within all the age groups according to DHC. However, the subjective need for orthodontic treatment was higher in the younger age groups.

  20. AULA-Advanced Virtual Reality Tool for the Assessment of Attention: Normative Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Yahaira; Diaz-Orueta, Unai; Cueto, Eduardo; Irazustabarrena, Paula; Banterla, Flavio; Climent, Gema

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the obtention of normative data for the AULA test, a virtual reality tool designed to evaluate attention problems, especially in children and adolescents. The normative sample comprised 1,272 participants (48.2% female) with an age range from 6 to 16 years (M = 10.25, SD = 2.83). The AULA test administered to them shows both visual and auditory stimuli, while randomized distractors of ecological nature appear progressively. Variables provided by AULA were clustered in different categories for their posterior analysis. Differences by age and gender were analyzed, resulting in 14 groups, 7 per sex group. Differences between visual and auditory attention were also obtained. Obtained normative data are relevant for the use of AULA for evaluating attention in Spanish children and adolescents in a more ecological way. Further studies will be needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of AULA to measure attention in different clinical populations. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 542-568). © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. A normative study of the sport concussion assessment tool (SCAT2) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Aliyah R; Bauer, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical practice parameters encourage systematic use of concussion surveillance/management tools that evaluate participating athletes at baseline and after concussion. Office-based tools (Sports Concussion Assessment Tool; SCAT2) require accurate baseline assessment to maximize utility but no normative data exist for children on the SCAT2, limiting identification of "normal" or "impaired" score ranges. The purpose of this study was to develop child and adolescent baseline norms for the SCAT2 to provide reference values for different age groups. A community-based approach was implemented to compile baseline performance data on the SCAT2 in 761 children aged 9 to 18 to create age- and sex-graded norms. Findings indicate a significant age effect on SCAT2 performance such that older adolescents and teenagers produced higher (better) total scores than younger children (ages 9 to 11) driven by age differences on individual components measuring cognition (SAC), postural stability (BESS), and symptom report. Females endorsed greater numbers of symptoms at baseline than males. Normative data tables are presented. Findings support the SCAT2 as a useful clinical tool for assessing baseline functioning in teenagers, but suggest clinical utility may be limited in children under age 11. Follow-up studies after incident concussion are needed to confirm this assumption.

  2. Normative NeuroFlexor data for detection of spasticity after stroke: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Pennati, Gaia Valentina; Plantin, Jeanette; Borg, J?rgen; Lindberg, P?vel G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The NeuroFlexor is a novel instrument for quantification of neural, viscous and elastic components of passive movement resistance. The aim of this study was to provide normative data and cut-off values from healthy subjects and to use these to explore signs of spasticity at the wrist and fingers in patients recovering from stroke. Methods 107 healthy subjects (age range 28?68 years; 51?% females) and 39 stroke patients (age range 33?69 years; 33?% females), 2?4 weeks ...

  3. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  4. Adult age differences in predicting memory performance: the effects of normative information and task experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald-Miszczak, L; Hunter, M A; Hultsch, D F

    1994-03-01

    Two experiments addressed the effects of task information and experience on younger and older adults' ability to predict their memory for words. The first study examined the effects of normative task information on subjects' predictions for 30-word lists across three trials. The second study looked at the effects of making predictions and recalling either an easy (15) or a difficult (45) word list prior to making predictions and recalling a moderately difficult (30) word list. The results from both studies showed that task information and experience affected subjects' predictions and that elderly adults predicted their performance more accurately than younger adults.

  5. Establishing Normative Values for the Barnett Balance Assessment Tool: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Cercone MSOTS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the Barnett Balance Assessment (BBA for individuals ages 18-70+ years. The BBA is a newly developed assessment tool that may address limitations present in other assessments currently used to detect balance deficits. The BBA was administered to 141 participants who had no history of medical issues that could impact balance. A review of the normative data collected indicated little variation in total assessment scores in the age categories of 18-29, 30-39, and 40-49, due to the presence of a ceiling effect. Variations existed in scores among participants in the remaining age categories (50-59, 60-69, and 70+. These findings may imply that the BBA has its greatest discriminative power in assessing individuals with impaired balance, and/or that the BBA is not sensitive enough to detect differences in individuals with mild balance impairments. The researchers suggest future studies be conducted with the BBA to establish norms with populations with known orthopedic or neurological conditions that may impair balance. Results of these studies could then be compared with the baseline data gathered in this study to determine the BBA’s usefulness in detecting balance impairments with clinical populations.

  6. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Normative data for the Clock Drawing Test for French-Quebec mid- and older aged healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Valérie; Gagnon, Marie-Eve; Joubert, Sven; Rouleau, Isabelle; Gagnon, Jean-François; Escudier, Frédérique; Koski, Lisa; Potvin, Olivier; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2018-05-09

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is frequently used to screen for cognitive impairment, however, normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system are scarce. The present study aims to provide norms for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system that are tailored to Quebec French-speaking mid- and older aged healthy adults. Six researchers from various research centers across the Province of Quebec (Canada) sent anonymous data for 593 (391 women) healthy community-dwelling volunteers (age range: 43-93 years; education range: 5-23 years) who completed the CDT 'drawing on command' version. This command version (setting the clock hands to 11:10, without a pre-drawn circle) was administrated as part of a more extensive neuropsychological assessment, or along with cognitive screening instruments. Each drawn clock was scored according to the quantitative criteria set by Rouleau et al.'s scoring system. CDT scores were significantly correlated with age (r(592) = -.132, p = .001) and years of education (r(592) = .116, p = .005), but not with sex (r(592) = .065, p = .112). Since data were skewed towards higher test scores, the percentiles method was used for analysis. Percentile ranks stratified by age and education are presented. These normative data for Rouleau et al.'s scoring system will contribute towards adequately screening for cognitive decline in Quebec French-speaking healthy adults, by also taking into account individual characteristics such as age and education.

  8. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  9. Normative changes in interests from adolescence to adulthood: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Kevin A; Briley, Daniel A; Wee, Colin J M; Rounds, James

    2018-04-01

    Vocational interests predict a variety of important outcomes and are among the most widely applied individual difference constructs in psychology and education. Despite over 90 years of research, little is known about the longitudinal development of interests. In this meta-analysis, the authors investigate normative changes in interests through adolescence and young adulthood. Effect sizes were aggregated from 49 longitudinal studies reporting mean-level changes in vocational interests, containing 98 total samples and 20,639 participants. Random effects meta-analytic regression models were used to assess age-related changes and gender differences across Holland's (1959, 1997) RIASEC categories and composite dimensions (people, things, data, and ideas). Results showed that mean-level interest scores generally increase with age, but effect sizes varied across interest categories and developmental periods. Adolescence was defined by two broad patterns of change: interest scores generally decreased during early adolescence, but then increased during late adolescence. During young adulthood, the most striking changes were found across the people and things orientations. Interests involving people tended to increase (artistic, social, and enterprising), whereas interests involving things either decreased (conventional) or remained constant (realistic and investigative). Gender differences associated with occupational stereotypes reached a lifetime peak during early adolescence, then tended to decrease in all subsequent age periods. Overall findings suggest there are normative changes in vocational interests from adolescence to adulthood, with important implications for developmental theories and the applied use of interests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Normative data of Modified Functional Reach Test in younger and middle-aged North Eastern Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The modified functional reach test (MFRT is the objective measure for dynamic sitting balance. It quantifies sitting balance in two directions: Forward and lateral reach. So, the purpose of the study was to 1 provide clinical reference value and 2 examine the factors that may influence the anthropometrics measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in this descriptive study. All subjects were divided in two groups: Younger (20-39 yr and middle-aged (40-59 yr. After anthropometric measurement, all subjects performed test by reaching forward and lateral with a closed fist while sitting. MFRT was taken with 3 trials with 15 sec break in between. Results: The mean score of the forward and lateral reach of right and left in group 1 was higher compared to group 2. The normative value of forward reach in group 1 was 34.05 ± 9.03 cm; for lateral reach right and left, it was 18.2 ± 5.26 cm and 17.32 ± 5.21 cm, respectively. For group 2, normative values for forward reach, lateral right and left were 25.18 ± 5.71 cm, 14.02 ± 3.98 cm and 13.53 ± 4.25 cm, respectively. There was no significant correlation of forward and lateral reach measures with the anthropometric characteristics in both the groups, except trunk length and BMI in group 1, which was significantly correlated ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study provides clinical reference value for younger and middle age group subjects while anthropometrics do not affect performance except trunk length and BMI in younger age group.

  11. Normative data for Aδ contact heat evoked potentials in adult population: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Anand, Praveen; Nakae, Aya; Nascimento, Osvaldo; Smith, Benn; Sprecher, Elliot; Valls-Solé, Josep

    2016-05-01

    There has been a significant increase over recent years in the use of contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) for the evaluation of small nerve fiber function. Measuring CHEP amplitude and latency has clinical utility for the diagnosis and assessment of conditions with neuropathic pain. This international multicenter study aimed to provide reference values for CHEPs to stimuli at 5 commonly examined body sites. Contact heat evoked potentials were recorded from 226 subjects (114 females), distributed per age decade between 20 and 79 years. Temperature stimuli were delivered by a thermode (32°C-51°C at a rate of 70°C/s). In phase I of the study, we investigated side-to-side differences and reported the maximum normal side-to-side difference in Aδ CHEP peak latency and amplitude for leg, forearm, and face. In phase II, we obtained normative data for 3 CHEP parameters (N2P2 amplitude, N2 latency, and P2 latency), stratified for gender and age decades from face, upper and lower limbs, and overlying cervical and lumbar spine. In general, larger CHEP amplitudes were associated with higher evoked pain scores. Females had CHEPs of larger amplitude and shorter latency than males. This substantive data set of normative values will facilitate the clinical use of CHEPs as a rapid, noninvasive, and objective technique for the assessment of patients presenting with neuropathic pain.

  12. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  13. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  14. Normative values and the effects of age, gender, and handedness on the Moberg Pick-Up Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjani, Nasim; Ashworth, Nigel L; Gordon, Tessa; Edwards, David C; Chan, K Ming

    2007-06-01

    The Moberg Pick-Up Test is a standardized test for assessing hand dexterity. Although reduction of sensation in the hand occurs with aging, the effect of age on a subject's performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test has not been examined. The primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of aging and, secondarily, the impact of gender and handedness, on performance of the Moberg Pick-Up Test in 116 healthy subjects. The average time to complete each of the four subsets of the test was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The results show that hand dexterity of the subjects was significantly affected by age, with young subjects being the fastest and elderly subjects the slowest. Women accomplished the test faster than men, and task performance with the dominant hand was faster than with the non-dominant hand. Use of normative values established based on age and gender is a valuable objective tool to gauge hand function in patients with different neurologic disorders.

  15. Normative data for hand grip strength and key pinch strength, stratified by age and gender for a multiethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ngee Wei; Goh, Hui Ting; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip Jun Hua; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-10-01

    Hand strength is a good indicator of physical fitness and frailty among the elderly. However, there are no published hand strength references for Malaysians aged > 65 years. This study aimed to establish normative data for hand grip strength (HGS) and key pinch strength (KPS) for Malaysians aged ≥ 60 years, and explore the relationship between hand strength and physical ability. Healthy participants aged ≥ 60 years with no neurological conditions were recruited from rural and urban locations in Malaysia. HGS and KPS were measured using hand grip and key pinch dynamometers. Basic demographic data, anthropometric measures, modified Barthel Index scores and results of the Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT) were recorded. 362 subjects aged 60-93 years were recruited. The men were significantly stronger than the women in both HGS and KPS (p Malaysia. Future studies are required to determine the modifiable factors for poor hand strength. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  16. A normative study of the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT) in the Cypriot population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, K; Vogazianos, P; Thodi, C; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT) is a neuropsychological test that measures attention, divided attention, and speed of mental processing. It has been increasingly used in the assessment of children in cross-cultural environments for neurological and psychiatric disorders such as seizures and closed head injuries, learning and/or language disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children with manganese exposure, and children diagnosed with HIV virus. However, there is a paucity of studies presenting normative data. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the CCTT in the Cypriot population. A total of 709 native Cypriot children aged 7-16 years, recruited from various public schools across the island, took part in the study. Exclusion criteria involved the existence of neurological, psychiatric, cardiological, and metabolic diseases, premature birth, history of maternal alcohol and drug abuse during pregnancy, low birth weight, hearing loss, visual problems, native language other than Greek, and abnormality in fine-motor movements. Age and gender were found to be important factors for the interpretation of scores in all CCTT variables. Older children required less time and exhibited fewer errors, near misses, and prompts compared to younger children. There was a consistent pattern of a 3-4 seconds improvement (less time in seconds) in the CCTT completion time as age increased. CCTT is a promising tool for the measurement of attention in the native Cypriot population. Further research is needed in children diagnosed with various neurological and psychiatric diseases in order to estimate validity of the CCTT in clinical populations.

  17. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised: Effects of Education and Age. Normative Data for the Spanish Speaking Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonieta; Galtier, Iván; Hernández, Edith; Velasco, Pedro; Barroso, José

    2016-07-29

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised is a brief test battery for the detection and classification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The aims were to investigate the influence of age and education on the Spanish version of the ACE-R and to propose normative data for the Spanish speaking population. Three hundred thirty-four normal healthy volunteers were included in the study. They were classified in three age groups (48-64, 65-75, and 75-89 years of age) and four educational level groups (≤3; 4-8; 9-12, and ≥13 years of education). They were assessed with the version of ACE-R validated in Argentina with some modifications in order to adapt it to the Spanish population. Significant differences were obtained between all age groups in Total ACE-R, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Differences were observed among the 48-64 and 76-89 age groups in the Attention-Orientation and Visuospatial indexes. Regarding education, significant difference between ≤3 years of education and the remaining groups were obtained in Total ACE-R and in all the indexes. Additionally, the group of 4-8 years of education performed significantly worse than the 9-12 and ≥13 groups in Total, Memory, Fluency, and Language indexes. Adjusted scores by education were obtained and percentiles for each age group were calculated. The results show that both age and education have an important effect on ACE-R performance. Consequently, age and education should be taken into account when interpreting results in ACE-R to improve diagnostic accuracy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A Pilot Study of the Normative Range of Overnight Urinary Free Cortisol Corrected for Creatinine in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthers, Ole D; Mersmann, Sabine; Dissanayake, Sanjeeva

    2018-04-01

    For more than a decade, urinary free cortisol corrected for creatinine (OUFCC) has been used to assess the systemic bioactivity of inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma. Paediatric normative ranges, however, have not been established. The aim of the present study was to define a preliminary range for OUFCC in Tanner stage 1 children. A post hoc analysis was performed of 26 Tanner stage one children (aged 5-11 years) with mild asthma only requiring prn (pro re nata) treatment with short-acting β 2 -agonists, who participated in a 3-way cross-over knemometry study. The study comprised a run-in, two washout periods and three treatment periods (2 weeks each). Urine was collected at the end of each period. A normative range was derived using the 95% prediction interval for the geometric mean OUFCC, calculated from run-in and washout periods. Twenty-six children contributed 41 OUFCC values. The geometric mean OUFCC was 9.0 nmol/mmol (95% PI: 3.6, 22.7 nmol/mmol). The OUFCC preliminary normative range was 3.6 to 22.7 nmol/mmol in Tanner stage one children. A larger study in healthy children is warranted to confirm these findings and to assess potential differences in OUFCC across developmental stages and age groups, and by gender and race. 2013-004719-32, CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02063139.

  19. Decline in Memory, Visuospatial Ability, and Crystalized Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults: Normative Aging or Terminal Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bendayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline. Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms, memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory, and visuospatial ability were included. The sample consisted of 671 older Swedish adult participants of the OCTO Twin Study. Linear mixed models with random coefficients were used to analyse change patterns and BIC indexes were used to compare models. Results showed that the time to death model was the best option in analyses of change in all the cognitive measures considered (except for the Information Test. A significant cognitive decline over time was found for all variables. Individuals diagnosed with dementia had lower scores at the study entrance and a faster decline. More educated individuals performed better in all the measures of cognition at study entry than those with poorer education, but no differences were found in the rate of change. Differences were found in age, sex, or time to death at baseline across the different measures. These results support the terminal decline hypothesis when compared to models assuming that cognitive changes are driven by normative aging processes.

  20. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  1. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-12-01

    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  2. Assessment of Cheating Behavior in Young School-Age Children: Distinguishing Normative Behaviors From Risk Markers of Externalizing Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Kerr, David C. R.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to develop a laboratory-based index of children’s covert cheating behavior that distinguished normative rule violations from those that signal risk for antisocial behavior. Participants (N = 215 children) were drawn from a community population and oversampled for externalizing behavior problems (EXT). Cheating behavior was measured using two resistance-to-temptation tasks and coded for extent of cheating, latency to cheat, and inappropriate positive affect. Mothers rated internalized conduct and three forms of self-regulation: inhibitory control, impulsivity, and affective distress. Mothers and teachers reported EXT concurrently (T1) and 4 years later, when children averaged 10 years of age (T2). Children categorized as severe cheaters manifested lower inhibitory control, greater impulsivity, and lower levels of internalized conduct at T1. Children in this group also manifested higher levels of EXT in home and school settings at T1 and more EXT in the school setting at T2, even after accounting for T1 ratings. PMID:21058125

  3. Wideband Acoustic Immittance: Normative Study and Test-Retest Reliability of Tympanometric Measurements in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of tympanometric measurements of wideband acoustic immittance and to characterize wideband tympanograms. Method: Data were collected in 84 young adults with strictly defined normal hearing and middle ear status. Energy absorbance (EA) was measured using clicks for 1/12-octave…

  4. Mini-Mental State Examination in Elderly Chinese: A Population-Based Normative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanzhi; Jia, Jianping; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-07

    Chinese nationwide norms of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have not been established despite its wide use. To obtain norms for the MMSE based on age, gender, education, and rural or urban residences and to determine the optimal cut-off points of the MMSE in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chinese community residents aged 65 years or over selected by cluster random sampling. The MMSE was administered to 9,629 subjects (7,110 cognitively normal, 2,024 with mild cognitive impairment, and 495 with dementia). The demographic influences on MMSE scores were investigated and the norms were established considering those factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points. Years of education (standardized β= 0.399), rural residence (standardized β= -0.261), age (standardized β= -0.198), and being female (standardized β= -0.101) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). Accordingly, we presented the demographic-stratified normative data for the MMSE. The optimal cut-off points for dementia screening were 16/17 for illiterate (sensitivity 87.6% and specificity 80.8%), 19/20 for individuals with 1-6 years of education (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 92.7%), and 23/24 for individuals with 7 or more years of education (sensitivity 94.3% and specificity 94.3%). We provide the age-, gender-, education-, and residence-specific reference norms for the MMSE derived from an investigation of a large-scale, multicenter, nationwide representative Chinese elderly population. It could be of great improvement for the use of the MMSE in dementia screening in Chinese elderly population.

  5. A NORMATIVE STUDY OF CHILDREN'S HOUSE-TREE-PERSON DRAWINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPPAPORT, SHELDON R.

    THIS STUDY WAS THE FIRST PHASE OF A THREE-PART PROJECT WHOSE GOAL IS TO ESTABLISH VALID CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING THE HOUSE-TREE-PERSON (H-T-P) DRAWINGS OF NORMAL CHILDREN THROUGHOUT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL YEARS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO IDENTIFY WHICH ITEMS OF THE H-T-P TEST CHARACTERIZE NORMAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GRADES 2,…

  6. Intelligibility and Normativity in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Ranganathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In his essay “The Devil in Mr. Jones,” J. Z. Smith issues a call. If religionists do not, he writes, “persist in the quest for intelligibility, there can be no human sciences, let alone, any place for the study of religion within them.” How should Smith’s call be construed? In other words, what constitutes the “quest for intelligibility”? And what (if anything differentiates the religionist’s quest for intelligibility from that of other humanistic scholars? Taking as my starting point Smith’s call, I will mount a constructive proposal. On my proposal, religionists should conceive their task as twofold. First, religionists should comparatively describe religious phenomena. Second, they should evaluate these phenomena. Only if the practices of description and prescription are tethered will religious studies succeed in its quest for intelligibility.

  7. A normative study of lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jo; Lee, Cheol Soon; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Kang Soo; Son, Sang Joon; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Ki Woong

    2013-12-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Steiber

    Full Text Available Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014 and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations. Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  9. Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2015-04-01

    Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained with a mean latency of 9.47 ms (SD 0.678 ms). Amplitudes are larger for 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC than for clicks. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at the downslope of wave V. Five hundred Hertz TB ABR-BIC is characterized by a broad positivity occurring at the level of wave V. The ABR-BIC is a useful technique to investigate binaural interaction in certain populations. Examples are bilateral hearing aid users, bilateral cochlear implant users and bimodal listeners. The latter refers to the combination of unilateral cochlear implantation and contralateral residual hearing. The majority of these patients have residual hearing in the low frequencies. The current study suggests that 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC may be a suitable technique to assess binaural interaction in this specific population of cochlear implant users. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  11. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: A four-wave longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eKrahé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval about both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  12. Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Aiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2014-01-21

    Although child mental health problems are among the most important worldwide issues, development of culturally acceptable mental health services to serve the clinical needs of children and their families is especially lacking in regions outside Europe and North America. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was developed in the United Kingdom and is now one of the most widely used measurement tools for screening child psychiatric symptoms, has been translated into Japanese, but culturally calibrated norms for Japanese schoolchildren have yet to be established. To this end, we examined the applicability of the Japanese versions of the parent and teacher SDQs by establishing norms and extending validation of its psychometric properties to a large nationwide sample, as well as to a smaller clinical sample. The Japanese versions of the SDQ were completed by parents and teachers of schoolchildren aged 7 to 15 years attending mainstream classes in primary or secondary schools in Japan. Data were analyzed to describe the population distribution and gender/age effects by informant, cut-off scores according to banding, factor structure, cross-scale correlations, and internal consistency for 24,519 parent ratings and 7,977 teacher ratings from a large nationwide sample. Inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities and convergent and divergent validities were confirmed for a smaller validation sample (total n = 128) consisting of a clinical sample with any mental disorder and community children without any diagnoses. Means, standard deviations, and banding of normative data for this Japanese child population were obtained. Gender/age effects were significant for both parent and teacher ratings. The original five-factor structure was replicated, and strong cross-scale correlations and internal reliability were shown across all SDQ subscales for this population. Inter-rater agreement was satisfactory, test-retest reliability was excellent, and convergent

  13. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: Impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol and video gaming

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    Inge Linda Wilms

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed of Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modelled from input from a whole-report assessment based on A Theory of Visual Attention (TVA. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  14. A design process for using normative models in shared decision making: a case study in the context of prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, Sivan; Leshno, Moshe; Fink, Lior

    2014-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) encourages the patient to play a more active role in the process of medical consultation and its primary objective is to find the best treatment for a specific patient. Recent findings, however, show that patient preferences cannot be easily or accurately judged on the basis of communicative exchange during routine office visits, even for patients who seek to expand their role in medical decision making (MDM). The objective of this study is to improve the quality of patient-physician communication by developing a novel design process for SDM and then demonstrating, through a case study, the applicability of this process in enabling the use of a normative model for a specific medical situation. Our design process goes through the following stages: definition of medical situation and decision problem, development/identification of normative model, adaptation of normative model, empirical analysis and development of decision support systems (DSS) tools that facilitate the SDM process in the specific medical situation. This study demonstrates the applicability of the process through the implementation of the general normative theory of MDM under uncertainty for the medical-financial dilemma of choosing a physician to perform amniocentesis. The use of normative models in SDM raises several issues, such as the goal of the normative model, the relation between the goals of prediction and recommendation, and the general question of whether it is valid to use a normative model for people who do not behave according to the model's assumptions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reference equations for handgrip strength: Normative values in young adult and middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jordão; Grams, Samantha Torres; da Silva, Edy Floriano; de Medeiros, Luana Adriano; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 80 healthy subjects (40 men and 40 women), aged 20-60 years. Inclusion criteria were: 1) BMI between 18.5 and 30 kg/m 2 ; 2) presence of dominant hand; 3) no cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, or neurologic diseases; 4) lack of musculoskeletal disorders; 5) no history of fractures or trauma of the UL. Anthropometric measurements of the UL were obtained by a tape (hand length and width, forearm circumference and length). The dominance of hands was defined by the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. HS measures were obtained by a manual hydraulic dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows, version 17.0, and treated with descriptive and inferential analysis. Normality was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Pearson or Spearman coefficients and multiple regression analysis were also used. HS was significantly higher for men compared to women, and also higher for the dominant hand (HSD) compared to the non-dominant hand (HSND) (p  0.05). No correlation was found between HS and age. A weak correlation was found between HS and BMI. A moderate correlation of HS was observed with weight and height. Finally, moderate and high correlations were found between HS and anthropometric variables of UL. The best reference equations with R 2 , adjusted to 0.71 and 0.70, were

  16. Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality

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    Ronald Labonté

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the ‘social determinants of health’ were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, agreed to by all the world’s governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion’s founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like. Many of the goals and targets provide signals for what we need to achieve, even if there remains a critical lacuna in articulating how this is to be done. The fundamental flaw in the SDGs is the implicit assumption that the same economic system, and its still-present neoliberal governing rules, that have created or accelerated our present era of rampaging inequality and environmental peril can somehow be harnessed to engineer the reverse. This flaw is not irrevocable, however, if health promoters – practitioners, researchers, advocates – focus their efforts on a few key SDGs that, with some additional critique, form a basic blueprint for a system of national and global regulation of capitalism (or even its transformation that is desperately needed for social and ecological survival into the 22nd century. Whether or not these efforts succeed is a future unknown; but that the efforts are made is a present urgency.

  17. Development, equivalence study, and normative data of version B of the Spanish-language Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Guinea, L; Pérez-Enríquez, C; García-Escobar, G; Arrondo-Elizarán, C; Pereira-Cutiño, B; Florido-Santiago, M; Piqué-Candini, J; Planas, A; Paez, M; Peña-Casanova, J; Sánchez-Benavides, G

    2018-05-08

    The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is widely used for the assessment of verbal episodic memory, mainly in patients with Alzheimer disease. A Spanish version of the FCSRT and normative data were developed within the NEURONORMA project. Availability of alternative, equivalent versions is useful for following patients up in clinical settings. This study aimed to develop an alternative version of the original FCSRT (version B) and to study its equivalence to the original Spanish test (version A), and its performance in a sample of healthy individuals, in order to develop reference data. We evaluated 232 healthy participants of the NEURONORMA-Plus project, aged between 18 and 90. Thirty-three participants were assessed with both versions using a counterbalanced design. High intra-class correlation coefficients (between 0.8 and 0.9) were observed in the equivalence study. While no significant differences in performance were observed in total recall scores, free recall scores were significantly lower for version B. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed FCSRT version B is equivalent to version A in the main variables tested. Further studies are necessary to ensure interchangeability between versions. We provide normative data for the new version. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2016-07-18

    The world was different when the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was released 30 years ago. Concerns over the environment and what we now call the 'social determinants of health' were prominent in 1986. But the acceleration of ecological crises and economic inequalities since then, in a more complex and multi-polar world, pose dramatically new challenges for those committed to the original vision of the Charter. Can the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed to by all the world's governments, offer a new advocacy and programmatic platform for a renewal of health promotion's founding ethos? Critiqued from both the right and the left for, respectively, their aspirational idealism and lack of political analysis, the SDGs are an imperfect but still compelling normative statement of how much of the world thinks the world should look like. Many of the goals and targets provide signals for what we need to achieve, even if there remains a critical lacuna in articulating how this is to be done. The fundamental flaw in the SDGs is the implicit assumption that the same economic system, and its still-present neoliberal governing rules, that have created or accelerated our present era of rampaging inequality and environmental peril can somehow be harnessed to engineer the reverse. This flaw is not irrevocable, however, if health promoters - practitioners, researchers, advocates - focus their efforts on a few key SDGs that, with some additional critique, form a basic blueprint for a system of national and global regulation of capitalism (or even its transformation) that is desperately needed for social and ecological survival into the 22nd century. Whether or not these efforts succeed is a future unknown; but that the efforts are made is a present urgency. © 2016 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http

  19. The Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT): Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; Whitfield, Jessica; Seymour, John

    2016-06-01

    The dichotic digits test is one of the most widely used assessment tools for central auditory processing disorder. However, questions remain concerning the impact of cognitive factors on test results. To develop the Dichotic Digits difference Test (DDdT), an assessment tool that could differentiate children with cognitive deficits from children with genuine dichotic deficits based on differential test results. The DDdT consists of four subtests: dichotic free recall (FR), dichotic directed left ear (DLE), dichotic directed right ear (DRE), and diotic. Scores for six conditions are calculated (FR left ear [LE], FR right ear [RE], and FR total, as well as DLE, DRE, and diotic). Scores for four difference measures are also calculated: dichotic advantage, right-ear advantage (REA) FR, REA directed, and attention advantage. Experiment 1 involved development of the DDdT, including error rate analysis. Experiment 2 involved collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twenty adults (aged 25 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 7 mo, mean 36 yr 4 mo) took part in the development study; 62 normal-hearing, typically developing, primary-school children (aged 7 yr 1 mo to 11 yr 11 mo, mean 9 yr 4 mo) and 10 adults (aged 25 yr 0 mo to 51 yr 6 mo, mean 34 yr 10 mo) took part in the normative and test-retest reliability study. In Experiment 1, error rate analysis was conducted on the 36 digit-pair combinations of the DDdT. Normative data collected in Experiment 2 were arcsine transformed to achieve a distribution that was closer to a normal distribution and z-scores calculated. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to determine the strength of relationships between DDdT conditions. The development study revealed no significant differences in the adult population between test and retest on any DDdT condition. Error rates on 36 digit pairs ranged from 1.5% to 16.7%. The most and the least error-prone digits were removed before commencement of the normative data study, leaving 25

  20. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

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    Sina Gallo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation, weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada. Whole body (WB as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4 and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc. providing bone mineral content (BMC for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0±14.2 versus 227.0±29.7 g, spine BMC by 130% (2.35±0.42 versus 5.37±1.02 g, and femur BMC by 190% (2.94±0.54 versus 8.50±1.84 g. Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266±0.044 versus 0.304±0.044 g/cm2 during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals.

  1. Normative data set identifying properties of the macula across age groups: integration of visual function and retinal structure with microperimetry and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Felix N; Vincent, Ryan D; Koulen, Peter; Sabates, Nelson R; Gallimore, Gary

    2011-01-01

    A normative database of functional and structural parameters of the macula from normal subjects was established to identify reference points for the diagnosis of patients with macular disease using microperimetry and scanning laser ophthalmoscope/spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This was a community-based, prospective, cross-sectional study of 169 eyes from subjects aged 21 years to 85 years with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/25 or better and without any ocular disease. Full-threshold macular microperimetry combined with the acquisition of structural parameters of the macula with scanning laser ophthalmoscope/SD-OCT was recorded (SD-OCT/scanning laser ophthalmoscope with add-on Microperimetry module; OPKO). Fixation, central, subfield, and mean retinal thickness were acquired together with macular sensitivity function. Thickness and sensitivity as primary outcome measures were mapped and superimposed correlating topographically differentiated macular thickness with sensitivity. Statistical evaluation was performed with age, gender, and ethnicity as covariates. Subfield and mean retinal thickness and sensitivity were measured with macular microperimetry combined with SD-OCT and differentiated by macular topography and subjects' age, gender, and ethnicity. Mean retinal sensitivity and thickness were calculated for 169 healthy eyes (mean age, 48 ± 17 years). A statistically significant decrease in sensitivity was found only in the age group of participants ≥ 70 years and in peripheral portions of the macula in individuals aged ≥60 years and was more pronounced in the area surrounding the fovea than in the center of the macula, while retinal thickness did not change with age. No statistically significant differences in the primary outcome measures or their correlations were found when using gender or ethnicity as a covariate. A database for normal macular thickness and sensitivity was generated with a combined microperimetry SD

  2. Normative social influence is underdetected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M; Schultz, P Wesley; Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2008-07-01

    The present research investigated the persuasive impact and detectability of normative social influence. The first study surveyed 810 Californians about energy conservation and found that descriptive normative beliefs were more predictive of behavior than were other relevant beliefs, even though respondents rated such norms as least important in their conservation decisions. Study 2, a field experiment, showed that normative social influence produced the greatest change in behavior compared to information highlighting other reasons to conserve, even though respondents rated the normative information as least motivating. Results show that normative messages can be a powerful lever of persuasion but that their influence is underdetected.

  3. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Normative data and the influence of age and gender on power, balance, flexibility, and functional movement in healthy service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Riebel, Mark A; McArthur, Derrick R; Savini, Matthew; Jones, Mackenzie J; Goffar, Stephen L; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J

    2014-04-01

    Determine the influence of age and sex and describe normative data on field expedient tests associated with power, balance, trunk stability, mobility, and functional movement in a military population. Participants (n = 247) completed a series of clinical and functional tests, including closed-chain ankle dorsiflexion (DF), Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Y-Balance Test Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ), Y-Balance Test Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ), single leg vertical jump (SLVJ), 6-m timed hop (6-m timed), and triple hop. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Analysis of variance tests were performed to compare the results based on sex and age (30 years). Service members demonstrated DF of 34.2 ± 6.1°, FMS composite score of 16.2 ± 2.2, YBT-LQ normalized composite score of 96.9 ± 8.6%, YBT-UQ normalized composite score of 87.6 ± 9.6%, SLVJ of 26.9 ± 8.6 cm, 6-m hop of 2.4 ± 0.5 seconds, and a triple hop of 390.9 ± 110.8 cm. Men performed greater than women (p power, balance, and trunk stability tests, whereas younger individuals performed better on power, balance, mobility, and functional movement. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis: A Case Study of the Normative Peer Review Process

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    Gaute Wangen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to conduct risk assessments of complex incentive systems, using a case study of the normative Peer Review Process (PRP. This research centers on appliances and adaptations of the Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis (CIRA. First as an approach to Root Cause Analysis of a known incident, and then for a full assessment of the incentives in the PRP together with possible risk treatments. CIRA uses an alternative notion of risk, where risk modeling is in terms of conflicting incentives between the risk owner and the stakeholders concerning the execution of actions. Compared to traditional risk assessment approaches, CIRA provides an insight into the underlying incentives behind a risk, and not just the technical vulnerability, likelihood and consequence. The main contributions of this work are an approach to obtain insight into incentives as root causes, and an approach to detecting and analyzing risks from incentives in the normative PRP. This paper also discusses risk treatments in terms of incentives to make the PRP more robust, together with a discussion of how to approach risk analysis of incentives.

  6. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. A Twin Study of Normative Personality and DSM-IV Personality Disorder Criterion Counts: Evidence for Separate Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Nikolai; Aggen, Steven H; Krueger, Robert F; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Gillespie, Nathan A; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2018-03-21

    Both normative personality and DSM-IV personality disorders have been found to be heritable. However, there is limited knowledge about the extent to which the genetic and environmental influences underlying DSM personality disorders are shared with those of normative personality. The aims of this study were to assess the phenotypic similarity between normative and pathological personality and to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in normative personality account for symptom variance across DSM-IV personality disorders. A large population-based sample of adult twins was assessed for DSM-IV personality disorder criteria with structured interviews at two waves spanning a 10-year interval. At the second assessment, participants also completed the Big Five Inventory, a self-report instrument assessing the five-factor normative personality model. The proportion of genetic and environmental liabilities unique to the individual personality disorder measures, and hence not shared with the five Big Five Inventory domains, were estimated by means of multivariate Cholesky twin decompositions. The median percentage of genetic liability to the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders assessed at wave 1 that was not shared with the Big Five domains was 64%, whereas for the six personality disorders that were assessed concurrently at wave 2, the median was 39%. Conversely, the median proportions of unique environmental liability in the personality disorders for wave 1 and wave 2 were 97% and 96%, respectively. The results indicate that a moderate-to-sizable proportion of the genetic influence underlying DSM-IV personality disorders is not shared with the domain constructs of the Big Five model of normative personality. Caution should be exercised in assuming that normative personality measures can serve as proxies for DSM personality disorders when investigating the etiology of these disorders.

  8. Normative Values of Physical Fitness Test in the Elderly: A Community Based Study in an Urban Population in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity exposes elderly people to higher risk of diseases. Assessing their functional fitness using fitness assessment tools like Senior Fitness Test (SFT is helpful in geriatric care. Determination of normative values of SFT increases its interpretability of interindividual and intergroup performances scores and usefulness. Aim: To determine normative values of SFT in geriatric population in an urban community setting. Materials and Methods: A community based prospective study in 400 elderly participants (284 men, 116 women, aged >=65 years, selected by multistage random sampling from 60 municipal wards of Guwahati city in Northeast India. Descriptive statistics, percentiles, univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Bonferroni correction methods were used. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean ages in males and females were 69.80±3.82 and 67.25±2.57 years. Mean height, weight and BMI in males and females respectively were 165.61±5.36 cm and 161.03±7.93 cm; 63.63±5.99 kg and 55.54±6.74 kg; 23.2±2.03 kg/m2 and 21.5±3.42 kg/m2. Males aged 65-69 years had highest BMI (23.4±2.11 kg/m2 while those =80 had lowest (21.8±1.30 kg/m2. Females aged 70-74 years had highest BMI (23.3±3.50 kg/m2 while 65-69 years (21.3±3.39 kg/m2 had lowest. ‘Armcurl’ test showed maximum values in 70-79 year and 65-69 year age-groups in males and females respectively (11.4±3.89; 14.5±4.63. In ‘chair-stand’ test, maximum values were in 65-69 year for both sexes (males=15.2±4.64; females=13.6±4.26 respectively. In ‘back-scratch’ and ‘chair-sit and reach’ tests, maximum values were found in age-groups 70-74 and 65-69 in males and females respectively (10.5±9.11 and 13.4±8.91; 9.8±7.28 and -8.4±6.92. In ‘8-foot up-and-go’ test, maximum time to perform in males and females were in =80 and 75-79 year groups respectively (13.9±4.11; 20.3±0. In both sexes, maximum values of ‘2-minute step up

  9. The Reliability of Clock Drawing Test Scoring Systems Modeled on the Normative Data in Healthy Aging and Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazancova, Adela Fendrych; Nikolai, Tomas; Stepankova, Hana; Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej

    2017-10-01

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a commonly used tool in clinical practice and research for cognitive screening among older adults. The main goal of the present study was to analyze the interrater reliability of three different CDT scoring systems (by Shulman et al., Babins et al., and Cohen et al.). We used a clock with a predrawn circle. The CDT was evaluated by three independent raters based on the normative data set of healthy older and very old adults and patients with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI; N = 438; aged 61-94). We confirmed a high interrater reliability measured by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs): Shulman ICC = .809, Babins ICC = .894, and Cohen ICC = .862, all p < .001. We found that age and education levels have a significant effect on CDT performance, yet there was no influence of gender. Finally, the scoring systems differentiated between naMCI and age- and education-matched controls: Shulman's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = .84, Cohen AUC = .71, all p < .001; and a slightly lower discriminative ability was shown by Babins: AUC = .65, p = .012.

  10. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  11. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Pillaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hoogesteger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems together with an analysis of the normative structures that define the governance systems through which the interactions in irrigation systems are mediated. I argue that the external interventions by the state and NGOs imposed a new governance system that undermined the existing normative structures and related organizations, leading to internal conflicts. The case study suggests that a reformulation of irrigation policies and state intervention methodologies in user managed supra-community irrigation systems in the Andes could lead to higher levels of cooperation.

  12. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-07-31

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e. normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16 to 24 year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania (n = 1200) was conducted in March 2013. A control group received no message; one treatment group was told that the majority was physically active (positive message); and another treatment group was told that the majority was not physically active (negative message). Both the positive and (unexpectedly) the negative normative messages showed a significant and positive effect on intention to be physically active. There was no difference between the effects of the messages. Normative messages affect intention, which is encouraging for public health campaigns. The effect of the positive message confirms previous findings on conformity to the norm; the effect of the negative message is unexpected and requires further research to be understood.

  13. Computer-aided joint space analysis of the metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint: normative age-related and gender-specific data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeil, Alexander; Boettcher, Joachim; Seidl, Bettina E.; Heyne, Jens-Peter; Petrovitch, Alexander; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.; Eidner, Torsten; Wolf, Gunter; Hein, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide reference data for computer-aided joint space analysis based on a semi-automated and computer-aided diagnostic system for the measurement of metacarpal-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal finger joint widths; additionally, the determination of sex differences and the investigation of changes in joint width with age were evaluated. Eighty hundred and sixty-nine patients (351 female and 518 male) received radiographs of the hand for trauma and were screened for a host of conditions known to affect the joint spaces. All participants underwent measurements of joint space distances at the metacarpal-phalangeal articulation (JSD-MCP) from the thumb to the small finger and at the proximal-interphalangeal articulation (JSD-PIP) from the index finger to the small finger using computer-aided diagnosis technology with semi-automated edge detection. The study revealed an annual narrowing of the JSD of 0.6% for the JSD-MCP and for the JSD-PIP. Furthermore, the data demonstrated a notable age-related decrease in JSD, including an accentuated age-related joint space narrowing in women for both articulations. Additionally, males showed a significantly wider JSD-MCP (+11.1%) and JSD-PIP (+15.4%) compared with the female cohort in all age groups. Our data presented gender-specific and age-related normative reference values for computer-aided joint space analysis of the JSD-MCP and JSD-PIP that could be used to identify disease-related joint space narrowing, particularly in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis commonly involving the peripheral small hand joints. (orig.)

  14. A normative study of the Italian printed word version of the free and cued selective reminding test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girtler, N; De Carli, F; Amore, M; Arnaldi, D; Bosia, L E; Bruzzaniti, C; Cappa, S F; Cocito, L; Colazzo, G; Ghio, L; Magi, E; Mancardi, G L; Nobili, F; Pardini, M; Picco, A; Rissotto, R; Serrati, C; Brugnolo, A

    2015-07-01

    According to the new research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, episodic memory impairment, not significantly improved by cueing, is the core neuropsychological marker, even at a pre-dementia stage. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory using semantic cues and is widely used in Europe. Standardization values for the Italian population are available for the colored picture version, but not for the 16-item printed word version. In this study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCSRT-16 obtained using linear regression techniques and generalized linear model, and critical values for classifying sub-test performance into equivalent scores. Six scores were derived from the performance of 194 normal subjects (MMSE score, range 27-30, mean 29.5 ± 0.5) divided per decade (from 20 to 90), per gender and per level of education (4 levels: 3-5, 6-8, 9-13, >13 years): immediate free recall (IFR), immediate total recall (ITR), recognition phase (RP), delayed free recall (DFR), delayed total recall (DTR), Index of Sensitivity of Cueing (ISC), number of intrusions. This study confirms the effect of age and education, but not of gender on immediate and delayed free and cued recall. The Italian version of the FCSRT-16 can be useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  15. Total and regional brain volumes in a population-based normative sample from 4 to 18 years: the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem. Associations with cross-sectional age, sex, family income, parental education, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated. Key observations are: 1) age-related decreases in lobar GM most prominent in parietal and occipital cortex; 2) age-related increases in lobar WM, greatest in occipital, followed by the temporal lobe; 3) age-related trajectories predominantly curvilinear in females, but linear in males; and 4) small systematic associations of brain tissue volumes with BMI but not with IQ, family income, or parental education. These findings constitute a normative reference on regional brain volumes in children and adolescents.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs as predictors of hookah smoking initiation: a longitudinal study of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidani, Jaime E; Shensa, Ariel; Barnett, Tracey E; Cook, Robert L; Primack, Brian A

    2014-06-01

    While cross-sectional studies have shown that hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an increasingly popular behavior among university students, little is known about factors associated with initiation. This study sought to determine associations between knowledge, attitudes, and normative beliefs and initiation of HTS among university students. Data were from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 569 randomly selected first- and second-year university students. Online questionnaires that were developed in accordance with our composite theoretical model were completed in September 2010 and April 2011. About one-seventh (13%) of participants initiated HTS by follow-up. Positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs were associated with increased adjusted odds of initiation (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = 2.56, 6.59; and AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35, 2.99, respectively), while negative attitudes were associated with decreased adjusted odds (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.80). Correct knowledge regarding toxicants associated with HTS was not significantly associated with initiation. While positive attitudes and favorable normative beliefs are associated with initiation of HTS in a cohort of never-users, increased knowledge about toxins is not associated with lower initiation. It may be particularly valuable for educational interventions to attempt to alter positive attitudes and normative beliefs related to HTS.

  17. Non-normative Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2016-01-01

    The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society is inade......The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society...... outlines a non-normative but critical programme based on an ethos of re-politicizing contemporary pervasive modes of governing. The analytical advantages and limitations of such a programme are demonstrated by readings of both Foucauldian studies and the works of and debates regarding the French pragmatic...

  18. Heterogeneity in small aliquots of Apolllo 15 olivine-normative basalt: Implications for breccia clast studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Shervais, John W.; Vetter, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the recent advances in lunar petrology are the direct result of breccia pull-apart studies, which have identified a wide array of new highland and mare basalt rock types that occur only as clasts within the breccias. These rocks show that the lunar crust is far more complex than suspected previously, and that processes such as magma mixing and wall-rock assimilation were important in its petrogenesis. These studies are based on the implicit assumption that the breccia clasts, which range in size from a few mm to several cm across, are representative of the parent rock from which they were derived. In many cases, the aliquot allocated for analysis may be only a few grain diameters across. While this problem is most acute for coarse-grained highland rocks, it can also cause considerable uncertainty in the analysis of mare basalt clasts. Similar problems arise with small aliquots of individual hand samples. Our study of sample heterogeneity in 9 samples of Apollo 15 olivine normative basalt (ONB) which exhibit a range in average grain size from coarse to fine are reported. Seven of these samples have not been analyzed previously, one has been analyzed by INAA only, and one has been analyzed by XRF+INAA. Our goal is to assess the effects of small aliquot size on the bulk chemistry of large mare basalt samples, and to extend this assessment to analyses of small breccia clasts.

  19. Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-02-14

    The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); pinfluence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (β=-1.09(-1.79 to -0.28); p1; pinfluenced by parents' and friends' opinions, and idols' smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence.

  20. Normative data for uterine size according to age and gravidity and possible role of the classical golden ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, J; Ameye, L; Bourne, T; Timmerman, D

    2013-12-01

    To document normal measurements (length, width, anteroposterior (AP) diameter) and proportions of the non-pregnant uterus according to age and gravidity. We hypothesized that uterine proportions conform to the classical 'golden ratio' (1.618). This was a retrospective study of ultrasonographic measurements of the length, width and AP diameter of non-pregnant uteri recorded in our database between 1 January 2000 and 31 July 2012. All patients for whom abnormal findings were reported were excluded and only the first set of measurements for each patient was retained for analysis. Loess (local regression) analysis was performed using age and gravidity as explanatory variables. Measurements of 5466 non-pregnant uteri were retrieved for analysis. The mean length was found to increase to 72 mm at the age of 40 and decrease to 42 mm at the age of 80 years. Gravidity was associated with greater uterine length, width and AP diameter. Mean length/width ratio was found to be 1.857 at birth, decreasing to 1.452 at the age of 91 years. At the age of 21 years, the mean ratio was found to be 1.618, i.e. equal to the golden ratio. Increasing gravidity was associated with lower mean length/width ratio. Uterine size in non-pregnant women varies in relation to age and gravidity. Mean length/width ratio conformed to the golden ratio at the age of 21, coinciding with peak fertility. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for Stroop Color-Word Interference and Tower of London-Drexel University tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, T; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-03-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop) measures cognitive flexibility, selective attention, cognitive inhibition and information processing speed. The Tower of London-Drexel University version test (TOL) assesses higher-order problem solving and executive planning abilities. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for the Stroop and young adults TOL tests. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Scores adjusted for sociodemographic factors were obtained by applying linear regression techniques. No effects were found for age and sex in either test. Educational level impacted most of the Stroop test variables and some of the TOL scores (Total Moves score and Total Initiation Time score). The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing the normative profile of 18F-FDG PET brain imaging: sex difference, aging effect, and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov; Miyata, Yoko; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2014-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate findings of positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET) in normal subjects to clarify the effects of sex differences, aging, and cognitive reserve on cerebral glucose metabolism. Participants comprised 123 normal adults who underwent 18F-FDG PET and a neuropsychological battery. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) to investigate sex differences, and aging effects. The effects of cognitive reserve on 18F-FDG uptake were investigated using years of education as a proxy. Finally, we studied the effect of cognitive reserve on the recruitment of glucose metabolism in a memory task by dichotomizing the data according to educational level. Our results showed that the overall cerebral glucose metabolism in females was higher than that in males, whereas male participants had higher glucose metabolism in the bilateral inferior temporal gyri and cerebellum than females. Age-related hypometabolism was found in anterior regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus. These areas are part of the attentional system, which may decline with aging even in healthy elderly individuals. Highly educated subjects revealed focal hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere and lower recruitment of glucose metabolism in memory tasks. This phenomenon is likely a candidate for a neural substrate of cognitive reserve. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  4. Suitability of a three-dimensional model to measure empathy and its relationship with social and normative adjustment in Spanish adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-López, Mauricio; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Jolliffe, Darrick; Romera, Eva M

    2017-09-25

    (1) To examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) with Spanish adolescents, comparing a two and a three-dimensional structure;(2) To analyse the relationship between the three-dimensional empathy and social and normative adjustment in school. Transversal and ex post facto retrospective study. Confirmatory factorial analysis, multifactorial invariance analysis and structural equations models were used. 747 students (51.3% girls) from Cordoba, Spain, aged 12-17 years (M=13.8; SD=1.21). The original two-dimensional structure was confirmed (cognitive empathy, affective empathy), but a three-dimensional structure showed better psychometric properties, highlighting the good fit found in confirmatory factorial analysis and adequate internal consistent valued, measured with Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Composite reliability and average variance extracted showed better indices for a three-factor model. The research also showed evidence of measurement invariance across gender. All the factors of the final three-dimensional BES model were direct and significantly associated with social and normative adjustment, being most strongly related to cognitive empathy. This research supports the advances in neuroscience, developmental psychology and psychopathology through a three-dimensional version of the BES, which represents an improvement in the original two-factorial model. The organisation of empathy in three factors benefits the understanding of social and normative adjustment in adolescents, in which emotional disengagement favours adjusted peer relationships. Psychoeducational interventions aimed at improving the quality of social life in schools should target these components of empathy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The chapter develops a normative power approach to European studies that can be applied across and beyond its constitutive disciplines in order to interrogate and transgress the ideas and spaces on/of Europe. In four parts the chapter explores the terms ‘normative', ‘power', and ‘Europe', before......' - in order to make sense of ideas of the common good. Part two looks at three different types of power - ‘relational', ‘structural', and ‘normative' - as a means of understanding the power of ideas of the common good. Part three considers three different means of understanding Europe - ‘civilizational......', ‘categorical', and ‘cultural' - to show how the power of ideas of the common good shape our means of comprehending contemporary Europe. Part four attempts to apply the approach to the question of a European counter-terrorist response. This example was chosen because of the challenges it presents...

  6. An evidence-based approach to the creation of normative data: base rates of impaired scores within a brief neuropsychological battery argue for age corrections, but against corrections for medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Voll, Stacey; Simard, Martine; Griffith, Lauren E; Taler, Vanessa; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan; Raina, Parminder

    We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.

  7. Pseudoexfoliation: normative data and associations. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation (PEX and its associations in a population-based setting. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: The Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 individuals. All study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination. After medical pupil dilation, PEX was assessed by an experienced ophthalmologist using slit-lamp based biomicroscopy. RESULTS: Slit lamp examination results were available for 4646 (98.6% study participants with a mean age of 49.3 ± 13.3 years (range: 30-100 years. PEX was detected in 87 eyes (prevalence: 0.95 ± 0.10% (95%CI: 0.75, 1.15 of 69 subjects (prevalence: 1.49 ± 0.18% (95%CI: 1.14, 1.83. PEX prevalence increased significantly (P<0.001 from 0% in the age group of 30-39 years, to 2.85 ± 0.56% in the age group of 60-69 years, to 6.60 ± 1.21% in the age group of 70-79 years, and to 12.3 ± 4.11% in the age group of 80+ years. In multivariate analysis, PEX prevalence was associated with higher age (P<0.001; regression coefficient B:0.11; odds ratio (OR: 1.11 (95%CI: 1.09, 1.13, lower body mass index (P = 0.001; B: -0.12; OR: 0.88 (95CI: 0.82, 0.95 and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.002; B: 0.02; OR: 1.03 (95%CI: 1.01, 1.04. In the multivariate analysis, PEX was not associated with retinal nerve fiber layer cross section area (P = 0.76 and presence of open-angle glaucoma (P = 0.15. CONCLUSIONS: In a rural Central Indian population aged 30+ years, PEX prevalence (mean: 1.49 ± 0.18% was significantly associated with older age, lower body mass index and higher diastolic blood pressure. It was not significantly associated with optic nerve head measurements, refractive error, any ocular biometric parameter, nuclear cataract, early age-related macular degeneration and retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia.

  8. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Healthy Eating Depends on Normative Support: a Prospective Study of Long-Haul Truck Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Hagger, Martin S

    2018-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FV) is insufficient in industrialized nations and there is excess of discretionary food choices (DC; foods high in fat, sugar, and salt). Long-haul truck drivers are considered a particularly at-risk group given the limited food choices and normatively reinforced eating habits at truck rest-stops. Self-efficacy and normative support are key determinants of eating behavior yet the processes underlying their effects on behavior are not well understood. We tested the direct and interactive effects of self-efficacy and normative support on healthy eating behaviors in long-haul truck drivers in a prospective correlational study. Long-haul truck drivers (N = 82) completed an initial survey containing self-report measures of behavioral intentions, perceived normative support, and self-efficacy for their FV and DC behaviors. Participants completed a follow-up survey 1 week later in which they self-reported their FV and DC behavior. A mediated moderation analysis identified an interactive effect of self-efficacy and normative support on behavior mediated by intention for FV and DC behavior. Specifically, we confirmed a compensation effect in which self-efficacy was more likely to have an effect on FV and DC behavior through intentions in participants with low normative support. Results indicate the importance of self-efficacy in predicting FV and DC intentions and behavior in the absence of a supportive normative environment. The compensatory effect of self-efficacy beliefs on behavior through intentions when normative support is low should be confirmed using experimental methods.

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Integration of Arab Muslim Israelis Suffering from Mental Disorders into the Normative Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shbat, Shbat

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on the process of the integration of Arab Muslim Israelis suffering from mental disorders into the normative community, addressing perspectives of both people with mental disorders and the community. This qualitative-constructivist study seeks to understand the dynamics of face-to-face meetings by highlighting the participants' points of view. The main themes of the findings included stereotypes and prejudices, gender discrimination, and the effect of face-to-face meetings on integration of people with mental disorders (PMD) into the community. The findings support former studies about the integration of PMD into the normative community, but add a unique finding that females suffer from double discrimination: both as women in a conservative society and as PMD. The study findings indicate a perception of lack of self-efficacy of PMD as a key barrier preventing integration into the community, which also prevents community members and counselors from accepting them or treating them as equals. We recommend on a social marketing campaign to be undertaken with the Arab Muslim community to refute stigmas and prejudices, particulary with double gender discrimination suffered by women with mental disorders in the Muslim community and training of community center counselors who have contact with the PMD population.

  10. Individual and Peer Group Normative Beliefs about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Hill, Laura G.

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational…

  11. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...... was found, p values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * -0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...

  12. Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268

  13. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  14. Normative Beliefs about Sharing Housing with an Older Family Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine general perceptions of filial obligations toward sharing housing with older parents and stepparents; and (b) to assess the effects of selected contextual factors on those normative beliefs. A national sample of 579 men and 582 women (mean age = 44.6, SD = 17.2) responded to a multiple segment factorial…

  15. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age ... Methods: This was a prospective clinic based study involving 310 normal adults (135 males and 175 females) scanned at ... kidneys and subjects in which three RPT measurements.

  16. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...... social theoretical accounts of the case. In disagreements between different normative interpretations, appeals are often made to the ‘context', so it is also considered what roles ‘context' might play in debates over normative interpretations...

  17. Affective state and voice: cross-cultural assessment of speaking behavior and voice sound characteristics--a normative multicenter study of 577 + 36 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Silke; Botella, Cristina; Bridler, René; Chmetz, Florian; Delfino, Juan Pablo; Herzig, Daniela; Kluckner, Viktoria J; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Ines; Schrag, Yann; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Human speech is greatly influenced by the speakers' affective state, such as sadness, happiness, grief, guilt, fear, anger, aggression, faintheartedness, shame, sexual arousal, love, amongst others. Attentive listeners discover a lot about the affective state of their dialog partners with no great effort, and without having to talk about it explicitly during a conversation or on the phone. On the other hand, speech dysfunctions, such as slow, delayed or monotonous speech, are prominent features of affective disorders. This project was comprised of four studies with healthy volunteers from Bristol (English: n = 117), Lausanne (French: n = 128), Zurich (German: n = 208), and Valencia (Spanish: n = 124). All samples were stratified according to gender, age, and education. The specific study design with different types of spoken text along with repeated assessments at 14-day intervals allowed us to estimate the 'natural' variation of speech parameters over time, and to analyze the sensitivity of speech parameters with respect to form and content of spoken text. Additionally, our project included a longitudinal self-assessment study with university students from Zurich (n = 18) and unemployed adults from Valencia (n = 18) in order to test the feasibility of the speech analysis method in home environments. The normative data showed that speaking behavior and voice sound characteristics can be quantified in a reproducible and language-independent way. The high resolution of the method was verified by a computerized assignment of speech parameter patterns to languages at a success rate of 90%, while the correct assignment to texts was 70%. In the longitudinal self-assessment study we calculated individual 'baselines' for each test person along with deviations thereof. The significance of such deviations was assessed through the normative reference data. Our data provided gender-, age-, and language-specific thresholds that allow one to reliably distinguish between 'natural

  18. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability

  19. Assessment of self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare self-perceived and normative dental needs among teaching faculty of Visveswarapura Group of Institutions, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 217 teaching faculty from four Visveswarapura Group of Institutions namely Arts and Commerce, Law, Science College and Engineering College. The study population was subjected to a self-administered closed-ended questionnaire inquiring about their socioeconomic status, Oral health status and treatment needs. Clinical examinations, employing WHO dentition status and community periodontal index were performed to determine normative status and needs. Perceived and normative assessments were compared for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using Kappa statistics. Results: The degree of agreement (κ values and sensitivity was seen in filled teeth (0.839, 80%, missing teeth (0.696, 85.2%, and mobile teeth (0.57, 55.6%. However, the disagreement was seen with all other questions with average κ = 0.20. Regarding overall proportions, a large discrepancy was found between self-perceived and normative needs for both dental and periodontal health status. Conclusion: Self-assessment questionnaires were of low value in evaluating oral health status and treatment needs compared with clinical examination.

  20. Toddlers View Artifact Function Normatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Krista; Terziyan, Treysi; Greene, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    When children use objects like adults, are they simply tracking regularities in others' object use, or are they demonstrating a normatively defined awareness that there are right and wrong ways to act? This study provides the first evidence for the latter possibility. Young 2- and 3-year-olds (n = 32) learned functions of 6 artifacts, both…

  1. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding...

  2. Whole-body adipose tissue and lean muscle volumes and their distribution across gender and age: MR-derived normative values in a normal-weight Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Erika J; Nanz, Daniel; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Marcon, Magda; Fischer, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    To determine age- and gender-dependent whole-body adipose tissue and muscle volumes in healthy Swiss volunteers in Dixon MRI in comparison with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) measurements. Fat-water-separated whole-body 3 Tesla MRI of 80 healthy volunteers (ages 20 to 62 years) with a body mass index (BMI) of 17.5 to 26.2 kg/m 2 (10 men, 10 women per decade). Age and gender-dependent volumes of total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT), and the total lean muscle tissue (TLMT) normalized for body height were determined by semi-automatic segmentation, and correlated with anthropometric and BIA measurements as well as lifestyle parameters. The TAT, ASAT, VAT, and TLMT indexes (TATi, ASATi, VATi, and TLMTi, respectively) (L/m 2  ± standard deviation) for women/men were 6.4 ± 1.8/5.3 ± 1.7, 1.6 ± 0.7/1.2 ± 0.5, 0.4 ± 0.2/0.8 ± 0.5, and 5.6 ± 0.6/7.1 ± 0.7, respectively. The TATi correlated strongly with ASATi (r > 0.93), VATi, BMI and BIA (r > 0.70), and TAATi (r > 0.96), and weak with TLMTi for both genders (r > -0.34). The VAT was the only parameter showing an age dependency (r > 0.32). The BMI and BIA showed strong correlation with all MR-derived adipose tissue volumes. The TAT mass was estimated significantly lower from BIA than from MRI (both genders P muscle volumes might serve as normative values. The estimation of adipose tissue volumes was significantly lower from anthropometric and BIA measurements than from MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:449-458, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P; Geertzen, Jan H; Groothoff, Johan W; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Reneman, Michiel F

    2009-10-01

    Soer R, van der Schans CP, Geertzen JH, Groothoff JW, Brouwer S, Dijkstra PU, Reneman MF. Normative values for a functional capacity evaluation. To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Descriptive. Rehabilitation center. Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180 occupations. Subjects performed a 2-hour FCE consisting of 12 work-related tests. Subjects were classified into categories based on physical demands according to the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Means, ranges, SDs, and percentiles were provided for normative values of FCE, and a regression analysis for outcome of the 12 tests was performed. Normative FCE values were established for 4 physical demand categories. The normative values enable comparison of patients' performances to these values. If a patient's performance exceeds the lowest scores in his/her corresponding demand category, then the patient's capacity is very likely to be sufficient to meet the workload. Further, clinicians can make more precise return-to-work recommendations and set goals for rehabilitation programs. A comparison of the normative values can be useful to the fields of rehabilitation, occupational, and insurance medicine. Further research is needed to test the validity of the normative values with respect to workplace assessments and return-to-work recommendations.

  4. Normative and Descriptive Aspects of Management Education: Differentiation and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovich, Gavriel

    2015-01-01

    This study advocates strongly for clear differentiation and synthesis of descriptive and normative approaches in management education. There is a certain isolation of normative and descriptive theoretical frameworks presented in management courses. Normative frameworks in management explain how organizations "should be" managed, while…

  5. [Spanish normative studies in a young adult population (NEURONORMA young adults Project): norms for the verbal span, visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test and Symbol Digit Modalities Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, F; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2012-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test are frequently used in clinical practice to assess attention, executive functions and memory. In the present study, as part of the Spanish normative studies of NEURONORMA young adults Project, normative data adjusted by age and education are provided for digits, Corsi Block-Tapping Task, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. The sample consisted of 179 participants from 18 to 49 years old, who were cognitively normal. Tables to convert raw scores to scaled scores are provided. Age and education adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regressions. Education affected scores in most of the attention tests; age was found to be related to the visuospatial span and to speed of visuomotor tracking, and there was no relationship as regards sex. The data obtained will be useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents? and peers? normative influence on adolescents? smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students

    OpenAIRE

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and method Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents? smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 a...

  7. Normative Data for the Balance Error Scoring System in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant L. Iverson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The balance error scoring system (BESS is a brief, easily administered test of static balance. The purpose of this study is to develop normative data for this test. Study Design. Cross-sectional, descriptive, and cohort design. Methods. The sample was drawn from a population of clients taking part in a comprehensive preventive health screen at a multidisciplinary healthcare center. Community-dwelling adults aged 20–69 (N=1,236 were administered the BESS within the context of a fitness evaluation. They did not have significant medical, neurological, or lower extremity problems that might have an adverse effect on balance. Results. There was a significant positive correlation between BESS scores and age (r=.34. BESS performance was similar for participants between the ages of 20 and 49 and significantly declined between ages 50 and 69. Men performed slightly better than women on the BESS. Women who were overweight performed significantly more poorly on the test compared to women who were not overweight (P<.0001; Cohen's d=.62. The BESS normative data are stratified by age and sex. Conclusions. These normative data provide a frame of reference for interpreting BESS performance in adults who sustain traumatic brain injuries and adults with diverse neurological or vestibular problems.

  8. Developmental changes in children's normative reasoning across learning contexts and collaborative roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Anne E; Young, Andrew G

    2016-08-01

    What influences children's normative judgments of conventional rules at different points in development? The current study explored the effects of two contextual factors on children's normative reasoning: the way in which the rules were learned and whether the rules apply to the self or others. Peer dyads practiced a novel collaborative board game comprising two complementary roles. Dyads were either taught both the prescriptive (i.e., what to do) and proscriptive (i.e., what not to do) forms of the rules, taught only the prescriptive form of the rules, or created the rules themselves. Children then judged whether third parties were violating or conforming to the rules governing their own roles and their partner's roles. Early school-aged children's (6- to 7-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments were strongest when they had been taught the rules (with or without the proscriptive form), but were more flexible for rules they created themselves. Preschool-aged children's (4- to 5-year-olds; N = 60) normative judgments, however, were strongest when they were taught both the prescriptive and proscriptive forms of the rules. Additionally, preschoolers exhibited stronger normative judgments when the rules governed their own roles rather than their partner's roles, whereas school-aged children treated all rules as equally normative. These results demonstrate that children's normative reasoning is contingent on contextual factors of the learning environment and, moreover, highlight 2 specific areas in which children's inferences about the normativity of conventions strengthen over development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Normative Judgments and Individual Essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Tobia, Kevin P; Newman, George E; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-04-01

    A growing body of research has examined how people judge the persistence of identity over time-that is, how they decide that a particular individual is the same entity from one time to the next. While a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the types of features that people typically consider when making such judgments, to date, existing work has not explored how these judgments may be shaped by normative considerations. The present studies demonstrate that normative beliefs do appear to play an important role in people's beliefs about persistence. Specifically, people are more likely to judge that the identity of a given entity (e.g., a hypothetical nation) remains the same when its features improve (e.g., the nation becomes more egalitarian) than when its features deteriorate (e.g., the nation becomes more discriminatory). Study 1 provides a basic demonstration of this effect. Study 2 shows that this effect is moderated by individual differences in normative beliefs. Study 3 examines the underlying mechanism, which is the belief that, in general, various entities are essentially good. Study 4 directly manipulates beliefs about essence to show that the positivity bias regarding essences is causally responsible for the effect. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Cohort study. Participants' homes. 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. N/A. Participants completed a 48h use of time recall, comprising sleep data for one complete night. Sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were compared across age groups, between genders, and between school and non-school days using ANOVA. Sleep duration declined with age (P sleep was 16 min longer than school day sleep (P sleep duration guidelines. Normative sleep data will provide a valuable yardstick for health and education professionals when dealing with sleep-related issues.

  11. Preliminary Normative Data on the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task With Nonconcussed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Conder, Lauren H; Newton, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Visual concentration impairment after neurologic injury is frequent, making its identification a critical component of neurocognitive concussion assessment. Visual target cancellation tests such as the Penn State University Symbol Cancellation Task (PSUSCT) have been widely used in assessing professional and collegiate athletes. To date, there are no normative studies using the PSUSCT with an adolescent population. Given that 38 million children and adolescents participate in sports and an estimated 5% to 10% are concussed annually, adolescent normative data are critically needed to evaluate concussions in this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to provide adolescent normative data on the PSUSCT. Participants included 40 healthy, nonconcussed high school students aged 14 to 19 years old (20 men, 20 women). Participants were administered Forms A and C of the PSUSCT within a 4-day period. Data analysis examined hits, omission errors, and commission errors, with descriptive statistics calculated for the total sample and for subgroups by gender and age. Study 1 provided normative adolescent data on Form A. Study 2 examined practice effects and established reliable change indexes (RCIs) by comparing results on Forms A and C. Neither Study 1 nor Study 2 demonstrated significant group differences for gender or age. In conclusion, this study presents adolescent normative data, apparent practice effects, and RCIs on the PSUSCT. These norms provide data needed to appropriately include the PSUSCT in baseline and postinjury concussion evaluation batteries with adolescent student-athletes. Findings should be replicated with a larger, more heterogeneous sample.

  12. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  13. The Phoneme Identification Test for Assessment of Spectral and Temporal Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Previous research suggests that a proportion of children experiencing reading and listening difficulties may have an underlying primary deficit in the way that the central auditory nervous system analyses the perceptually important, rapidly varying, formant frequency components of speech. The Phoneme Identification Test (PIT) was developed to investigate the ability of children to use spectro-temporal cues to perceptually categorize speech sounds based on their rapidly changing formant frequencies. The PIT uses an adaptive two-alternative forced-choice procedure whereby the participant identifies a synthesized consonant-vowel (CV) (/ba/ or /da/) syllable. CV syllables differed only in the second formant (F2) frequency along an 11-step continuum (between 0% and 100%-representing an ideal /ba/ and /da/, respectively). The CV syllables were presented in either quiet (PIT Q) or noise at a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (PIT N). Development of the PIT stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Twelve adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 5 mo) and 137 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 76 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions were automatically fit to individual data by the PIT software. Performance was determined by the width of the continuum for which responses were neither clearly /ba/ nor /da/ (referred to as the uncertainty region [UR]). A shallower psychometric function slope reflected greater uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. Z scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the median value of the F2 range

  14. The controversy over pediatric bariatric surgery: an explorative study on attitudes and normative beliefs of specialists, parents, and adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geelen, Stefan M; Bolt, Ineke L E; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; van Summeren, Marieke J H

    2013-06-01

    Despite the reported limited success of conventional treatments and growing evidence of the effectiveness of adult bariatric surgery, weight loss operations for (morbidly) obese children and adolescents are still considered to be controversial by health care professionals and lay people alike. This paper describes an explorative, qualitative study involving obesity specialists, morbidly obese adolescents, and parents and identifies attitudes and normative beliefs regarding pediatric bariatric surgery. Views on the etiology of obesity-whether it should be considered primarily a medical condition or more a psychosocial problem-seem to affect the specialists' normative opinions concerning the acceptability of bariatric procedures as a treatment option, the parents' feelings regarding both being able to influence their child's health and their child being able to control their own condition, and the adolescents' sense of competence and motivation for treatment. Moreover, parents and adolescents who saw obesity as something that they could influence themselves were more in favor of non-surgical treatment and vice versa. Conflicting attitudes and normative views-e.g., with regard to concepts of disease, personal influence on health, motivation, and the possibility of a careful informed consent procedure-play an important role in the acceptability of bariatric surgery for childhood obesity.

  15. Health and aging: development of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Hilary; O'Regan, Clare; Finucane, Ciaran; Kearney, Patricia; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-05-01

    To assist researchers planning studies similar to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), concerning the development of the health assessment component, to promote use of the archived data set, to inform researchers of the methods employed, and to complement the accompanying article on normative values. Prospective, longitudinal study of older adults. Republic of Ireland. Eight thousand five hundred four community-dwelling adults who participated in wave 1 of the TILDA study. The main areas of focus for the TILDA health assessments are neurocardiovascular instability, locomotion, and vision. The article describes the scientific rationale for the choice of assessments and seeks to determine the potential advantages of incorporating novel biomeasures and technologies in population-based studies to advance understanding of aging-related disorders. The detailed description of the physical measures will facilitate cross-national comparative research and put into context the normative values outlined in the subsequent article. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. The normativity of artefacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Part of the distinction between artefacts, objects made by humans for particular purposes, and natural objects is that artefacts are subject to normative judgements. A drill, say, can be a good drill or a poor drill, it can function well or correctly or it can malfunction. In this paper I

  17. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  18. The normativity of intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, B.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Suppose you intend now to φ at some future time t. However, when t has come you do not φ. Something has gone wrong. This failing is not just a causal but also a normative failing. This raises the question how to characterize this failing. I discuss three alternative views. On the first view, the

  19. Designing normative open virtual enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Emilia; Giret, Adriana; Botti, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest on developing virtual enterprises in order to deal with the globalisation of the economy, the rapid growth of information technologies and the increase of competitiveness. In this paper we deal with the development of normative open virtual enterprises (NOVEs). They are systems with a global objective that are composed of a set of heterogeneous entities and enterprises that exchange services following a specific normative context. In order to analyse and design systems of this kind the multi-agent paradigm seems suitable because it offers a specific solution for supporting the social and contractual relationships between enterprises and for formalising their business processes. This paper presents how the Regulated Open Multi-agent systems (ROMAS) methodology, an agent-oriented software methodology, can be used to analyse and design NOVEs. ROMAS offers a complete development process that allows identifying and formalising of the structure of NOVEs, their normative context and the interactions among their members. The use of ROMAS is exemplified by means of a case study that represents an automotive supply chain.

  20. Normative scores on the Berg Balance Scale decline after age 70 years in healthy community-dwelling people: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen; Marquez, Jodie; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2014-06-01

    What is the mean Berg Balance Scale score of healthy elderly people living in the community and how does it vary with age? How much variability in Berg Balance Scale scores is present in groups of healthy elderly people and how does this vary with age? Systematic review with meta-analysis. Any group of healthy community-dwelling people with a mean age of 70 years or greater that has undergone assessment using the Berg Balance Scale. Mean and standard deviations of Berg Balance Scale scores within cohorts of elderly people of known mean age. The search yielded 17 relevant studies contributing data from a total of 1363 participants. The mean Berg Balance Scale scores ranged from 37 to 55 out of a possible maximum score of 56. The standard deviation of Berg Balance Scale scores varied from 1.0 to 9.2. Although participants aged around 70 years had very close to normal Berg Balance Scale scores, there was a significant decline in balance with age at a rate of 0.7 points on the 56-point Berg Balance Scale per year. There was also a strong association between increasing age and increasing variability in balance (R(2) = 0.56, p balance deficits, as measured by the Berg Balance Scale, although balance scores deteriorate and become more variable with age. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  2. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  3. Normative Data for Interpreting the BREAST-Q: Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Lily R.; Homa, Karen; Klassen, Anne F.; Pusic, Andrea L.; Kerrigan, Carolyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The BREAST-Q is a rigorously developed, well-validated, patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument with a module designed for evaluating breast augmentation outcomes. However, there are no published normative BREAST-Q scores, limiting interpretation. Methods Normative data were generated for the BREAST-Q Augmentation Module via the Army of Women (AOW), an online community of women (with and without breast cancer) engaged in breast-cancer related research. Members were recruited via email, with women 18 years or older without a history of breast cancer or breast surgery invited to participate. Descriptive statistics and a linear multivariate regression were performed. A separate analysis compared normative scores to findings from previously published BREAST-Q augmentation studies. Results The preoperative BREAST-Q Augmentation Module was completed by 1,211 women. Mean age was 54 ±24 years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 27 ±6, and 39% (n=467) had a bra cup size ≥D. Mean scores were Satisfaction with Breasts (54 ±19), Psychosocial Well-being (66 ±20), Sexual Well-being (49 ±20), and Physical Well-being (86 ±15). Women with a BMI of 30 or greater and bra cup size D or greater had lower scores. In comparison to AOW scores, published BREAST-Q augmentation scores were lower before and higher after surgery for all scales except Physical Well-being. Conclusions The AOW normative data represent breast-related satisfaction and well-being in woman not actively seeking breast augmentation. This data may be used as normative comparison values for those seeking and undergoing surgery as we did, demonstrating the value of breast augmentation in this patient population. PMID:28350657

  4. The ethics of normative power

    OpenAIRE

    Beiniks, Stacia

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The question addressed by this research is; how can the concept of normative power be morally evaluated? In general terms, normative power is thought to be an ability or disposition, where A has normative power when it is able to diffuse through communicative acts a norm n to B. However, prevailing theories also assume that all uses of normative power are justified, and that this is dependent on the norm promoted being defined as valid. This alters the definition of normative...

  5. Normative Values for a Functional Capacity Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; van der Schans, Cees P.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish normative values for a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) of healthy working subjects. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Rehabilitation center. Participants: Healthy working subjects (N=701; 448 men, 253 women) between 20 and 60 years of age, working in more than 180

  6. Normative data for the Maryland CNC Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; Mustain, William D; Magro, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The Maryland consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) Test is routinely used in Veterans Administration medical centers, yet there is a paucity of published normative data for this test. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the means and distribution of word-recognition scores on the Maryland CNC Test as a function of degree of hearing loss for a veteran population. A retrospective, descriptive design was conducted. The sample consisted of records from veterans who had Compensation and Pension (C&P) examinations at a Veterans Administration medical center (N = 1,760 ears). Audiometric records of veterans who had C&P examinations during a 10 yr period were reviewed, and the pure-tone averages (PTA4) at four frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) were documented. The maximum word-recognition score (PBmax) was determined from the performance-intensity functions obtained using the Maryland CNC Test. Correlations were made between PBmax and PTA4. A wide range of word-recognition scores were obtained at all levels of PTA4 for this population. In addition, a strong negative correlation between the PBmax and the PTA4 was observed, indicating that as PTA4 increased, PBmax decreased. Word-recognition scores decreased significantly as hearing loss increased beyond a mild hearing loss. Although threshold was influenced by age, no statistically significant relationship was found between word-recognition score and the age of the participants. RESULTS from this study provide normative data in table and figure format to assist audiologists in interpreting patient results on the Maryland CNC test for a veteran population. These results provide a quantitative method for audiologists to use to interpret word-recognition scores based on pure-tone hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

  7. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  8. Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Hallvig, David; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-10-01

    Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:00-16:00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Y-balance normative data for female collegiate volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christy; Garrison, J Craig; Pollard, Kalyssa

    2016-11-01

    The Lower Quarter Y Balance (YBT-LQ) Test performance varies depending on competitive level, sport, gender, and age; therefore, determining normative scores specific to a population may be helpful in identifying injury-risk thresholds and return-to-play criteria following an injury. The purpose of this study was to determine normative YBT-LQ scores by assessing a subset of female, Division I volleyball players. A descriptive analysis cohort study. Ninety healthy (19.6 ± 1.2 y/o), collegiate female volleyball players. YBT-LQ was measured in 3 distinct directions of anterior (ANT), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) on both the dominant and non-dominant limbs. In addition, a one way ANOVA was performed to determine mean group differences of YBT-LQ dominant and non-dominant limb composite score across position. Baseline values for this population were 94.1 ± 6.6% on the dominant limb and 93.9 ± 6.2% on the non-dominant limb. There were no significant differences for YBT-LQ composite scores on dominant (P = 0.867) and non-dominant (P = 0.989) limbs between position. This study identified normative YBT-LQ composite scores for healthy, female, collegiate volleyball players. Participants performed similarly despite their position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  11. The Walking Corsi Test (WalCT): a normative study of topographical working memory in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Palermo, L; Leonzi, M; Risetti, M; Zompanti, L; D'Amico, S; Guariglia, C

    2014-01-01

    We report normative data on topographical working memory collected through the Walking Corsi Test (WalCT; Piccardi et al., 2008 ) for developing a standard administration procedure to be used in clinical and educational practice. A total of 268 typically developing Italian children aged 4-11 years performed both WalCT and Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT; Corsi, 1972 ) a well-known visuo-spatial memory test. WalCT has already been validated in adults, demonstrating sensitivity in detecting topographical memory deficits even in individuals who have no other memory impairments. Our results showed that age, but not sex, affected performances. Both girls and boys had a larger span on the CBT than the WalCT. The youngest group did not differ in performing WalCT and CBT, but from 5.6 years of age children performed better on CBT than WalCT, suggesting that memory in reaching space develops before topographical memory. Only after 5 years of age do children learn to process specifically topographical stimuli, suggesting that this happens when their environmental knowledge becomes operational and they increase environmental independence. We also discuss the importance to introduce WalCT in the clinical assessment.

  12. Normative Data of Corpus Callosal Morphology in a North-West Indian Population- An autopsy and MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Gupta

    2009-01-01

    The values of different CC parameters observed were almost similar to the values reported in the other two Indian studies. However, Indian values were found to be more than the Japanese values for length, height and most of the widths of CC. The length and width of CC were found to be less than those of Caucasian population. Generation of this data will help in comparing the CC structure of different sex and ages, to study variations from the normal and may help in surgical planning. Keywords:autopsy brains; corpus callosum; magnetic resonance imaging; morphometric data.

  13. When is normative recruitment legitimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Øystein Ursin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697

  14. Normative and Subjective Need for Orthodontic Treatment within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. Methods: One ... Professionals usually classify the normative need for. Original Article ..... orthodontic services among adolescents in the United States. Am. J Orthod ...

  15. Borderline personality disorder traits and their relationship with dimensions of normative personality: a web-based cohort and twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Myers, J; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T

    2011-05-01

    To describe the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for four dimensions of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and to understand the source of resemblance of these dimensions and normal personality. A web-based sample (n = 44,112 including 542 twin pairs) completed items from 4 scales of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology Basic Questionnaire and the Big Five Inventory. A one-factor common pathway model best fits the 4 BPD scales producing a highly heritable latent liability (heritability = 60%) and strong loadings on all 4 dimensions. Affective instability had the lowest trait-specific genetic loading, suggesting that it was a core feature of BPD. A complex pattern of genetic and environmental associations was found between the big five personality traits and BPD dimensions. The strongest genetic correlations with the BPD traits were generally seen for neuroticism (positive), followed by conscientiousness and agreeableness, both negative. In the general population, these four BPD dimensions reflect one underlying highly heritable factor. The association between normative personality and dimensions of BPD is complex with high degrees of genetic correlation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Interpersonal communication as an agent of normative influence: a mixed method study among the urban poor in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimal, Rajiv N; Sripad, Pooja; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M

    2015-08-12

    Although social norms are thought to play an important role in couples' reproductive decisions, only limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), through a mixed-method design, we investigated the role played by injunctive norms and interpersonal discussion in the relationship between descriptive norms and use of modern contraceptive methods among the urban poor in India. Data from a household survey (N = 11,811) were used to test the underlying theoretical propositions, and focus group interviews among men and women were then conducted to obtain more in-depth knowledge about decision-making processes related to modern contraceptive use. Spousal influence and interpersonal communication emerged as key factors in decision-making, waning in the later years of marriage, and they also moderated the influence of descriptive norms on behaviors. Norms around contraceptive use, which varied by parity, are rapidly changing with the country's urbanization and increased access to health information. Open interpersonal discussion, community norms, and perspectives are integral in enabling women and couples to use modern family planning to meet their current fertility desires and warrant sensitivity in the design of family planning policy and programs.

  17. The Significance of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    and Weber. It does so by situating Durkheim and Weber in the context of Neo-Kantian philosophy, which prevailed among their contemporaries, and the chapter thereby reveals a series of under-thematised similarities not only with regard to their methodological positions, but also in their conception of social...... of social theory. In pursuing this overall research agenda, the dissertation contributes to a number of specific research literatures. Following two introductory and methodological chapters, Chapter 3 thus critically examines the analysis of normativity suggested in the recent attempts at transforming...... the methods of neo-classical economics into a broader form of social theory. The chapter thereby contributes to the critical discourses, particularly in philosophy of science, that challenge the validity of neo-classical economics and its underlying conception of practical rationality. In examining...

  18. Under-triage in telephone consultation is related to non-normative symptom description and interpersonal communication: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Lippert, Freddy K; Egerod, Ingrid

    2017-05-15

    Telephone consultation and triage are used to limit the workload on emergency departments. Lack of visual cues and clinical tests put telephone consultations to a disadvantage compared to face-to-face consultations increasing the risk of under-triage. Under-triage occurs in telephone triage; however why under-triage happens is not explored yet. The aim of the study was to describe situations of under-triage in context, to assess the quality of under-triaged calls, and to identify communication patterns contributing to under-triage in a regional OOH service in the capital region of Denmark. Explanatory simultaneous mixed method with thematic analysis and descriptive statistics was chosen. The study was carried out in an Out-Of-Hours service (OOH) in the Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen. Under-triage was defined as Potentially Under-Triaged Calls (PUTC) by specific criteria to an OOH Hotline, and identification by integration of three databases: Medical Hotline database, Emergency number database, including the Ambulance database, and electronic patient records. Distribution of PUTC were carried out using ICD-10 codes to identify diagnosis and main themes identified by qualitative analysis of audio recorded under-triaged calls. Study period was October 15 th to November 30 th 2014. Three hundred twenty seven PUTC were identified, representing 0.04% of all calls (n = 937.056) to the OOH. Distribution of PUTC according to diagnoses was: digestive (24%), circulatory (19%), respiratory (15%) and all others (42%). Thematic analysis of the voice logs suggested that inadequate communication and non-normative symptom description contributed to under-triage. The incidence of potentially under-triage is low (0.04%). However, the over-representation of digestive, circulatory, and respiratory diagnoses might suggest that under-triage is related to inadequate symptom description. We recommend that caller and call-handler collaborate systematically on problem

  19. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can...

  20. Auditor´s report of report of companies of the brazilian electrical sector: one study of the normative adherence of the reports emited between 1999 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to verify the adherence to the normative demands found in the auditors’ reports concerned with the companies of the Brazilian electrical sector. To reach the proposed goal, an exploratory-descriptive study of report samples published between 1999 and 2006 was undertaken, covering the financial statements issued from 1998 to 2005, selected from Closing Balance, of Gazeta Mercantil. The research has an descriptive character and used the content analysis technique for the data analysis and interpretation. The approach adopted was both qualitative and quantitative. 136 auditors’ reports were scrutinized through the comparison between paragraphs contained in those reports and the aforementioned auditing standards issued by the regulating organ, the Accounting Federal Board. 936 frequencies were acknowledged, being divided into adherent and non-adherent, and the 14,9% of non-adherent ones were minutely discussed. Key words: Auditors’ Report, Auditing Standards and Electrical Sector.

  1. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  2. The effect of normative feedback on stability and efficacy of some selected muscles in a balancing task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ashrafpoor Navaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of normative feedback on stability and efficacy of some selected muscles at different task difficulty levels in novice individuals. Thirty participants (age Mean= 22.60, SD=1.89 years were randomly assigned into three groups of positive, negative normative feedback and control.  The experimental groups participated in 160 acquisition trials (16 blocks of 10trials for 4 consecutive days (40 per day. Post test was performed after last practice session. The result of ANOVA-repeated measure test indicated that positive normative feedback group outperformed the other groups in stability indices of overall stability (P=0.004, anterior-posterior (P=0.01 and medial-lateral (P=0.001. In addition, the result of Covariance test at electromyography indices of the Soleus and Peroneus brevis showed significant differences in the favor of positive normative feedback in post-test. The findings of the present study showed that normative feedback has functional motivation affect that directly influences physiological changes level of stability control. KEY WORDS: Electromyography, knowledge of result, normative feedback, performance, stability control.

  3. Normative and descriptive rationality: from nature to artifice and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, T. R.; Uckelman, S. L.

    2018-03-01

    Rationality plays a key role in both the study of human reasoning and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Certain notions of rationality have been adopted in AI as guides for the development of intelligent machines and these notions have been given a normative function. The notions of rationality in AI are often taken to be closely related to conceptions of rationality in human contexts. In this paper, we argue that the normative role of rationality differs in the human and artificial contexts. While rationality in human-focused fields of study is normative, prescribing how humans ought to reason, the normative conception in AI is built on a notion of human rationality which is descriptive, not normative, in the human context, as AI aims at building agents which reason as humans do. In order to make this point, we review prominent notions of rationality used in psychology, cognitive science, and (the history of) philosophy, as well as in AI, and discuss some factors that contributed to rationality being assigned the differing normative statuses in the differing fields of study. We argue that while 'rationality' is a normative notion in both AI and in human reasoning, the normativity of the AI conception of 'rationality' is grounded in a descriptive account of human rationality.

  4. Focus Groups as Social Arenas for the Negotiation of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...

  5. Median Nerve Conduction in Healthy Nigerians: Normative Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of median nerve disease using multiple studies, and rendering ... Aim: To develop normative values for motor and sensory median nerve ..... Table 5: Comparison of median motor nerve conduction study parameters to studies elsewhere. Study.

  6. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in ALS: validation of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) using age and education adjusted normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Burke, Tom; Lonergan, Katie; McHugh, Caroline; Mays, Iain; Madden, Caoifa; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Pender, Niall

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive and behavioural changes are an important aspect in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) briefly assesses these changes in ALS. To validate the ECAS against a standardised neuropsychological battery and assess its sensitivity and specificity using age and education adjusted cut-off scores. 30 incident ALS cases were assessed on both, ECAS and neuropsychological battery. Age and education adjusted cut-off scores were created from a sample of 82 healthy controls. ECAS composite scores (Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific) were highly correlated with battery composite scores. High correlations were also observed between ECAS and full battery cognitive domains and subtests. The ECAS Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific scores were highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. ECAS ALS-Specific cognitive domains also evidenced high sensitivity. Individual subtest sensitivity was medium to low, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting these scores. Low positive predictive values indicated the presence of false positives. Psychometric properties of the ECAS using age and education adjusted norms indicate that the ECAS, when used as an overall measure of cognitive decline, is highly sensitive. Further comprehensive assessment is required for patients that present as impaired on the ECAS.

  7. Two Notions of Epistemic Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Søren Harnow

    2009-01-01

    Although the dominant view of epistemic normativity is an extreme form of deontology, it is argued that there is no good reason for not also adopting a complementary consequentialist notion, which can be put to use in applied epistemology.......Although the dominant view of epistemic normativity is an extreme form of deontology, it is argued that there is no good reason for not also adopting a complementary consequentialist notion, which can be put to use in applied epistemology....

  8. Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-07-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. A mean HV of 2.411 cm(3) (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm(3) and 2.398 cm(3), respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy.

  9. [Normative values of kinetic tests in VNG assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Balance assessment plays an important role in occupational medicine. The diagnosis of patients with balance disturbances is based on a number of laboratory tests, including rotational chair tests, one of the most important. The normative value of kinetic tests greatly depends on movement parameters and laboratory equipment, which vary between diagnostic centers. The aim of the presented paper was to establish normatives for our laboratory and testing methodology in a group of healthy persons. The balance examination included 45 healthy persons (21 women and 24 men) aged 20-63 years (mean 38.5 +/- 14.9). The study population underwent very thorough neuro-otological examination, static posturography and VNG tests. The caloric test result was a crucial criterion for inclusion to the group of healthy persons. Rotational tests included: one "burst" test analyzing vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with and without optokinetic stimulation visual vestibular optokinetic reflex (VVOR) and cervico-ocular reflex (COR); three impulse tests and sinusoidal harmonic rotation tests of 0.04, 0.08, 0.1, 0.16, 0.32, and 0.64 Hz. The mean values were: VVOR, 0.9 +/- 0.1; VOR, 0.5 +/- 0.1; and COR, 0.2 +/- 0.1. The mean value of rotational and post-rotational nystagmus induced by sudden chair stop (impulse stimulus) was 9 +/- 7 s, the gain values were 0.4 for sinusoidal tests, in the stimulation range of 0.1-0.32 and 0.5 for 0.64 Hz stimulation. There was no significant linear relationship between age and test parameters except for the test using sinusoidal-decreasing stimulation. These normative values form the base for a closer incorporation of rotational tests in occupational medicine procedures.

  10. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  11. Normative beliefs, misperceptions, and heavy episodic drinking in a british student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlaney, John; McMahon, John

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the existence and effect of normative misperceptions on heavy episodic drinking behavior. However, there has been little work on these processes or application of normative-belief interventions outside the U.S. college system. The aim of the current study, therefore, was to investigate heavy episodic drinking and normative misperceptions in a U.K. university setting. An email containing a link to a survey Web site was distributed to all current undergraduate students at the University of Paisley, Scotland. In addition to age and gender questions, the survey contained items on students' personal behavior and perception of the level of that behavior in three groups of increasing social distance: close friends, other students of the same age, and other people of the same age in U.K. society in general. Completed surveys from 500 respondents were returned. In keeping with previous research, significant correlations were found between the respondents' behavior and the perception of that behavior in others, with beliefs about the most proximal individuals being the most strongly correlated. The majority of respondents were also found to overestimate alcohol consumption in other students. An age effect was noted, in which misperceptions appeared to decrease with age but did not vary between genders. The findings of the study indicate that the normative-belief alcohol consumption processes that have been found on U.S. college campuses also operate in U.K. university settings. This raises the possibility of applying social-norms interventions from the United States to the United Kingdom and potentially elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, the study noted apparent age effects in the degree of misperception, the implications of which are discussed.

  12. Habitual Physical Activity After Total Knee Replacement : analysis in 830 patients and comparison with a sex-and age-matched normative population (vol 92, pg 1109, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Roel F. M. R.; Stevens, Martin; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background. Previous studies on physical activity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) concentrated mainly on a return to sports activities. Objective. The objectives of this study were to determine the habitual physical activity behavior of people who had undergone TKA (TKA group) 1 to 5 years after

  13. Against essential normativity of the mental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    A number of authors have recently developed and defended various versions of ‘normative essentialism’ about the mental, i.e. the claim that propositional attitudes are constitutively or essentially governed by normative principles. I present two arguments to the effect that this claim cannot be r...... essentially normative, propositional attitude ascriptions could not support normative rationality judgments, which would remove the central appeal of normative essentialism....

  14. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago ePelegrina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back and 3-back was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7–13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

  15. Normative data on the n-back task for children and young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa; García-Madruga, Juan A; Elosúa, M Rosa; Macizo, Pedro; Carreiras, Manuel; Fuentes, Luis J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The n-back task is a frequently used measure of working memory (WM) in cognitive neuroscience research contexts, and it has become widely adopted in other areas over the last decade. This study aimed to obtain normative data for the n-back task from a large sample of children and adolescents. To this end, a computerized verbal n-back task with three levels of WM load (1-back, 2-back, and 3-back) was administered to 3722 Spanish school children aged 7-13 years. Results showed an overall age-related increase in performance for the different levels of difficulty. This trend was less pronounced at 1-back than at 2-back when hits were considered. Gender differences were also observed, with girls outperforming boys although taking more time to respond. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Normative data stratified by age and gender for the three WM load levels are provided.

  16. Demonstration of the need for cardiovascular and pulmonary normative data for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C M; Repka, C P; Brown, J M; Lalonde, T L; Dallow, K T; Barlow, C E; Hayward, R

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence that cancer and its treatments severely reduce cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), normative data for cancer survivors do not exist. The present study identifies age and gender-specific CRF distributions in a cancer population. The use of cancer-specific normative CRF data may help stratify initial fitness status and assess improvements in response to exercise interventions in cancer survivors. Data from 703 cancer survivors were analyzed for this study. Quintiles were compiled for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume (FEV1) for males and females in 5 age groups (19-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≥70 years of age). VO2peak values for the cancer population were significantly lower than the general US population. The cancer population average in each age group fell within the "very poor" classification of VO2peak values for the general population. FVC values in the cancer population were similar to the general population. Cancer survivors had very low age group-specific VO2peak values compared to the apparently healthy general US population. Previously, CRF values of cancer survivors were compared to normative values for the apparently healthy general population, which yielded imprecise classifications of initial fitness and changes in fitness, resulting in patient discouragement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Systemic Lisbon Battery: Normative Data for Memory and Attention Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Morais, Diogo; Oliveira, Jorge; Ferreira Lopes, Paulo; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Matias, Marcelo; Correia, Sara; Brito, Rodrigo

    2016-05-04

    Memory and attention are two cognitive domains pivotal for the performance of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). The assessment of these functions is still widely carried out with pencil-and-paper tests, which lack ecological validity. The evaluation of cognitive and memory functions while the patients are performing IADLs should contribute to the ecological validity of the evaluation process. The objective of this study is to establish normative data from virtual reality (VR) IADLs designed to activate memory and attention functions. A total of 243 non-clinical participants carried out a paper-and-pencil Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and performed 3 VR activities: art gallery visual matching task, supermarket shopping task, and memory fruit matching game. The data (execution time and errors, and money spent in the case of the supermarket activity) was automatically generated from the app. Outcomes were computed using non-parametric statistics, due to non-normality of distributions. Age, academic qualifications, and computer experience all had significant effects on most measures. Normative values for different levels of these measures were defined. Age, academic qualifications, and computer experience should be taken into account while using our VR-based platform for cognitive assessment purposes. ©Pedro Gamito, Diogo Morais, Jorge Oliveira, Paulo Ferreira Lopes, Luís Felipe Picareli, Marcelo Matias, Sara Correia, Rodrigo Brito. Originally published in JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology (http://rehab.jmir.org), 04.05.2016.

  18. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue give U-Pb zircon ages for rocks in Newfoundland, Yukon Territory, Manitoba, Ontario, and the Northwest Territories; present a compilation of K-Ar ages; and discuss Precambrian activity in New Brunswick, the geochronology of rock from the Northwest Territories, and reconnaissance Nd studies of rocks from the Northwest Territories. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  19. Technology Development as a Normative Practice: A Meaning-Based Approach to Learning About Values in Engineering-Damming as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Mahdi G; Harandi, Mehdi F; de Vries, Marc J

    2017-11-10

    Engineering, as a complex and multidimensional practice of technology development, has long been a source of ethical concerns. These concerns have been approached from various perspectives. There are ongoing debates in the literature of the philosophy of engineering/technology about how to organize an optimized view of the values entailed in technology development processes. However, these debates deliver little in the way of a concrete rationale or framework that could comprehensively describe different types of engineering values and their multi-aspect interrelations in real engineering practices. Approaching engineering values from a meaning-based perspective, as in this paper, can be a reliable method of tackling such a controversial problem. This paper therefore proposes that technology development be considered a systemic normative practice and attempts to provide a comprehensive view of various built-in values, their different origins and features, and a way of prioritizing them in real engineering processes. Studying two cases of the Zayandeh Rood Dam and the Abbasi Dam will lead to practical insights into how to understand norms in technology development and incorporate them into engineering practice.

  20. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... young men, and 11 older women (assessors); 1826 twins aged >or=70. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessors: perceived age of twins from photographs. Twins: physical and cognitive tests and molecular biomarker of ageing (leucocyte telomere length). RESULTS: For all three groups of assessors, perceived age...... increased with increasing discordance in perceived age within the twin pair-that is, the bigger the difference in perceived age within the pair, the more likely that the older looking twin died first. Twin analyses suggested that common genetic factors influence both perceived age and survival. Perceived...

  1. Implicit normativity in scientific advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Andersen, Hanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on implicit normative considerations underlying scientific advice-those normative questions, decisions, or issues that scientific advisers and the general public are not fully aware of but that nevertheless have implications for the character of the advice given. Using...... nutritional science as an example, we identify three such implicit normative issues. The first concerns the aim of scientific advice: whether it is about avoiding harm or promoting good. The second concerns the intended beneficiaries of the advice: whether advice should be framed to benefit the society...... as a whole or with special concern for the most vulnerable members of the population. The third consideration involves scientific advisers' attempts to balance the strengths of the scientific evidence with the expected consequences of scientific advice. We hope to promote more explicit discussion...

  2. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures

  3. Normative expectations : Employing "communities of practice" models for assessing journalism's normative claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldridge, Scott; Steel, John

    2016-01-01

    Journalism's relationship with the public has historically rested on an assumption of its Fourth Estate roles and as fulfilling democratic imperatives. The normative dimensions of these ideals have also long been taken as given in journalism studies, serving as a starting point for discussions of

  4. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    .354) Nm/kg. CONCLUSION: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...... was found, p gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * -0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0...

  5. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  6. N-back Working Memory Task: Meta-analysis of Normative fMRI Studies With Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Zachary; Arsalidou, Marie

    2018-05-07

    The n-back task is likely the most popular measure of working memory for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. Despite accumulating neuroimaging studies with the n-back task and children, its neural representation is still unclear. fMRI studies that used the n-back were compiled, and data from children up to 15 years (n = 260) were analyzed using activation likelihood estimation. Results show concordance in frontoparietal regions recognized for their role in working memory as well as regions not typically highlighted as part of the working memory network, such as the insula. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental methodology and potential contribution to developmental theories of cognition. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  7. A normative analysis of nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Renzo; Chiffi, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    This study addresses the question of normative analysis of the value-based aspects of nursing. In our perspective, values in science may be distinguished into (i) epistemic when related to the goals of truth and objectivity and (ii) non-epistemic when related to social, cultural or political aspects. Furthermore, values can be called constitutive when necessary for a scientific enterprise, or contextual when contingently associated with science. Analysis of the roles of the various forms of values and models of knowledge translation provides the ground to understand the specific role of values in nursing. A conceptual framework has been built to classify some of the classical perspectives on nursing knowledge and to examine the relationships between values and different forms of knowledge in nursing. It follows that adopting a normative perspective in the analysis of nursing knowledge provides key elements to identify its proper dimension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Normative values for the unipedal stance test with eyes open and closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Barbara A; Marin, Raul; Cyhan, Tamara; Roberts, Holly; Gill, Norman W

    2007-01-01

    Limited normative data are available for the unipedal stance test (UPST), making it difficult for clinicians to use it confidently to detect subtle balance impairments. The purpose of this study was to generate normative values for repeated trials of the UPST with eyes opened and eyes closed across age groups and gender. This prospective, mixed-model design was set in a tertiary care medical center. Healthy subjects (n= 549), 18 years or older, performed the UPST with eyes open and closed. Mean and best of 3 UPST times for males and females of 6 age groups (18-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and 80+) were documented and inter-rater reliability was tested. There was a significant age dependent decrease in UPST time during both conditions. Inter-rater reliability for the best of 3 trials was determined to be excellent with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.994 (95% confidence interval 0.989-0.996) for eyes open and 0.998 (95% confidence interval 0.996-0.999) for eyes closed. This study adds to the understanding of typical performance on the UPST. Performance is age-specific and not related to gender. Clinicians now have more extensive normative values to which individuals can be compared.

  9. Who crosses the norms? Predictors of the readiness for non-normative political participation among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šerek, Jan; Machackova, Hana; Macek, Petr

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' readiness for non-normative political participation (i.e., readiness to confront social rules for political reasons) was predicted by their interpersonal problems (with parents, teachers, and classmates), low optimism, and political beliefs (political self-efficacy and distrust in public institutions). A structural equation model using two-wave longitudinal data from Czech high school students (N = 768; 54% females; age range at T1 = 14-17, M = 15.97; T2 data collected 1.5 years later) showed that the changes in adolescents' readiness for non-normative participation were predicted by their lower institutional trust. Interpersonal relationships or optimism had no cross-sectional or longitudinal effect on the readiness for non-normative participation. These results suggest that the main source of adolescents' readiness for non-normative political actions lies in their political beliefs, while the effect of adolescents' interpersonal problems is less clear. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueck, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Phase 1 Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System Aging Study, NUREG/CR-5404 V1, focused on how and to what extent the various AFW system component types fail, how the failures have been and can be detected, and on the value of current testing requirements and practices. This follow-on study, which will be provided in full in NUREG/CR-5404 V2, provides a closure to the Phase 1 Study. For each of the component types and for the various sources of component failure identified in the Phase 1 Study, the methods of failure detection were designated and tabulated and the following findings became evident: Instrumentation and Control (I and C) related failures dominated the group of failures that were detected during demand conditions; many of the potential failure sources not detectable by the current monitoring practices were related to the I and C portion of the system; some component failure modes are actually aggravated by conventional test methods; and several important system functions did not undergo any function verification test. The goal of this follow-on study was to categorize and evaluate the deficiencies in testing identified by Phase 1 and to make specific recommendations for corrective action. In addition, this study presents discussions of alternate, state-of-the-art test methods, and provides a proposed Auxiliary Feedwater Pump test at normal operating pressure which should do much to verify system operability while eliminating degradation

  11. A Pre-normative study on the cyclic oxidation behaviour of PM chromium: the effect of experimental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Y.P.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Stroosnijder, M.F. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Caudron, E.; Buscail, H. [Lab. Vellave sur l' Elaboration et l' Etude des Materiaux, Equipe locale Univ. Blaise-Pascal Clermont-Fd 2 (France)

    2001-07-01

    In this study the importance of experimental parameters for the cyclic oxidation behaviour of chromium is discussed. In particular, the effect of different batches, sample geometry, maximum temperature during cyclic oxidation tests, and the effect of isothermal hold-time in relation to the oxidation behaviour are investigated in more detail. It is shown that small differences in the experimental method or material properties could already significantly influence the oxidation kinetics of the material under investigation. Consequently, poorly chosen and/or characterised experimental conditions can cause misleading results and even wrong conclusions. (orig.)

  12. Endocannabinoids in Alzheimer's disease and their impact on normative cognitive performance: a case-control and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Erica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathological, animal, and cell culture studies point to a role for the body's own endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs system in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology and treatment. To date, no published studies have investigated the potential utility of circulating eCBs as diagnostic biomarkers for AD or the impact of central eCBs on cognition. Results In comparison with healthy controls, there were no significant differences in measured eCB concentrations in plasma samples from patients with AD. Detectable eCBs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF had no relationship to cognitive performance in healthy controls at risk for AD. In pooled plasma samples, an inverse correlation was observed between plasma levels of the eCB 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol and TNF-α (r = -0.41, p Conclusion These results suggest that circulating endocannabinoids do not have utility as diagnostic biomarkers for AD and do not have a robust correlation with cognitive performance. Circulating levels of 2-AG may downregulate TNF-α production.

  13. Are Academics in Kazakhstan Capable of Self-Regulation? A Study of Faculty's Normative Structure in the Midst of Higher Education Decentralization Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya L.; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the state and structure of professional norms in the context of undergraduate teaching in a university in Kazakhstan. The purpose is to understand the belief system held by academics with regards to their professional duties in the context of teaching. Evidence of such normative structure would suggest that the Kazakhstani…

  14. Normative studies with the Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB): II. US students. A cross-cultural comparison with Dutch data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrindell, W A; Bridges, K R; van der Ende, J; St Lawrence, J S; Gray-Shellberg, L; Harnish, R; Rogers, R; Sanderman, R

    2001-12-01

    The Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB), a multidimensional, self-report measure of state assertiveness, was administered to a nationwide sample of 2375 undergraduates enrolled at 11 colleges and universities across the USA. The SIB was developed in the Netherlands for the independent assessment of both distress associated with self-assertion in a variety of social situations and the likelihood of engaging in a specific assertive response. This is done with four factorially-derived, first-order dimensions: (i) Display of negative feelings (Negative assertion); (ii) Expression of and dealing with personal limitations; (iii) Initiating assertiveness; and (iv) Praising others and the ability to deal with compliments/praise of others (Positive assertion). The present study was designed to determine the cross-national invariance of the original Dutch factors and the construct validity of the corresponding dimensions. It also set out to develop norms for a nationwide sample of US students. The results provide further support for the reliability, factorial and construct validity of the SIB. Compared to their Dutch equivalents, US students had meaningfully higher distress in assertiveness scores on all SIB scales (medium to large effect sizes), whereas differences on the performance scales reflected small effect sizes. The cross-national differences in distress scores were hypothesized to have originated from the American culture being more socially demanding with respect to interpersonal competence than the Dutch, and from the perceived threats and related cognitive appraisals that are associated with such demands.

  15. Age determination and geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.; Delabio, R.N.; Lachance, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and eight potassium-argon age determinations carried out on Canadian rocks and minerals are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in brief outline and the constants used in the calculation of ages are listed. Two geological time-scales are reproduced in tabular form for ready reference and an index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference

  16. Normative functional fitness standards and trends of Portuguese older adults: cross-cultural comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to develop normative functional fitness standards for the Portuguese older adults, to analyze age and gender patterns of decline, to compare the fitness level of Portuguese older adults with that of older adults in other countries, and to evaluate the fitness level of Portuguese older adults relative to recently published criterion fitness standards associated with maintaining physical independence. A sample of 4,712 independent-living older adults, age 65-103 yr, was evaluated using the Senior Fitness Test battery. Age-group normative fitness scores are reported for the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles. Results indicate that both women and men experience age-related losses in all components of functional fitness, with their rate of decline being greater than that observed in other populations, a trend which may cause Portuguese older adults to be at greater risk for loss of independence in later years. These newly established normative standards make it possible to assess individual fitness level and provide a basis for implementing population-wide health strategies to counteract early loss of independence.

  17. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Report 5 contains 24 papers from most regions of Canada, but particularly from British Columbia. The Geochronology Laboratory has, over the years, provided substantial U-Pb dating for the Cordilleran Division of the Geological Survey of Canada in Vancouver, and the results of a number of these studies are presented this year. A compilation of K-Ar ages is given. (figs., tabs., refs.)

  18. Social normative beliefs about smoking among Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Chi, Hoang Khanh; Tien, Truong Quang

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco-related deaths in Vietnam are forecast to climb from 40 000 annually to 70 000 by 2030. Previous research in Western nations has found social factors to be important determinants of adolescent smoking. Because these factors remain unexplored in Vietnamese youth, the purpose of this study was to examine social normative beliefs regarding smoking in a school-based sample of North Vietnamese adolescents and the association of these factors with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Three measures of normative beliefs regarding smoking were evaluated in cross-sectional surveys of secondary students. Of the 3 measures, parent/peer disapproval was the most consistent normative belief associated with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers.

  19. Normative data for distal line bisection and baking tray task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Alessio; Beschin, Nicoletta; Pisano, Alessia; Reverberi, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Line bisection is one of the tests used to diagnose unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Despite its wide application, no procedure or norms were available for the distal variant when the task was performed at distance with a laser pointer. Furthermore, the baking tray task was an ecological test aimed at diagnosing USN in a more natural context. The aim of this study was to collect normative values for these two tests in an Italian population. We recruited a sample of 191 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 89 years. They performed line bisection with a laser pointer on three different line lengths (1, 1.5, and 2 m) at a distance of 3 m. After this task, the subjects performed the baking tray task and a second repetition of line bisection to test the reliability of measurement. Multiple regression analysis revealed no significant effects of demographic variables on the performance of both tests. Normative cut-off values for the two tests were developed using non-parametric tolerance intervals. The results formed the basis for clinical use of these two tools for assessing lateralized performance of patients with brain injury and for diagnosing USN.

  20. Normative biometrics for fetal ocular growth using volumetric MRI reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Annis, Clemente; Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Estroff, Judy A; Warfield, Simon K

    2015-04-01

    To determine normative ranges for fetal ocular biometrics between 19 and 38 weeks gestational age (GA) using volumetric MRI reconstruction. The 3D images of 114 healthy fetuses between 19 and 38 weeks GA were created using super-resolution volume reconstructions from MRI slice acquisitions. These 3D images were semi-automatically segmented to measure fetal orbit volume, binocular distance (BOD), interocular distance (IOD), and ocular diameter (OD). All biometry correlated with GA (Volume, Pearson's correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.9680; BOD, CC = 0.9552; OD, CC = 0.9445; and IOD, CC = 0.8429), and growth curves were plotted against linear and quadratic growth models. Regression analysis showed quadratic models to best fit BOD, IOD, and OD and a linear model to best fit volume. Orbital volume had the greatest correlation with GA, although BOD and OD also showed strong correlation. The normative data found in this study may be helpful for the detection of congenital fetal anomalies with more consistent measurements than are currently available. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relationship between boys' normative beliefs about aggression and their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Si Huan; Ang, Rebecca P

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of general normative beliefs about aggression and specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression in predicting physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Two hundred and forty-nine Grade 4 and Grade 5 boys completed the Normative Beliefs about Aggression Scale (NOBAGS) and provided self-reports on the frequency of their physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that general normative beliefs about aggression contributed significantly in predicting all three types of aggressive behaviors. When general normative beliefs about aggression were controlled for, specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against males but not specific normative beliefs about retaliatory aggression against females, contributed significantly to predict physical, verbal, and indirect aggressive behaviors. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  2. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A; Chepkemboi, Joan

    2016-03-09

    Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers' knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers' knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. In addition to knowledge levels, mothers' beliefs play an important role in mothers' decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother's health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  3. Maternal knowledge, outcome expectancies and normative beliefs as determinants of cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: a cross-sectional study in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance A. Gewa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of multiple psychosocial factors on nutrition-related behavior, very few studies have explored beyond the role of mothers’ knowledge and perception of child-focused outcomes on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Africa. Our objective was to determine the relationships among mothers’ knowledge, outcome expectancies, normative beliefs, and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Kenya. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 mothers of children, 0-24 months old, in rural Kenya. Early child-feeding practices, knowledge of breastfeeding recommendations, beliefs associated with impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- and mother-focused outcomes and perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were examined. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between independent variables of interest and cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Results Being knowledgeable of breastfeeding-related recommendations, positive beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on child- focused outcomes, having a more positive perception of the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on mother-focused outcomes and a more positive perception of acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding by important others were associated with significantly lower risks of premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion In addition to knowledge levels, mothers’ beliefs play an important role in mothers’ decisions to practice exclusive breastfeeding. Mother’s beliefs on the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on the mother’s health, physical appearance and ability to engage in other activities were shown to have the strongest relationship with premature cessation of exclusive breastfeeding. Addressing these beliefs has the potential to contribute to more effective exclusive breastfeeding promotion efforts in rural Kenya.

  4. Social Institutions as Tools in Normative Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology......Social institutions are normative cognitive tools, the functions of which should be an important subject in cognitive anthropology...

  5. Individual and peer group normative beliefs about relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Hill, Laura G

    2010-01-01

    Studies show that children who use relational aggression process social information in unique ways; however, findings have been inconsistent and limited by methodological weaknesses. This short-term longitudinal study examined developmental changes in 245 (49% female; ages 8-13) 3rd through 8th graders' normative beliefs about relational aggression and tested the hypothesis that individual and classroom-level norms predict relational aggression 1 year later. Results showed that the transition to middle school was marked by increased approval of relational aggression, and individual norms predicted future relational aggression. Importantly, a contextual model showed that students in peer groups highly supportive of relational aggression became increasingly aggressive. Findings extend social information processing theories of relational aggression to focus on the role of peer group cognitions.

  6. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T. K. J.; Surminski, S.

    2018-06-01

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting `acceptable risk levels' and identifying `adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  7. Normative and counter-normative stress messages and symptom reporting: implications for health promotion and a methodological artefact for stress research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Lawrence, Claire

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing use of counter-normative health messages (i.e., evidence-based health information about cause-effect relationships that run counter to shared normative beliefs, e.g., stress can lead to personal growth). The current studies examine the effect of normative and counter-normative messages about stress on levels of symptom reporting. Predictions are derived from reactance, social comparison, and self-enhancement theories. Two studies focus on the development of the messages, and two experimental studies examine the effect of manipulating normative and counter-normative messages on symptom reports. The final study controls for mere-measurement effects and explores the role of stress process variables (appraisals and coping). Exposure to a normative message (stress causes ill health) results in reduced symptom reporting compared to a counter-normative message (stress provides challenge, growth, and development) and control groups. The results suggest that people may use symptom reporting strategically to indicate coping. Based on the argument that beliefs about stress and health are stored as mental models, the theoretical associations derived from stress theory are only observed when a normative message is presented. Counter-normative stress messages may carry no tangible benefits compared to normative messages. Some stress research may suffer from inherent methodological bias when normative information is provided in information and consent sheets. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? At present, nothing is known about counter-normative health messages, despite the fact that they are becoming widely used as a public intervention. What does this study add? A clear operational definition of counter-normative messages. A test of three competing theories for counter-normative messages that focus of the stress-symptom link. Demonstrating for the first time, that in the domain of stress and health, counter-normative messages

  8. Reflecting on Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Thomas; Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    -interested geographical expansion or military superiority. In the 1970s, François Duchêne called it a ‘civilian power’ (1972: 43); in the early 2000s it was argued that the label ‘normative power’ would be better suited (Manners 2000, 2002). Just as Duchêne’s civilian power reflected the Cold War milieu of the 1970s......There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self......, the normative power approach signified a crystallisation of the EU in the post-Cold War era....

  9. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...... that can be invoked to contextualize a specific object of political discussion such as a law, an institution, or the like. Contextualism denotes any view that political theory should take context into account, but there are many different views about what this means. Contextualism can be characterized...... by way of different contrasts, which imply that the resulting conceptions of contextualism are views about different things, such as justification, the nature of political theory, or methodology. Here the focus is on characterizations of contextualism in terms of methodology and justification...

  10. Odorant normative data for use in olfactory memory experiments: Dimension selection and analysis of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gordon Moss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed.

  11. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew G; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V; Johnson, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed.

  12. Four Normative Languages of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Herup

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the normative languages used by ordinary citizens to measure ongoing welfare state transformations in Denmark. Empirically, the article turns to qualitative data from a deliberative democratic forum where 35 citizens gathered to reflect upon and discuss the future of the wel...... of worth stating welfare dependency to be one of the big problems and stressing the need for individual responsibility and for giving structural incentives for such behaviour....

  13. Radiogenic age and isotopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is one of an annual collection of reports presenting data from the Geochronology Section of the Continental Geoscience Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). The main purpose of this collection is to make geochronological and other radiogenic isotope data produced by the section available promptly to the geological community. Reports make full presentation of the data, relate these to field settings and make comparatively short interpretations. Other geochronological and isotope data produced in the laboratory but published in outside journals or separate GSC publications are summarized at the end of this report. Reports in this issue cover methods for Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic analyses; 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for the New Quebec Crater and for basaltic rocks; U-Pb ages for a differentiated mafic sill in the Ogilvie Mountains, plutonic rocks in the Contwoyto-Nose Lakes are, zircons from the Anton Complex, the Clinton-Colden gabbro-anorthosite intrusion, the Himag plutonic suite, the Campbell granite, the Central Gneiss Belt, Silurian granites, a metarhyolite, plagiogranite and gabbro, and the Wage shear zone; Rb-Sr ages for granitic rocks; K-Ar and Rb-Sr geochronology of granites; a compilation of K-Ar ages; ages of archean and proterozoic mylonites and pre-Misi granitoid domes; and reconnaissance geochronology of Baffin Island

  14. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...

  15. Normative and Subjective Need for Orthodontic Treatment within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. Methods: One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean,

  16. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  17. The de Morton Mobility Index: Normative Data for a Clinically Useful Mobility Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Macri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining mobility status is an important component of any health assessment for older adults. In order for a mobility measure to be relevant and meaningful, normative data are required for comparison to a healthy reference population. The DEMMI is the first mobility instrument to measure mobility across the spectrum from bed bound to functional levels of independent mobility. In this cross-sectional observational study, normative data were obtained for the DEMMI from a population of 183 healthy, community-dwelling adults age 60+ who resided in Vancouver, Canada and Melbourne, Australia. Older age categories had significantly lower DEMMI mobility mean scores (P<0.05, as did individuals who walked with a mobility aid or lived in semi-independent living (assisted living or retirement village, whereas DEMMI scores did not differ by sex (P=0.49 or reported falls history (P=0.21. Normative data for the DEMMI mobility instrument provides vital reference scores to facilitate its use across the mobility spectrum in clinical, research, and policymaking settings.

  18. Social normative beliefs regarding cigarette smoking in Hungarian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Piko, Bettina F; Balazs, Mate A; Struk, Tamara

    2011-10-01

    Hungary will continue to experience a high burden of disease and death from lung cancer and other tobacco-induced disease unless there is a significant reduction in youth smoking. Social factors have been found to be among the most important determinants of adolescent smoking, yet few studies have investigated social normative beliefs in Hungarian youth. The purpose of the current study was to investigate three measures of smoking normative beliefs thought to influence adolescent smoking: perceived prevalence of smoking; perceived popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society; and perceived disapproval by friends and family. A cross-sectional school-based survey of eighth grade (n = 258) and 12th grade (n = 288) students in Mako, Hungary was conducted to assess social normative beliefs about smoking, current smoking, ever smoking, and susceptibility to smoking. The association of the normative beliefs with the smoking behavior variables was examined through logistic regression analysis, and the underlying factor structure of the normative belief items in the current sample was determined through factor analysis. The percent of boys reporting current smoking was 40.5% in 12th grade and 27.0% in eighth grade. Among girls, the percent was 44.0% of 12th graders and 29.1% of eighth graders. Parent/peer disapproval was the most consistently associated normative belief with smoking behavior and susceptibility to smoking across both samples. Youth smoking prevention programs should consider assessing and taking into account normative beliefs and develop strategies that provide accurate information about the actual prevalence of smoking, the types of individuals who smoke, and approval/disapproval of smoking by parents and peers. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog): Normative Data for the Portuguese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Joana; Freitas, Sandra; Duro, Diana; Tábuas-Pereira, Miguel; Guerreiro, Manuela; Almeida, Jorge; Santana, Isabel

    2018-02-28

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale is a brief battery developed to assess cognitive functioning in Alzheimer's disease that encompasses the core characteristics of cognitive decline (e.g. memory, language, praxis, constructive ability and orientation). The early detection, as well as the monitoring of cognitive decline along disease progression, is extremely important in clinical care and interventional research. The main goals of the present study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, and to establish normative values for the Portuguese population. The Portuguese version of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was administered to 223 cognitively healthy participants according to a standard assessment protocol consisting of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Adults and Older Adults Functional Assessment Inventory. Normal performance on the assessment protocol was the inclusion criteria for the study. The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale revealed good psychometric properties when used in the Portuguese population. Age was the main predictor of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale total score (R2 = 0.123), whereas the influence of education level was lower (R2 = 0.027). These two variables explained 14.4% of the variance on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale scores and were used to stratify the normative values for the Portuguese population presented here. On the total sample, the average total score in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale was 6 points. The normative data were determined according to age and educational level as these were the sociodemographic variables that significantly contributed to the prediction of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale

  20. Normative Database and Color-code Agreement of Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular Ganglion Cell-inner Plexiform Layer Thickness in a Vietnamese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Claudio I; Chansangpetch, Sunee; Thai, Andy; Nguyen, Anh-Hien; Nguyen, Anwell; Mora, Marta; Nguyen, Ngoc; Lin, Shan C

    2018-06-05

    Evaluate the distribution and the color probability codes of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness in a healthy Vietnamese population and compare them with the original color-codes provided by the Cirrus spectral domain OCT. Cross-sectional study. We recruited non-glaucomatous Vietnamese subjects and constructed a normative database for peripapillary RNFL and macular GCIPL thickness. The probability color-codes for each decade of age were calculated. We evaluated the agreement with Kappa coefficient (κ) between OCT color probability codes with Cirrus built-in original normative database and the Vietnamese normative database. 149 eyes of 149 subjects were included. The mean age of enrollees was 60.77 (±11.09) years, with a mean spherical equivalent of +0.65 (±1.58) D and mean axial length of 23.4 (±0.87) mm. Average RNFL thickness was 97.86 (±9.19) microns and average macular GCIPL was 82.49 (±6.09) microns. Agreement between original and adjusted normative database for RNFL was fair for average and inferior quadrant (κ=0.25 and 0.2, respectively); and good for other quadrants (range: κ=0.63-0.73). For macular GCIPL κ agreement ranged between 0.39 and 0.69. After adjusting with the normative Vietnamese database, the percent of yellow and red color-codes increased significantly for peripapillary RNFL thickness. Vietnamese population has a thicker RNFL in comparison with Cirrus normative database. This leads to a poor color-code agreement in average and inferior quadrant between the original and adjusted database. These findings should encourage to create a peripapillary RNFL normative database for each ethnicity.

  1. How normative interpretations of climate risk assessment affect local decision-making: an exploratory study at the city scale in Cork, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, T K J; Surminski, S

    2018-06-13

    Urban areas already suffer substantial losses in both economic and human terms from climate-related disasters. These losses are anticipated to grow substantially, in part as a result of the impacts of climate change. In this paper, we investigate the process of translating climate risk data into action for the city level. We apply a commonly used decision-framework as our backdrop and explore where in this process climate risk assessment and normative political judgements intersect. We use the case of flood risk management in Cork city in Ireland to investigate what is needed for translating risk assessment into action at the local city level. Evidence presented is based on focus group discussions at two stakeholder workshops, and a series of individual meetings and phone-discussions with stakeholders involved in local decision-making related to flood risk management and adaptation to climate change, in Ireland. Respondents were chosen on the basis of their expertise or involvement in the decision-making processes locally and nationally. Representatives of groups affected by flood risk and flood risk management and climate adaptation efforts were also included. The Cork example highlights that, despite ever more accurate data and an increasing range of theoretical approaches available to local decision-makers, it is the normative interpretation of this information that determines what action is taken. The use of risk assessments for decision-making is a process that requires normative decisions, such as setting 'acceptable risk levels' and identifying 'adequate' protection levels, which will not succeed without broader buy-in and stakeholder participation. Identifying and embracing those normative views up-front could strengthen the urban adaptation process-this may, in fact, turn out to be the biggest advantage of climate risk assessment: it offers an opportunity to create a shared understanding of the problem and enables an informed evaluation and discussion of

  2. Hunger, taste, and normative cues in predictions about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Reily, Natalie M; Spanos, Samantha; McGuirk, Lucy C; Herman, C Peter; Polivy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Normative eating cues (portion size, social factors) have a powerful impact on people's food intake, but people often fail to acknowledge the influence of these cues, instead explaining their food intake in terms of internal (hunger) or sensory (taste) cues. This study examined whether the same biases apply when making predictions about how much food a person would eat. Participants (n = 364) read a series of vignettes describing an eating scenario and predicted how much food the target person would eat in each situation. Some scenarios consisted of a single eating cue (hunger, taste, or a normative cue) that would be expected to increase intake (e.g., high hunger) or decrease intake (e.g., a companion who eats very little). Other scenarios combined two cues that were in conflict with one another (e.g., high hunger + a companion who eats very little). In the cue-conflict scenarios involving an inhibitory internal/sensory cue (e.g., low hunger) with an augmenting normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats a lot), participants predicted a low level of food intake, suggesting a bias toward the internal/sensory cue. For scenarios involving an augmenting internal/sensory cue (e.g., high hunger) and an inhibitory normative cue (e.g., a companion who eats very little), participants predicted an intermediate level of food intake, suggesting that they were influenced by both the internal/sensory and normative cue. Overall, predictions about food intake tend to reflect a general bias toward internal/sensory cues, but also include normative cues when those cues are inhibitory. If people are systematically biased toward internal, sensory, and inhibitory cues, then they may underestimate how much food they or other people will eat in many situations, particularly when normative cues promoting eating are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need in Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Emmanuel Olubusayo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the normative and self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment in Nigerian children, and to evaluate distribution of orthodontic treatment need according to gender and age. The sample consisted of 441 randomly selected school children, aged 11-18 years in Benin City, Nigeria. The subjects were further sub-grouped according to gender (229 males and 212 females) and age (246 11-13 years old and 195 14-18 years old). The Dental health Component (DHC) and Aesthetic Component (AC) of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) were used to assess orthodontic treatment need normatively. Self-perceived need was evaluated by asking the subjects to rate their dental aesthetics on the Aesthetic Component scale of IOTN. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate gender and age differences in distribution of treatment need. A definite need for orthodontic treatment was found among 21.5% (grades 4-5 of DHC) and 6.3% (grades 8-10 of AC) of the subjects; 3.9% of the subjects perceived a definite need for orthodontic treatment (grades 8-10 of AC). There were no statistically significant gender and age differences in distribution of orthodontic treatment need among the subjects (p > 0.05). The study revealed a need for orthodontic treatment in slightly more than one fifth (21.5%) of this sample of Nigerian children. The sample population has a lower need on aesthetic grounds and their normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment needs were not influenced by gender and age.

  4. The Normative Constitution of Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    On a naturalistic conception of agency, someone is an agent when certain of his own mental states are the cause of his movements. On a normative conception, a person constitutes his agency by following certain principles or laws. In Kant’s conception, for example, a movement counts as the agent’s own when it is chosen autonomously, that is, in accordance with the categorical imperative. To say that someone acts is to imply that his movements are a manifestation of his own activity and that it...

  5. Developing a normative critique of international trade law: special & differential treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the problem of trade and inequality is central to the resolution of the WTO Doha Round and to contemporary trade policy in general, it is currently undertheorized from a normative perspective. In this paper I develop a normative critique of WTO special and differential treatment law, as a case study of how normative political theory can be applied to international economic law. Using Rawls' theory of Justice as Fairness, I argue both that special and differential treatment can play a...

  6. Book Review: Genocide: A Normative Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Academics studying genocide are required, amid the exigency of predicting and preventing further instances of this crime, to extend their efforts so as to connect with policy makers, provide vital information, respond to particular instances of genocide or state-inspired genocidal campaigns, and prompt a political will to intervene at any stage in this crime. May starts by placing genocide studies in the normative foundation of this discipline. In this work, which stands as the fourth volume of a broader project that assesses the “conceptual and normative underpinnings of this ‘crime of crimes’”, genocide is treated as the most serious of all international crimes. May calls for additional work to be performed to include other forms and conceptualizations of genocide such as cultural genocide and ethnic cleansing. The book outlines the fundamental concepts behind the crime, its study, and the discipline, while offering a unique presentation of “special problems of genocide”. It also considers steps that should be taken forward with the view of facilitating reconciliation. May refers to war as the final response to genocidal situations, not the first, stating that, “there are situations where there is not unambiguous groups of victims”. Thus, humanitarian intervention, as a viable approach to mitigating acts of genocide, is still difficult to justify.

  7. Normative influence on condom use in the personal networks of female cocaine smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A J; Bell, D C; Montoya, I D

    2000-08-01

    Attitudes-norms research (the theories of planned behavior and reasoned action) has been successful in accounting for many types of behavior change. One of the strengths of this approach has been to combine individual beliefs and normative influences in the explanation of behavior change. However, the conceptualization of normative influence in these theories makes very strong assumptions about self-awareness in the selection of normative referents. These assumptions are particularly problematic when applied to female cocaine smokers, who report frequent sex while under duress or while cognitively impaired. In this study the original conceptualization of normative influence and two alternatives (assuming emotion-based and interaction-based selection of normative referents) are operationalized to evaluate stage of change for condom use among women who are heavy crack cocaine users with multiple sex partners. Results show that stage of change for use of condoms with nonmain partners is best accounted for by interaction-based selection of normative referents.

  8. Study of polyurethanes ageing offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabio G.; Sheldrake, Terry; Clevelario, Judimar; Pires, Fabio [Wellstream International, Panama City, FL (United States); Coutinho, Fernanda M.B. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the sectors with the highest number of production systems employing high technology. Brazil is worldwide renowned as a leader in oil and gas extraction in deep and ultra deep water. Inside the production chain, a great part the oil and gas produced is conveyed through flexible pipelines that connect the production wells to the platforms. There are two segments of these lines that receive different names according to their application characteristics. When the pipes are laid on the seabed in a static service condition, are called Flow lines and when they raise from the seabed to the platform in a dynamic service condition, are called Risers. The pipes designed for dynamic applications are equipped with Bend Stiffeners, components with conical form and in general with urethane basis, which has the function of providing a smooth stiffness transition between the flexible structure of the pipes and an extremely rigid structure, the platform, not allowing that this component infringes their minimum operation Bend Radius. According to Caire, the proper compression of curvature stiffeners and the material used in its manufacture is becoming increasingly important in industry due to its growing use and the occurrence of failures that have been recorded in recent years. This paper discusses the changes in the mechanical properties of polyurethanes by the hydrolysis during accelerated ageing, reaction of water with functional groups of the polymer chain, as well as mass variation, considering that these materials are designed for a service life exceeding twenty years for operation in water. (author)

  9. Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

  10. Bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying: The role of empathy and normative beliefs about aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Hana; Pfetsch, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Cyberbullying often takes place with the virtual presence or knowledge of bystanders. While we have some evidence about the determinants of bystanders' responses to offline bullying, we lack empirical studies concerning the variables that influence bystanders' responses to cyberbullying. The current study examines bystanders' responses to offline bullying and cyberbullying incidents. Two types of responses were captured: support toward the victims and the reinforcement of bullies' actions. Using data from 321 German adolescents (ages 12-18; M = 14.99; 44% girls), the association between bystanders' responses and normative beliefs about verbal aggression and cyberaggression, and affective and cognitive empathy, were tested in a path model. Both types of normative beliefs positively predicted the reinforcement of bullies, and normative belief about verbal aggression also predicted support for the victims of offline bullying. Both types of empathy predicted support in offline bullying, but only affective empathy predicted support in cyberbullying. There was no link between affective or cognitive empathy to the reinforcement of bullies. Moreover, bystanders' tendencies to respond supportively to the victim or to reinforce the bully were rather consistent in both cyber- and offline bullying, but there was no link between support and reinforcement. The findings are discussed with regard to implications for prevention and intervention efforts. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inquiry and the normative aspect in learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    as the interplay between intentions and life-story of the individual and culture and community. The theory of inquiry in the philosophy of Dewey offers an understanding of processes of learning as transformation from an indeterminate to a determinate situation. Furthermore, the normative aspect of learning......“Inquiry and the normative aspect of learning” In the paper it will be argued that the normative aspect of learning is to be found in the interplay between individual and world when the individual in an inquiring process tries to come to terms with the world. Normativity in learning is seen...

  12. Five Elements of Normative Ethics - A General Theory of Normative Individualism

    OpenAIRE

    Pfordten, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The article tries to inquire a third way in normative ethics between consequentialism or utilitarianism and deontology or Kantianism. To find such a third way in normative ethics, one has to analyze the elements of these classical theories and to look if they are justified. In this article it is argued that an adequate normative ethics has to contain the following five elements: (1) normative individualism, i. e., the view that in the last instance moral norms and values can only be justified...

  13. "i h8 u": The Influence of Normative Beliefs and Hostile Response Selection in Predicting Adolescents' Mobile Phone Aggression--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Annemarie; Fleming, Michele J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile phone aggression (MPA) is a relatively new phenomenon. Using newly developed measures, a pilot study was conducted with 348 adolescents ages 13-17 years to determine the incidence of MPA and victimization in this group of adolescents and to test a proposed model in which hostile response selection mediated the relationship between normative…

  14. Proposal of a new analytical procedure for the measurement of water absorption by stone. Preliminary study for an alternative to the Italian technical normative NORMAL 07-81

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plattner Susanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italian technical normative in the field of cultural heritage is often considered insufficient or not suitable in practise, therefore efforts are necessary to design new and/or improve already existing ones. Results In this paper an alternative analytical procedure for the determination of water absorption (by full immersion by stone material, described in the NORMAL 07-81 document, is proposed. Improvements concern methods accuracy and reduction of sample size; further also density data is obtained. Conclusions The new procedure was applied on three different marble samples and outcomes are encouraging, but further testing is running to better understand to what extent sample size can be reduced without worsening accuracy of results, taking into account that stone is a very heterogeneous material.

  15. Normativity of Scientific Law in the Perspective of Neo-Kantian Schools of Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX. Adji Samekto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific normativity of law conceived as a character inherent in legal science as a sui generis. Jurisprudence basically studies the law, something that initially emerged from the dogmatic belief in philosophy. Dogmatism refuse to alter beliefs one iota. The teachings of dogmatic philosophy stem from the teachings of Plato and reflected in the legal enforceability. Dogmatism in the law is reflected in the Corpus Juris Civilis. Along with the development of post Era Scholastic philosophical thinking, the philosophy synthesizes thought between dogmatic thinking and skeptic has appeared in the Age of Enlightenment. This idea is reflected in Transcendental Idealist philosophy thought of Immanuel Kant. The core idea is that real human beings are given the ability to understand based on empirical experience and actually also able to gain an understanding of the human being that is the essence of symptoms. Transcendental Idealist, thus dynamic, moving to look for values that are useful for life. Transcendental Idealist thought then be adopted Kelsen in the teaching of normativity in legal positivism. Normativity in the teachings of Hans Kelsen’s legal positivism derived from the integration of empirical positivism and idealistic empiricism.

  16. Attachment reorganization following divorce: normative processes and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Borelli, Jessica L

    2018-03-21

    This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies. The paper closes with a series of integrative questions for future research, including a call for new studies aimed at understanding under what contexts anxiety and avoidance may be adaptive in promoting emotion recovery to separation and divorce experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE STUDENTS’ REPRESENTATIONS OF CIVIL SERVANTS’ NORMATIVE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Oboznov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the normative personal orientation seeks to specify how personnel motivation should be organized in the value-motivational sphere for professional activity execution in accordance with its social purpose. Based on the priority of the civil service social purpose, the hierarchical structure of the personal normative orientations was theoretically validated. Social motives related to serving for the benefit of the Fatherland as well as work motives associated with the achievement of some role positions are the major motives. The subordinate motives are the monetary rewards and self-development. Development of the future civil servants’ orientation is based on a conscious idea about the required motives’ subordination, that is, about the normative civil servant’s orientation. The study involved 63 students of the 2nd and 4th year studying at the Russian management institute in the specialty “Customs” and 51 students of the 1st and 2nd year studying at the Public Administration Academy of the Republic of Armenia, as well as 4 experts (two from Russia and Armenia having long-term experience in the civil service. The method is an author’s closed-questions’ inventory containing a list of 18 personal goals, that should guide the civil servant in professional work. The instruction required the selection of five most important goals. An absolute majority (from 66 to 90% of Russian and Armenian students has the motives’ subordination that is inconsistent with the normative orientation. According to the students’ view, self-development, self-creation and material benefit are the leading motives of a civil servant. The expert motives’ representations are identical to the required content of civil servant normative orientation. The authors defined the need to develop a special psychological and educational program for promoting required representations about the normative orientation of future civil servants.

  18. The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Annis Lai Chu Fung

    2015-01-01

    This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results reveale...

  19. Tracing How Normative Messages May Influence Physical Activity Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bavel, René; Esposito, Gabriele; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2017-04-01

    Normative messages have been shown to increase intention to do physical activity. We traced how "positive" and "negative" normative messages influenced physical activity intention by comparing constructs of the model of goal-directed behavior with descriptive norms (MGDB + DNs) across control and treatment groups in an experiment. For this purpose, 16-24-year-old respondents (n = 1,200) in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania were asked about their age, sex, and levels of physical activity before being exposed to positive and negative normative messages and completing a questionnaire with MGDB + DNs scales. Different MGDB + DNs constructs were influenced by the normative messages: compared with the control, the negative message group showed stronger attitudes (p = .003) and the positive message group showed higher positive anticipated emotions (p = .005). The positive message's effect is consistent with the literature on conformity to social norms. The negative message's effect lends itself to interpretations based on social identity and deviance regulation theories.

  20. Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Nixon, Charisse L.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between normative beliefs about different forms of aggression and corresponding aggressive behaviors were investigated in 2 studies of adolescents. In Study 1, we revised an instrument designed to assess normative beliefs about aggression to include beliefs about the acceptability of relational aggression, and we examined the…

  1. Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Trapp, S; Jiménez-Pérez, C; Hernández Carrillo, C L; Pohlenz Amador, S; Vergara-Moragues, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; García de la Cadena, C; Galvao-Carmona, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Llerena Espezúa, X; Torales Cabrera, N; Flor-Caravia, P; Aguayo Arelis, A; Saracostti Schwartzman, M; Barranco Casimiro, R; Albaladejo-Blázquez, N

    2017-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the SDMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. SDMT scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age in all countries, such that score increased linearly as a function of age. In addition, age2 had a significant effect in all countries, except in Honduras and Puerto Rico. Models indicated that children whose parent(s) had a MLPE >12 years of education obtained higher score compared to children whose parent(s) had a MLPE ≤12 years for Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, and Spain. Sex affected SDMT score for Paraguay and Spain. This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate interpretation of the SDMT with pediatric populations.

  2. Normative Data for the Spanish Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Fernández-Bobadilla, Ramón; Fernández-Oliveira, Aníbal; Valles-Salgado, María; Rognoni, Teresa; Cortés-Martínez, Ana; Moreno-Ramos, Teresa; Kulisevsky, Jaime; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) is a cognitive test that has been validated for the diagnosis of cognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the ACE-III for age, education and gender. The Spanish version of the ACE-III was administered to a group of 273 healthy subjects in a multicenter study in Spain. Correlation and determination coefficients for age, education and gender were estimated. The overlapping interval strategy and linear regression analyses were used to provide adjusted norms for demographic factors and to explore the potential influence of these factors in the performance of the test. Age and education correlated significantly with the total score and with all the domains. Gender correlated only with the domains of attention and visuospatial skills. Norms for the total score and for cognitive domains (attention, memory, fluency, language, and visuospatial skills) are provided. This study confirms the influence of demographic factors (especially age and education) on the performance in the ACE-III and provides normative data for the Spanish version of the ACE-III. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Normative Cognition in Culture and Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Sinding

    2013-01-01

    "Normative Cognition" is a theoretical model of human cognition as driven, modulated and governed by symbolically mediated inter-subjective norms and conventions......"Normative Cognition" is a theoretical model of human cognition as driven, modulated and governed by symbolically mediated inter-subjective norms and conventions...

  4. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normative Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    The paper argues that even though there is no necessary link between constructivism and specific norms, constructivism opens a space for normativity and can be articulated with specific normative or political programs. The argument is based on Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism, but instead...

  5. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  6. 169 CONTENT NORMATIVITY AND THE INTERDEPENDENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    INTERDEPENDENCY OF BELIEF AND DESIRE. Seyed Ali ... attriЛutions are constitutively normative since “it is a condition on ... the concept of Лelief is constitutively normative since .... according to the definition (14) the concept of content.

  7. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  8. Childhood dental fear in the Netherlands: prevalence and normative data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, M.; Hoogstraten, J.; Prins, P.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present normative data on dental fear for the Dutch child population, by identifying not only highly fearful children but also children at risk for developing this high dental fear. METHODS: Fear distribution of samples of high and low fearful children was studied,

  9. Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa at large, there has been heavy reliance on the “Caucasian data” in the developmental assessment of children. Hence, this study set out to establish normative data for psychomotor development on Nigerian children. Study design: One hundred and twenty eight children ...

  10. Aging management and life extension - Containment aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Tom M.; Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Bechtel is currently completing an aging study on a concrete containment structure. The target plant is a two-unit PWR plant with a generating capacity of about 850 MWe from each unit. Both units are less than 20 years old. The total electrical energy output from this plant site accounts for more than 50% of the utility's baseload operation. Although no utility in the United States has made a decision to submit a license renewal application, some have begun to investigate the feasibility of developing an life cycle management (LCM) program for a strategy to operate their plants efficiently, to investigate the financial benefit and safety implications of license renewal to operate their nuclear power plants beyond their current licensed periods, and to prepare a program plan for plant decommissioning. The LCM program includes economic, environmental, regulatory and technical aspects of continuing plant operations beyond the current license period. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been supportive to assist utilities and owners groups in their research and development efforts to develop the technical requirements and the issues associated with important to license renewal structures. The focus of this paper is on the technical issues related to the evaluation of the material condition of the containment structure with respect to aging and the effective management of that aging. (author)

  11. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  12. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2016-01-01

    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... of texts and audiences. Based on a critique of the “participatory paradigm,” a paradigm that situates the locus of agency in the structural opposition between senders and users, in the norms of rational deliberation or in the figure of the activist, gaps are identified which can be filled by adopting...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure...

  13. Preschool children with gender normative and gender non-normative peer preferences: psychosocial and environmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; DiDonato, Matthew D; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2012-08-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53 % boys; M age = 51 months; 66 % Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer's characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed.

  14. Associations between Verbal Reasoning, Normative Beliefs about Aggression, and Different Forms of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Tropp, Kristiina; Hinn, Maris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of sex, verbal reasoning, and normative beliefs on direct and indirect forms of aggression. Three scales from the Peer Estimated Conflict Behavior Questionnaire, Verbal Reasoning tests, and an extended version of Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale were administered to 663 Estonian…

  15. Beyond Normativity in Sociocultural Reproduction and Sociocultural Transformation: Curriculum Work--Leadership within an Evolving Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylimaki, Rose M.; Fetman, Lisa J.; Matyjasik, Erin; Brunderman, Lynnette; Uljens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this article is to examine the contributions, gaps, and normativity problems in mainstream sociocultural theories, curriculum theory, and educational leadership studies, considering reflective education theories that provide a less normative alternative. Framework: Our framework introduces reflective education for social…

  16. Normative data on Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI: complimentary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviani H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: It is extremely important to validate psychological (psychometric tools before use in research projects. In fact without reliable and valid psychological tools, we can not rely on research results. TCI contains subscales designed to measure seven different personality traits and characteristics. This paper presents complementary findings to a previous study. In fact, the aim of this study was to summarize a normative data of TCI for an Iranian sample of men and women with different ages."n"n Methods: At first all research workers, who collected data in present study, were trained for the skills needed in order to communicate with the participant and to conduct the questionnaire. Randomly selected participants (n=1212 completed TCI questionnaire. "n"n Results: The results showed normative data for the subscales novelty seeking (NS, harm avoidance (HA, reward dependence (RD, persistence (Per, self directiveness (SD, cooperation (Co and self transcendence (ST for different gender and age classes. "n"n Conclusions: Similarities and differences of the present findings and other studies will be theoretically discussed. The sample of participants in this study allows us to generalize the collected data. The

  17. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Seiichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1980-01-01

    Though acceleration of aging induced by radiation could not be demonstrated in many investigations on delayed effects of ionizing radiation on a-bomb survivors, studies on acceleration of aging after the exposure to ionizing radiation in human and animals have been carried out. To investigate whether physiological function was related to the exposure to ionizing radiation, a series of examinations concerning age was carried out at the time of general health examinations at ABCC. Simple examinations concerning aging were carried out on 11,351 a-bomb survivors, but the result was essentially negative. If biological or physiological age was defined clearly, the results of functional test would be used as criterion of aging. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. [Mini-Mental State Examination: Screening and Diagnosis of Cognitive Decline, Using New Normative Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Isabel; Duro, Diana; Lemos, Raquel; Costa, Vanessa; Pereira, Miguel; Simões, Mário R; Freitas, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination is the most commonly used cognitive screening test. In Portugal, the cut-off scores are defined according to literacy groups, but different proposals have been recommended by more representative studies. We therefore propose to confirm the influence of demographical variables, such as age and education, in the subjectâs performance; evaluating the discriminant ability of the new normative data; and to further examine the diagnostic acuity of the validated cut-off scoring for mild cognitive impairment and for the most prevalent types of dementia. Our study includes 1 441 educated subjects, divided into seven subgroups: Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, community-controls and memory clinic-controls. Altogether age and education explain 10.4% of the Mini-Mental State Examination results variance, with both variables contributing significantly to the resultsâ prediction. The diagnostic acuity based on the most recent normative data was always higher than the one obtained through the validation cut-off scoring, revealing an overall excellent specificity (superior to 90%) and different sensitivity values: excellent for mild Alzheimer's disease (91%), good for dementia with Lewy Bodies (78%) and low for mild cognitive impairment (65%), frontotemporal dementia and vascular dementia (55%). The performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination is influenced by age and education, supporting the use of normative data that consider those variables. With this approach, the Mini-Mental State Examination could be a sensitive and specific instrument for the Alzheimer's disease screening among all healthcare levels. Nevertheless, its diagnostic acuity is limited in other conditions frequently seen in memory clinics, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment and other types of dementia.

  19. Reliability and normative data for the comprehensive assessment of prospective memory (CAPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Lien T; Lee, Jessica B; Fleming, Jennifer; Roche, Nadine; Shum, David

    2007-12-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate frequency of prospective memory (PM) failures in people with brain injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the CAPM, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency, and to establish normative data by comparing CAPM scores between groups on the basis of sex, age, and education. Data were collected on 95 people aged 15-60 years living in the community, with no history of brain injury, using the CAPM. The results showed that the test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the CAPM were within acceptable ranges, indicating that the CAPM provides a stable and homogenous measure of an individual's self-report of PM failures. Normative data are presented in two age groups based on the significant difference found between the age groups 15-30 years and 31-60 years. These established norms can be used to describe perceived or observed behaviours indicative of PM failure in patients with brain injury by comparing CAPM ratings from significant others with the norms. The CAPM questionnaire provides researchers or clinicians with a stable and reliable assessment option that specifically focuses on PM for individuals with brain injury.

  20. Ageing management studies of RAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohra, A.K.; Jain, L.K.; Joshi, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) is the first nuclear power plant of India with pressurized heavy water reactor. The construction of Unit-l of Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS-1) was started in the year 1966 in collaboration with Canada. The Unit-1 achieved first criticality on August 1972 and was first synchronized to Grid on November 1972. During initial operation of the Unit, several problems were faced in its various systems and these were addressed by incorporating various engineering changes and procedures. In this unit various major innovative repairs were done like end shield leak repair, OPRD leak repair. Considering the operation of various systems of Unit-1, since year 1971 it was imperative to study ageing degradation mechanisms and mitigating measures were to be taken. Although the ageing management is a continuous process the opportunity of Unit-1 shutdown for upgradations from 30-04-2002 to 08-02-2004 was utilized for inspection and assessment of health of various SSC, which otherwise could not have been done with unit in operational state. This paper contains the following in detail. (1) Ageing management programme, its objectives and scope (2) Methodology of ageing management studies - Replacement and upgradation -Additional inspection programme based on ageing management review - Statistical analysis of ageing degradation occurrence - Estimation of residual life span of cables and relays (3) Criteria for selection of components for ageing management programme (4) Findings of ageing management studies-case studies. The ageing study done for RAPS-1 indicated that appropriate ageing monitoring methods and procedures exist in the station for taking timely mitigating measures. The technological obsoleteness has been overcome by installing new components of latest technology. On overall assessment, the Unit-1 was considered fit for further service. (author)

  1. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  2. Normative calcaneal quantitative ultrasound data for the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos of the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madimenos, Felicia C; Snodgrass, J Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon, Tara J; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2011-01-01

    Minimal data on bone mineral density changes are available from populations in developing countries. Using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques, the current study contributes to remedying this gap in the literature by establishing a normative data set on the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos of the Ecuadorian Amazon. The paucity of bone mineral density (BMD) data from populations in developing countries partially reflects the lack of diagnostic resources in these areas. Portable QUS techniques now enable researchers to collect bone health data in remote field-based settings and to contribute normative data from developing regions. The main objective of this study is to establish normative QUS data for two Ecuadorian Amazonian populations-the indigenous Shuar and non-Shuar Colonos. The effects of ethnic group, sex, age, and body size on QUS parameters are also considered. A study cohort consisting of 227 Shuar and 261 Colonos (15-91 years old) were recruited from several small rural Ecuadorian communities in the Upano River Valley. Calcaneal QUS parameters were collected on the right heel of each participant using a Sahara bone sonometer. Three ultrasound generated parameters were employed: broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and calculated heel BMD (hBMD). In both populations and sexes, all QUS values were progressively lower with advancing age. Shuar have significantly higher QUS values than Colonos, with most pronounced differences found between pre-menopausal Shuar and Colono females. Multiple regression analyses show that age is a key predictor of QUS while weight alone is a less consistent determinant. Both Shuar males and females display comparatively greater QUS parameters than other reference populations. These normative data for three calcaneal QUS parameters will be useful for predicting fracture risk and determining diagnostic QUS criteria of osteoporosis in non-industrialized populations in South America and

  3. The natural progression of health-related quality of life: results of a five-year prospective study of SF-36 scores in a normative population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; VandenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Anastassiades, Tassos; Adachi, Jonathan D; Ioannidis, George; Brown, Jacques P; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A

    2006-04-01

    Limited information exists regarding the natural progression of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the general population, as most research has been cross-sectional or has followed populations with specific medical conditions. Such norms are important to establish, because the effect of any intervention may be confounded by changes due to the natural progression of HRQOL over time. Participants were randomly selected from 9 Canadian cities and surrounding rural areas. Changes in the eight domains and 2 summary component scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) were examined over a 5 year period (1996/1997-2001/2002). Mean changes were calculated for men and women within 10 year age categories. Multiple imputation was used to adjust for potential selection bias due to missing data. The baseline sample included 6539 women and 2884 men. Loss to follow-up was 17% for women and 23% for men. Mean changes tended to be small, but there was an overall trend towards decreasing HRQOL over time. Changes were more pronounced in the older age groups and in the physically oriented domains. Younger age groups tended towards small mean improvements, particularly in the mentally oriented domains. Large standard errors suggest that on an individual level, large improvements in some participants are balanced by large declines in others. In general, the HRQOL of Canadians appears relatively stable over a 5 year period. However, care should be taken when assessing HRQOL longitudinally in certain age or gender groups, as changes associated with an intervention can potentially be confounded by the natural progression of HRQOL.

  4. Hate crimes and normative regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily devoted to issues related to the normative regulation of hate crimes, with special reference to the regulations of the Republic of Serbia, which are indirectly related to this matter. This kind of crimes are characterized by prejudices that perpetrators have towards injured parties, as members of certain, mostly, minority groups, due to which many hate crimes could be also called crimes of prejudice. In comparative law there are two different basic directions when it comes to regulating hate crimes: separation of hate crimes in a separate category on the one hand, and punishment of perpetrators of criminal acts with the detriment of minority groups through the usual charges of a given criminal justice system, on the other. The author finds that, regardless of the formal response forms, real life suggests that hate crimes can be essentially suppressed only by promoting values such as equality, respect for diversity and tolerance, and by continuous education of public about the danger of hate crimes.

  5. Harvard Aging Brain Study : Dataset and accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G.; Chatwal, Jasmeer P.; Papp, Kathryn V.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Schultz, Aaron P.

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging.

  6. NORMATIVE MODERATORS OF IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danes Jaya Negara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has presented the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between the impulsive buying trait and consumers’ buying behaviors. In this article the authors show that consumer tendency to buy something spontaneous, unreflectively and immediately can be perceived as a factor which describes buying impulsiveness. This article also shows conceptual and empirical evidence that there is some support for the moderating role of normative evaluations in the relationship between buying impulsiveness and impulse buying behaviors. Significance occurs when consumers believe that act on impulse is suitable. The result suggests that consumers’ normative evaluation can moderate the link between the trait and behavioral aspects of impulse buying.

  7. 'Nobody tosses a dwarf!' The relation between the empirical and the normative reexamined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leget, Carlo; Borry, Pascal; de Vries, Raymond

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as a point of departure because it challenges the reader to look with fresh eyes upon several central bioethical themes, including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theoretical ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. Against efforts fully to integrate the normative and the empirical into one synthesis, we propose that the two should stand in tension and relation to one another. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged both by the gathering of empirical data and by normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical point of view. We conclude by applying our five-stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing.

  8. Normative Virtue Theory in Theological Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Austin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What place is there for virtue theory in theological ethics? Many question the normative significance of virtue theory in theological ethics today, leaving it to rule-based ethics to provide action-guidance. There are three key objections to the normativity of virtue theory: that virtue theory is about agents rather than actions, that virtue theory has nothing to say directly about the morality of actions, and that the virtues are too vague to be of normative or action-guiding significance. This essay, drawing on Thomas Aquinas’s account of virtue, challenges these perceptions and argues for a genuinely normative, action-guiding virtue theory within theological ethics. Theological ethics, in turn, can contribute to virtue theory, especially by its emphasis on the ecstatic nature of mature moral virtue, and through its reflection on the virtue of spiritual discernment.

  9. Normative data for cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Aziz, M Hosein; Van Deelen, Meike J M; Willemsen, Sten P; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Van Neck, Johan W; Coert, J Henk

    2017-09-01

    No data are available for normative values of cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet. We developed clinically applicable reference values in relation to the nerve distributions of the feet. We determined foot sensation in 196 healthy individuals. Cutaneous threshold (1-point static discrimination, S1PD) was tested with monofilaments (0.008 to 300 gram) and spatial discrimination (2-point static [S2PD] and moving [M2PD] discrimination) on five locations per foot. There was a significant age-dependent increase in S1PD, S2PD, and M2PD values (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between both feet. S1PD values differed up to 0.8 g between genders. There were no significant differences between genders for S2PD and M2PD measurements. M2PD values were generally lower than S2PD values. This study provides age-related normative values for foot sensation to help clinicians assess sensory deficits in relation to aging and identify patients with underlying nerve problems. Muscle Nerve 56: 399-407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Saudi normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-3, Picture Completion and Vocabulary (subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghatani, Ali M; Obonsawin, Marc C; Binshaig, Basmah A; Al-Moutaery, Khalaf R

    2011-01-01

    There are 2 aims for this study: first, to collect normative data for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop test, Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI-3), Picture Completion (PC) and Vocabulary (VOC) sub-test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised for use in a Saudi Arabian culture, and second, to use the normative data provided to generate the regression equations. To collect the normative data and generate the regression equations, 198 healthy individuals were selected to provide a representative distribution for age, gender, years of education, and socioeconomic class. The WCST, Stroop test, TONI-3, PC, and VOC were administrated to the healthy individuals. This study was carried out at the Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to July 2002. Normative data were obtained for all tests, and tables were constructed to interpret scores for different age groups. Regression equations to predict performance on the 3 tests of frontal function from scores on tests of fluid (TONI-3) and premorbid intelligence were generated from the data from the healthy individuals. The data collected in this study provide normative tables for 3 tests of frontal lobe function and for tests of general intellectual ability for use in Saudi Arabia. The data also provide a method to estimate pre-injury ability without the use of verbally based tests.

  11. Alcohol use by undergraduate students on their 21st birthday: predictors of actual consumption, anticipated consumption, and normative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Cameron, Jennifer M; Muse, Lauren; Hauenstein, Jennifer; Simmons, Lisa; Correia, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has identified celebration of a 21st birthday as an environmental event during which many college students engage in risky levels of alcohol consumption. The current study examined the relationship between personality and different aspects of alcohol use during 21st birthday celebrations: actual amount consumed for those who had turned 21, anticipated amount consumed for those under the age of 21, and normative beliefs regarding the amount other students consume on their 21st birthdays. Sensation seeking and impulsivity both displayed significant bivariate relationships with all three aspects of 21st birthday drinking. Personality traits did not contribute unique variance to actual 21st birthday drinking after the effects of typical alcohol consumption were accounted for in the models. Impulsivity contributed unique variance to models accounting for anticipated drinking and normative beliefs. Additional research is necessary to better understand the role personality variables play on alcohol consumption during 21st birthday celebrations. Copyright 2009 APA

  12. Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Belleville, Sylvie; Ferland, Guylaine; Renaud, Mélanie; Bherer, Louis; Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Simard, Martine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Lecomte, Sarah; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50-88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants' age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions).

  13. Color Trails Test: normative data and criterion validity for the greek adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Malegiannaki, Amaryllis-Chryssi; Christodoulou, Tessa; Panagiotopoulos, Vassillis; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-06-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) was developed as a culturally fair analog of the Trail Making Test. In the present study, normative data for the CTT were developed for the Greek adult population and further the criterion validity of the CTT was examined in two clinical groups (29 Parkinson's disease [PD] and 25 acute stroke patients). The instrument was applied to 163 healthy participants, aged 19-75. Stepwise linear regression analyses revealed a significant influence of age and education level on completion time in both parts of the CTT (increased age and decreased educational level contributed to slower completion times for both parts), whereas gender did not influence time to completion of part B. Further, the CTT appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of PD and acute stroke patients and matched healthy controls.

  14. Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  15. Age 60 Study. Part 1. Bibliographic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    CMIATIONS phanocardlography, study of the arterial distensibility by the carotidogm, and the chronocudiographic meuurement of an index of systolic flow and...pilot performance and age, considering muscular strength, cardio-respiratory capacity, body weight and mental aspects). AEROSPACE MEDICINE, VOL. 42...great differences exhibited in the dynamic muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, power, agility, and coordination for the two groups. The standard

  16. Formal and Informal Normative Beliefs Regarding Purchasing and Using Condoms

    OpenAIRE

    樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子

    2009-01-01

    Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...

  17. Comparative Study Between M6-C and Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc Replacement: Biomechanical Outcomes and Comparison with Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, My; Phan, Kevin; Teng, Ian; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2018-05-01

    Cervical spondylosis affects a huge proportion of the middle-aged population. Degenerative changes can occur in multiple regions of the cervical spine typically affecting the joints, intervertebral discs and endplates. These changes lead to compression of adjacent nervous structures, which results in radiculopathic and myelopathic pain. Various treatment modalities are currently available with non-surgical approaches the initial go to if there is no symptomatic cord compression. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, or arthroplasty are the two common surgical approaches if non-surgical treatments fail to relieve symptoms of the patients or there are signs of central cord compression. However, studies have shown that there is an increased risk of adjacent segment disease related to fusion. Cervical disc arthroplasty aims to restore normal range of motion (ROM) in patients with pain and disability due to degenerative disc disease resistant to conservative care. Two common disc prostheses used include M6-C and Mobi-C. Both prostheses comprise a mobile polymer segment sandwiched between two metal endplates with mechanisms resembling an actual intervertebral disc. This study aims to compare the kinematics associated with these prostheses, against the normal range of motion in the non-degenerative population. Patients who underwent M6-C or Mobi-C disc replacements by the senior author from 2012 to 2015 were identified at a single tertiary institution. Routine 3-month postoperative lateral radiographs were analyzed for flexion and extension ROM angles at the involved vertebral level by two independent authors. Data was compared to previous published studies investigating cervical spine ROM of asymptomatic patients. There was no statistical significance in the difference of overall flexion range between M6-C and Mobi-C prostheses. However, overall range of extension of Mobi-C was greater compared to M6-C (P = 0.028). At C 5-6 , the range of flexion for both implants

  18. GOOD GOVERNANCE: NORMATIVE VS. DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian IFTIMOAEI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “good governance” was used for the first time in the 1989 World Bank Report – Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth. A Long-Term Perspective Study – and has already made history in international studies, especially after the breakdown of the communist regimes. The governance has to do with authority, decision-making and accountability.The good governance is defined as the capacity of the government to manage a nation’s affaires, to provide economic development, welfare for citizens, and social protection for the poor. In this article,the concept of good governance is analysed according to two main dimensions: the normative dimension which comprises principles, values and norms that are guiding the international community and the governments in the management of policymaking process;the descriptive dimension which refers to the practical aspects of implementing the good governance’s standards as policies, programmes and structural reforms with the aim of solving or ameliorating the problems of developing countries.

  19. “Nobody tosses a dwarf!” The relation between the empirical and normative reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leget, C.; Borry, P.; De Vries, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between empirical and normative approaches in bioethics. The issue of dwarf tossing, while admittedly unusual, is chosen as point of departure because it challenges the reader to look upon several central bioethical themes – including human dignity, autonomy, and the protection of vulnerable people – with fresh eyes. After an overview of current approaches to the integration of empirical and normative ethics, we consider five ways that the empirical and normative can be brought together to speak to the problem of dwarf tossing: prescriptive applied ethics, theorist ethics, critical applied ethics, particularist ethics and integrated empirical ethics. We defend a position of critical applied ethics that allows for a two-way relation between empirical and normative theories. The approach we endorse acknowledges that a social practice can and should be judged by both the gathering of empirical data and by the normative ethics. Critical applied ethics uses a five stage process that includes: (a) determination of the problem, (b) description of the problem, (c) empirical study of effects and alternatives, (d) normative weighing and (e) evaluation of the effects of a decision. In each stage, we explore the perspective from both the empirical (sociological) and the normative ethical poles that, in our view, should operate as two independent focuses of the ellipse that is called bioethics. We conclude by applying our five stage critical applied ethics to the example of dwarf tossing. PMID:19338523

  20. The normative feedback approach for energy conservation behavior in the military community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Young, Robert; Cui, Qingbin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation programs, the behavior-based method, especially the normative feedback approach, has emerged as a cost-effective solution for energy savings. However it remains doubtful whether normative feedback would generate significant energy savings in absence of financial accountability and whether the normative feedback is influenced by the proximity of the comparison groups. Here we test various normative feedback approaches at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, with an objective of understanding this approach. We show that the normative feedback approach can lead to 3.4% energy savings, even when residents are not billed for their electricity usage. Through an analysis of covariance, this paper evaluates the effects of different proximities of comparison and concludes that a street-level comparison level can generate the highest energy savings of 5.4%. Furthermore, this paper also explores and defines the relationship between electricity savings and physical variables including home size, unit type, neighborhood, and the variation of cooling degree days. The study contributes to the understanding of how to realizing the full potential of normative feedback approach in energy savings. - Highlights: • Normative feedback leads to 3.4% energy savings even without financial incentives. • The study identifies the mere-exposure effect of normative feedback approach. • The street-level comparison doubles the energy savings compared to other levels. • Optimal normative feedback for energy saving should be compared at street-level. • Medium-sized homes in experiment show the greatest potential for energy savings.

  1. Parents know best, but are they accurate? Parental normative misperceptions and their relationship to students' alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Lac, Andrew; Ehret, Phillip J; Kenney, Shannon R

    2011-07-01

    Parents often look to other parents for guidance, but how accurate are their perceptions? Expanding on existing normative literature to include parents of college students, this study first sought to determine whether parents accurately estimated the attitudes of other parents concerning their college student's alcohol-related behaviors. The effect of these (mis)perceived injunctive norms on the alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors of the parents' own children was then examined. Participants were 270 college student-parent dyadic pairs who completed independent online surveys. The student sample was 59% female; the parent sample was 78% female. A structural equation model demonstrated that parents significantly overestimated other parents' approval of alcohol use by their respective child and, further, that these misperceptions strongly influenced parental attitudes toward their own child's drinking. Parental attitudes were subsequently found to be significantly associated with their child's attitudes toward drinking but were only marginally associated with the child's actual drinking, thereby underscoring the mediational effect of the child's attitudes. This is the first study to document the influence of parental normative misperceptions regarding alcohol use by their college-age children, reinforcing the importance of parental attitudes on children's alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors in college. These findings support the need to complement student-based interventions with parent-based interventions aimed at increasing parental awareness and involvement. Further, the current findings indicate that normative interventions targeting parents offer a promising avenue by which to indirectly and positively influence college students' alcohol use.

  2. Normative beliefs and sexual risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam

    2011-08-01

    We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles.

  3. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. To describe the speech development of 24 typically developing first language Swahili-speaking children between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was used with six groups of four children in 6-month age bands. Single-word speech samples were obtained from each child using a set of culturally appropriate pictures designed to elicit all consonants and vowels of Swahili. Each child's speech was audio-recorded and phonetically transcribed using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) conventions. Children's speech development is described in terms of (1) phonetic inventory, (2) syllable structure inventory, (3) phonological processes and (4) percentage consonants correct (PCC) and percentage vowels correct (PVC). Results suggest a gradual progression in the acquisition of speech sounds and syllables between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years. Vowel acquisition was completed and most of the consonants acquired by age 3;0. Fricatives/z, s, h/ were later acquired at 4 years and /θ/and /r/ were the last acquired consonants at age 5;11. Older children were able to produce speech sounds more accurately and had fewer phonological processes in their speech than younger children. Common phonological processes included lateralization and sound preference substitutions. The study contributes a preliminary set of normative data on speech development of Swahili-speaking children. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of phonological development, and may be used as a basis for further normative studies with larger numbers of children and ultimately the development of a contextually relevant assessment of the phonology of Swahili

  4. Aging studies for the CMS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Eysermans, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Aging effects are studied for the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Colider (LHC), which can manifest themselves during the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) running period. A dedicated consolidation program is set up using the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility ++, where RPC detectors are exposed to a high gamma flux for a long term period equivalent to the HL-LHC operational time. Based on the past operational experience, the high background conditions are estimated and the RPC are tested under such circumstances. Several parameters are monitored as function of integrated charge and dedicated test beam periods allows measuring the detector efficiency as function of the background rate. In this work, an overview of the measurements which were performed for these studies is given. After having accumulated a significant amount of the total irradiation, no aging effects or degradation of the RPC detectors have been observed. These results suggest that ...

  5. Computed tomographic study of aged schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seno, Haruo; Fujimoto, Akihiko; Ishino, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The width of interhemispheric fissure, lateral ventricles and third ventricle were measured using cranial computed tomography (CT; linear method) in 45 elderly inpatients with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 age-matched control subjects. Twenty-three patients were men and 22 were women. In addition, Mini-Mental State Examination, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and a subclass of BPRS were undertaken in all patients. There is a significant enlargement of the maximum width of the interhemispheric fissure (in both male and female) and a significant enlargement of ventricular system (more severe in men than in women) in aged schizophrenics, as seen with CT, compared with normal controls. These findings are consistent with previous studies of non-aged schizophrenic patients. Based upon the relation between psychiatric symptoms and CT findings, the most striking is a significant negative correlation between the third ventricle enlargement and the positive and depressive symptoms in all patients. This result suggests that the advanced third ventricle enlargement may decrease these symptoms in aged schizophrenics. (author)

  6. Morality, Normativity, and Economic Development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karjanen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines debates over local economic development policies and practices in contemporary Slovakia, particularly regarding property and land development. Debates about economic development often occur in relation to economic outcomes, driven by quantitative data and empirical assessments provided by city officials or consultants. In this article, I find that such debates are more likely to be driven by normative concerns, including moral outcomes. I develop a theoretical framework to understand why policy debates occur not in purely objective terms, but the more subjective normative and moral frameworks. The analysis provides greater insight into political debates and policymaking in the postsocialist context.

  7. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The normative structure of mathematization in systematic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Beckett; Lidgard, Scott

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the mathematization of science should be understood as a normative activity of advocating for a particular methodology with its own criteria for evaluating good research. As a case study, we examine the mathematization of taxonomic classification in systematic biology. We show how mathematization is a normative activity by contrasting its distinctive features in numerical taxonomy in the 1960s with an earlier reform advocated by Ernst Mayr starting in the 1940s. Both Mayr and the numerical taxonomists sought to formalize the work of classification, but Mayr introduced a qualitative formalism based on human judgment for determining the taxonomic rank of populations, while the numerical taxonomists introduced a quantitative formalism based on automated procedures for computing classifications. The key contrast between Mayr and the numerical taxonomists is how they conceptualized the temporal structure of the workflow of classification, specifically where they allowed meta-level discourse about difficulties in producing the classification. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. STUDY ON NONINFECTIOUS DERMATOSES IN PAEDIATRIC AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthi Mahalingam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric dermatology is a unique subspecialty in that child is not a miniature adult. Paediatric dermatoses differ from that of the adults in clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis. Various studies from India have shown infections and infestations to be the most common paediatric dermatoses. This study was planned to determine the epidemiological pattern of common noninfectious dermatoses in our paediatric patients as no such data are available from this part of the country. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the prevalence of the noninfectious dermatoses in all the new paediatric patients attending the Skin Outpatient Department (OPD at Villupuram Medical College over a period of three years. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total number of 550 children in the age group ranging from newborn to 12 years with noninfectious dermatoses attending the OPD for the first time were enrolled in the study. RESULTS Physiological changes of skin was the most common dermatoses in the newborn age group, while eczema was the most common dermatoses in infants, preschool and school going children. In the infants, eczema was followed by pigmentary disorders, mongolian spots, vascular nevi, ichthyosis, epidermolysis bullosa, alopecia areata and papular urticaria in the order of prevalence. Among preschool going children, eczema was followed by papular urticaria, papulosquamous disorders, pigmentary disorders, hair disorders, nevi, drug reactions, keratinisation disorders, urticaria, etc. In the school going age group, eczema was followed by papulosquamous disorders, pigmentary disorders, papular urticaria, nutritional disorders, ichthyosis, nevi, miliaria, drug reaction, hair disorders, photodermatoses, urticaria, collagen vascular disease and vascular nevi in the order of prevalence. CONCLUSION Eczema, papulosquamous disorders, papular urticaria, pigmentary disorders seem to be the most common noninfectious dermatoses in children. However

  10. Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Morlett-Paredes, A; Peñalver Guia, A I; Irías Escher, M J; Soto-Añari, M; Aguayo Arelis, A; Rute-Pérez, S; Rodríguez-Lorenzana, A; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Albaladejo-Blázquez, N; García de la Cadena, C; Ibáñez-Alfonso, J A; Rodriguez-Irizarry, W; García-Guerrero, C E; Delgado-Mejía, I D; Padilla-López, A; Vergara-Moragues, E; Barrios Nevado, M D; Saracostti Schwartzman, M; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2017-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the Stroop Word-Color Interference test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. The Stroop Word, Stroop Color, Stroop Word-Color, and Stroop Interference scores were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, except on Stroop Interference for Guatemala, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. Age2 affected Stroop Word scores for all countries, Stroop Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Paraguay; and Stroop Interference scores for Cuba, Guatemala, and Spain. MLPE affected Stroop Word scores for Chile, Mexico, and Puerto Rico; Stroop Color scores for Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Spain; Stroop Word-Color scores for Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Spain; and Stroop-Interference scores for Ecuador, Mexico, and Spain. Sex affected Stroop Word scores for Spain, Stroop Color scores for Mexico, and Stroop Interference for Honduras. This is the largest Spanish-speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate approach to interpret the Stroop Word-Color Interference test in pediatric populations.

  11. Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, D; Perrin, P B; Stevens, L F; Garza, M T; Weil, C; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Rábago, B; Weiler, G; García de la Cadena, C; Longoni, M; Martínez, C; Ocampo-Barba, N; Aliaga, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Guerra, A; Esenarro, L; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Stroop Test across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Stroop Test, as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 14-36% of the variance in Stroop Word scores, 12-41% of the variance in the Stoop Color, 14-36% of the variance in the Stroop Word-Color scores, and 4-15% of variance in Stroop Interference scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Stroop test, none of the countries had an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the Stoop Test in a Spanish-Speaking sample. This study will therefore have important implications for the future of neuropsychology research and practice throughout the region.

  12. Symbol Digit Modalities Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, J C; Rivera, D; Rodríguez, G; Garza, M T; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Rodríguez, W; Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Aguayo, A; Schebela, S; Weil, C; Longoni, M; Aliaga, A; Ocampo-Barba, N; Saracho, C P; Panyavin, I; Esenarro, L; Martínez, C; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, P B

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the SDMT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models explained 29-56% of the variance in SDMT scores. Although there were gender differences on the SDMT in Mexico, Honduras, Paraguay, and Guatemala, none of the four countries had an effect size greater than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America to create norms for the SDMT; this study will have an impact on the future practice of neuropsychology throughout the global region.

  13. Experts Opinion on the Use of Normative Data for Functional Capacity Evaluation in Occupational and Rehabilitation Medicine and Disability Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Application of normative values for functional capacity evaluation (FCE) is controversial for the assessment of clients for work ability. The objective of this study was to study when clinicians and researchers consider normative values of FCE useful or of no use for their purposes. Methods

  14. Health-related quality of life in Canadian adolescents and young adults: normative data using the SF-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; Prior, Jerilynn C; Anastassiades, Tassos; Poliquin, Suzette; Zhou, Wei; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A; Tenenhouse, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Normative data for the SF-36 measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exist for those over 25 years of age, based on data from the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). CaMos recently recruited a sample of young Canadians aged between 16 and 24 years. The purpose of this study was to develop normative SF-36 data for this age group. After direct standardization to the Canadian population, means, standard deviations (SD), 95% confidence intervals and percentage at floor and ceiling were produced for the eight domain and two summary scores of the SF-36. Domains are scored from 0 (poor) to 100 (excellent). Summary scores are standardized to a mean of 50, with scores over 50 representing better than average and below 50 poorer than average function. Separate analyses were completed for men and women, and for those 16-19 years and 20-24 years. The 1,001 community-based participants consisted of 474 men and 527 women from nine CaMos centres across Canada. Mean Physical Component Summary scores were 53.9 (SD = 6.9) and 53.3 (SD = 5.7) for young men and women, respectively. The equivalent Mental Component Summary scores were 49.3 (SD = 9.7) and 48.8 (SD = 8.9). In general, men scored somewhat higher than women, and younger (16-19 years) women scored higher than older (20-24 years) women, although the differences were small. HRQOL is good in this cohort of young Canadians. Both men and women scored somewhat better on physically than mentally oriented domains. In general, Canadian scores were similar to those of the US, while a comparable Swedish sample scored higher than both countries on most domains. Results underscore the importance of taking country, age and gender into consideration when using normative data.

  15. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2011-10-17

    VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

  16. The Complex Normative Foundations of Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The language policy of a liberal democratic state must be formulated in a context of multiple, often conflicting sets of interests and of normative constraints that limit the means by which the liberal state can manage these interests. The interests at stake are, first, those of the individual, for whom language is viewed both instrumentally, and…

  17. On the Normative Function of Metatheoretical Endeavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Stein

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available I reconstruct an historical understanding of metatheory that emphasizes its normative function. The pioneering work of James Mark Baldwin inspires an account of how metatheoretical constructs emerge developmentally and come to serve a discourse-regulative function—overseeing, organizing, and regulating whole fields of discourse. Then I look to Charles S. Peirce as an exemplary normatively oriented metatheorist and explain how both continue a philosophical tradition concerned with the normative function of humanity more broadly. Thus, while I think it is valuable to pursue a variety of metatheoretical endeavors, including descriptive and empirical ones—mapping the terrain of various discourses, or summarizing their contributions—I argue for a specific vision of metatheory as a normative endeavor with rich intellectual and historical precedence. Unpacking some of the implications involved with this way of viewing and doing metatheory lead to considerations about the differences between two general types of metatheory (scholastic-reductionist and cosmopolitan-comprehensivist, the role of philosophical interlocutors in the public-sphere, and the trajectory of human evolution in the coming decades.

  18. Normative Multiagent Systems and Trust Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we use recursive modelling to formalize sanction-based obligations in a qualitative game theory. In particular, we formalize an agent who attributes mental attitudes such as goals and desires to the normative system which creates and enforces its obligations. The wishes

  19. Strategic entrepreneurial internationalization : A normative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, Erkko

    Much of the literature on international new ventures (INVs) tends to focus on early internationalization and view it as the expression of firm-specific advantages that existed prior to internationalization. This paper presents a normative framework that articulates how INVs can leverage

  20. Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Peled, Einat; Ajzenstadt, Mimi

    2015-03-01

    Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "Staying normative during gambling"; and "I have changed" (reformed gamblers' presentation of themselves as having changed for the better). The findings underscore the complex dialogue behind the identity construction put forward by women with a gambling problem, their yearning to be perceived by society as normative women and to fit in despite their stigmatized behavior, and the tension they feel in society's relationship toward them. The findings also suggest that practitioners who work with women gamblers may want to pay attention to the power relations shaping identity construction in an interview setting, and look more closely at the women's awareness of the stigma they bear and the complex processes that make up their multidimensional identity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Normative data for Chinese compound remote associate problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2017-12-01

    The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a well-known measure of creativity, with each item on the RAT is composed of three unrelated stimulus words. The participant's task is to find an answer in the form of a word that could combine with each of the stimulus words, thus forming three new actual nouns. Researchers have modified the RAT to develop compound remote associate problems that emphasize combining vocabulary to form compound words. In the field of creativity research for Mandarin speakers, the Chinese RAT has been widely applied for over 10 years. The original RAT, compound remote associate problems, and Chinese RAT have various common advantages, such as being convenient to use and having objective scoring; additionally, the development of items for certain tests is easy and satisfies the requirements of psychological assessments in terms of the quantity of items. Currently, many language editions of the RAT and compound remote associate problems already exist. In particular, the English and Italian versions of these tests already have derived normative data. Because approximately 20% of the world's population are native Mandarin speakers, and because increasing numbers of people are choosing Mandarin as a second language, the need to increase Mandarin-language resources is growing; however, normative data for the Chinese RAT still do not exist. To address this issue, in the present study we developed Chinese compound remote associate problems and analyzed the passing rates by items, problem solving times, and various normative data, using the responses of 253 subjects in three experiments.

  2. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  3. Harvard Aging Brain Study: Dataset and accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G; Chatwal, Jasmeer P; Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Schultz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Persuasive Normative Messages: The Influence of Injunctive and Personal Norms on Using Free Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Judith I.M. de Groot; Wokje Abrahamse; Kayleigh Jones

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory field-study, we examined how normative messages ( i.e. , activating an injunctive norm, personal norm, or both) could encourage shoppers to use fewer free plastic bags for their shopping in addition to the supermarket’s standard environmental message aimed at reducing plastic bags. In a one-way subjects-design ( N = 200) at a local supermarket, we showed that shoppers used significantly fewer free plastic bags in the injunctive, personal and combined normative message cond...

  5. A facet approach to extending the normative component of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I; Cooper, S R

    2001-12-01

    Using facet theory, this study addresses the weak explanatory power of normative influence in theories of reasoned action or planned behaviour. A broad normative construct is hypothesized as being characterized by two facets--social unit and behavioural modality--each of which is examined in relation to recreational drug use. A questionnaire was developed from the facets and administered to undergraduate students. Data (N = 181) were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). The results suggest that the facets provide an adequate description of the normative construct and that personal and social normative beliefs, behavioural norms and behavioural intentions can be distinguished empirically. The results also lend partial support to Ajzen's (1988; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977) principle of compatibility. Implications for how social influence is operationalized and conceptualized are also discussed.

  6. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2018-04-01

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pRugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooley, Robert P.; Cameron, James D.; Soon, Jennifer; Loi, Duncan; Chitale, Gauri; Syeda, Rifath; Meredith, Ian T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  8. Quantification of normative ranges and baseline predictors of aortoventricular interface dimensions using multi-detector computed tomographic imaging in patients without aortic valve disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, Robert P., E-mail: robert.gooley@monashhealth.org [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Cameron, James D., E-mail: james.cameron@monash.edu [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Soon, Jennifer, E-mail: jenn.sa@gmail.com [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Loi, Duncan, E-mail: dloi2@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Chitale, Gauri, E-mail: gchi21@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Syeda, Rifath, E-mail: rssye1@student.monash.edu [Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Meredith, Ian T., E-mail: ian.meredith@myheart.id.au [MonashHeart, Monash Health, Melbourne 3168 (Australia); Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, Department of Medicine (MMC), Monash University, Melbourne 3168 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MDCT imaging of the aortoventricular interface is increasingly common. • We present normative ranges for aortoventricular interface dimensions. • Such techniques and ranges should be used to standardise reporting and research. - Abstract: Background: Multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) assessment of the aortoventricular interface has gained increased importance with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities for aortic and mitral valve disease. This has included a standardised technique of identifying a plane through the nadir of each coronary cusp, the basal plane, and taking further measurements in relation to this plane. Despite this there is no published data defining normal ranges for these aortoventricular metrics in a healthy cohort. This study seeks to quantify normative ranges for MDCT derived aortoventricular dimensions and evaluate baseline demographic and anthropomorphic associates of these measurements in a normal cohort. Methods: 250 consecutive patients undergoing MDCT coronary angiography were included. Aortoventricular dimensions at multiple levels of the aortoventricular interface were assessed and normative ranges quantified. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of each metric. Results: The mean age was 59 ± 12 years. The basal plane was eccentric (EI = 0.22 ± 0.06) while the left ventricular outflow tract was more eccentric (EI = 0.32 ±0.06), with no correlation to gender, age or hypertension. Male gender, height and body mass index were consistent independent predictors of larger aortoventricular dimensions at all anatomical levels, while age was predictive of supra-annular measurements. Conclusions: Male gender, height and BMI are independent predictors of all aortoventricular dimensions while age predicts only supra-annular dimensions. Use of defined metrics such as the basal plane and formation of normative ranges for these metrics allows reference for clinical

  9. Body shape dissatisfaction is a ‘normative discontent’ in a young-adult Nigerian population: A study of prevalence and effects on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwunonso E.C.C. Ejike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the prevalence of weight misperception, weight preference, and body shape dissatisfaction (BSD among young-adult Nigerians and assesses the impact of these factors on population quality-of-life (QOL. Relevant anthropometric data were collected according to internationally accepted protocols. Weight perception, weight preference, and BSD were measured using Stunkard silhouettes, while QOL was determined by subjective self-reporting. The results show that 26.7% of the population (18.8% for males and 34.5% for females misperceived their weight. Among overweight participants, 56.6% (males and 38.3% (females thought they were thinner, while 11.5% (males and 43.3% (females thought they were heavier. Thin and obese males misperceived their weights more than their female counterparts. BSD was found in 62% of the population (52% for males and 71% for females and was highest among obese participants (91.9% and lowest among normal-weight participants (58.2%, irrespective of sex. In participants with BSD, QOL was worse in thin and normal-weight respondents who preferred to be heavier and in overweight respondents who preferred to be thinner. The high prevalence of weight misperception may lead to inappropriate weight loss habits, while BSD, a normative discontent in this population, negatively impacts subject QOL.

  10. Compulsive fantasy: proposed evidence of an under-reported syndrome through a systematic study of 90 self-identified non-normative fantasizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelsen, Jayne; Schupak, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    The experiences of 90 individuals who self-identify as "excessive" or "maladaptive" fantasizers are summarized in this report. Our sample consisted of 75 female and 15 male participants, ranging in age from 18 to 63 who responded to online announcements. Participants completed a 14-question emailed survey requesting descriptions of their fantasy habits and causes of potential distress regarding fantasy. Results demonstrated that participants shared a number of remarkably specific behaviors and concerns regarding their engagement in extensive periods of highly-structured, immersive imaginative experiences, including the use of kinesthetic activity which accompanies the fantasies of 79% of participants. Participants reported distress stemming from three factors: difficulty in controlling the need or desire to engage in fantasizing; concern that the quantity of fantasizing interfered with actual relationships and endeavors; and intense shame and exhaustive efforts to keep this behavior hidden from others. It is hoped that this report will encourage interest in this elusive syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship of age, gender, and IQ with the brainstem and thalamus in healthy children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuhuan; Chen, Yian Ann; De Bellis, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    In healthy children, there is a paucity of information on the growth of the brainstem and thalamus measured anatomically magnetic resonance imaging. The relations of age, gender, and age by gender with brainstem and thalamus volumes were analyzed from magnetic resonance brain images of 122 healthy children and adolescents (62 males, 60 females; ages 4 to 17). Results showed that age is a significant predictor of brainstem and thalamus volumes. The volume of the brainstem increases with age, while thalamus volume declines with age. The volume of the right thalamus is significantly larger than that of the left in both genders, with greater rightward asymmetry and greater thalamus to grey matter ratio in females. Males have larger brainstems, but these differences are not significant when covarying for cerebral volume. Larger thalami were associated with higher Verbal IQ. These normative pediatric data are of value to researchers who study these regions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Estimation of Correlation between Chronological Age, Skeletal Age and Dental Age in Children- A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macha, Madhulika; Lamba, Bharti; Avula, Jogendra Sai Sankar; Muthineni, Sridhar; Margana, Pratap Gowd Jai Shankar; Chitoori, Prasad

    2017-09-01

    In the modern era, identification and determination of age is imperative for diversity of reasons that include disputed birth records, premature delivery, legal issues and for validation of birth certificate for school admissions, adoption, marriage, job and immigration. Several growth assessment parameters like bone age, dental age and the combination of both have been applied for different population with variable outcomes. It has been well documented that the chronological age does not necessarily correlate with the maturational status of a child. Hence, efforts were made to determine a child's developmental age by using dental age (calcification of teeth) and skeletal age (skeletal maturation). The present study was aimed to correlate the chronological age, dental age and skeletal age in children from Southeastern region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Out of the total 900 screened children, only 100 subjects between age groups of 6-14 years with a mean age of 11.3±2.63 for males and 10.77±2.24 for females were selected for the study. Dental age was calculated by Demirjian method and skeletal age by modified Middle Phalanx of left hand third finger (MP3) method. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were done to estimate the correlation between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among study population. There was a significant positive correlation between chronological age, dental age and all stages of MP3 among males. Similar results were observed in females, except for a non-significant moderate correlation between chronological age and dental age in the H stage of the MP3 region. The results of the present study revealed correlation with statistical significance (p<0.05) between chronological, dental and skeletal ages among all the subjects (48 males and 52 females) and females attained maturity earlier than males in the present study population.

  13. Lumbar spinal mobility changes among adults with advancing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Adamu Saidu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Using these data, we developed normative values of spinal mobility for each sex and age group. This study helps the clinicians to understand and correlate the restrictions of lumbar spinal mobility due to age and differentiate the limitations due to disease.

  14. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Switzer, Galen E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2007-05-01

    To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with 2 clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. One large suburban high school. A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Of the 1138 students with data on current smoking, 216 (19.0%) reported current smoking, and 342 (38.3%) of the 893 nonsmoking students with susceptibility data were susceptible to future smoking. Factor analysis identified 3 normative belief constructs, labeled "perceived prevalence of smoking," "perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society," and "disapproval of smoking by parents/peers." On average, students believed that 56% of people in the United States smoke cigarettes; 27.7% believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the 3 constructs was independently associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.08], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23], and 0.66 [95% CI, 0.59-0.75], respectively), even after controlling for covariates. Students' perceptions of smoking among the successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11-1.29] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96], respectively). Adolescents' normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least 3 distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking.

  15. Study of jojoba oil aging by FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Gaydou, V; Joachim, J; Kister, J

    2009-05-29

    As the jojoba oil was used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, dietetic food, animal feeding, lubrication, polishing and bio-diesel fields, it was important to study its aging at high temperature by oxidative process. In this work a FT-MIR methodology was developed for monitoring accelerate oxidative degradation of jojoba oils. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate various samples according to their origin and obtaining process, and to differentiate oxidative conditions applied on oils. Two spectroscopic indices were calculated to report simply the oxidation phenomenon. Results were confirmed and deepened by multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square method (MCR-ALS). It allowed identifying chemical species produced or degraded during the thermal treatment according to a SIMPLISMA pretreatment.

  16. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Color Probability Codes in Myopic Glaucoma Eyes After Applying a Myopic Normative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Bo Ram; Kim, Dong Myung; Park, Ki Ho; Jeoung, Jin Wook

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the optical coherence tomography (OCT) color probability codes based on a myopic normative database and to investigate whether the implementation of the myopic normative database can improve the OCT diagnostic ability in myopic glaucoma. Comparative validity study. In this study, 305 eyes (154 myopic healthy eyes and 151 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included. A myopic normative database was obtained based on myopic healthy eyes. We evaluated the agreement between OCT color probability codes after applying the built-in and myopic normative databases, respectively. Another 120 eyes (60 myopic healthy eyes and 60 myopic glaucoma eyes) were included and the diagnostic performance of OCT color codes using a myopic normative database was investigated. The mean weighted kappa (Kw) coefficients for quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were 0.636, 0.627, and 0.564, respectively. The myopic normative database showed a higher specificity than did the built-in normative database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P database in quadrant RNFL thickness, clock-hour RNFL thickness, and GCIPL thickness (P = .011, P = .004, P database. The implementation of a myopic normative database is needed to allow more precise interpretation of OCT color probability codes when used in myopic eyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Normative data for 148 Spanish emotional words in terms of attributions of humanity

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    Armando Rodríguez-Pérez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on outgroup infrahumanization is based on the subtle and not deliberate distinction of secondary emotions, an exclusively human emotion, and primary emotions, which are shared by animals and human beings. According to prior studies, people attribute more secondary emotions to the ingroup than to the outgroup which they deny or restrict the ability to experience them. This study presents normative measures for 148 emotional words viewed by Spanish people in seven dimensions related to humanity assessments. Two factors were revealed by the principal components analysis (PCA. The first component was loaded on dimensions that differentiate the emotions depending on the cognitive demands (cognition, moral quality and duration whereas the second one was loaded on their expressive profile (visibility, age at which they are acquired, universality and causal locus. These dimensions were analyzed in relation to desirability, familiarity and explicit humanity.

  18. The relationship of proximal normative beliefs and global subjective norms to college students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Jay; Glanz, Karen

    2005-02-01

    Heavy drinking among college students is a major concern across the country. Several studies have shown that students tend to overestimate the alcohol consumption of students, in general (global social norms), and of their close friends (proximal normative beliefs). Research has also shown that beliefs about others' alcohol consumption is strongly related to alcohol use. We hypothesized that normative beliefs about important referent individuals would mediate the relationship between campus social norms and alcohol consumption. A survey of alcohol use and related variables was completed by 433 university students. Multiple regression was used to examine the mediational role of normative beliefs on social norms and alcohol consumption. These analyses indicate that normative beliefs are a significant mediator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption. Normative beliefs accounted for 52-62% of the proportion of variance mediated. Normative beliefs are an important construct in understanding the relationship between social norms and alcohol use among college students and may be an important area for future interventions.

  19. Effects of normative feedback for drinkers who consume less than the norm: Dodging the boomerang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mark A; Reid, Allecia; Carey, Kate B; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-06-01

    Several alcohol interventions designed for college students attempt to correct exaggerated perceptions of alcohol use on college campuses through the use of personalized normative feedback. Personalized normative feedback has been shown to be effective in reducing drinking as a stand-alone intervention and as a part of a multicomponent intervention. This feedback is typically targeted to heavier drinkers to create a discrepancy between their personal beliefs and behavior and the actual lower levels of use on campus. However, little is known about how this form of normative feedback might affect lighter drinkers who learn that they are drinking less than the typical student at their school. The risk is a potential boomerang effect, or an increase in drinking among lighter drinkers receiving personalized feedback. The current study examined four samples from three geographic locations: two using computer-delivered personalized normative feedback alone and two delivering personalized feedback in the context of a brief motivational intervention. We found no evidence for a boomerang effect among lighter drinkers receiving personalized normative feedback in any of the four samples. These findings help to assuage fears of increasing drinking among lighter drinkers through widespread implementation of normative interventions for college students in the absence of screening for current drinking status.

  20. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  1. Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…

  2. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  3. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  4. Serious physical violence among Arab-Palestinian adolescents: The role of exposure to neighborhood violence, perceived ethnic discrimination, normative beliefs, and, parental communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This study adopted a social-ecological perspective to exploring perpetration of serious physical violence against others among Arab-Palestinian adolescents. A total of 3178 adolescents (aged 13-18) completed anonymous, structured, self-report questionnaire, which included selected items from several instruments that measured variables relating to the constructs examined in the study. We explored the association of individual characteristics (age, gender, normative beliefs about violence, and perceived ethnic discrimination), familial characteristics (parent-adolescent communication and socioeconomic status), and contextual characteristics (exposure to community violence in the neighborhood) with perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A moderation-mediation model was tested, and 28.4% of the adolescents reported that they had perpetrated serious physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. The findings also show that exposure of youth to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with their perpetration of serious physical violence against others. A similar trend was revealed with respect to personal perceptions of ethnic discrimination. These correlations were mediated by the adolescents' normative beliefs about violence. Furthermore, the correlation of direct exposure to violence in the neighborhood and normative beliefs about violence with perpetration of serious physical violence against others was stronger among adolescents who have poor communication with their parents than among those who have strong parental communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Memory Failures of Everyday (MFE) test: normative data in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo Carrasco, Pedro; Montenegro Peña, Mercedes; Sueiro, Manuel J

    2012-11-01

    One approach to the study of everyday memory failures is to use multiple-item questionnaires. The Memory Failures of Everyday (MFE) test is one of the most frequently used in Spain. Our objective is to provide normative data from the MFE in a sample of healthy, Spanish, adult participants for use in clinical practice. The sample consists of 647 employees at a large company ranging in age from 19-64 years-old. Everyday memory failures were evaluated by means of the MFE with the following response format: 0-2 (0 = never or rarely; 1 = occasionally, sometimes; 2 = frequently, often). Mean MFE = 15.25 (SD = 7.50), range 0-40. Correlation with age: .133 (p = .001); and with years of education: - .059 (n.s.). A constant increase in MFE was not observed across age groups (F = 4, 59; p = .003, eta2 = .02), but differences were revealed between the 19-29 and 40-49 age groups; no differences were observed between the remaining age groups. Only slight differences between men and women occurred, the women's mean being slightly higher than the men's, but the confidence intervals overlapped (F = 5, 71; p = .017, eta2 = .01). These results indicate that age, years of education, and sex had no significant effects. In light of the above, the sample was viewed as a whole when computing the percentiles reported here.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE NORMATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR ENSURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva VELIČKOVÁ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the process of electrostatic powder coating in coating booths, there is a probability of the risk of explosion. Compliance with the normative requirements referred to in the legislation in force minimize the hazards associated with the risk of explosion. This article focuses on the analysis of the current security level of coating booths in terms of the risk of explosion in relation to the lower explosive limit of the selected powder paints.

  7. A normative model for assessing competitive strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ungerer, Gerard David; Cayzer, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to e...

  8. Normative misperceptions of tobacco use among university students in seven European countries: baseline findings of the 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Claudia R; Helmer, Stefanie M; McAlaney, John; Bewick, Bridgette M; Vriesacker, Bart; Van Hal, Guido; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; Akvardar, Yildiz; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Salonna, Ferdinand; Orosova, Olga; Dohrmann, Solveig; Dempsey, Robert C; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-12-01

    Research conducted in North America suggests that students tend to overestimate tobacco use among their peers. This perceived norm may impact personal tobacco use. It remains unclear how these perceptions influence tobacco use among European students. The two aims were to investigate possible self-other discrepancies regarding personal use and attitudes towards use and to evaluate if perceptions of peer use and peer approval of use are associated with personal use and approval of tobacco use. The EU-funded 'Social Norms Intervention for the prevention of Polydrug usE' study was conducted in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Slovak Republic, Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom. In total, 4482 students (71% female) answered an online survey including questions on personal and perceived tobacco use and personal and perceived attitudes towards tobacco use. Across all countries, the majority of students perceived tobacco use of their peers to be higher than their own use. The perception that the majority (>50%) of peers used tobacco regularly in the past two months was significantly associated with higher odds for personal regular use (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.90-3.73). The perception that the majority of peers approve of tobacco use was significantly associated with higher odds for personal approval of tobacco use (OR: 6.49, 95% CI: 4.54-9.28). Perceived norms are an important predictor of personal tobacco use and attitudes towards use. Interventions addressing perceived norms may be a viable method to change attitudes and tobacco use among European students, and may be a component of future tobacco control policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. O ingresso na universidade após os 45 anos: um evento não-normativo El ingreso a la universidad después de los 45 años: un evento no-normativo Admittance to the university after age 45: a non-normative event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria dos Santos Paulinelli Raposo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se neste estudo as razões que levam à decisão de ingressar na universidade na idade adulta, um evento não dependente de gradação por idade, denominado pela perspectiva do curso de vida de evento não-normativo (non-normative event. Os 40 participantes (27 F e 13 M, alunos de uma universidade particular do Centro-Oeste, com idades entre 45 e 60 anos, responderam a seis questões de uma entrevista estruturada, cujas respostas foram preenchidas pela primeira autora. Os resultados indicaram que os respondentes vivenciaram na vida adulta um período de estabilidade e que, embora conscientes das expectativas do seu ambiente quanto ao tempo e à seqüência das transições do ciclo de vida, avaliaram seus recursos pessoais, selecionaram seus objetivos e otimizaram suas capacidades de reserva antes de ingressar no ensino superior. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da perspectiva do curso de vida.Se examinan en este estudio las razones que llevan a la decisión de ingresar a la universidad en la edad adulta, un acontecimiento no dependiente de gradación por edad, denominado por la perspectiva del curso de vida de evento no-normativo (non-normative event. Los 40 participantes (27 M y 13 H, alumnos de una universidad particular de la región centro-oeste brasileño, con edades entre 45 y 60 años, contestaron a seis preguntas de una encuesta estructurada cuyas respuestas fueron rellenadas por la primera autora. Los resultados indicaron que los respondientes vivenciaron en la vida adulta un periodo de estabilidad y que, aunque conscientes de las expectativas de su ambiente cuanto al tiempo y a la secuencia de las transiciones del ciclo de vida, evaluaron sus recursos personales, seleccionaron sus objetivos y optimizaron sus capacidades de reserva antes de ingresar en la enseñanza superior. Los resultados son discutidos a la luz de la perspectiva del curso de vida.The reasons for admittance to the university after age 45, a non-normative

  10. Normative Bone Mineral Density values in Isfahani women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sayed Bonakdar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct interpretation of bone mineral density (BMDmeasurement by dual energy x ray absorptiometry(DEXA requires a population specific reference range. We collected data on age 20-35 years to obtain reference values of BMD for Isfahani women in order to make a population specific diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods: In 660 healthy Isfahani women Volunteers (20-35 years without illness, use of drugs or predisposing conditions to osteoporosis, the BMD (gr/cm² of lumbar spine and non-dominant femur was measured by lunar DPX –IQ machine. Results: The mean BMD and its standard deviations at each site were calculated and compared with normative data from Caucasian US/North European women. No significant differences were detected between them. Conclusions: Bone mineral density measurements of these 660 healthy Isfahani women can serve as a reference guide for the diagnosis of osteoporosis in Isfahani women. Key words: Bone Mineral Density, Osteoporosis, Normative data, DEXA

  11. Normative framework for the protection against genetic discrimination in Serbia

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    Petrušić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a normative framework of protection against genetic discrimination in the legal system of the Republic of Serbia, contained in the Law on Patients Rights, as of 2013 and in the Law on Prevention and diagnostics of genetic disorders, genetically conditioned anomalies and rare diseases, as of 2015. The analysis has shown that the rules on protection of the genetic data and the use of genetic samples, which are crucially important for prevention of genetic discrimination, have not been harmonized with contemporary ethical and legal standards. The contents of the Article 9 of the Law on Prevention and diagnostics of genetic disorders, genetically conditioned anomalies and rare diseases reduces the scope and level of protection against genetic discrimination in relation to the protection, given by the General Antidiscrimination Law. The legal definition of the genetic discrimination notion is not comprehensive, clear or precise, either, so it causes confusions, which, additionally, make the application of anti-discrimination regulations more difficult. Having in mind the harmful effects caused by the genetic discrimination, there is a need to eliminate the observed normative failures in due time and enable people to enjoy the benefits, provided by genetic investigations, without the fear from discrimination. In order to prevent the genetic discrimination, it is necessary to work on both information providing and raising awareness about the genetic privacy and the genetic discrimination problem, but also on promotion of the social justice and development of sensibility for bioethical challenges brought by the new age.

  12. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised: normative and accuracy data for seniors with heterogeneous educational level in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, Karolina G; Yassuda, Mônica S; Porto, Fabio H G; Brucki, Sonia M D; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    Several cognitive tools have been developed aiming to diagnose dementia. The cognitive battery Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) has been used to detect cognitive impairment; however, there are few studies including samples with low education. The aim of the study was to provide ACE-R norms for seniors within a lower education, including illiterates. An additional aim was to examine the accuracy of the ACE-R to detect dementia and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND). Data originated from an epidemiological study conducted in the municipality of Tremembé, Brazil. The Brazilian version of ACE-R was applied as part of the cognitive assessment in all participants. Of the 630 participants, 385 were classified as cognitively normal (CN) and were included in the normative data set, 110 individuals were diagnosed with dementia, and 135 were classified as having CIND. ACE-R norms were provided with the sample stratified into age and education bands. ACE-R total scores varied significantly according to age, education, and sex. To distinguish CN from dementia, a cut-off of 64 points was established (sensitivity 91%, specificity 76%) and to differentiate CN from CIND the best cut-off was 69 points (sensitivity 73%, specificity 65%). Cut-off scores varied according to the educational level. This study offers normative and accuracy parameters for seniors with lower education and it should expand the use of the ACE-R for this population segment.

  13. Normative data for macular thickness by high-definition spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (spectralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Murthy, Ravi K; Brar, Vikram S; Chalam, Kakarla V

    2009-08-01

    To establish normative data for the macular thickness by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in subjects with no known retinal disease. Prospective, observational study in an academic institutional setting. Fifty subjects (age range, 20 to 84 years) with no known retinal disease, best-corrected visual acuity 20/20, and normal intraocular pressure were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 3 age groups: group 1 included subjects 20 to 40 years of age; group 2 included subjects 41 to 60 years of age; and group 3 included subjects 61 years of age and older. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination to rule out any retinal diseases or glaucoma. All the OCT scans were performed by a single operator, and data obtained from the right eyes were analyzed by default, unless the right eye did not meet the inclusion criteria, and then data from left eyes were analyzed (n = 4). Central point thickness (CPT) and retinal thickness (RT) in 9 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields, including central subfield (CSF), were analyzed. Statistical analyses were carried out using the analysis of variance. Overall, the mean CPT was 227.3 +/- 23.2 microm, and mean CSF was 270.2 +/- 22.5 microm. Among the ETDRS subfields, the outer nasal quadrant had the maximum thickness (mean +/- standard deviation, 339.5 +/- 16.9 microm). The RT did not show significant difference with age (P = .62) or with gender (P = .1). However, there was a suggestion of significant difference in RT of Black subjects as compared with White subjects (P = .007) in the present study. Normative values for macular thickness in otherwise healthy eyes were measured to be 227.3 microm (CPT) and 270.2 microm (CSF) using commercially available Spectralis SD-OCT. Based on the data, the present study proposes the guidelines for normal CSF thickness to be 315 microm for future studies using macular thickness measurements with Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering

  14. The role of behavioral, normative and control beliefs in breast self-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tania E; White, Katherine M

    2008-01-01

    A limited number of studies have been conducted examining the role of beliefs in the prediction of breast self-examination (BSE) behavior in Australian women, particularly women under 50 years of age for which it is the primary method of early detection of breast cancer. The present research investigated the differences in behavioral, normative and control beliefs between BSE performers and non-performers, within a theory of planned behavior framework, to assist in the development of specific education programs aimed at increasing BSE amongst this demographic group. Two hundred and fifty-three women enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course completed a questionnaire assessing beliefs regarding BSE. One month later, these women reported their BSE behavior during the previous month. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers. Underlying behavioral and control, but not normative, beliefs about BSE distinguished between BSE performers and non-performers. Performers were more likely than non-performers to believe that engaging in BSE would be associated with identifying a lump or breast change sooner and detecting a breast cancer earlier in its course. Non-performers were more likely to perceive factors such as forgetting to perform the behavior, lack of time, lack of knowledge about how to perform the behavior, laziness, and a lack of confidence in their ability to identify lumps and breast changes as factors preventing their control over the performance of BSE. The belief-based differences between BSE performers and non-performers found in this study can be used to inform health promotion strategies aimed at increasing BSE behavior in women less than 50 years of age.

  15. Normative Values for Electrochemical Skin Conductance Measurements for Quantitative Assessment of Sudomotor Function in Healthy Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, C; Goel, Amit; Vilier, Alice; Calvet, Jean-Henri

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test is a widely accepted objective technique for quantitatively assessing sudomotor dysfunction, which is one of the earliest-detected neurophysiologic abnormalities in diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. This study aimed to provide normative data for ESC values among healthy Indian participants and assess the potential influence of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on ESC measurements. A sample of 217 healthy participants aged 18-75 years were recruited and assessed for parameters including age, gender, BMI, and ESC measurements of the hands and feet. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normality of the data. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the association between age, gender, and BMI, and ESC measurements. The mean age of the participants was 43.3 ± 13.2 years, and mean BMI was 26.0 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . Mean ESC for the hands and feet was 68.9 ± 13.1 and 71 ± 12.9 micro-Siemens, respectively, and there was a significant correlation between values from the right and left hands and feet ( r = 0.9, P < 0.0001). A significant correlation was also observed between ESC measurements of the hands and feet ( r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). ESC values of both hands and feet declined with age. A weak but significant inverse correlation between ESC and age was observed for the hands ( r = 0.02, P = 0.01) and for the feet ( r = 0.12, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in hand or feet ESC measurement between male and female participants. No significant correlation was observed between BMI and ESC of hands or feet. Only age was identified as a significant determinant of ESC on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Normative values for Indians are lower than that reported for Caucasians.

  16. Normative data for the Tygerberg Cognitive Battery and Mini-Mental Status Examination in a South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Annerine; Calata, Dorothy; Jonkers, Liesl; Maritz, Stephan J; Kidd, Martin; Daniels, Willie M U; Hugo, Frans J

    2010-01-01

    Normative data for the Tygerberg Cognitive Battery (TCB) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (in South Africa) have not been formally examined before. The TCB was developed for the bedside pen-and-paper screening of cognitive impairment in each of the 6 main cognitive domains, including attention and concentration, speech, memory, praxis, gnosis, and executive functioning. The test is also used to diagnose different neuropsychiatric conditions. The MMSE is an established screen of cognitive status, which is often used as a comparative standard for novel screening tests such as the TCB. The TCB was initially developed in English and Afrikaans, and a Xhosa version was also initiated with this study so that the 3 most common languages of the region could be accommodated. The first aim of the study was to estimate normative test performance on the TCB and MMSE among controls, and the second aim was to develop a Xhosa version of the TCB. Assessments of the TCB and MMSE were carried out in a population of healthy individuals (n = 157). In addition, healthy Xhosa-speaking participants (n = 14) were screened using a Xhosa version of the TCB. Reliability scores for all forms of the TCB were satisfactory. Age and education correlated significantly with TCB scores (r = -0.26, P < .01; r = 0.64, P < .01, respectively), whereas only education significantly correlated with MMSE scores (r = 0.32, P < .05). Normative values were calculated accordingly, that is, controlled for the effects of age and education. The TCB scores also correlated significantly with MMSE scores (r = 0.49, P < .05), demonstrating the potential of the TCB to serve as an alternate cognitive assessment tool, along with the MMSE, to focus neuropsychiatric investigations. Scores on the Xhosa version differed significantly on speech, praxis, and gnosis between the Afrikaans and English participant scores. These normative data can be used to increase precision and to provide an impartial evaluation when

  17. Parents' and peers' normative influence on adolescents' smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Francesca; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-01-21

    Adolescents observe and imitate people to whom they are associated in their social context, and the normative factors sent out by reference groups are crucial determinants of their decision to smoke. The aim of the study is to investigate how adolescents' smoking changes when they are exposed to factors of pro-smoking normative influence by parents and peers, and how age moderate this relation. A cross sectional survey collected data from 5657 students, aged between 11 and 14, from public and private middle schools in the Italian region of Switzerland (Ticino) on their smoking habits, perceived parents' and peers' approval and smoking. Multinomial logistic regression show that, as adolescents get older, more of the pro-smoking factors come from peers and parents, the higher the risk gets of being a "heavy smoker" has compared against having no experience with smoking. Living in a context with no factor of normative influence toward smoking play a protective role against smoking, and this effect becomes more important than more harmful the smoking behavior in question is. Furthermore, peers' descriptive norms are more influential for adolescents to become "light" and "heavy smokers", while smoking being approved by peers is important for adolescents to become accustomed to smoking. Findings support the different influence of parents' and peers' norms on adolescents' smoking, and highlight the importance of peers' model behavior as the most important factor influencing smoking during adolescence. Such results have implications for programs that aim to prevent or reduce smoking in early adolescence when friendship choice starts to become crucial.

  18. New Normative Database of Inner Macular Layer Thickness Measured by Spectralis OCT Used as Reference Standard for Glaucoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Moreno, María; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José M; Bambo, María P; Morales-Fernández, Laura; Van Keer, Karel; Vandewalle, Evelien; Stalmans, Ingeborg; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the capacity to detect glaucoma of inner macular layer thickness measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) using a new normative database as the reference standard. Participants ( N = 148) were recruited from Leuven (Belgium) and Zaragoza (Spain): 74 patients with early/moderate glaucoma and 74 age-matched healthy controls. One eye was randomly selected for a macular scan using the Spectralis SD-OCT. The variables measured with the instrument's segmentation software were: macular nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) volume and thickness along with circumpapillary RNFL thickness (cpRNFL). The new normative database of macular variables was used to define the cutoff of normality as the fifth percentile by age group. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of each macular measurement and of cpRNFL were used to distinguish between patients and controls. Overall sensitivity and specificity to detect early-moderate glaucoma were 42.2% and 88.9% for mRNFL, 42.4% and 95.6% for GCL, 42.2% and 94.5% for IPL, and 53% and 94.6% for RNFL, respectively. The best macular variable to discriminate between the two groups of subjects was outer temporal GCL thickness as indicated by an AUROC of 0.903. This variable performed similarly to mean cpRNFL thickness (AUROC = 0.845; P = 0.29). Using our normative database as reference, the diagnostic power of inner macular layer thickness proved comparable to that of peripapillary RNFL thickness. Spectralis SD-OCT, cpRNFL thickness, and individual macular inner layer thicknesses show comparable diagnostic capacity for glaucoma and RNFL, GCL, and IPL thickness may be useful as an alternative diagnostic test when the measure of cpRNFL shows artifacts.

  19. Aging study of the powdered magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Umar Saeed, E-mail: omar_aps@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Rahim, Abdur, E-mail: rahimkhan533@gmail.com [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Khan, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat (Pakistan); Muhammad, Nawshad; Rehman, Fozia [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmad, Khalid [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, PO Box 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Iqbal, Jibran [College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University, 144534 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-03-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were produced via co-precipitation method and then stored at room temperature for 6 years in aerobic atmosphere. Variations in the inherent solid phase and solid interfacial properties of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. For this purpose the fresh and aged samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The solid phase transformations of magnetite nanoparticles to maghemite nanoparticles as well as formation of other iron oxides were happened. After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features; however increase in particle size from 9.6 to 18.5 measured by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed. The crystallite size and vibrating sample magnetometer values were measured before and after aging and found to increase from 8.98 nm and 47.23 emu/g to 16.18 nm and 58.36 emu/g respectively. The formation of other iron oxides, recrystallization and agglomeration during aging process, caused a significant decrease in the specific surface area from 124.43 to 45.00 m{sup 2}/g of the stored sample. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were produced via co-precipitation method. • Inherent solid phase and interfacial properties of NP were evaluated after 6 years. • The solid phase transformations of magnetite NPs to maghemite NPs was happened. • After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features.

  20. Aging study of the powdered magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Umar Saeed; Rahim, Abdur; Khan, Nasrullah; Muhammad, Nawshad; Rehman, Fozia; Ahmad, Khalid; Iqbal, Jibran

    2017-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were produced via co-precipitation method and then stored at room temperature for 6 years in aerobic atmosphere. Variations in the inherent solid phase and solid interfacial properties of the prepared magnetite nanoparticles were investigated. For this purpose the fresh and aged samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffractometer and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The solid phase transformations of magnetite nanoparticles to maghemite nanoparticles as well as formation of other iron oxides were happened. After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features; however increase in particle size from 9.6 to 18.5 measured by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed. The crystallite size and vibrating sample magnetometer values were measured before and after aging and found to increase from 8.98 nm and 47.23 emu/g to 16.18 nm and 58.36 emu/g respectively. The formation of other iron oxides, recrystallization and agglomeration during aging process, caused a significant decrease in the specific surface area from 124.43 to 45.00 m"2/g of the stored sample. - Highlights: • Magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were produced via co-precipitation method. • Inherent solid phase and interfacial properties of NP were evaluated after 6 years. • The solid phase transformations of magnetite NPs to maghemite NPs was happened. • After aging of 6 years, no change was occurred in the magnetic features.

  1. Real-Time fMRI in Neuroscience Research and Its Use in Studying the Aging Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mohit; Varan, Andrew Q.; Davoudi, Anis; Cohen, Ronald A.; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a major concern in the aging population. It is normative to experience some deterioration in cognitive abilities with advanced age such as related to memory performance, attention distraction to interference, task switching, and processing speed. However, intact cognitive functioning in old age is important for leading an independent day-to-day life. Thus, studying ways to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline in aging is crucial. The literature offers various explanations for the decline in cognitive performance in aging; among those are age-related gray and white matter atrophy, synaptic degeneration, blood flow reduction, neurochemical alterations, and change in connectivity patterns with advanced age. An emerging literature on neurofeedback and Brain Computer Interface (BCI) reports exciting results supporting the benefits of volitional modulation of brain activity on cognition and behavior. Neurofeedback studies based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) have shown behavioral changes in schizophrenia and behavioral benefits in nicotine addiction. This article integrates research on cognitive and brain aging with evidence of brain and behavioral modification due to rtfMRI neurofeedback. We offer a state-of-the-art description of the rtfMRI technique with an eye towards its application in aging. We present preliminary results of a feasibility study exploring the possibility of using rtfMRI to train older adults to volitionally control brain activity. Based on these first findings, we discuss possible implementations of rtfMRI neurofeedback as a novel technique to study and alleviate cognitive decline in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:27803662

  2. Parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: Factor structure and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Lambert, Matthew C; Watkins, Marley W; Power, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms includes parent and teacher questionnaires. The ADHD Rating Scale-5 was developed to incorporate changes for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study examined the fit of a correlated, 2-factor structure of ADHD (i.e., DSM-5 conceptual model) and alternative models; determined whether ADHD symptom ratings varied across teacher and child demographic characteristics; and presented normative data. Two samples were included: (a) 2,079 parents and guardians (1,131 female, 948 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for children (N = 2,079; 1,037 males, 1,042 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 10.68; SD = 3.75) and (b) 1,070 teachers (766 female, 304 male) completed ADHD symptom ratings for students (N = 2,140; 1,070 males, 1,070 females) between 5 and 17 years old (M = 11.53; SD = 3.54) who attended kindergarten through 12th grade. The 2-factor structure was confirmed for both parent and teacher ratings and was invariant across child gender, age, informant, informant gender, and language. In general, boys were higher in symptom frequency than girls; older children were rated lower than younger children, especially for hyperactivity-impulsivity; and non-Hispanic children were rated higher than Hispanic children. Teachers also rated non-Hispanic African American children higher than non-Hispanic White, Asian, and Hispanic children. Non-Hispanic White teachers provided lower hyperactivity-impulsivity ratings than non-Hispanic, African American, and Hispanic teachers. Normative data are reported separately for parent and teacher ratings by child gender and age. The merits of using the ADHD Rating Scale-5 in a multimodal assessment protocol are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  4. Persian version of frontal assessment battery: Correlations with formal measures of executive functioning and providing normative data for Persian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaadi, Sina; Ashrafi, Farzad; Omidbeigi, Mahmoud; Nasiri, Zahra; Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini-Harandi, Ali

    2016-01-05

    Cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) mainly involves executive function (EF). The frontal assessment battery (FAB) is an efficient tool for the assessment of EFs. The aims of this study were to determine the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of FAB and assess its correlation with formal measures of EFs to provide normative data for the Persian version of FAB in patients with PD. The study recruited 149 healthy participants and 49 patients with idiopathic PD. In PD patients, FAB results were compared to their performance on EF tests. Reliability analysis involved test-retest reliability and internal consistency, whereas validity analysis involved convergent validity approach. FAB scores compared in normal controls and in PD patients matched for age, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. In PD patients, FAB scores were significantly decreased compared to normal controls, and correlated with Stroop test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). In healthy subjects, FAB scores varied according to the age, education, and MMSE. In the FAB subtest analysis, the performances of PD patients were worse than the healthy participants on similarities, fluency tasks, and Luria's motor series. Persian version of FAB could be used as a reliable scale for the assessment of frontal lobe functions in Iranian patients with PD. Furthermore, normative data provided for the Persian version of this test improve the accuracy and confidence in the clinical application of the FAB.

  5. Normative beliefs about aggression and cyber aggression among young adults: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined normative beliefs about aggression (e.g., face-to-face, cyber) in relation to the engagement in cyber aggression 6 months later among 126 (69 women) young adults. Participants completed electronically administered measures assessing their normative beliefs, face-to-face and cyber aggression at Time 1, and cyber aggression 6 months later (Time 2). We found that men reported more cyber relational and verbal aggression when compared to women. After controlling for each other, Time 1 face-to-face relational aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression, whereas Time 1 face-to-face verbal aggression was positively related to Time 2 cyber verbal aggression. Normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression was positively related to both forms of cyber aggression 6 months later, after controlling for normative beliefs about face-to-face aggression. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction between Time 1 cyber relational aggression and normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression was found. Follow-up analysis showed that Time 1 cyber relational aggression was more strongly related to Time 2 cyber relational aggression when young adults held higher normative beliefs about cyber relational aggression. A similar two-way interaction was found for cyber verbal aggression such that the association between Time 1 and Time 2 cyber verbal aggression was stronger at higher levels of normative beliefs about cyber verbal aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the social cognitive and behavioral mechanisms associated with the engagement of cyber aggression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Aging road user studies of intersection safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Task 1.1 assessed younger (21-35 years), middle-aged (50-64 years), and older (65+) drivers ability to : quickly perceive the presence of marked/unmarked crosswalks and pedestrians within them in computer-based : laboratory tasks that recorded res...

  8. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behaviour among Nigerian academics: The mediating role of normative organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Ishola Genty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper examined the mediating role of normative organizational commitment on the relationship that exists between workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior amongst academics at some selected Nigerian Universities. A non-experimental research design was adopted utilizing the quantitative and correlational methods. With the aid of the convenience sampling technique, 350 questionnaires were distributed at an equal proportion to academic staffs at two Nigerian public universities. Three hundred and thirty-one questionnaires were retrieved, of which 328 were found usable for analyses in the study. Three hypotheses were proposed and tested using inferential statistics with the aid of SPSS version 20 and the IBM SPSS AMOS version 22. The outcomes of the study brought to the fore that, there exists a statistical significant and positive relationship between workplace spirituality and normative organizational commitment. Correspondingly, a strong and positive relationship was found between normative organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, a partial mediating influence of normative organizational commitment was established on the workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. Conclusively, this study recommended that, universities management should recognize workplace spirituality for the attainment of normative commitment to foster more organizational citizenship behavior among the academics.

  10. Managing Normative Criteria in Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2014-01-01

    experiences from an action research project in a healthcare infrastructural setting. I use these experiences as a basis for appraising the normative crite- ria for rigor and relevance that are enacted in IS action research literature. I argue that while these criteria originally had important contributions......, there are also weaknesses with norma- tive approaches. Specifically, these norms of action research leave relatively little space for understanding and managing emerging empirical uncertainties. These norms are important because they have implications not only on how we conduct action research in practice...

  11. A normative model for assessing competitive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerer, Gerard David

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hyper-competitive nature of e-business has raised the need for a generic way to appraise the merit of a developed business strategy. Although progress has been made in the domain of strategy evaluation, the established literature differs over the ‘tests’ that a strategy must pass to be considered well-constructed. This paper therefore investigates the existing strategy-evaluation literature to propose a more integrated and comprehensive normative strategic assessment that can be used to evaluate and refine a business’ s competitive strategy , adding to its robustness and survivability.

  12. The normative trap in ethnopolitical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Schläpfer, Basil

    2016-01-01

    , there is no generally accepted model of ethnic relations which would inform us about ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ identities. Even advanced industrial democracies differ tremendously in how states and societies relate to their members: since the 1970s the cultural model of the United States and Canada has built on its ethnic...... try to avoid possible biases, and discuss how their data and results might influence politics and the public debate. We warn against any practice that would lead to self-censorship of research results that conflict with the dominant normative views of scholars or society. The debate about ethnic...

  13. Impact of age, sex, and indexation method on MR left ventricular reference values in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Susan B; Salton, Carol J; Gona, Philimon; Chuang, Michael L; Blease, Susan J; Han, Yuchi; Tsao, Connie W; Danias, Peter G; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J

    2015-04-01

    To determine normative values for left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, concentricity, and ejection fraction (EF) and investigate associations between sex, age, and body size with LV parameters in community-dwelling adults. In all, 1794 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort members underwent LV short-axis oriented, contiguous multislice cine steady-state free precession MR of the left ventricle; from these a healthy referent group (n = 852, 61 ± 9 years, 40% men) free of clinical cardiac disease and hypertension (SBP 65 years); LV parameters were indexed to measures of body size. Men have greater LV volumes and mass than women both before and after indexation to height, powers of height, and body surface area (P J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1038-1045. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Age-related proximal femur bone mineral loss in South Indian women: a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anburajan, M; Rethinasabapathi, C; Korath, M P; Ponnappa, B G; Kumar, K S; Panicker, T M; Govindan, A; Jagadeesan, G N

    2001-04-01

    i) To collect normative data for proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD) in South Indian women using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ii) to study the rate and significance of hip bone mineral loss with advancing age in this population. Forty five women, whose age ranged from 16 to 84 years were studied. This sample was drawn randomly from general medical practice at KJ Hospital, Chennai, South India during November, 1997 to April, 1998. Of these 45 cases, 21 were pre-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 30.9+/-8.8 years) and 24 post-menopausal (mean +/- SD age = 62.1+/-11.0 years). Subjects with secondary bone diseases were excluded. Also excluded were those taking any drugs known to affect calcium metabolism e.g., thiazide diuretics, oestrogen and calcium. Subjects were divided into seven decadal age groups from 15-24 years to 75-84 years. BMD of the right proximal femur was evaluated using a QDR-1000 DXA bone densitometer (Hologic Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Data analysis was done with SPSS/PC statistical software package. Linear regression analysis showed significant (p India women have been evaluated and it may prove useful for diagnosing osteoporosis in the women of South India.

  15. Normative spectral domain optical coherence tomography data on macular and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Appukuttan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To provide the normative data of macular and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in Indians using spectral domain OCT (Spectralis OCT, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany and to evaluate the effects of age, gender, and refraction on these parameters. Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The eyes of 105 healthy patients aged between 20-75 years, with no ocular disease and best corrected visual acuity of 20/20, were scanned using standard scanning protocols by a single examiner. Exclusion criteria included glaucoma, retinal diseases, diabetes, history of prior intraocular surgery or laser treatment. The mean macular and RNFL thickness were recorded, and the effects of age, gender, and refraction on these parameters were evaluated. This data was compared with published literature on Caucasians to assess the ethnic variations of these parameters. Results: The normal central foveal thickness in healthy Indian eyes measured using Spectralis OCT was 260.1 ± 18.19 ΅m. The nasal inner quadrant showed maximum retinal thickness (338.88 ± 18.17 ΅m.The mean RNFL thickness was 101.43 ± 8.63 ΅m with maximum thickness in the inferior quadrant. The central foveal thickness showed a gender-based difference (P = 0.005 but did not correlate significantly with age (P = 0.134, whereas the parafoveal, perifoveal thickness, macular volume, and RNFL thickness showed significant negative correlation with age. Conclusions: Our study provides the normative database for Indians on Spectralis OCT. It also suggests that age should be considered while interpreting the macular thickness and RNFL, whereas gender should also be given consideration in central foveal thickness.

  16. Relations between normative beliefs and initiation intentions toward cigarette, alcohol and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, R Scott; Thombs, Dennis L; Tomasek, Jennifer Ray

    2005-07-01

    To examine the relations between normative beliefs and intentions to initiate cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use among adolescents reporting no prior use. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 6,594 seventh- to twelfth-grade students in northeast Ohio. Separate analyses were conducted on sub-samples of respondents reporting no prior use of each substance. Within each of these 3 sub-samples, respondents were classified as holding high-risk intentions if they reported that they intended to begin using that particular substance within the next 6 months or were "not sure" of their intentions. Those reporting that they did not intend to start using a substance were classified as holding low-risk intentions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the relations between normative beliefs and intention status (low- vs. high-risk), while accounting for socio-demographic characteristics. Across all 3 substances, normative beliefs were stronger predictors of intention status than socio-demographic variables. Higher levels of perceived acceptability and perceived prevalence were associated with holding high-risk intentions. Normative belief measures assessing close friend and sibling reference groups were much more important in explaining intention status than those assessing other reference groups (e.g., same age peers). Among adolescents with no prior use, normative beliefs concerning close friends and siblings may play an important role in the catalysis and support of intentions to initiate substance use. These findings challenge the utility of primary prevention strategies that provide normative feedback based on rates of substance use among distal reference groups.

  17. Managing aging workers: a mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Dikkers, Josje S. E.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2014-01-01

    Since abilities and motives change with age and common human resource (HR) practices might be less suitable for aging employees, scholars and practitioners are currently challenged to find new ways of managing aging workers and motivating them to continue working. Therefore, this mixed methods study

  18. Late Bronze Age hoard studied by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Neira, P.C., E-mail: carolina.gutierrez@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zucchiatti, A., E-mail: alessandro.zucchiatti@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Montero-Ruiz, I., E-mail: ignacio.montero@cchs.csic.es [CCHS-CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, E 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vilaca, R., E-mail: rvilaca@fl.uc.pt [University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Ferrea, 3000-447 Coimbra (Portugal); Bottaini, C., E-mail: keret18@yahoo.it [University of Coimbra, Largo da Porta Ferrea, 3000-447 Coimbra (Portugal); Gener, M., E-mail: marc.gener@cchs.csic.es [CCHS-CSIC, Albasanz 26-28, E 28037 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A., E-mail: acf@uam.es [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/Farady 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantobalanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The hoards of metallic objects belonging to the Late European Bronze Age can be interpreted differently depending on the type, number and composition of the artefacts. PIXE analysis has been performed in nine items from the Hoard of Freixanda in Portugal comprising four socket axes, a palstave axe, a ring, a chisel, a dagger, and a casting debris. Besides the composition of the main matrix elements, that is Cu and Sn, the amount of trace elements of interest like, As, Pb, Ni, and Ag has been determined using this ion beam technique. The high tin content alloy and the high purity of the metals from the Freixanda hoard are characteristic of the Portuguese and Spanish Late Bronze Age metallurgy, supporting the idea of a regional production.

  19. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellunato, T.; Calvi, M.; Coluzza, C.; Longo, G.; Matteuzzi, C.; Musy, M.; Negri, P.; Perego, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to γ radiation from a 60 Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured

  20. Study of ageing effects in aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Coluzza, C; Longo, G; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L

    2004-01-01

    Ageing effects on aerogel due to irradiation and absorption of humidity have been investigated. Aerogel tiles have been exposed to gamma radiation from a 60-Co source and to proton and neutron high intensity beams. The transmittance has been monitored in the wavelength range between 200 nm and 800 nm, determining the clarity factor C as a function of the increasing dose of irradiation. The index of refraction n was also measured.

  1. The normativity of life scripts and its relation with life story events across cultures and subcultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatiboğlu, Neşe; Habermas, Tilmann

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the normativity of individual life scripts and their relation to actual life story memories across countries (Turkey and Germany) and subcultures (urban vs. rural, of migrant vs. of indigenous descent). Young adults from provincial Karabük and metropolitan Istanbul (Turkey), second generation Turkish migrants and Germans from Frankfurt a.M. (Germany) provided both their individual versions of the life script and seven most important personal memories. We expected the agreement on the life script, that is, its normativity, and correspondingly its guiding influence on the selection of life story memories to correlate positively with a collectivistic, negatively an individualistic cultural orientation, that is, to be highest in provincial Karabük, less in Istanbul, still less in Turkish migrants in Germany, and finally lowest in native Germans. The study confirmed expectations for the normativity of life scripts, but not for the normativity of most important memories. We conclude that the normativity of life scripts is influenced both by the individualist vs. collectivist orientation.

  2. Freesurfer cortical normative data for adults using Desikan-Killiany-Tourville and ex vivo protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Dieumegarde, Louis; Duchesne, Simon

    2017-08-01

    We recently built normative data for FreeSurfer morphometric estimates of cortical regions using its default atlas parcellation (Desikan-Killiany or DK) according to individual and scanner characteristics. We aimed to produced similar normative values for Desikan-Killianny-Tourville (DKT) and ex vivo-based labeling protocols, as well as examine the differences between these three atlases. Surfaces, thicknesses, and volumes of cortical regions were produced using cross-sectional magnetic resonance scans from the same 2713 healthy individuals aged 18-94 years as used in the reported DK norms. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer and magnetic field strength (MFS) as predictors. The DKT and DK models generally included the same predictors and produced similar R 2 . Comparison between DK, DKT, ex vivo atlases normative cortical measures showed that the three protocols generally produced similar normative values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adult normative data for the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraick, Richard I; Smith-Olinde, Laura; Shotts, Laura L

    2012-03-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a preliminary adult normative database for 41 phonatory aerodynamic measures obtained with the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS) Model 6600 (KayPENTAX Corp, Lincoln Park, NJ). A second purpose was to examine the effect of age and gender on these measures. Prospective data collection across groups. A sample of 157 normal speakers (68 males and 89 females) were divided into three age groups (18-39, 40-59, and 60+ years). The PAS protocols of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, variation in sound pressure level, and voicing efficiency were used to collect 41 phonatory aerodynamic measures. Comfortable pitch and loudness levels were used with each protocol requiring phonation. A statistically significant main effect of age was found for seven measures, and a statistically significant main effect of gender was found for five measures. The remaining 29 measures did not reach statistical significance; however, 13 of these had high observed power. The remaining 16 measures did not reach significance and had low observed power. Because age- and gender-related changes were found for some measures, one must account for these two variables when assessing phonatory aerodynamics using the PAS Model 6600. The clinical implications of the findings for the assessment and treatment of individuals with voice disorders using the PAS Model 6600 are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Memorandum IV: Theoretical and Normative Grounding of Health Services Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, W; Farin, E; Menzel-Begemann, A; Meyer, T

    2016-05-01

    With Memoranda and other initiatives, the German Network for Health Service Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e.V. (DNVF)] is fostering the methodological quality of care research studies for years. Compared to the standards of empirical research, questions concerning the role and function of theories, theoretical approaches and scientific principles have not been taken up on its own. Therefore, the DNVF e.V. has set up a working group in 2013, which was commissioned to prepare a memorandum on "theories in health care research". This now presented memorandum will primarily challenge scholars in health care services research to pay more attention to questions concerning the theoretical arsenal and the background assumptions in the research process. The foundation in the philosophy of science, the reference to normative principles and the theory-bases of the research process are addressed. Moreover, the memorandum will call on to advance the theorizing in health services research and to strengthen not empirical approaches, research on basic principles or studies with regard to normative sciences and to incorporate these relevant disciplines in health services research. Research structures and funding of health services research needs more open space for theoretical reflection and for self-observation of their own, multidisciplinary research processes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The EU as a Normative Power and the Research on External Perceptions: the Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    perception offer some findings that are central for the NPE debate. This article’s argument is that the external perceptions literature points to a limited (if still identifiable) perception of the EU as a normative power depending on the geographical area. By comparison, the image of a powerful economic......In research on European foreign policy two important axes of debate have been running relatively independently of each other for more than a decade: the study of the European Union as a normative power (NPE) and the study of external perceptions of the EU. However, the studies of external...... actor is prevalent. The article raises the question of whether the thin and geographically varied character of the perceptions relating to the EU as a normative power justifies the general designation of NPE.Anew agenda focusing on geographical differences and interaction with other sources of power...

  6. Clinical studies of renal morphological changes with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Kawamura, Juichi; Tomoyoshi, Tadao; Yoshida, Osamu

    1980-01-01

    We studied the change of renal shape due to development and aging by using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy. In pediatric age group, the angle between renal longitudinal axis and the lumbar vertebrae is small but becomes larger with aging. The renal size grows with aging in the adult age group, and becomes largest. In geriatric age group it decreases with aging. The stability of renal position is marked in the adult age group, but in the pediatric and geriatric age group it seemed unstable. Renal contour is smooth in the pediatric and adult age group but unsmooth in the geriatric. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal image shows diffusely homogeneous renal uptake in the pediatric and adult age groups but not homogeneous in the geriatric. (author)

  7. Energy conservation normatives in Italy: Thermotechnical Committee organizational efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, A [Comitato Termotecnico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    1991-10-01

    A recent Italian law (No. 10/91) calls for energy conservation to be implemented in building materials and HVAC systems through the creation of a suitable set of normatives. The CTI (Italian Thermotechnical Committee) has been assigned the task of creating these normatives and is currently in the organizational stage. This paper lists the proposed normatives and reports on CTI's progress in assembling groups of consultants from various sectors - public administration, end users, industrial firms, etc.

  8. Heuristics and Biases: Interactions among Numeracy, Ability, and Reflectiveness Predict Normative Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Klaczynski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011 dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy. In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.

  9. Heuristics and biases: interactions among numeracy, ability, and reflectiveness predict normative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaczynski, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    In Stanovich's (2009a, 2011) dual-process theory, analytic processing occurs in the algorithmic and reflective minds. Thinking dispositions, indexes of reflective mind functioning, are believed to regulate operations at the algorithmic level, indexed by general cognitive ability. General limitations at the algorithmic level impose constraints on, and affect the adequacy of, specific strategies and abilities (e.g., numeracy). In a study of 216 undergraduates, the hypothesis that thinking dispositions and general ability moderate the relationship between numeracy (understanding of mathematical concepts and attention to numerical information) and normative responses on probabilistic heuristics and biases (HB) problems was tested. Although all three individual difference measures predicted normative responses, the numeracy-normative response association depended on thinking dispositions and general ability. Specifically, numeracy directly affected normative responding only at relatively high levels of thinking dispositions and general ability. At low levels of thinking dispositions, neither general ability nor numeric skills related to normative responses. Discussion focuses on the consistency of these findings with the hypothesis that the implementation of specific skills is constrained by limitations at both the reflective level and the algorithmic level, methodological limitations that prohibit definitive conclusions, and alternative explanations.

  10. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  12. Normative Values and Interrelationship of MDVP Voice Analysis Parameters Before and After Endotracheal Intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martin Kryspin; Durck, Tina Trier; Bork, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    normative values for adults and investigates the correlation between these MDVP parameters in relation to the "standardized" trauma of endotracheal intubation. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative assessments of vocal fold pathology with flexible videolaryngoscopy and voice analysis with MDVP using...... the best-of-three standardized recording were performed in 121 patients with normal voices included consecutively in the RCT. The procedures of anesthesia were standardized. RESULTS: The normative MDVP values of this study are consistently lower compared with most normative values presented in other...... studies. The preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter values (jitter and relative average perturbation) were closely correlated to the shimmer values for patients with postoperative vocal fold edemas. In the patients with edema, the preoperative to postoperative differences in jitter had...

  13. Instituting interaction: normative transformations in human communicative practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John Z; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments in semiotics and linguistics demonstrate that groups tend to converge on a common set of signs or terms in response to presented problems, experiments which potentially bear on the emergence and establishment of institutional interactions. Taken together, these studies indicate a spectrum, ranging from the spontaneous convergence of communicative practices to their eventual conventionalization, a process which might be described as an implicit institutionalization of those practices. However, the emergence of such convergence and conventionalization does not in itself constitute an institution, in the strict sense of a social organization partly created and governed by explicit rules. A further step toward institutions proper may occur when others are instructed about a task. That is, given task situations which select for successful practices, instructions about such situations make explicit what was tacit practice, instructions which can then be followed correctly or incorrectly. This transition gives rise to the normative distinction between conditions of success versus conditions of correctness, a distinction which will be explored and complicated in the course of this paper. Using these experiments as a basis, then, the emergence of institutions will be characterized in evolutionary and normative terms, beginning with our adaptive responses to the selective pressures of certain situational environments, and continuing with our capacity to then shape, constrain, and institute those environments to further refine and streamline our problem-solving activity.

  14. International biomedical law in search for its normative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Atina

    2012-01-01

    The broad and multifaceted problem of global health law and global health governance has been attracting increasing attention in the last few decades. The global community has failed to establish international legal regime that deals comprehensively with the 'technological revolution'. The latter has posed complex questions to regions of the world with widely differing cultural perspectives. At the same time, an increasing number of governmental and non-state actors have become significantly involved in the sector. They use legal, political, and other forms of decision-making that result in regulatory instruments of contrasting normative status. Law created in this heterogeneous environment has been said to be fragmented, inconsistent, and exacerbating uncertainties. Therefore, claims have been made that a centralised and institutionalised system would help address the problems of transparency, legitimacy and efficiency. Nevertheless, little scholarly consideration is paid to the normative status of international biomedical law. This paper explores whether formalisation and "constitutionalisation" of biomedical law are indeed inevitable for its establishment as a separate regulatory regime. It does so by analysing the proliferation of biomedical law in light of two the theory of fragmentation and the theory of global legal pluralism. Investigating the problem in this way helps determine the theoretical framework and methodology of future studies of biomedical law at the international level. This in turn should help its future development in a more consistent and harmonised manner.

  15. Normative static grip strength of population of Turkey, effects of various factors and a comparison with international norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Normative data are of importance in ergonomics and clinical settings. Applying normative data internationally is questionable. To this end, this study aimed to establish gender- and age-specific reference values for static (isometric) hand grip strength of normal population of Turkey with special regard to occupational demand, and compare them with the international norms. The secondary aims were to investigate the effects of gender, age-group, weight-group, job-group, hand and several anthropometric variables on static grip strength. A sample of 211 (128 male and 83 female) volunteers aged between 18 and 69 with various occupations participated in the study. Grip strength data were collected using a Jamar dynamometer with standard testing position, protocol and instructions. The mean and std deviation of maximum voluntary static grip strength values (in N) for dominant and non-dominant hands respectively were 455.2 ± 73.6 and 441.5 ± 72.6 for males, and 258 ± 46.1 and 246.2 ± 49.1 for females. The mean female strength was about 57% of the mean male strength value for both dominant and non-dominant hands. There was a curvilinear relationship of grip strength to age, significant differences between genders, hands, and some age-groups, and a correlation to height, body-mass, BMI and hand dimensions depending on the gender. The comparisons with the norms of other world populations indicate that there are cross-national grip strength variations among some nations but not all. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative assessment of finger motor performance: Normative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Signori

    Full Text Available Finger opposition movements are the basis of many daily living activities and are essential in general for manipulating objects; an engineered glove quantitatively assessing motor performance during sequences of finger opposition movements has been shown to be useful to provide reliable measures of finger motor impairment, even subtle, in subjects affected by neurological diseases. However, the obtained behavioral parameters lack published reference values.To determine mean values for different motor behavioral parameters describing the strategy adopted by healthy people in performing repeated sequences of finger opposition movements, examining associations with gender and age.Normative values for finger motor performance parameters were obtained on a sample of 255 healthy volunteers executing sequences of finger-to-thumb opposition movements, stratified by gender and over a wide range of ages. Touch duration, inter-tapping interval, movement rate, correct sequences (%, movements in advance compared with a metronome (% and inter-hand interval were assessed.Increasing age resulted in decreased movement speed, advance movements with respect to a cue, correctness of sequences, and bimanual coordination. No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects except for the duration of the finger touch, the interval between two successive touches and their ratio.We report age- and gender-specific normal mean values and ranges for different parameters objectively describing the performance of finger opposition movement sequences, which may serve as useful references for clinicians to identify possible deficits in subjects affected by diseases altering fine hand motor skills.

  17. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of five Rb-Sr isotopic age studies predominantly on whole-rock samples, and six U-Pb studies on zircon monazite concentrates are presented. Descriptions of the geological problems and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced

  18. Normative personality trait development in adulthood: A 6-year cohort-sequential growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojev, Petar; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated patterns of normative change in personality traits across the adult life span (19 through 74 years of age). We examined change in extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience and honesty-humility using data from the first 6 annual waves of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 10,416; 61.1% female, average age = 49.46). We present a cohort-sequential latent growth model assessing patterns of mean-level change due to both aging and cohort effects. Extraversion decreased as people aged, with the most pronounced declines occurring in young adulthood, and then again in old age. Agreeableness, indexed with a measure focusing on empathy, decreased in young adulthood and remained relatively unchanged thereafter. Conscientiousness increased among young adults then leveled off and remained fairly consistent for the rest of the adult life span. Neuroticism and openness to experience decreased as people aged. However, the models suggest that these latter effects may also be partially due to cohort differences, as older people showed lower levels of neuroticism and openness to experience more generally. Honesty-humility showed a pronounced and consistent increase across the adult life span. These analyses of large-scale longitudinal national probability panel data indicate that different dimensions of personality follow distinct developmental processes throughout adulthood. Our findings also highlight the importance of young adulthood (up to about the age of 30) in personality trait development, as well as continuing change throughout the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Associations between adolescent seatbelt non-use, normative perceptions and screen media exposure: results from a national US survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Romer, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Failure to use seatbelts in motor vehicles is a major source of youth injuries, and previous research has noted the widespread non-use of seatbelts in popular media. To explore whether increased exposure to entertainment screen media was associated with inflated normative perceptions regarding seatbelt non-use, and to determine any associations between normative perceptions and seatbelt non-use. A nationally representative telephone survey of school-aged American adolescents (14-17 years, n=915) measuring: screen media exposure; normative perceptions with reference to friends' disapproval of non-use, and prevalence of non-use among friends, school peers and peers; and self-reported seatbelt non-use. Using structural equation modelling, analyses indicate that, after demographic and individual characteristics relevant to screen media exposure and seatbelt non-use had been controlled for, frequent exposure to entertainment media was associated with positive normative perceptions about seatbelt non-use for boys, but not for girls. Normative perceptions related to friends' and school peers' seatbelt use were associated with seatbelt non-use for both boys and girls. Attempts to increase adolescent seatbelt use could include public communication campaigns to alter normative perceptions. Broadcasting these campaigns in conjunction with the media that under-represent seatbelt use may be a successful strategy for reducing the influence of such media on male adolescents.

  20. The ECO computerized cognitive battery: collection of normative data using elderly New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Paul I; Secker, David I; Fright, Renee; Melding, Pamela

    2004-03-01

    Computerized testing in the elderly has multiple advantages, including increased time-efficiency, a wider range of stimulus options and response forms, and increased psychometric reliability. The French-language ECO (Examen Cognitif par Ordinateur, Ritchie et al., 1993) computerized cognitive battery is investigated in this study. The purpose of the study was to yield normative data for an English-language version of the ECO, test the effects of age and education on test scores, to observe individual subtest sensitivity to cognitive impairment, and to examine participants' receptivity to this form of testing. A sample of 129 community-dwelling elderly with normal cognitive functioning and 56 cognitively impaired older adults living in both independent and supported accommodation were tested using the ECO at either their own residence or an outpatient facility. Standardized scores for three different age bands are given for both impaired and non-impaired groups. Age and education effects varied between subtests. A discriminant analysis of subtest-sensitivity to group prediction is reported using a stepwise regression model. The English version of the ECO appears to be a sensitive and practical cognitive battery that is highly acceptable to older people.

  1. Normative data for stretched penile length in term neonates born in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sudha Rathna; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Bharath, R; Jagadeesh, Sujatha; Kumutha, J; Suresh, Seshadri

    2014-07-01

    To establish normative data for stretched penile length (SPL) in term male neonates born in Tamil Nadu. All live term male neonates delivered in a hospital during a given period were included. SPL was measured from the pubic ramus to the tip of the glans. Two consecutive measurements were taken and average was recorded. The mean SPL observed in our study was 2.83 ± 0.49 cm. This study helps establish normative values for SPL in neonates of Tamil Nadu origin.

  2. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  3. Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

    CERN Document Server

    Althouse, L P

    1979-01-01

    Study of the aging processes in polyurethane adhesives using thermal treatment and differential calorimetric, dielectric, and mechanical techniques ; 1, identifying the aging processes ; 2, quantifying the aging effect

  4. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  5. Differences in physical aging measured by walking speed: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela

    2016-01-28

    Physical functioning and mobility of older populations are of increasing interest when populations are aging. Lower body functioning such as walking is a fundamental part of many actions in daily life. Limitations in mobility threaten independent living as well as quality of life in old age. In this study we examine differences in physical aging and convert those differences into the everyday measure of single years of age. We use the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which was collected biennially between 2002 and 2012. Data on physical performance, health as well as information on economics and demographics of participants were collected. Lower body performance was assessed with two timed walks at normal pace each of 8 ft (2.4 m) of survey participants aged at least 60 years. We employed growth curve models to study differences in physical aging and followed the characteristic-based age approach to illustrate those differences in single years of age. First, we examined walking speed of about 11,700 English individuals, and identified differences in aging trajectories by sex and other characteristics (e.g. education, occupation, regional wealth). Interestingly, higher educated and non-manual workers outperformed their counterparts for both men and women. Moreover, we transformed the differences between subpopulations into single years of age to demonstrate the magnitude of those gaps, which appear particularly high at early older ages. This paper expands research on aging and physical performance. In conclusion, higher education provides an advantage in walking of up to 15 years for men and 10 years for women. Thus, enhancements in higher education have the potential to ensure better mobility and independent living in old age for a longer period.

  6. What is popular? Distinguishing bullying and aggression as status correlates within specific peer normative contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Palacios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study tested social status correlates of aggression and bullying and how these are influenced by peer groups’ normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior among 1165 fourth, fifth and sixth graders in Chile. Associations between aggression and popularity (positive and social preference (negative were confirmed, whereas bullying was negatively associated with both dimensions. Normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior were assessed at the group level, while social status was assessed at the classroom level through peer nominations. Hierarchical Linear Analyses showed that in groups with a higher value associated with aggression, classmates rated aggressive peers as less popular but also less disliked. The status correlates of bullying remained unaffected by peer normative beliefs. The discussion focuses on the social function of aggression as compared to the social sanction associated with bullying, and on the specificity of these associations at different layers of the social ecology.

  7. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  8. Normative data for the Boston Naming Test in native Dutch-speaking Belgian children and the relation with intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Gert; Saerens, Jos; De Deyn, Peter P

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a normative study of the 60-item version of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) in a group of 371 native Dutch-speaking Flemish children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Analysis of test results revealed that BNT performance was significantly affected by age and gender. The gathered norms were shown to be significantly lower than published norms for comparable North-American children. Error analysis disclosed remarkable similarities with data from elderly subjects, with verbal semantic paraphasias and 'don't know' responses occurring most frequently. Finally, BNT scores were shown to correlate strongly with general intelligence as measured with the Raven Progressive Matrices. The relation between both measures can be of help in the diagnosis of identification naming deficits and impaired word-retrieval capacities.

  9. Establishing Baseline Normative Values for the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M Alison; Snedden, Traci R; Mixis, Benjamin; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A

    2017-07-01

    The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT3) is a postconcussion sideline assessment tool measuring symptoms, cognition, and balance in preadolescent children. Minimal normative baseline data exist to aid decision making in clinical and athletic settings. To collect normative baseline data for the Child SCAT3 in a large cohort of young athletes. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 31 to August 12, 2014, at various sporting events (basketball, soccer, baseball, and swimming) in Central Wisconsin among children 5 to 13 years of age who were English-speaking and did not report a lower leg injury within the past 2 months or a concussion within the past month. Data were analyzed between October 8, 2014, and September 12, 2016. All Child SCAT3 components were assessed: child and parent report of symptom number and severity, cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion-child version [SAC-C]), and balance (modified Balance Error Scoring System [mBESS] and tandem gait). Summary statistics, mean differences, and effect sizes were calculated for each test component. Participants included 478 children (234 girls and 241 boys; mean [SD] age, 9.9 [1.9] years]) and their parents. Age had the largest effect on all Child SCAT3 components, with children 5 to 7 years of age reporting higher mean (SD) symptom severity scores compared with those 11 to 13 years of age (18.2 [10.0] vs 11.3 [9.0]; mean difference, 6.86 [95% CI, 4.22-9.50]; effect size, 0.74) and performing more poorly on the total SAC-C (mean [SD] score, 19.5 [5.1] vs 26.1 [2.1]; mean difference, -6.59 [95% CI, -7.49 to -5.68]; effect size, -2.1), mBESS (mean [SD] score, 1.67 [1.8] vs 0.76 [1.2]; mean difference, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.53-1.29]; effect size, 0.68), and tandem gait (mean [SD] time, 22.2 [8.3] vs 14.0 [3.7] seconds; mean difference, 8.23 seconds [95% CI, 6.63-9.82]; effect size, 1.55). Sex had a small effect on the mean (SD) number and severity of symptoms reported by the child (severity: boys

  10. Multiple gait parameters derived from iPod accelerometry predict age-related gait changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claude

    Introduction Normative data of how natural aging affects gait can serve as a frame of reference for changes in gait dynamics due to pathologies. Therefore, the present study aims (1) to identify gait variables sensitive to age-related changes in gait over the adult life span using the iPod and (2)

  11. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a

  12. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2017-10-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  13. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, Rene von

    2006-01-01

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a particular

  14. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  15. Quality of education and memory test performance in older men: the New York University Paragraph Recall Test normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Melissa; Abner, Erin; Caban-Holt, Allison; Dennis, Brandon C; Kryscio, Richard; Schmitt, Frederick

    2013-09-01

    Memory evaluation is a key component in the accurate diagnosis of cognitive disorders.One memory procedure that has shown promise in discriminating disease-related cognitive decline from normal cognitive aging is the New York University Paragraph Recall Test; however, the effects of education have been unexamined as they pertain to one's literacy level. The current study provides normative data stratified by estimated quality of education as indexed by irregular word reading skill. Conventional norms were derived from a sample (N = 385) of cognitively intact elderly men who were initially recruited for participation in the PREADViSE clinical trial. A series of multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess the influence of demographic variables on mean NYU Paragraph Immediate and Delayed Recall scores. Test version, assessment site, and estimated quality of education were significant predictors of performance on the NYU Paragraph Recall Test. Findings indicate that estimated quality of education is a better predictor of memory performance than ethnicity and years of total education. Normative data stratified according to estimated quality of education are presented. The current study provides evidence and support for normativedata stratified by quality of education as opposed to years of education.

  16. Exploratory analysis of normative performance on the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Lea; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret McNamara; Mausbach, Brent T; Taylor, Michael J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2017-10-01

    The UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) is a performance-based measure of functional capacity. The brief, two-domain (finance and communication ability) version of the assessment (UPSA-B) is now widely used in both clinical research and treatment trials. To date, research has not examined possible demographic-UPSA-B relationships within a non-psychiatric population. We aimed to produce and describe preliminary normative scores for the UPSA-B over a full range of ages and educational attainment. The finance and communication subscales of the UPSA were administered to 190 healthy participants in the context of three separate studies. These data were combined to examine the effects of age, sex, and educational attainment on the UPSA-B domain and total scores. Fractional polynomial regression was used to compute demographically-corrected T-scores for the UPSA-B total score, and percentile rank conversion was used for the two subscales. Age and education both had significant non-linear effects on the UPSA-B total score. The finance subscale was significantly related to both gender and years of education, whereas the communication subscale was not significantly related to any of the demographic characteristics. Demographically corrected T-scores and percentile ranks for UPSA-B scores are now available for use in clinical research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A Proposal for More Sophisticated Normative Principles in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introductory textbooks teach a simple normative story about the importance of maximizing economic surplus that supports common policy claims. There is little defense of the claim that maximizing surplus is normatively important, which is not obvious to non-economists. Difficulties with the claim that society should maximize surplus are generally…

  18. Normative reasons and the possibility of motivation | Luco | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... objects of psychological states –particularly beliefs, desires and intentions. In reply to the objection that normative reasons can never be objects of psychological states, I contend that all normative reasons are capable of being represented as the objects of psychological states. South African Journal of Philosophy 2014, ...

  19. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  20. Normative Beliefs, Discursive Claims, and Implementation of Reform-Based Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Riley Lloyd, Mary E.; Howell, Malia R.; Peters, John

    2016-01-01

    Reform-based science instruction is guided by teachers' normative beliefs. Discursive claims are how teachers say they teach science. Previous research has studied the change in teachers' beliefs and how beliefs influence intended practice and action in the classroom. Few studies have connected what teachers believe, how they say they teach, and…

  1. Affective and Normative Commitment to Organization, Supervisor, and Coworkers: Do Collectivist Values Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, S. Arzu; Can, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    Employees' commitment to their organization is increasingly recognized as comprising of different bases (affect-, obligation-, or cost-based) and different foci (e.g., supervisor, coworkers). Two studies investigated affective and normative commitment to the organization, supervisor and coworkers in the Turkish context. The results of Study 1…

  2. Is There Successful Aging for Nonagenarians? The Vitality 90+ Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Nosraty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was designed (1 to estimate the prevalence of successful aging among nonagenarians based on six different models and (2 to investigate whether successful aging is associated with socio-demographic factors. Methods. A mailed survey was conducted with people aged 90+ in Tampere in 2010. Responses were received from 1283 people. The prevalence of successful aging was measured by six multidimensional models including physical, social, and psychological components. Age, sex, marital status, level of education, and place of living were studied as factors associated with successful aging. Results. The prevalence of successful aging varied from 1.6% to 18.3% depending on the model applied. Successful aging was more prevalent in men, and also more prevalent among community-living people. In most models, successful aging was also associated with younger age, being married, and a higher level of education. Discussion. Models which emphasize the absence of disease and activity as criteria for successful aging may not be the most relevant and applicable in oldest old. Instead, preference should be given to models that focus more on autonomy, adaptation and sense of purpose. Age-sensitive approaches would help us better understand the potential of successful aging among individuals who already have success in longevity.

  3. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  4. It’s Not Just a “Woman Thing:” The Current State of Normative Discontent

    OpenAIRE

    TANTLEFF-DUNN, STACEY; BARNES, RACHEL D.; LAROSE, JESSICA GOKEE

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed “normative discontent,” the concept that most women experience weight dissatisfaction, as an emerging societal stereotype for women and men (Rodin, Silberstein, & Streigel-Moore, 1984). Participants (N = 472) completed measures of stereotypes, eating disorders, and body image. Normative discontent stereotypes were pervasive for women and men. Endorsing stereotypes varied by sex and participants’ own disturbance, with trends towards eating disorder symptomotology being posi...

  5. Key characteristics of low back pain and disability in college-aged adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrakis, John P; Friel, Karen; Hoeffner, Frank; Akinkunle, Ola; Genova, Vito; Isakov, Edward; Mathew, Jerrill; Vitulli, Frank

    2012-07-01

    To identify which factors commonly associated with low back pain (LBP) and disability differ between college-aged persons with LBP and with no or minimal LBP. Clinical measurement, observational study. Subjects were assessed for LBP with the visual analog scale (VAS) and for disability from LBP using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Subjects were measured for variables commonly associated with LBP and were grouped by both VAS (minimum [min]/no pain, pain) and ODI (no disability, disability) scores. College campus at a university. A convenience sample (N=84) of English-speaking students (34 men, 50 women) between 18 and 30 years of age. Not applicable. Sports activity (sports activity score of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire), depression, hamstring and hip flexor range of motion, low back extensor endurance, abdominal strength and endurance. A significant main effect of group was found for both pain (P=.019) and disability groups (P=.006). The min/no pain and pain groups differed in back endurance (114.2±38.8s vs 94.5±44.5s, respectively; P=.04). The no disability and disability groups differed in back endurance (116.3±35.9s vs 97.1±45.7s, respectively; P=.03) and the sports activity score of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (2.98±.95 vs 2.48±.85, respectively; P=.01). Subjects with hyperkyphotic postures compared with the normative thoracic group had higher depression scores (49 vs 38.5, respectively; P=.03) and less hamstring flexibility (30.5 vs 49.9, respectively; PBack extensor endurance was consistently different between both the pain and disability groups. Addressing limited low back extensor endurance and low levels of physical activity in young adults may have clinical relevance for the prevention and treatment of LBP and disability. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. When do normative beliefs about aggression predict aggressive behavior? An application of I3 theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Boardley, Ian D; Dou, Kai; Situ, Qiao-Min

    2015-01-01

    I(3) theory assumes that aggressive behavior is dependent on three orthogonal processes (i.e., Instigator, Impellance, and Inhibition). Previous studies showed that Impellance (trait aggressiveness, retaliation tendencies) better predicted aggression when Instigator was strong and Inhibition was weak. In the current study, we predicted that another Impellance (i.e., normative beliefs about aggression) might predict aggression when Instigator was absent and Inhibition was high (i.e., the perfect calm proposition). In two experiments, participants first completed the normative beliefs about aggression questionnaire. Two weeks later, participants' self-control resources were manipulated either using the Stroop task (study 1, N = 148) or through an "e-crossing" task (study 2, N = 180). Afterwards, with or without being provoked, participants played a game with an ostensible partner where they had a chance to aggress against them. Study 1 found that normative beliefs about aggression negatively and significantly predicted aggressive behavior only when provocation was absent and self-control resources were not depleted. In Study 2, normative beliefs about aggression negatively predicted aggressive behavior at marginal significance level only in the "no-provocation and no-depletion" condition. In conclusion, the current study provides partial support for the perfect calm proposition and I(3) theory. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year's findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to γ radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H 2 . Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs

  8. Disaggregated regulation in network sections: The normative and positive theory; Disaggregierte Regulierung in Netzsektoren: Normative und positive Theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieps, G. [Inst. fuer Verkehrswissenschaft und Regionalpolitik, Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg i.B. (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The article deals with the interaction of normative and positive theorie of regulation. Those parts of the network which need regulation could be localised and regulated with the help of the normative theory of the monopolistic bottlenecks. Using the positive theory, the basic elements of a mandate for regulation in the sense of the disaggregated economy of regulation are derived.

  9. Normative data of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11 for Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 is a valid and reliable instrument, and one of the most often used tools to assess impulsivity. This study assesses the performance of a large sample of adults by using a version of BIS-11 adapted to Brazilian Portuguese.Methods:We assessed 3,053 adults from eight Brazilian states. Internal consistencies and performance data were presented for two correction criteria of BIS-11: original and the two-factor score.Results:The associations between age, sex, region, and education and the BIS-11 scores present very small effect sizes. Therefore, we provided a percentile rank parameter for the different BIS-11 subscores considering the whole sample. Given the internal consistency of the two correction systems, we found that only the two-factor system fulfills the psychometric criteria of Cronbach’s alpha (cutoff value of at least 0.6.Conclusion:Our results support the use of the Brazilian adaptation of BIS-11 in different regions of the country as a measure of impulsivity. Since high impulsiveness is a characteristic of several dysfunctional behaviors, the establishment of normative parameters is of utmost relevance and should be extended to other age ranges and populations in future studies.

  10. Normative Data for Email Writing by Native Speakers of British English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Thiel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes emails from forty two control participants ranging from 16 to 88 years of age (mean = 46 and 9 to 24 years of education (mean = 13. Three emails were produced by each participant (between 2011 and 2014, each within a time limit of three minutes. It is expected that this normative data will be useful for clinicians and researchers working with adults with acquired language disorders in assessing email writing.

  11. Normative Data for Email Writing by Native Speakers of British English

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This dataset includes emails from forty two control participants ranging from 16 to 88 years of age (mean = 46) and 9 to 24 years of education (mean = 13). Three emails were produced by each participant (between 2011 and 2014), each within a time limit of three minutes. It is expected that this normative data will be useful for clinicians and researchers working with adults with acquired language disorders in assessing email writing.

  12. The Community Integration Questionnaire - Revised: Australian normative data and measurement of electronic social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Winkler, Dianne; Tippett, Alice; Herd, Natalie; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2016-06-01

    Consideration of the relationship between meaningful participation, health and wellbeing underpins occupational therapy intervention, and drives measurement of community integration following acquired brain injury (ABI). However, utility of community integration measures has been limited to date by lack of normative data against which to compare outcomes, and none examine the growing use of electronic social networking (ESN) for social participation. This research had four aims: (i) develop and pilot items assessing ESN to add to the Community Integration Questionnaire, producing the Community Integration Questionnaire-Revised (CIQ-R); (ii) examine factor structure of the CIQ-R; (iii) collect Australian CIQ-R normative data; and (iv) assess test-retest reliability of the revised measure. Australia. A convenience sample of adults without ABI (N = 124) was used to develop and pilot ESN items. A representative general population sample of adults without ABI aged 18-64 years (N = 1973) was recruited to gather normative CIQ-R data. Cross-sectional survey. Demographic items and the CIQ-R. The CIQ-R demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, with minor modification to the original scoring based on the factor analyses provided. Large representative general population CIQ-R normative data have been established, detailing contribution of a range of independent demographic variables to community integration. The addition of electronic social networking items to the CIQ-R offers a contemporary method of assessing community integration following ABI. Normative CIQ-R data enhance the understanding of community integration in the general population, allowing occupational therapists and other clinicians to make more meaningful comparisons between groups. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research.

  14. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

  15. Normative Values in Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of teachers' normative values and emotive reactions on teaching in higher education have received relatively little research attention. The focus is often on descriptive beliefs such as conceptions of teaching and their inter-relations with practice. In this study, which is illustrated by a heuristic model, a belief system approach is…

  16. Mothers' Cognitions about Relational Aggression: Associations with Discipline Responses, Children's Normative Beliefs, and Peer Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E.; Grant, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has shown that parental social cognitions are associated with child outcomes such as aggression. The goal of this study was to examine mothers' cognitions about relational aggression, and to explore linkages between mothers' attributions and normative beliefs about aggression and children's competence with peers. Participants…

  17. Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Tanja; Schouten, Judith; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Prins, Maria; Portegies, Peter; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B.; Schmand, Ben A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess whether multivariate normative comparison (MNC) improves detection of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) as compared with Frascati and Gisslén criteria. One-hundred and three HIV-1-infected men with suppressed viremia on combination

  18. An Observation of Normative Structure for College Admission and Recruitment Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodum, Robert L.; James, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    This study suggests that an unwritten code of ethics exists in the form of a behavioral normative structure for college and university admission officers. Also considered are the influences that personal and institutional factors have on the espousal of these norms. (Contains 2 tables and 1 note.)

  19. Away with Linguists! Normativity, Inequality and Metascientific Reflexivity in Sociolinguistic Fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Jürgen; Meeuwis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that in spite of the descriptive and well-intentioned ambitions of much sociolinguistic-ethnographic research, members of studied groups often continue to interpret such research as a largely vertically organized socio-political activity that communicates a prescriptive social and linguistic normativity the researcher…

  20. The Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership Model Applied to Public School Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, John

    This paper seeks to familiarize school administrators with the Vroom and Yetton Normative Leadership model by presenting its essential components and providing original case studies for its application to school settings. The five decision-making methods of the Vroom and Yetton model, including two "autocratic," two…

  1. The Role of Peer Attachment and Normative Beliefs about Aggression on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. Alex; Florell, Dan; Wygant, Dustin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of normative beliefs about aggression and peer attachment on traditional bullying, cyberbullying, and both types of victimization. Cyberbullying departs from traditional forms of bullying in that it is through forms of technology, such as the Internet, which increases situational anonymity. Eight hundred fifty…

  2. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  3. Existentialist Freedom, Distorted Normativity, and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Baiasu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usually associated with a view of freedom as absolute, Sartre’s philosophy seems particularly able to account for the indeterminacy that we experience today in most areas of human experience that have a normative dimension. Without denying that this is a plausible reading, it will be argued here that it is nevertheless a problematic interpretation. On this reading, existentialism seems unable to account for the fact that we are powerfully conditioned by a significant number of factors, which limit our freedom and, in certain situations, make emancipation a normative requirement. It is held here that this problem can be addressed and a less problematic interpretation of Sartre can be defended, once we start to acknowledge that in Sartre we have a variety of notions of freedom that can provide a robust account of our freedom, of authentic choice and of responsibility. Habitualmente asociada a una visión de la libertad como un concepto absoluto, la filosofía de Sartre parece especialmente capaz de representar la indeterminación que experimentamos hoy en día en la mayoría de las áreas de la experiencia humana que tienen una dimensión normativa. Sin negar que ésta es una lectura convincente, no obstante, se va a argumentar que es una interpretación problemática. Con esta lectura parece que el existencialismo es incapaz de representar el hecho de que estamos fuertemente condicionados por un número importante de factores que limitan nuestra libertad y, en algunas situaciones, hacen de la emancipación una necesidad normativa. En este artículo se defiende que se puede abordar este problema, y se puede defender una interpretación de Sartre menos problemática, una vez empecemos a reconocer que en Sartre se pueden encontrar una variedad de nociones de libertad que permiten ofrecer una explicación sólida de nuestra libertad, de elección auténtica y de responsabilidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2622045

  4. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A normative ethical framework in climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, M. [Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Edificio U7, via Bicocca degli Arcimboldi 8, 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    The article spells out four domains of international distributive justice and the consequent criteria of equity, the purpose being to identify a pluralistic normative ethical framework for climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Justice and equity should play a major role in favouring collective action against climate change, because the more the various dimensions of such action are just, the more any international climate initiative is feasible in principle. As far as mitigation is concerned, the definition of a just initial allocation of endowments focuses on the criterion of differentiated equality, taking account of undeserved inequalities as suggested by Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. With regard to the subsequent exchange of endowments, the Pareto principle, supplemented by the envy-freeness one, is a viable option. Possibly a sound reference for the just financing of adaptation activities is the criterion of differentiated historical responsibility, backed by Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. As regards the allocation of adaptation resources, the criterion of lack of human security, as substantiated in Sen's capability approach, seems promising.

  6. Cockpit task management: A preliminary, normative theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Ken

    1991-01-01

    Cockpit task management (CTM) involves the initiation, monitoring, prioritizing, and allocation of resources to concurrent tasks as well as termination of multiple concurrent tasks. As aircrews have more tasks to attend to due to reduced crew sizes and the increased complexity of aircraft and the air transportation system, CTM will become a more critical factor in aviation safety. It is clear that many aviation accidents and incidents can be satisfactorily explained in terms of CTM errors, and it is likely that more accidents induced by poor CTM practice will occur in the future unless the issue is properly addressed. The first step in understanding and facilitating CTM behavior was the development of a preliminary, normative theory of CTM which identifies several important CTM functions. From this theory, some requirements for pilot-vehicle interfaces were developed which are believed to facilitate CTM. A prototype PVI was developed which improves CTM performance and currently, a research program is under way that is aimed at developing a better understanding of CTM and facilitating CTM performance through better equipment and procedures.

  7. A world of differences, the normative EOS-scenarios. Final report of a study to found the normative scenarios of the project Energy research scenarios of the Energy Study Centre (ECN, Petten, Netherlands). Een wereld van verschil, de normatieve EOS-scenario's. Eindrapport van een studie ter onderbouwing van de normatieve scenario's van het project Energie Onderzoek Scenario's van het Energie Studie Centrum (ECN, Petten)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelman, G.

    1987-11-01

    Three competing political and economical 'concepts of control' which underlie three normative energy-scenarios are described. The aim of the literature-research carried out for this report was to make the original scenarios more recognizable, and to find out which groups could be expected to support them. The concepts of control bear the names 'Dynamic and growth', 'Dirigation and blockbuilding' and 'Shared development'. They can be seen, so is argued, as competing perspectives on a so-called 'post-Fordist' world. The three concepts of control differ on what they see as common interests and the way they should be looked after. Topics in the description are: the desired rate of European political and economical integration, the borders of Europe, Europe's position in the world, the acceptance of new technologies, the goals they should be used for, and perceived relationships between energy, environment and economy. The scenarios show what happens if these three concepts of control become hegemonic without being forced to compromises. For all three scenarios a short sketch is given of the corresponding dominating energy- and environmental policy and of future relationships within OECD and between OECD on the one hand and NIC's/LDC's on the other. The conclusion of the report is that the ideological differences between the neoliberalism of 'Dynamic and growth' and the green, direct-democracy-politics of 'Shared development' are not as big as they were in the seventies. Especially on the new policy-areas like technology, energy and environment they get closer. But this does not mean that the concept of 'Dirigation and blockbuilding' can be put completely aside. Its goal of economic equality and its emphasis on government dirigation may become more attractive again if it comes out that market regulation leads to a dual society and that it was state-intervention (by

  8. EU Development Aid towards Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Normative Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K. Bountagkidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU and most aid donors invoke a strong normative power face by explicitly connecting foreign aid with human and social development. However, how well the EU’s rhetoric is consistent with its practices as a multilateral development actor has not been explored extensively. In this study, we challenge the normative dimension of the EU’s development policy and explore whether the EU’s Official Development Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa is based on objective deprivation on the part of recipient countries or whether it is “interest driven”. We use a least squares dummy variable model regression to examine aid flows from the EU to all 48 Sub-Saharan African states for the period 2000 to 2010. The evidence found indicates that in certain instances, aid allocation contradicts the normative rhetoric that the EU uses to describe its development policy, as the donor’s own interests in the region seem to supersede priority given to the needs of the aid recipient states. A limitation to the findings is the fact that normative values and strategic interests are not mutually exclusive. Nevertheless, the present study suggests that the EU’s portrayal as a force for good in international relations requires cautious critique.

  9. Age and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sørensen, Henrik T; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented decline in fertility treatment success with increasing female age; however, there are few preconception cohort studies that have examined female age and natural fertility. In addition, data on male age and fertility are inconsistent. Given the increasing number of couples who are attempting conception at older ages, a more detailed characterization of age-related fecundability in the general population is of great clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between female and male age with fecundability. We conducted a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada. Participants were enrolled between June 2013 and July 2017. Eligible participants were 21-45 years old (female) or ≥21 years old (male) and had not been using fertility treatments. Couples were followed until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. We analyzed data from 2962 couples who had been trying to conceive for ≤3 cycles at study entry and reported no history of infertility. We used life-table methods to estimate the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 and 12 cycles by female and male age. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios, the per-cycle probability of conception for each age category relative to the referent (21-24 years old), and 95% confidence intervals. Among female patients, the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 cycles of attempt time ranged from 62.0% (age 28-30 years) to 27.6% (age 40-45 years); the cumulative pregnancy proportion at 12 cycles of attempt time ranged from 79.3% (age 25-27 years old) to 55.5% (age 40-45 years old). Similar patterns were observed among male patients, although differences between age groups were smaller. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a nearly monotonic decline in fecundability with increasing female age, with the exception of 28-33 years, at which

  10. Study of aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, M.P.; Khaenko, B.V.; Kachkovskaya, Eh.T.

    1977-01-01

    Aging and ordering processes in titanium carbide were investigated on monocrystals (fragments of alloys) with the aid of roentgenographic method. The sequence of phase transformations during aging was ascertained,and a monoclinic structure of the carbon atoms ordering is suggested. The microhardness of titanium carbide was studied as a function of the heat treatment of alloys and the main factors (ordering and dislocation structure) which govern the difference in the microhardness of hardened and aged (annealed) specimens were determined

  11. Rheological Study of Ageing Soft Glasses of Laponite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Rheological Study of Ageing Soft Glasses of Laponite · Colloidal glasses · Laponite Na+0.7[(Si8Mg5.5Li0.3)O20(OH)4]–0.7 · Effect of salt (NaCl) · Arrested state · Relaxation dynamics · Rheology of aging system · Slide 8 · Experimental Protocol · Ageing and Creep experiments · Slide 11 · Slide 12.

  12. Retirement age and the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease: results from the ICTUS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Grotz

    Full Text Available To test whether deferred retirement is associated with delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and, if so, to determine whether retirement age still predicts the age at onset of AD when two potential biases are considered.The study sample was gathered from the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use/Data Sharing Alzheimer cohort (ICTUS/DSA, a European study of 1,380 AD patients. Information regarding retirement age, onset of symptoms and covariates was collected at baseline whereas age at diagnosis was gathered from the patient's medical record prior to study entry. Linear mixed models, adjusted for gender, education, occupation, center, country, household income, depression and cardiovascular risk factors were conducted on 815 patients.(1 The global analyses (n = 815 revealed that later age at retirement was associated with later age at diagnosis (β = 0.31, p < 0.0001; (2 once the selection bias was considered (n = 637, results showed that this association was weaker but remained significant (β = 0.15, p = 0.004; (3 once the bias of the reverse causality (i.e., the possibility that subjects may have left the workforce due to prior cognitive impairment was considered (n = 447, the effect was no longer significant (β = 0.06, p = 0.18.The present study supports that there is an association between retirement age and age at onset of AD. However, the strength of this association appears to be overestimated due to the selection bias. Moreover, the causality issue remains unresolved. Further prospective investigations are mandatory in order to correctly address this question.

  13. Subjective age and personality development: a 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10-year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank-order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Deep Neck Flexor Endurance in the Adolescent and Young Adult: Normative Data and Associated Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Nathan F; Brooks, Toby; James, C Roger; Hooper, Troy; Wilhelm, Mark; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Domenech, Manuel A; Kotara, Stanley J; Sizer, Phillip S

    2017-10-01

    Deep neck flexor (DNF) muscles stabilize the neck and contribute to head acceleration control. The function of DNF in cervical spine dynamic stabilization has not been examined in athletes of any age group, including adolescents. This investigation was necessary prior to studying the DNF muscles' role in cervical spine injury patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine average Deep Neck Flexor Endurance Test (DNFET) time scores in high school-aged and university-aged subjects (aged 14-22 years); and (2) to establish the relationship between gender and age for adolescent DNFET time scores. Cross-sectional design. Public high school and private university. A total of 81 (40 male, 41 female) healthy high school and collegiate athletes. DNFET time scores (in seconds) were collected and means values were calculated. Interrater reliability was established using the first 15 university-aged subjects enrolled in the study. Mean DNFET time (seconds) scores. The DNF muscle endurance interrater reliability coefficient of reproducibility for 4 allied health clinicians was intraclass correlation coefficient (2,4) 0.712 (confidence interval, 0.24-0.85). The mean (± standard deviation) DNFET time score for females was 31.86 (±8.53) seconds versus 35.57 (±10.43) seconds for males. The DNFET performance demonstrated a significant but fair correlation with age (r = 0.401, P = .0001). No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects in the 14- to 17-year-old group (U = 187.0, P = .285), the 18- to 22-year-old group (U = 145.0, P = .215), or the total male versus female subject groups (U = 653.0, P = .083). Our study establishes a normative data set available for the DNFET in the adolescent population. The fair correlation between DNFET time scores and age is consistent with other studies. These findings serve as a basis for clinician testing, objectifying, and monitoring DNF dysfunction in an adolescent athletic population. II

  15. Explaining radical group behavior: Developing emotion and efficacy routes to normative and nonnormative collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Nicole; Becker, Julia C; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver; Saab, Rim; Singh, Purnima; Siddiqui, Roomana N

    2011-07-01

    A recent model of collective action distinguishes 2 distinct pathways: an emotional pathway whereby anger in response to injustice motivates action and an efficacy pathway where the belief that issues can be solved collectively increases the likelihood that group members take action (van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Research supporting this model has, however, focused entirely on relatively normative actions such as participating in demonstrations. We argue that the relations between emotions, efficacy, and action differ for more extreme, nonnormative actions and propose (a) that nonnormative actions are often driven by a sense of low efficacy and (b) that contempt, which, unlike anger, entails psychological distancing and a lack of reconciliatory intentions, predicts nonnormative action. These ideas were tested in 3 survey studies examining student protests against tuition fees in Germany (N = 332), Indian Muslims' action support in relation to ingroup disadvantage (N = 156), and British Muslims' responses to British foreign policy (N = 466). Results were generally supportive of predictions and indicated that (a) anger was strongly related to normative action but overall unrelated or less strongly related to nonnormative action, (b) contempt was either unrelated or negatively related to normative action but significantly positively predicted nonnormative action, and (c) efficacy was positively related to normative action and negatively related to nonnormative action. The implications of these findings for understanding and dealing with extreme intergroup phenomena such as terrorism are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  17. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met.

  18. Association of Normative Beliefs and Anger with Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Russian Male Juvenile Offenders and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.

    2004-01-01

    Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with…

  19. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  1. Study on kinetic of strain-aging in zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The strain-aging in zircaloy-4 has been investigated in this work and a study of the general problems involving this phenomenon has been realized in Zirconium and its alloys. It has been verified that a yield point appears in the Zircaloy-4, when it is submitted to strain-aging treatment between the temperatures 200 0 C and 400 0 C. (author)

  2. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners…

  3. Correction and transformation of normative neurophysiological data: is there added value in the diagnosis of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mchugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite theoretical advantages, the practical impact of mathematical correction of normative electrodiagnostic data is poorly quantified. METHODS: One hundred five healthy volunteers had clinical and neurophysiological assessment. The effects of age, height, gender, weight, and body mass index were explored using stepwise regression modeling. Reference values were derived from raw and adjusted data, which were transformed to allow appropriate use of parametric statistics. The diagnostic accuracy of derived limits was tested in patients at risk of distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) from chemotherapy. RESULTS: The variability of our normative data was reduced by up to 69% through the use of regression modeling, but the overall benefits of mathematical correction were marginal. The most accurate reference limits were established using the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the raw data. CONCLUSIONS: Stepwise statistical regression and mathematical transformation improve the distribution of normative data, but their practical impact for diagnosis of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is small.

  4. Relevance of normative values for functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Van Der Schans, C.; Geertzen, J.; Groothoff, J.; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, P.; Reneman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Functional Capacity Evaluations (FCEs) are evaluations designed to measure capacity to perform activities and are used to make recommendations for participation in work. Normative values of healthy working subjects' performances are unavailable, thus patients' performances cannot be

  5. JO Famakinwa Revisiting Professor Gyekye's Critique of Normative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JO Famakinwa

    the current methodology shift in the whole communitarian theory (Etzioni 2004, 10; ... According to Gyekye, normative cultural relativism denies the universality or ... Likewise, the ill-treatment of an old man or woman would be a sacrilege.

  6. Normative Power Europe and the Importance of the Discursive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Europe, with the notable exceptions of Diez (2013); Keene (2012); Forsberg (2011) and Huelss (2011) (who also discuss the meaning of the ‘normative’). Focusing on power, the question asked in this article is how the discursive context of the politics of religion affects the EU’s ability to exert......This article attempts to demonstrate the importance of the discursive context for whether and, if so, how the European Union (EU) can exert normative power in different policy areas. Surprisingly, the concept of power has not been extensively discussed in the academic literature on Normative Power...... normative power in this area. The article examines the politics of religion by looking at the case of the debate about human rights versus religion in the United Nations Human Rights Council after the year 2000. The broader point addressed in the article is whether the EU can exert normative power...

  7. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normative data on mental and motor development in Nigerian children. ... Inventory (DSI) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID): a screening and ... and the scores made blind to the researchers until after the subject\\'s assessment ...

  9. Intelligibility in Context Scale: Normative and Validation Data for English-Speaking Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Shahaeian, Ameneh

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe normative and validation data on the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012c) for English-speaking children. The ICS is a 7-item, parent-report measure of children's speech intelligibility with a range of communicative partners. Data were collected from the parents of 803 Australian English-speaking children ranging in age from 4;0 (years;months) to 5;5 (37.0% were multilingual). The mean ICS score was 4.4 (SD = 0.7) out of a possible total score of 5. Children's speech was reported to be most intelligible to their parents, followed by their immediate family, friends, and teachers; children's speech was least intelligible to strangers. The ICS had high internal consistency (α = .94). Significant differences in scores were identified on the basis of sex and age but not on the basis of socioeconomic status or the number of languages spoken. There were significant differences in scores between children whose parents had concerns about their child's speech (M = 3.9) and those who did not (M = 4.6). A sensitivity of .82 and a specificity of .58 were established as the optimal cutoff. Test-retest reliability and criterion validity were established for 184 children with a speech sound disorder. There was a significant low correlation between the ICS mean score and percentage of phonemes correct (r = .30), percentage of consonants correct (r = .24), and percentage of vowels correct (r = .30) on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (Dodd, Hua, Crosbie, Holm, & Ozanne, 2002). Thirty-one parents completed the ICS related to English and another language spoken by their child with a speech sound disorder. The significant correlations between the scores suggest that the ICS may be robust between languages. This article provides normative ICS data for English-speaking children and additional validation of the psychometric properties of the ICS. The robustness of the ICS was suggested

  10. Oral Health Status and Normative Needs of College Students in Mangalore, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalithambigai G

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-oriented oral health promotion programmes can be efficiently targeted by assessing the oral health status comprehensively. Aim: To investigate oral health status and normative needs of college students in Mangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was done among 720, 18–20-year-old students attending degree colleges in Mangalore using multi-stage random sampling. Oral health status was recorded as per World Health Organization oral health assessment form. The data were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 11.5 version software. Results: Overall dental caries prevalence accounted to 68.1%, with a mean Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (DMFT of 1.94 [males had higher DMFT score (2.06 than females (1.82], and majority of the students required one surface restoration. Periodontal status of the students as measured by Community Periodontal Index (CPI showed that majority of the study participants (34.9% had calculus necessitating the need for oral prophylaxis. Conclusion: Oral health status of the age groups not traditionally studied gives the complete picture of the oral disease burden, indicating the need of oral heath preventive measures among college students in India.

  11. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  12. Healthy ageing in the Nun Study: definition and neuropathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyas, Suzanne L; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Riley, Kathryn P; Markesbery, William R

    2007-11-01

    Although the concept of healthy ageing has stimulated considerable interest, no generally accepted definition has been developed nor has its biological basis been determined. To develop a definition of healthy ageing and investigate its association with longevity and neuropathology. Analyses were based on cognitive, physical, and post-mortem assessments from 1991 to 1998 in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of ageing in participants 75+ years at baseline. We defined three mutually exclusive levels of healthy ageing (excellent, very good, and good) based on measures of global cognitive function, short-term memory, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated function. Mortality analyses were based on 636 participants; neuropathologic analyses were restricted to 221 who had died and were autopsied. Only 11% of those meeting criteria for the excellent level of healthy ageing at baseline subsequently died, compared with 24% for the very good, 39% for the good, and 60% for the remaining participants. Survival curves showed significantly greater longevity with higher levels of healthy ageing. The risk of not attaining healthy ageing, adjusted for age, increased two-fold in participants with brain infarcts alone, six-fold in those with Alzheimer neuropathology alone, and more than thirteen-fold in those with both brain infarcts and Alzheimer neuropathology. The biological validity of our definition of healthy ageing is supported by its strong association with mortality and longevity. Avoiding Alzheimer and stroke neuropathology is critical to the maintenance of healthy ageing, and the presence of both pathologies dramatically decreases the likelihood of healthy ageing.

  13. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Hidemasa, E-mail: takaoh-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy.

  14. A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of normal aging on brain volumes and examine the effects of age and sex on the rates of changes in global and regional brain volumes. Methods: A total of 199 normal subjects (65 females and 134 males, mean age = 56.4 ± 9.9 years, age range = 38.1–82.9 years) were included in this study. Each subject was scanned twice, at an interval of about 2 years (range = 1.5–2.3 years). Two-time-point percentage brain volume change (PBVC) was estimated with SIENA 2.6. Results: The mean annualized PBVC was −0.23%/y. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for annual brain volume changes revealed a main effect of age. There was no main effect of sex, nor was there a sex-by-age interaction. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and edge displacement values mainly in the periventricular region. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that brain atrophy accelerates with increasing age and that there is no gender difference in the rate of brain atrophy

  15. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. [Aging of cognitive functions. Results of a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrenaud, J; Barrère, H; Darcet, P; Driss, F

    1983-12-29

    This study had the two following purposes: to assess the age-related changes in the fluid and crystallized components of intelligence in subjects over age sixty five; to examine whether these age-related changes were linked to any biological, psychological and social factors. The sample was composed of 50 male subjects who were examined three times: in 1968, 1973 and 1977. At the beginning of the study, their age ranged from 60 to 79 years and they were all in good health. In the whole, their socio-economic level was high. At each wave of the study, these subjects were given the same battery of three mental tests: a vocabulary test, selected to assess crystallized intelligence; a perceptual test and a speeded digit coding test, both selected to assess fluid intelligence. Results show that the two components of intelligence have different aging trajectories over age sixty. On the vocabulary test, performances hold until an advanced age (about 75-80), then significantly decline. On the perceptual and digit coding tests, performances sharply and significantly decline with age, this decline looking approximately linear. Whatever the test used, individual differences in age-related changes in performance are found to be great. On vocabulary test, this variability is linked to two factors, independently of age: among subjects who have suffered from a cardio-arterial disease between wave 1 and wave 3, as well as in those who have not maintained an occupational activity, decline in performance is greater than in other subjects. On the two other tests, no factor was found to be significantly linked with change in performance between wave 1 and wave 3.

  17. Normative Data of the Self-Report Version of the German Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in an Epidemiological Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andreas; Wang, Biyao; Kunze, Barbara; Otto, Christiane; Schlack, Robert; Hölling, Heike; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Klasen, Fionna; Rogge, Jana; Isensee, Corinna; Rothenberger, Aribert; Bella Study Group, The

    2018-05-30

    This study served to establish German norms for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report (SDQ-S) by using data from a representative epidemiological sample from the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study). Although the German version of the SDQ has been widely used and normative data for the parent version (SDQ-P) exist, no German norms for the self-report version have been reported, so that practitioners had to rely on the available British norms. In addition, we investigated whether sex- and age-specific norms are necessary. At the baseline of the KiGGS study, SDQ-S ratings were collected from n = 6,726 children and adolescents between 11 and 17 years (n = 3,440 boys und n = 3,286 girls). We assessed the internal consistency and age/sex effects of the SDQ-S. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the factor structure of the SDQ-S. Banding scores were developed to differentiate children and adolescents with levels of difficulties and categorized them as "normal," "borderline," and "abnormal." General as well as age- and sex-specific bandings were created for both total score and subscales of SDQ-S. In addition, the German norms of the SDQ-S were compared with those of the UK, Norway, and Thailand. The five-factor solution of the SDQ-S (including Emotional symptoms, Conduct problems, Hyperactivity/Inattention, Peer problems, and Prosocial behavior) provided a satisfactory fit to the data. Moderate internal consistencies (Cronbach's α) were observed for the scales Emotional symptoms, Hyperactivity/Inattention, and Total difficulties score, whereas insufficient internal consistency was found for the scales Peer problems and Conduct problems. However, using McDonald's ω as a more appropriate measure of homogeneity, internal consistencies were found to be satisfactory for all subscales and for Total difficulties. Normative banding scores were established conservatively to avoid

  18. Ageing of cables and new approach for the study of polymer ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchy-Leroy, C.; Therond, P.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear cable ageing has become an important subject in particular within the framework of the lifetime extension of nuclear power plants. Until 2000, the approach developed by EDF was a purely empirical one, which establishes from a behavior law, the temporal evolution of a macroscopic property of the jacket or the insulation (generally elongation at break), according to the ageing conditions, such as the temperature and the dose rate. These simulations, coupled with analyses of cables taken on sites after several years of ageing, can demonstrate and justify the good behavior in time of the cables installed in the French nuclear power plants. However from an industrial point of view, this approach, as any empirical approach, is not sustainable and suffers numerous limitations. In particular, the results obtained are not transposable from one industrial formulation to another. That is why for some years, EDF has developed a more generic approach based on the understanding and the modeling of the ageing of polymers by thermo-oxidation and radio-oxidation. This new approach consists of identifying all the occurring reactions at the molecular scale during the polymer ageing. The numerical resolution of the system of differential equations stemming from the scheme of reactions, allows access to the spatial and temporal distributions of the oxidation products formed during the ageing. Today the studies are focused on elastomer matrices of type Polyethylene (PE) and co-polymers of type Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber (EPR) to which were added stabilizers and fillers. Later, the model will allow us to simulate the ageing of any industrial polymer. (authors)

  19. Healthy aging and dementia: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, David A

    2003-09-02

    The Nun Study is a longitudinal study of 678 Catholic sisters 75 to 107 years of age who are members of the School Sisters of Notre Dame congregation. Data collected for this study include early and middle-life risk factors from the convent archives, annual cognitive and physical function evaluations during old age, and postmortem neuropathologic evaluations of the participants' brains. The case histories presented include a centenarian who was a model of healthy aging, a 92-year-old with dementia and clinically significant Alzheimer disease neuropathology and vascular lesions, a cognitively and physically intact centenarian with almost no neuropathology, and an 85-year-old with well-preserved cognitive and physical function despite a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer disease and an abundance of Alzheimer disease lesions. These case histories provide examples of how healthy aging and dementia relate to the degree of pathology present in the brain and the level of resistance to the clinical expression of the neuropathology.

  20. Experts opinion on the use of normative data for functional capacity evaluation in occupational and rehabilitation medicine and disability claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; Reneman, Michiel F; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Kuijer, P Paul; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2014-12-01

    Application of normative values for functional capacity evaluation (FCE) is controversial for the assessment of clients for work ability. The objective of this study was to study when clinicians and researchers consider normative values of FCE useful or of no use for their purposes. A focus group meeting was organized among 43 FCE experts working in insurance, occupational and/or rehabilitation medicine from eight countries during the first international FCE research meeting on October 25th, 2012 in the Netherlands. Participants were asked to rate to which degree they agree or disagree with a statement concerning their position toward normative values for FCE on a 10 cm VAS ranging from 0 (completely disagree) to 100 (completely agree) at T0 and T1. Arguments for aspects that are useful and of no use for normative values were systematically collected during the meeting and afterwards independently clustered by two researchers in higher order topics. Baseline opinion of participants on their position toward normative values was 49 ± 29 points. After the meeting, mean VAS was 55 ± 23 (p = 0.07), indicating that participants did not significantly change their opinion toward normative values. Based on arguments provided by the experts, seven higher order topics were constructed namely 'Comparison with job demands or treatment goals'; 'Comparison with co-workers physical ability'; 'Sincerity of effort'; 'Validity for work ability and return to work'; 'Experience of referrer with assessment method'; 'Clinimetrics compared to alternative assessment methods or reference values'; and 'Ease of use for clinician and stakeholders'. Although experts state useful aspects for the use of normative values of FCE for these assessments, it may also lead to over-interpretation of results, leading to dualistic statements concerning work ability, with potential harmful consequences for work ability of patients.

  1. AGE DETERMINATION FROM PUBIC SYMPHYSEAL CHANGES- AN AUTOPSY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh Parambathettu Sasidharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biological identity is one of the first things to be established when analysing skeletal, badly decomposed or otherwise unidentified human remains. The determination of age at death is an important component of identity establishment. Pubic symphysis examination is one of the reliable methods of age estimation. We attempt to determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method and to find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. From among the cases brought for autopsy at Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, from 01/03/2012 to 28/02/2013, 316 cases were included in the study. Their pubic symphysis were harvested. Age determined using SucheyBrooks method and compared with their chronological age. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the age of deceased from pubic symphysis using Suchey-Brooks method. 2. Compare the age determined by Suchey-Brooks method and chronological age and find the accuracy of Suchey-Brooks method in our population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Descriptive study- Cross-sectional study, Centre of Study- Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Study Sample- From the cases brought for medicolegal postmortem examination in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, a sample of 316 cases were selected. To make the distribution among various age groups, even the total sample divided for the age group, which resulted in having 60 samples per age group. Age groups were considered as Group 1- Age between 18-25 years; Group 2- Age between 25-35 years; Group 3- Age between 35-45 years; Group 4- Age between 45-55 years; Group 5- Age between 55-65 years. Inclusion Criteria- 1. Cases with known age; 2. Cases whose age between 18 and 65 years. Exclusion Criteria- 1. Unknown cases; 2. Known cases with doubtful age; 3. Individuals having pubic bone trauma involving the

  2. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology : The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J.; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Steves, Claire J.

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal

  3. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  4. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  5. Auditory temporal processing tests – Normative data for Polish-speaking adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Majak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several subjects exposed to neurotoxins in the workplace need to be assessed for central auditory deficit. Although central auditory processing tests are widely used in other countries, they have not been standardized for the Polish population. The aim of the study has been to evaluate the range of reference values for 3 temporal processing tests: the duration pattern test (DPT, the frequency pattern test (FPT and the gaps in noise test (GIN. Material and Methods: The study included 76 normal hearing individuals (38 women, 38 men at the age of 18 to 54 years old (mean ± standard deviation: 39.4±9.1. All study participants had no history of any chronic disease and underwent a standard ENT examination. Results: The reference range for the DPT was established at 55.3% or more of correct answers, while for the FPT it stood at 56.7% or more of correct answers. The mean threshold for both ears in the GIN test was defined as 6 ms. In this study there were no significant associations between the DPT, FPT and GIN results and age or gender. Symmetry between the ears in the case of the DPT, FPT and GIN was found. Conclusions: Reference ranges obtained in this study for the DPT and FPT in the Polish population are lower than reference ranges previously published for other nations while the GIN test results correspond to those published in the related literature. Further investigations are needed to explain the discrepancies between normative values in Poland and other countries and adapt tests for occupational medicine purposes. Med Pr 2015;66(2:145–152

  6. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  7. Aging properties studies in a Cu-Ag-Cr Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, S.G.; Zheng, M.S.; Liu, P.; Ren, F.Z.; Tian, B.H.; Zhou, G.S.; Lou, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    A Cu-Ag-Cr alloy was produced by means of vacuum induction melting. The effects of aging processes on microhardness and conductivity of Cu-Ag-Cr alloy were studied. The microstructure of the alloy was examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Aging at 450 deg. C for 4 h, the alloy has an excellent combination of microhardness and conductivity, the microhardness and conductivity reach 132 HV and 80% IACS, respectively. The precipitates responsible for the age-hardening effect are fcc Cr. The fine and dispersed precipitates are fully coherent with the Cu matrix and make the Cu-Ag-Cr alloy possesses higher hardness and conductivity

  8. Social mobility and inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-Ek, Nat; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-03-01

    Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We estimated linear and logistic models of the associations between social mobility, using information on childhood and adult SEP, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Our models were gradually adjusted for age, sex, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status and depressive symptoms. Participants who experienced upward social mobility had higher CRP, fibrinogen and HbA1c levels compared with those who had stable high SEP over the life course, but lower compared with those who experienced downward social mobility or had stable low SEP. They also had lower HDL levels compared with those who had stable high SEP or downwardly mobile. Adjustment for covariates partially explained the associations between social mobility and CRP and HDL, and fully explained those between social mobility and fibrinogen and HbA1c. Social mobility is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers at older ages with some of the observed associations persisting after accounting for covariates. Upward social mobility appears to partially reverse the damaging effect of childhood social disadvantage on inflammatory profiles in older ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Roentgen study of bone age in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzhijski, A.; Totsev, N.; Petrova, Ch.

    1991-01-01

    The study included 100 children (50 boys and 50 girls) aged from 1 to 18 years with different degree of obesity, classified according to the scheme of Knyazev et al. The bone age was determined by a X-ray method including conventional X-ray study of the left hand at standard conditions. The H. Thiemann - I. Nittz Atlass (1986) was used as a test. It was established that the children with overweight had a change in the bone age which in most cases outstriped the calendar one. It was stated that the determination of the index 'bone age' remained to be a reliable method for studing the obesity effect on the growth and developing of the children' organism. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 12 refs

  10. Effect of normative masculinity on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michael J; Marks, Anthony D G; Lykins, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and distressing condition, which may be exacerbated by the sufferer's perceptions of masculinity and normative sexual behavior. This study sought to investigate the effect of social context on males' beliefs regarding sexual behavior. The research examined the effect of male role modeling and masculine cues on males' dysfunctional sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and self-perceptions of sexual functioning. A sample of 140 male participants, with a mean age of 29 years, was exposed to pictorial and verbal cues that presented different versions of male behavior across three conditions. Results indicated that males exposed to models and cues of traditional masculinity showed significantly increased levels of dysfunctional sexual beliefs and traditional sexual attitudes relative to males exposed to models of modern masculinity. Results also indicated that males exposed to traditional masculine stimuli reported lower levels of sexual inhibition due to fear of performance failure than males exposed to models of modern masculinity. The potential role of social context is discussed in the development and maintenance of male sexual dysfunction and its implications for treatment.

  11. Normative data for female adolescents with eating disorders on the Children's Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Limburg, Karina; Hoiles, Kimberley J

    2014-09-01

    Given the importance of assessing depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents with eating disorders (EDs), the aim was to provide normative data on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) for female adolescents presenting for treatment of an ED. The data source was the Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project registry (N = 1000), a prospective, ongoing registry study comprising consecutive pediatric tertiary ED referrals. Females (N = 256; 12-17 years) with DSM-5 EDs completed the CDI at intake. Results on the CDI revealed a pattern of increasing depressive scores with age and higher scores among patients with anorexic spectrum disorders. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was high and had the same pattern as CDI scores. The mean score on the CDI in the sample was higher than community samples and clinical samples of adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and other clinical disorders. Females adolescents with EDs are at high-risk of depression and suicidal ideation. These data provide information about variation in CDI scores to guide clinicians in interpretation of scores. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Profile and determinants of successful aging in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Abiona, Taiwo; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-05-01

    To determine the profile and determinants of successful aging in a developing country characterized by low life expectancy and where successful agers may represent a unique group. Community-based cohort study. Eight contiguous states in the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. A multistage clustered sampling of households was used to select a representative sample of individuals (N = 2,149) aged 65 and older at baseline. Nine hundred thirty were successfully followed for an average of 64 months between August 2003 and December 2009. Lifestyle and behavioral factors were assessed at baseline. Successful aging, defined using each of three models (absence of chronic health conditions, functional independence, and satisfaction with life), was assessed at follow-up. Between 16% and 75% of respondents could be classified as successful agers using one of the three models while 7.5% could be so classified using a combination of all the models. Correlations between the three models were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.15. Different features predicted their outcomes, suggesting that they represent relatively independent trajectories of aging. Whichever model was used, more men than women tended to be classified as aging successfully. Men who aged successfully, using a combination of all the three models, were more likely never to have smoked (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-14.46) and to report, at baseline, having contacts with friends (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-18.76) or participating in community activities (aOR = 16.0, 95% CI = 1.23-204.40). In women, there was a nonlinear trend for younger age at baseline to predict this outcome. Modifiable social and lifestyle factors predicted successful aging in this population, suggesting that health promotion targeting behavior change may lead to tangible benefits for health and well-being in old age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  14. Association Between the Probability of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Normative Sex-Related Phenotypic Diversity in Brain Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Derek S.; Gudbrandsen, Christina M.; Marquand, Andre F.; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Daly, Eileen M.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Williams, Steven C. R.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is 2 to 5 times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. While the male preponderant prevalence of ASD might partially be explained by sex differences in clinical symptoms, etiological models suggest that the biological male phenotype carries a higher intrinsic risk for ASD than the female phenotype. To our knowledge, this hypothesis has never been tested directly, and the neurobiological mechanisms that modulate ASD risk in male individuals and female individuals remain elusive. Objectives To examine the probability of ASD as a function of normative sex-related phenotypic diversity in brain structure and to identify the patterns of sex-related neuroanatomical variability associated with low or high probability of ASD. Design, Setting, and Participants This study examined a cross-sectional sample of 98 right-handed, high-functioning adults with ASD and 98 matched neurotypical control individuals aged 18 to 42 years. A multivariate probabilistic classification approach was used to develop a predictive model of biological sex based on cortical thickness measures assessed via magnetic resonance imaging in neurotypical controls. This normative model was subsequently applied to individuals with ASD. The study dates were June 2005 to October 2009, and this analysis was conducted between June 2015 and July 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Sample and population ASD probability estimates as a function of normative sex-related diversity in brain structure, as well as neuroanatomical patterns associated with low or high ASD probability in male individuals and female individuals. Results Among the 98 individuals with ASD, 49 were male and 49 female, with a mean (SD) age of 26.88 (7.18) years. Among the 98 controls, 51 were male and 47 female, with a mean (SD) age of 27.39 (6.44) years. The sample probability of ASD increased significantly with predictive probabilities for the male neuroanatomical brain phenotype. For

  15. Evolutionary Debunking of Normative Realism. Not a Real Threat for Realists

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    A debunking argument has been recently levelled against normative realism. According to this line of reasoning, most of our normative beliefs have been strongly influenced by evolutionary forces. As evolution is a non-truth-tracking process, this influence may lead our normative beliefs off track. If so, normative realists need to provide an explanation of how it is possible that our normative beliefs track stance-independent truth, or of how their falsity could be spotted, when evolution pow...

  16. Acoustic stapedial reflexes in healthy neonates: normative data and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR) test provides useful information about the function of the auditory system. While it is frequently used with adults and children in a clinical setting, its use with young infants is limited. Presently, there are few data for neonates and inadequate research into the test-retest reliability of the ASR test. This study aimed to establish normative data and evaluate the test-retest reliability of the ASR test in healthy neonates. A cross-sectional experimental design was used to establish ASR normative data and assess the test-retest reliability of ASR thresholds obtained from healthy neonates. Sixty-eight full-term neonates with mean chronological age of 2.5 days (SD = 1.8 day), who passed the automated auditory brainstem response, transient evoked otoacoustic emission, and high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) tests. One randomly selected ear from each neonate was tested using TEOAE (transient evoked otoacoustic emission), HFT, and ASR tests using a 1 kHz probe tone. ASR thresholds were elicited by presenting pure tones of 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and broadband noise (BBN) separately to the test ear in an ipsilateral stimulation mode. The ASR procedure was repeated to acquire retest data within the same testing session. Descriptive statistics, χ2, and analysis of variance with repeated measures tests were used to analyze ASR data. All neonates exhibited ASR when stimulated by tonal stimuli or BBN. The mean ASRTs (acoustic stapedial reflex thresholds) for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz tones were 81.6 ± 7.9, 71.3 ± 7.9, and 65.4 ± 8.7 dB HL, respectively. The mean ASRT for the BBN was estimated to be smaller than 57.2 dB HL, given the limitation of the equipment. The 95th percentiles of the ASRT were 95, 85, 80, and 75 dB HL for the 0.5, 2, and 4 kHz and BBN, respectively. The test-retest reliability of the ASR test for all stimuli was high, with no significant difference in mean ASRTs across the test and retest conditions. Test

  17. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  18. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  19. MRI study of the brain in aged volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Hiroo; Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Mitsuru; Karasawa, Akihide.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize age-related and chronological changes of the brain, longitudinal studies of aged volunteers were conducted using computed tomography since 1982. The present paper discusses correlations between brain function and findings of MR images which were obtained using a 1.5 T superconductive MR instrument since 1989. A total of 118 volunteers aged 60 to 88 years old with a mean age of 75.0±6.7 participated in the study, which consisted of MRI, EEG recording, the Benton Visual Retention Test and a medical interview. Subjects with a past history or clinical evidence of CVD, head trauma or dementia were excluded from the study. Incidence of T 2 high signal intensity lesions increased with age. Some showing T 1 low signal intensity in the same lesion were considered to be lacunar infarction, over all incidence of which was 24.6%. Numbers of correct responses on the BVRT showed a negative correlation with numbers of T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Although the aged volunteers in the present study could achieve all activity of daily living without any trouble, high cortical function evaluated by visuoperceptual performance of BVRT was somewhat disturbed in participants with multiple T 2 high signal intensity lesions. Brain atrophy seems to be more advanced in groups with T 2 hyper intensity lesions than in the group without them. These findings may support the notion that T 2 high signal intensity lesions are not merely an index of aging but pathologic lesions accompanied with senescence, although further studies including clinico-pathological correlation are necessary to establish this concept. (author)

  20. Prototype Willingness Model Drinking Cognitions Mediate Personalized Normative Feedback Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Tomkins, Mary; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-05-01

    Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions have been shown to be efficacious at reducing college student drinking. Because descriptive norms have been shown to mediate PNF efficacy, the current study focused on examining additional prototype willingness model social reaction cognitions, namely, prototypes and willingness, as mediators of intervention efficacy. We expected the PNF interventions to be associated with increased prototype favorability of students who do not drink, which would in turn be associated with decreased willingness to drink and subsequently, less drinking. The current study included 622 college students (53.2% women; 62% Caucasian) who reported one or more heavy drinking episodes in the past month and completed baseline and three-month follow-up assessments. As posited by the framework of the prototype willingness model, sequential mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate increases in abstainer prototype favorability on willingness on drinking, and subsequently willingness to drink on drinking behavior. Mediation results revealed significant indirect effects of PNF on three-month drinking through three-month prototypes and willingness, indicating that the social reaction pathway of the prototype willingness model was supported. Findings have important implications for PNF interventions aiming to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. Study findings suggest that we should consider looking at additional socially-based mediators of PNF efficacy in addition to perceived descriptive norms.

  1. Artificial learners adopting normative conventions from human teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederborg Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey provides an overview of implemented systems, theoretical work, as well as studies of biological systems relevant to the design of artificial learners trying to figure out what a human teacher would like them to do. Implementations of artificial learners are covered, with a focus on experiments trying to find better interpretations of human behavior, as well as algorithms that autonomously improve a model of the teacher. A distinction is made between learners trying to interpret teacher behavior in order to learn what the teacher would like the learner to do on the one hand, and learners whose explicit or implicit goal is to get something from the teacher on the other hand (for example rewards, or knowledge about how the world works. The survey covers the former type of systems. Human teachers are covered, focusing on studies that say something concrete about how one should interpret the behavior of a human teacher that is interacting with an artificial learner. Certain types of biological learners are interesting as inspiration for the types of artificial systems we are concerned with. The survey focus on studies of biological learners adopting normative conventions, as well as joint intentionality team efforts.

  2. To the Problem of Normative Data in Pathopsychological Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanova A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question of the actuality level of normative data. This kind of data is necessary to compare the results of experimental studies with it, according to the traditions of Russian psychology. It can be assumed that the social changes that took place in the last decades should reflect on the process of forming of thinking and other mental functions. A pilot study for identifying the features of performing of classical pathopsychological techniques by healthy subjects was conducted. The study involved mentally healthy and socially adapted people of 20-39 years old, graduated or undergraduated. We used next several techniques: "Classification of objects", "Pictogram", filling in words missed in the text (Ebbinghaus test, "Interpretation of proverbs". The results of the experiment made it possible to identify two areas in which the changes were most significant. These spheres are emotional-motivational (personality and thinking. Many subjects were characterized by: a wary-anxious attitude to the experiment, increased emotional - personal attitude to the stimuli material, a decrease in criticality to the results of their activities, neurodynamic disorders, inconsistency of thinking, versatility of thinking, a tendency to resonate, self-centered thinking (according to the authors these features are manifested in the form of "pathopsychology of everyday life" in everyday lifestyle. It is necessary to conduct special large-scale scientific research devoted to this problem.

  3. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp-tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. The paired t -test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp-tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant ( P > 0.05). In the present study, age estimated by pulp-tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.

  4. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  5. Normative Life Events and PTSD in Children: How Easy Stress Can Affect Children’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kousha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic events is common in children and adolescent. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an emotional reaction to traumatic events, which is increasingly recognized to be a prevalent and disabling disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of normative life events which predicts PTSD in youth who referred to an outpatient clinic in Rasht, Iran. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The samples of children and adolescents ranging from 1-18 yr old who were diagnosed PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria in psychiatric interview and K-SADS (Kiddie-schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school age children semi-structured diagnostic interview, from 2005 until 2008.The information consist of: age, sex, comorbidity with PTSD, events accompanying with PTSD, and time interval between events and visit. Eighty four youth who met the diagnosis of PTSD and their parents participated in the survey. Half of PTSD youth were 6-11 years old and admitted to clinic in the first 3 months after events. The most common events were witnessing violent or fearful scenes on TV followed by witnessing someone's death or funeral ceremony. The most comorbidity with PTSD included: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety. Our results indicate that youth exposure to violent or fearful scenes on TV could be very traumatic for them. Informing parents about the potential effect of low-magnitude stressors such as violent or fearful scenes on TV and funeral ceremony can decrease the prevalence of PTSD in youth.

  6. RECRUITING OLDER VOLUNTEERS: FINDINGS FROM THE BELGIAN AGEING STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah DURY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a significant body of work concerning voluntary work, hardly any attention is given to volunteering of older individuals. Moreover, the potential volunteers among older adults is even less examined. Next to volunteering among olde r adults, the neighbou rhood becomes more salient when people age and this due to their more intense use and time spent in the neighbourhood. In response to these lacunae, the main purpose of this contribution is to examine the impact of subjective neighbourhood features on the recruitment potential for volunteering among older people. This study uses data collected from the Belgian Ageing Studies. 59.977 adults aged sixty and over living self-reliantly in 127 Flemish municipalities in Belgium participated in this study. A binary logistic regression is ap plied to analyse the key va riables characterizing potential volunteers. Our findings stress the need for recognizing the crucial importance of the locality when recruiting older adults for volunteer activities.

  7. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  8. Normative study of tympanic infrared thermometry: a non-invasive index of asymmetric cerebral activity Normatização da termometria timpânica por infravermelho: um indicador não-invasivo de atividade cerebral assimétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cicarini de Landa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and primate studies have demonstrated that performance of tasks that induce asymmetrical physiological activation of the cerebral hemispheres leads to a reduction of tympanic temperature (TT ipsilateral to the most active hemisphere. It is possible that diseases that interfere in an asymmetrical fashion with the degree of cerebral activity cause similar TT changes. There are not, however, normative studies of the acceptable interaural difference in TT in normal subjects at rest. This study was done to establish normative values for interaural TT values measured by means of infrared tympanic thermometry in resting normal subjects not engaged in any specific task. TT values were measured in 47 normal volunteers (20 men and 27 women, aged 39.38±12.57 years old at rest; mean interaural differences of TT were calculated. Mean right ear TT was 36.85±0.50ºC and mean left ear TT was 36.74±0.57ºC; these values are in agreement with those already reported in the literature. Mean interaural TT difference was 0.25ºC (SD 0.21ºC. These findings indicate that maximal normal values for interaural TT differences, with confidence levels of 99% and 95%, are, respectively, 0.88 and 0.67ºC. The value of interaural differences of TT as a marker of asymmetrical hemispheric activity in neurological patients will have to be established by additional studies.Estudos em humanos e outros primatas demonstraram que a realização de tarefas que causam ativação assimétrica fisiológica dos hemisférios cerebrais resulta em redução da temperatura timpânica (TT ipsilateral ao hemisfério cerebral mais ativo. É possível que patologias que interfiram de modo assimétrico com o grau de atividade cerebral causem alterações similares da TT. Não existem, entretanto, estudos normativos da diferença normal aceitável de TT entre os tímpanos de um mesmo indivíduo em repouso. Este estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer uma normatização dos valores bilaterais

  9. Audiometric changes with age in Hiroshima: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Ishii, Goro

    1960-10-01

    Audiometry observations were analyzed for 290 irradiated survivors of the 1945 atomic bomb in Hiroshima and in 293 nonirradiated subjects. The study was undertaken in order to determine the age changes in audiology in irradiated and nonirradiated subjects as well as to investigate the pattern of hearing levels in a Japanese population for comparison with patterns in Caucasians. The following statistical observations were made. Correlation between hearing levels for right and left ear. Correlation between hearing levels at various cycles. Changes in hearing levels by age and sex. The relation between age and decibel loss was not linear and correlation ratios with age were 0.45 to 0.72. Audiometry seems to be of some value as one of a battery of tests of physiologic aging designed for detection of irradiation induced nonspecific aging acceleration. In this relatively small sample, no differences in hearing acuity were detected in the atomic bomb survivors as compared with the control sample. 6 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

  10. EXPERIENCE OF NORMATIVE-LEGAL TRAINING OF PEDAGOGICAL STAFF IN THE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND INCREASE QUALIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andzhela Muharbievna Shekhmirzova